Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 372

1.

2.1. . . . . . . . . . .
2.2. :
2.3. . . . . . . . .
2.4. . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

7
7
9
12
13

15


1.1. . . . . . .
1.2. . . . . . . . . .
1.3.
1.4. . . . .

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

17
17
18
21
24


2.1. . . .
2.2. . . .
2.3. . . . .
2.4.
2.5. . .

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

25
25
26
28
29
33


3.1. --
3.2. . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4. . . . . . .
3.5. - . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

34
34
35
36
37
39
40


4.1. . . . . . . . .
4.2.
4.3. .
4.4.
4.5. .

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

42
42
42
45
47
51

II

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

55

1: .

58

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

1.1. , , . . . . .
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58
63

2: .
2.1. . . . . . . . .

68
74

3: -
3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

78
86

4.
4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3. . . .

88
90
92
93

5:
96
5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
6:
105
6.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
7:
112
7.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
8:
8.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

117
117
118
121
124
125
129

9:
132
9.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
9.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
9.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
10:
146
10.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
10.2. . 147
10.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

1.

III

155

1: , , p-
1.1. . . . . . .
1.2. . . . . . . . . .
1.3. p- :
1.4. p- . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

157
157
161
163
164
168

2:
2.1. . . . . . . . .
2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

169
169
173
176
177

3:
3.1. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2. :
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5. :
- . . . . . . . . . . .
4:
4.1. . . . .
4.2.
. . . . . . . . . .
4.3.
4.4. , , . . . .

179
. . . . . . . . 179
. . . . . . . . 183
. . . . . . . . 186
. . . . . . . . 188
. . . . . . . . 189

192
. . . . . . . . . . . . 192
. . . . . . . . . . . . 194
. . . . . . . . . . . . 197
. . . . . . . . . . . . 199

5:
5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

202
202
203
206

6:
6.1. . . . . . . . . . .
6.2. M M 0 . . . . . . . . .
6.3.
6.4. . . . . . . . .

208
208
209
210
212

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

6.5.
6.6.
6.7.
6.8.

. . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .

, . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

7:
7.1.
7.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3. " " . . . . . .
7.4.
- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5. . . . . . . .
7.6. . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

214
217
218
220

223
. . . . . . . . . . . . 223
. . . . . . . . . . . . 224
. . . . . . . . . . . . 226
. . . . . . . . . . . . 228
. . . . . . . . . . . . 230
. . . . . . . . . . . . 231

8:
233
8.1. . . 233
8.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
9:
9.1. , ,
9.2. . . . . . . . . .
9.3. . . . . . . . . . .
9.4. : , . . . . . . . . .
9.5. . . . . . .
9.6. . . . . . . . . . .
9.7. . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

238
238
239
241
243
245
249
252

.
.
.
.

254
254
257
258
260

11:
11.1. C(X, Y ) . . . . . . . . . .
11.2. T, . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

262
262
264
266

10:
10.1. . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2. . . . . . . . .
10.3. sup-
10.4. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

12:
268
12.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
12.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

1.
12.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
13:
274
13.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
13.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
14:
14.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2. : , . . . . .
14.3. . . . . . . . .
14.4. . . . . . .
14.5. : , . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

279
279
283
285
287
292

15:
15.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.4. , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.4.1. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

293
293

16:
16.1. . . . . . . . .
16.2. . . . . . . . .
16.3. . . . . .
16.4. . . . . . . . . .
16.5. . . . . . . . . . .
16.6. . . . . . .
16.7. . .
16.8. . . . .
16.9. . . . . . .
16.10.
16.11., . . . . . . . . .

307
307
308
312
314
316
319
321
322
324
327
327

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

17:
17.1. . . . . . .
17.2. . . . . . . . . .
17.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.4. . . . . . . . .

295
297
302
304

331
331
334
336
337

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

17.5. . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.6. : , . . . . .
17.7.
17.8.
17.9. . . . . . . . .
17.10., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.

18:
18.1.
18.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.4. . . . . . . . . .

IV

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

339
340
342
344
345
347

.
.
.
.

350
350
352
355
357

0.
0.1. .
0.2. . . . . . . . . . .
0.3. . . . . . . . . . .
0.4. .
0.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

359
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

361
361
365
366
367
368
370

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

2.

2.1.
, ( ).
; , ,
. "" ( ) ( ), . (
),
, , .
, ,
. , . .
( ).
(1- ):
0. . , ,
. -. . .
1. - (
, , , ).
2. .
3. , , -. .

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

4. , , , , .
(2- ):
0. , , . .
-
. .
1. . , .
, , .
. .
2. .
3. . , .
-. .
3. .
. .
4. .
5. .
3-4 , . , ,
. ,
,
( ).
. . - 18;
. . (" ").
,
, , (

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

2.
) . (
), ,
, .

-.
, ; . . " "
"".
, ( )
,
- . ,
.
, .
. . . , . . , . . 57 ,
. " " "
" .

2.2. :
1970-
. . . , 57, 91 179 .
, .
. . , 57;
. . , . . , . . . . ,
.
, . , .

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

. . ( ) , .
, , , , ,
. ,
,
.
; ( )
--, .
, ;
- , , .

10

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

2.
30 - 5-10.
( ) ,
.
. , (
) .

, , , , .
, ; . .

( ) . ,
, . ,
,
.
, ,
,
. , , , , ,
.
1980- , . .
3 4 . , ( ,
, , , , , ). . : , . , .

11

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

, (, , ),
. (, ).
.
, ( ), ( sin(nx) ..).
( ,
, ).
,
(, ) ( ,
, ). p- ,
.

2.3.
,
: .
, .
, .
,
, .
, ,
. .
, ,
, .
,
(,
, , ).

12

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

2.
(, )
.
( ) ,
, , . . I.4.
,
. ,
- . ,
:
. , , , ,
, , .
( ),
. , ,
, , . ,
, .

, .

2.4.
,
. : , . ,
, , ,
. ! , ,
-, . , , , , .
: ; .
,
.

13

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

, . , , , . !
,
.

14

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

15

1.


1.1.
" " "-" ,

. .
,
. . , ; .
, , . .
. , .
, XX (
) . . . .


( ) .
(" ").
..., , , , ", , , , , . ,
,

17

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

I.
, .
, ,

, ,
, , , . , , , ,
.
, , ,
. , ,
;
,
.

1.2.
, ,
.
- . ( )
.
. ,
.
: , " ,
, , ".
; () , .

18

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

1.

David Hilbert
(1862 1943)

, , , .
. ,
, (
) , : .
, " ".
.
, ,
, . .
, .
,

19

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

I.
, . ,
, ( ). " P (t1 , t2 , ..., tn ) = 0 t1 , ..., tn " ( ),
. , , . ,
, .1
- Q,
, " Q"
.
" " , , . , , , , , Q " P (t1 , t2 , ...tn ) = 0 t1 , ...tn ".
P (t1 , t2 , ...tn ) = 0 , , , ,
"Q ".
,
, . , Q , ; Q ,
( ,
).
, (
, )
.
(
- ) .
.
1920- ,
. 1930- ,
, , ,
.
1

.
1970- .

20

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

1.
1930-, , ,
.
, (, )
; , .

Kurt Godel
(1906 1978)

, .

1.3.
.
, , ,
, XIX .

21

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

I.
XX .
" " , " ". "x X" x X.
x
/ X.
"
", " ", "
", (, . .). X X 0 ,
X 0 X. , X 0 X, X 0 X.
" ( ) .
. , ,
( ""). " ". ( ).
1901 . A
X , X X. A
A? A A, A
. A
/ A A A.
" ".
X., ,
, . X. ?

. , , , " " , .
,
, .
. 1908.
1922 . ;
(ZF).

22

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

1.
, " " - . "" , ,
( ).
. , , "
", - .
( ) , - . ,
, , , ( , , ).
, " " .
, .
, ( , ) .
, (,
, , , ) .
(" ").
40 ,

, ,
, .
, , ,
, , ,
, . ,
,

. ,

23

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

I.
, .
,
.

1.4.
-, set theory, - Zermelo-Fraenkel. , . " " .
" " . "", .

. " " ("The Emperors New
Mind") " " ("The Shadows of the Mind").

24

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

2.


2.1.
. : " ,
". , "
, "
( ).
, "
, ". , ,
, " " . , .
S
x, : " x S"? S .
, , .
x S, x S, S 3 x,
, x
/ S. ( : , , )
XIX . , :
S1 = S2 (x | x S1 x S2 )
" S1 S2 , x,
x S1 x S2 ". " ",
(" ", "").
S S1 ,
S. S1 S ( 1890). ,
:
S1 S (x | x S1 x S)
("").

25

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

I.
S S1 . S2 S1 S1 S2 ,
S1 S2 .
S1 S, S, . S1 ( S.
;
, .
S 2S .
2.1. S s . ,
2S 2s
S1 S2 ,
S1 S2 ( , S1 S2 ) S1 S2 ( , S1 S2 ).
:
S1 S2 = {x | (x S1 ) (x S2 )}

(2.1.1)

{x | P (x)} " x, P (x) ( ).


"" "" (
. ; "" ).
2.2. S1 S2 , (2.1.1).
S1 S2 ,
S1 S2 (x, y), x S1 , y S2 .
A B A
a A, B. A\B.

2.2.
S1 , S2 . 1 P S1 S2 . (x, y) P , " P (x, y)". P (x, y).
1

, .
.

26

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

2.
- : ,
S1 = S2 = R , x < y,
x > y, x 6= y .
, f : S1 S2
f S1 S2 , x S1 y S2 , (x, y) f . f
f . f
x S1 y S2 ,
(x, y) f . : y = f (x).
: S1 S2 , x x2 , x |x|, x x + 2
.
, x S1 S2 .

. S
x S . . S IdS : S S.
f : S1 S2 , g : S2 S3 ,
f g, x S1 g(f (x)) S3 .
2.3. f : S1 S2 , g : S2 S3 , h : S3 S4
. ,
f (g h) = (f g) h
2.1. ,
: g(f (x)), f (g(x)).
f (x) = y, y x, x y.
S1 ( f (S1 )) f : S1 S2
y S2 , x S1 .
R2 S2 x
S1 , R2 ; R1 S1 , R1 .
f (R1 ), f 1 (R2 ).

27

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

I.

f : S1 S2 R1 S1


f R : R1 S2 , x R1 1
f (x).
f : S1 S2 , ,
, x, x0 S1 ,
: f (x) 6= f (x0 ). :
,.
f : S1 S2 , ,
, f (S1 ) = S2 ; ,
y S2 - S1 .
f : S1 S2 ,
, ,
- , .
2.4. f : S1 S2 . ,
g : S2 S1 , f g
S1 , g f S2 .

, .

, - ,
.
- ",
-" ( ). " " , (" ").

2.3.
2.2. S 1 , .
x S, x x.
1

, , S S.

28

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

2.
x S, y S,
(x y) (y x)
x, y, z S,


(x y) (y z) (x z).
.
2.5. ,
,
,
,
2.3. X, ,
. x X y X , x y.
S x X, .
2.6. , X
.
, X :
X Y Y ,
. , : X Y .

2.4.
.
" ". ""
, ,
.
.

29

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

I.
. " ". " " , : , , ,
.
, - (ZFC) 9 .1
1. (). A
B , :
(x(x A x B)) A = B
2. . B C
, A B . C {A, B} A B. A = B, C .
3. . (p) , p. X X X, x X, .
4. . A B
A B:
A B := {x | (x A) (x B)}
2.4. , A B
.
5. . S
2S .
2.5. . .
1

1-8 9 (
). - ZF, - ZFC, Zermelo-Fraenkel with Axiom of Choice.

30

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

2.
{},

{{}, },

{{{}, }, {}, },
. . S , ,
x S, S x {x}.
6. .
.
2.6. -
(x, y),
x, y. , x
y , (x, y) . , "" x, y , x
( ) y. "" , ,
.
, " "
(. 2.2).
. ,
(x, y) (x = y)
, (. I.3.6).
7. .
(x, y) , X , . Y , y,
x X , (x, y).

31

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

I.
2.7. " " , " ", . , " 7" ,
.
8. . S x S , x S = .
9. . : X Y
. : Y X, : Y X, = IdY . ,
Y 1 (y).
. ,
, R3 5 () ,
( -).
-: , ( , ). - ,
, ,
, ( ).
(, , )
.
, - (. I.4.3), .
, , , .
, , ,
,
. ,
.
- .
,
.

32

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

2.

2.5.
-, map, mapping, function,
image, preimage. relation, equivalence relation. ,
bijection, injection, surjection ( ).
Cartesian product ( , Cartesius).
Axiom of choice ( AC). - (ZFC)
.
, ,
http://www.math.vanderbilt.edu/schectex/ccc/choice.html
. . " " http://www.mccme.ru/mmmf-lectures/books/books/books.php?book=20

33

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

I.


3.1. --
A B , A
B - .
, .
A B, , A B.
--. A B
, A B, B A. A B .

A B

: f : A , B A B, g : B , A
B A. f g : A A g f :
B B. A0 A\g(B).
Ai Ai+1 = f g(Ai ). A
(f g)i i ( (f g)i
f g i ). , A
, A = A0 A1 ... A .

34

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

3.
B, B , B = B0 B1 ... B .
, f A B . ,
A B , .
f A0 A2 A4 ... B1
B3 B5 ..., g B0 B2 B4 ...
A1 A3 A5 ... (. ).
A B , .
3.1.
. ""
"tombstone". , .

3.2.
3.2. S .
,
(i) () a, a  a
(ii) () a  b b  c a  c
(iii) () a  b b  a, a = b.
, , a, b a  b
b  a,  .
" " " " X.
, A1 A2 . ("":
a b).

3.3. A B, , A B.

35

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

I.
, . , A . ,
,
. , X
, X.
, " , X" , . , " ,
" . . X.
2X X.
2X . X.
" ", , X ,
, .
3.1. --,
" A B" .
3.4. . ,
.
, , : X Y , X
Y , Y X.

3.3.
3.5. , .
3.2. ,
Z
Q

36

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

3.
Z[t] .
( , )
. (,
)
.
3.3. X , X X .
3.4. X, Y . , X Y .
, ( ).
, .
3.5. X , . Z X. , X\Z X.

3.4.
X, , . :
X X X, : X X {1, 2},
X X N .. ,
, .
, " " X 7 2X : ,
.
: X . X 2X
.
: : X 2X . S x X, (x). (x0 ) = S.

37

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

I.
x0 S? , S, x0
/ (x0 ) x0 S . , x0
S, x0 (x0 ), x0
/ S. ,
X
: X 2 .
2N , N . , , .
, N. X = N
.
S N . {xi }, i = 0, 1, 2, ..., xi 1, i S 0, i
/ S.
N
2
. , 2N
.
,
N 2N . , ,
:
00
10
20
30

01
11
21
31

02
12
22
32

03
13
23
33

...
...
...
...

{ii }.
a0 , a1 , a2 , ..., : ii 1, ai 0, ai = 1.
{i } i- ,
{i }. N 2N , i {i },
.
" "; 1891- .
1873-, .
0 1
, .
; ,
0.0011111111... 0.01000000...

38

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

3.
3.6. ,
R
0,1,2,3

: Q Q
. --.
3.6. ,
S . ,
S S. , S ,
2S , .
"
".

3.5. -
, , , R , . - ,
X, Z 2X X.
1940- , ( ) , -; ,
,
. " ", , - , ,
-. , ,
, , , X 2X , .
1963- , ( ) ,
.

39

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

I.
, , " "; ,
,
" ". ""
"". "" ,
-. ,
, , .
, .
" -" ;
.
;
, - , -.

3.6.
-- . ,
, , ,
, .
-.
- ( , ).
, 1887 ,
(1932).
- countable, denumerable,
partial order relations.
, " ",
, ( )
. . 1920-
(John von Neumann)
, ("

40

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

3.
") (" ,
").
(Paul
Bernays) 1930-, 1940-.
-.
, ( .
14 ).
--
(NBG).
NBG
; .
( )
. . .
" ,"
: http://www.mccme.ru/free-books/
-
" -", . . .

41

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

I.


4.1.
: A B .
: B A, , =
IdB .

,
.

4.2.
, . XX- , ,
, .
,
. ,
(, , , )

42

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

4.
, , .
, , , - ,
, 1908- , 1922 ( ) (Adolf
Fraenkel, Thoralf Skolem). -, .

Ernst Friedrich Ferdinand Zermelo


(1871 1953)

3 (1905-1908), , ( ).
1930- , ,

43

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

I.
,
.
1931- ,
- . , ,
, ,
, ( ).
,
.
,
.
, , .
-; ,
,
( , ).
.
, ,
. (Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer), , 1908- , , De onbetrouwbaarheid
der logische principes . , ()
, , .
, . 1920-
Mathematische Annalen, ,
.
. XX , , ,

44

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

4.
;1 ,
, .
, . , ,
.
, , , .

4.3.
( ) . ,
( , ) ,
, ....
,
,
,
, .

, ,
.
1920- ,
( )
. , 1924-

R3 ,
. , 5 ,
, R3 .

, .
, : -
1

, .

45

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

I.
1 - .
, , ,
.
( ) . , , .
1. (. 9).
2. ( -).
3. - ,
, , .
4. .
,
, -. ,
,
, (
" Rn ; , ).
, -, : ,
, .
, ;
(axiom of determinacy), , , ,
Rn .
, ZF+AC -
(ZF+AD). , ZF+AD ,
ZF+AC . ZF+AD .
, , , , . X Y .
1

ZF+AC, ZFC.

46

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

4.
, X Y , Y X. ,
. ,
, X Y , X
Y , Y X. ,2 ,
,
.
, (dependent choice). .
X, V X X , 1 (V ) = X,
1 . {xi } , (xi , xi+1 ) V , i.
- , (ZF+DC) ,
, 1-4, . .
, - , ZF+DC " Rn ". , DC
.

4.4.
4.1. X , R X X
X, x1 x2 . (partial order),

: x y y z x z.
2

, ,
. -, , , . ,
, . , .

47

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

I.
: x y, y x.
(X, ) .
4.2. (X, ) .
- x, y X x y y x, ,
x y . (total order), . (X, )
, .

, .
x = y x y, x 4 y.
4.3. (X, ) ,
Y X . y0 Y , y Y , y0 4 y.
(well-ordered set),
. .
4.4. . (X, ) Y X ,
x, z Y , y X , x y z, y Y .
, .
.
4.5. X0 X , x0 , x
X\X0 ( , ).
, X0 y , x0 4 y x (
). [x0 , x[.
,
.
.

48

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

4.

Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor


(1845 1918)

4.6.
, , .
1 , .
4.7.
F (
X Y , X Y ). , . , .
X Y :
(x, y) (x0 , y 0 ) y y 0 , y = y 0 , x x0 .
4.1. , .
. 1

49

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

I.
,
.2
4.8: X, Y .
X Y , Y
X. , .
: Z (X1 , Y1 ) X Y .
1. (X1 , Y1 ) X1 . ,
: X1 Y 0 : X1 Y , X1
Y . x



X1 , , (x) 6= 0 (x). [x ,x[ = 0 [x ,x[ .
0
0
0 , , (x) = 0 (x).
2. , Z
Z (). x X,
X1 - (X1 , Y1 ) Z. ,
, X Y . Y1 = Y ,
. , [x0 , x[ [y0 , y[, , [x0 , x] [y0 , y].
. 4.8.
,
1904- .
4.9: ( , "well-ordering theorem") .
; .
2

: x (y + z) = x y + x z. :
(y + z) x = y x + z x.

50

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

4.

4.5.
, .
(S, ) . x S
, y S, , x
y. S1 S x S, S1 4 x,
S1 4 x.
4.10: ( ) (S, )
, 1
S1 S S , S1 4 . S
.
4.11: :
ZL .
WOT .
AC .
: ,
4.11 .
ZL WOT: X , S
(X1 , ), X1 X ,
X1 .
S: (X1 , ) < (X2 , ),
(X1 , ) (X2 , ). ,
(S, <): S1 S ( ) , X S1
S1 .
S (, ). 6= X,
X\, 1 := {},
1

. . .

51

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

I.
. , 1 , , .
; o = X. X .

WOT AC: X Y , X .

Y X, (y) (
) 1 (y). , .
AC ZL.
1: (S, ) , , . S1 S,
< S1 . , 1 S ,
1  , ,  S1 .
2: S S,
: S S , S1 S S,
 S1 .
. ,
R := {(S1 S, S) |  S1 }
R S , 1.
R S R S .
3: P
S , p P , [p0 , p[
p = ([p0 , p[). p = p0 , , p0 = ().
. , P, Q , p P ,
[p0 , p[ Q, [p0 , p] Q. p = ([p0 , p[),
[p0 , p[ Q, p
/ Q , Q = [p0 , p[.
S
4: , P := P P .
, P (P ) P ,

52

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

4.
. . .

53

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II

55

. (
), , .

57

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.

1: .
,
.
. k
2k . , (!),
.
(.. ), , , .

1.1. , , .
1.1. X, d : X X R,
. x, y X d(x, y) 0,
, x = y.
. : d(x, y) = d(y, x)
. : x, y, z X,
d(x, z) d(x, y) + d(y, z).
d, , .
d(x, y) x y.
x X , ,
B (x) = {y X | d(x, y) < }
() x.
-.
B (x) = {y X | d(x, y) }.

58

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

1: .
1.1.
R2 d, d(a, b) = |ab|, |ab|
[a, b] . , .
1.2. d : R2 R2 R:
(x, y), (x0 , y 0 ) 7 max(|x x0 |, |y y 0 |).
, o .
.
1.3. d1 : R2 R2 R:
(x, y), (x0 , y 0 ) 7 |x x0 | + |y y 0 |.
, o .
.
1.4 (*). f : [0, [ [0, [
, f (x + (1 )y) f (x) + (1 )f (y), [0, 1]. f , (X, d)
. , f () = 0 ,
= 0. , df (x, y) = f (d(x, y))
X.
1.5. V g(x, y) ( ).

p
dg : V V R dg (x, y) = g(x y, x y). , d(x, y) 0, ,
x = y.
1.2. x V .
x Px : V V ,
y 7 y + x.
1.6. , dg , .. dg (a, b) = dg (Px (a), Px (b)).

59

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
1.7. , dg :
p
p
p
g(x y, x y) g(x, x) + g(y, y)
. V0 V , x y.
, , ,
, R2 g((x, y), (x0 , y 0 )) = xx0 + yy 0 . R2 .
1.8 (!). , dg .
. , .
1.3. V g, dg , .
.
1.4. V , Px : V V
, V1 V .
Px (V1 ) V .
1.9. x, y V . , Vx,y , x y.
1.5. l , x y, a
, l. , a x, y,
d(x, a) + d(a, y) = d(x, y). x y (
[x, y]) Vx,y , x
y.
1.10. . ,
( ) . ,
[x, y] z ax + (1 a)y, a
[0, 1] R.
1.6. V , B V . , B ,
x, y V , B [x, y].

60

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

1: .
1.7. V R.
V : V R, .
. v V (v) 0. , (v) > 0
v.
. (v) = ||(v)
. v1 , v2 V (v1 + v2 ) (v1 ) + (v2 ).
|x| |x|.
1.11. V R, : V
R V . d : V V R, d (x, y) = (xy).
, V .
1.12 (*). d : V V R V ,
. , d
d(x, y) = ||d(x, y)
R. , d : V R
d(x, y) = (x y).
1.13. V R, : V R
V . B1 (0) 1.
, .
1.8. V R, v . {v, | > 0} V .
1.9. V
x 7 x.
1.14 (*).
B V {v, | > 0}.

v sup{ R>0 | 1 v
/ B}
, V . ,
.

61

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
. , .
1.15. G , : G R ,
,
g G. , (a + b) (a) + (b), (0) = 0,
(g) = (g) g G. ,
d : G G R, d (x, y) = (x y) G.
1.16. d G , d(x + g, y + g) = d(x, y) x, y, g G.
, d
: G R d(x, y) = (x y).
1.10. p Z.
p : Z R, n = pk r (r
p) pk , p (0) = 0.
p- Z.
1.17. , dp (m, n) = p (n m) Z. p- Z.
. p (a + b) (a) + (b) .
1.11. R , : R R , , r. , (r1 r2 ) = (r1 )(r2 ),
(r1 + r2 ) (r1 ) + (r2 ). R. , ,
.
. ,
R R. .
1.18. , p Z. Q, p .

62

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

1: .

1.2. .
1.12. (X, d) , {ai }
X. {ai }
, > 0 -
X, ai , .
1.19. {ai }, {bi } X. , {d(ai , bi )} R.
1.13. (X, d) , {ai },
{bi } X. {ai } {bi }
, a0 , b0 , a1 , b1 , . . .
.
1.20. {ai }, {bi } X. , {ai }, {bi } , lim d(ai , bi ) =
i
0.
1.21. {ai }, {bi } X, {ci } . ,
lim d(ai , ci ) = lim d(bi , ci )

1.22 (!). (X, d) , X . ,



{ai }, {bi } 7 lim d(ai , bi )
i

X.
1.14. , X X.
1.23. X X, x 7 {x, x, x, x, ...}.
, , .
1.15. A X. c X A,
, c, A.

63

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
1.24. . ,
.
1.16. {ai } . , {ai } x X, x (
lim ai = x), x {ai }
i

1.17. (X, d) , X .
1.25 (!). ,
.
1.18. A X
, X
A.
1.26. , X X.
1.27 (!). R , . R ,
. , R , R.
1.19. R R .
1.28 (*). R , R . , R . , R .
1.29. , R Q
q 7 |q|.
R?
1.20. Z p p- .
Zp .

64

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

1: .
1.30. (X, d) ,
{ai } P
X. , d(ai , ai1 ) .
, {ai } . ?
1.31 P
(!). ,
ak
ak pk Zp .
. .
P
k
1.32. , (1 p)(
k=0 p ) = 1 Zp .
1.33 (*). , ,
p, Zp .
1.21. Q , p , Qp p-
.
1.34 (*). x Qp . , x =
1.35 (*). , lim

x0
,
pk

x0 Zp .

n = 1 (

R, ).
1.22. R , (x+y) max((x), (y)) x, y.
.
1.36 (*). Q. , , Z .

. lim n n = 1.
n
p
n
(((x + y)n ) n, : (Cnk ) 1.
1.37 (*). Z. m Z, n (n) < 1.
, m Z ( R ,
R). , m ( ,
xy
/ m x, y
/ m).

65

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
1.38 (*). , Z
{0, 1m, 2m, 3m, ...}
m Z. , m Z
{0, 1p, 2p, 3p, ...}, p = 0, 1 p .
. .
1.39 (*). Q,
m = {p, 2p, 3p, 4p, ...}
, 1.37. ,
.
> 1, (n) = k n = pk r, r 6 ..p.
1.40 (*). Q, (2) 1. , (a) < log2 (a) + 1 a > 0.
.
.
1.41 (*). Q, (2) 1. , (a) 1 a > 0 (.. ).
. lim

n = 1 lim

n
N

log n
n

= 0. -

, lim (a ) 1.
N

1.42 (*). ai
2xn (
, ). , Q . , (ai )
.
. x , ,
(x/2n ) (2)log2 (x)+1 /(2)n (2)log2 (x+1)n .

66

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

1: .
1.43 (*). 1.42, R, (xy) = (x)(y). , x 7 |x|
- > 0. (2).
1.44 (*). > 0 x 7 |x| Q?
Q:
p-
. .

67

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.

2:
.
2.1. M , X M . X ,
- ,
, X .
2.1. , X ,
{ai }, x X, ai ,
, X.
2.2. ,
. , .
2.3. ,
B (x) = {y X | d(x, y) }
.
2.4. , ,
.
2.2. A M A
A.
2.5. ,
B (x) B (x). B (x) B (x)? , .
2.6. A M ,
( ). ,
M \A .
2.3. M ,
> 0 . R M , M
- R. R -.

68

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

2: .
2.7. M
. , > 0 M -.
. ; R x, R , .
x R, ,
M .
2.4. X M , Ui M
. , Ui X, X Ui .
{Ui } - ,
, , , .
2.8. M , S M . M . , > 0,
<
S.
. x , , - . {i }, x
{xi }. , x S.
2.9 (!). ( -) X M
. ,
. X
X.
. X .
. () (), 2.6.
() (), S, 2.8
-. - -
Ui S. , {Ui } .

69

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
2.5. M , M 0 , f :
M M 0 . f , f , x, , f (x), x M .
2.10 (!). X M . ,
f

f : M R, x 7 d({x}, X), , d({x}, X) ( x X) d({x}, X) := inf x0 X d(x, x0 ).


2.6. M , X M
. , X , , 2.9. ,
X , M ,
X.
2.11 (!). Z p , ( p- Zp ). , .
.
p-
P ,

ai pi , ai 0 p 1.
2.12. , M .
. , .
2.13. ,
.
2.14. ,
.
2.15 (!). f : X R . , f .

70

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

2: .


2.7. (M1 , d1 ) (M2 , d2 ) - , C > 0 - . f : M1 M2 C-, x, y M1 ,
d2 (f (x), f (y)) Cd1 (x, y).
M R C-,
C- M R.
2.16. , dz (x) := d(z, x) z M - 1- .
2.17. , .
2.8. fi : M R ,
, limi fi (x) = f (x) - f .
, fi f .
2.18. fi
, f .
2.19. fi C- ,
f . , f .


2.9. X M , y M . d(y, X) := inf xX d(x, y).
y X.
2.20. X M , y
/ X. , d(y, X) > 0.
2.21. X M , X1 y M ,
d(y, X) = 0. , X1 X.

71

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
2.10. X, X 0 M
. d(X, X 0 ) := inf xX d(x, X 0 ). X X 0 .
2.22. , d(X, X 0 ) = d(X 0 , X).
2.23. , 1-
M R.
2.24. f : X R>0 , . , > 0 , f >
X.
2.25 (!). X, X 0 M M , X . , d(X, X 0 ) > 0.
. , d(x, X 0 ) : X R , X, X,
, .
2.26. , X, X 0 M , d(X, X 0 ) = 0.
2.27. X, X 0 M M . ,
, .
2.28 (!). X, Y . , X, Y x, y,
d(x, y) = d(X, Y ).
2.11. Z M ,
Br (x) - r R, x M .
2.29. Z M . , .

72

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

2: .


2.12. M , X M
. -
X - X.
2.13. M , X Y
. dH (X, Y )
, Y - X, X
- Y .
2.30 (!). ,
M M .
2.31. X, Y M , x X.
, dH (X, Y ) d(x, Y ).
2.32 (*). M . , M .
. {Xi } M .
S {xi } xi Xi .
X S. , {Xi } X.
2.33 (*). {Xi }
M , X .
, X .
. {Xi }, , dH (Xi , Xj ) < 2 min(i,j) . {xi }
X. Xj {xi (j) Xj },
d(xi (j), xi ) = d(xi , Xj ). Xj , . {xi (0)}
x(0), {xi } ,
{xi (0)} x(0). {xi }, i > 0 , {xi (1)} x(1). k-
{xi }, i > k , {xi (k)} x(k). , {xi }, {xi (k)} x(k) k. ,

73

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
, d(xi (k), x(k)) < 2i .
dH (Xi , Xj ) < 2 min(i,j) , ,
d(xi (k), xi ) < 2 min(k,j)+2 . , {xi } .
2.34 (!). M , X M . , > 0 M R
, dH (R, X) < . ( : X
,
)
. X -.
2.35 (*). M . , M .
. .

2.1.
2.14. M . ,
M , x M > 0, B (x) .
2.36. , .
2.37. , Rn .
2.38 (*). ,
.
2.39. M , B (x) , . , B (x)
Z, .

74

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

2: .
. B (x) , ,
.
2.40 (!). ,
- 0 > 0 B+0 (x) .
. Z , . 0 =
d(M \Z, B (x)).
2.15. (M, d) . , M -, x, y M r1 , r2 > 0, r1 + r2 < d(x, y),

d(Br1 (x), Br2 (y)) = d(x, y) r1 r2 .


2.41 (*). M
, -, x M ,
> 0 , B 0 (x) 0 < . ,
B (x) .
. i < , .
-, , {B i (x)} , B (x).
, , , .
2.42 (*). ( -, I) M , -. , B (x) M
.
2.43 (*).
,
B (x).
. ,
- ( 2.42).
2.44. M ,
B (x) M . , M .

75

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
2.45 (*). M
, -, x, y M . , > M . ,
z M , d(x, z) = d(y, z) = 21 d(x, y).
2.46 (*). S
n
, n Z [0, 1]. , ,
2k

S M , d((a), (b)) = |a b|d(x, y),


(0) = x, (1) = y.
2.47 (*). ( -, II) M ,
-, x, y M . , S ,

[0, 1] M , (0) = x, (1) = y,


a, b [0, 1] d(((a), (b)) = |a b|d(x, y).
. .
-
, -, , .
2.16.
2.48 (*). , , .
2.49. V = Rn
() . , V
( ax + (1 a)y, a [0, 1] R, a
x, y V ).
2.50 (*). d Rn ,
(x1 , x2 , ...) 7 max |xi |. , . , Rn . .

76

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

2: .
2.51 P
(*). d Rn ,
(x1 , x2 , ...) 7
|xi |. , . , Rn . .
2.52 (*). , d, , -?
2.17. X , 0 < k < 1
. f : X X k, kd(x, y) d(f (x), f (y)).
2.53 (!). X , f : X X
. , x X {ai }, a0 := x, a1 := f (x), a2 := f (f (x)), a3 := f (f (f (x))), ...
.
i
. ,
P d(ai , ai+1 ) = k d(x, f (x)),
d(ai , ai+1 )

2.54 (!). ( ) X
, f : X X . , f
.
x, f (x), f (f (x)), f (f (f (x))), . . . .

77

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.

3:
- .
3.1. M , S M , . (M, S) ( M ) , .
1. M .
2. .
3. .
: M M 0
, .
.
: M M 0 , : M 0 M ,
(.. ). .
Z M ,
. x M M , . Z M
M , .
3.1. , .
3.2 (!). M , S
M . , S M . .
M .

78

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

3: -
3.3 (!). M , S
M : M . , S
M . . M
.
3.4. ,
.
3.5. Z M .
Z Z U , U
Z. , Z. ,
Z , M .
3.2. Z M M .
.
3.3. M , S0
,
S0 . S0
M.
3.6. M ; M
.
3.4. M . ,
U M ,
u U , U > 0 u.
3.7. , .
3.5. .
3.8. , , .

79

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
3.9. , M . ,
M .
3.10 (!). M , S, S 0
M . , m M
U 0 3 m, S 0 ,
U 3 m, U U 0 , S. ,
i
(M, S) (M, S 0 ) . , i
.
. , , S 0 , , S.
3.11. Rn , 1.
, , Rn . S . , , 0
, - C R
C 1 0 (x) < (x) < C 0 (x). ,
Rn (Rn , S ) (Rn , S 0 ).
. .
3.12 (*). , , 0 Rn ,
Rn (Rn , S ) (Rn , S 0 ).
, C, C 1 0 (x) < (x) <
C 0 (x).
3.13 (*). V ,
g. V , dg ,
1. Sg . , V g, g, g 0 , V
(V, Sg ) (V, Sg0 ).
3.14 (**). V .
, S : Rn (Rn , S ) (Rn , S 0 ).
, V ?

80

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

3: -
3.6. d Rn ,
s
X
|(1 , ...n )| =
i2 .
i

Rn , d, . Rn , Rn .
3.15. R . M , M 0
.
. R M
. M R
. M 0 R
. R M 0 .
3.16. : M M 0 . , ,
? ,
, ?
3.17. , .

, .
3.7. M , Z M
, Z M , Z. Z Z.
3.18. , Z .
3.8. M . 0-4 .

81

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
T0. x, y M ,
,
.
T1. M .
T2. x, y M Ux ,
Uy , .
T3. M 1. , y M , U 3 y U 0 3 y,
U .
T4. M 1. ,
Z M , U Z
U 0 Z, U .
2 . , 2, .
3.19. , 1 :
x, y M , y,
x.
3.20. , 4 :
X, Y M , .
3.21. M .
M : x y
, x {y} y {x}.
M 0 .
. , . , M T0 ,
M = M 0 .
. , U M 0 ,
M M 0 . ,
M 0 .
T0?

82

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

3: -
. , M M 0 .
. M . M 0 ?
3.22. 0-4 ? ?
3.23. , 0-4 R.
3.24. , T0 T1, a 1
2.
3.25. , 1. ,
.
3.26 (*). ,
1, , .
3.27 (*). , 3 2.
3.28 (*). , 3,
4.
3.29. . , 1, 2, 3.
3.30 (*). . , 4.
3.31 (*). M .
. M , T1.
. M , T1, T0?
** M n . M ?
T0?

83

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
3.9. M (-: poset, partially ordered set),
x y (x y) :
1. x y, y z, x z.
2. x y y x, x = y.
3.32 (*).
. M - ;
, S M ,
x S y M , y
x. , M .
T0? T1?
. M , , T0. , M .
3.10. Z M
. Z , Z M .
3.33 (!). , Z ,
Z M .
3.34. ; .
3.35. , Q R.
3.11. Z
M , U M , Z U U .
3.36. , .
3.37 (!). , Z , M \Z M .

84

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

3: -
3.38 (*). [0, 1] .
3.39 (*). [0, 1] .
3.40. ; .
3.12. M , x M
. x B x, U 3 x -
B.
3.41. M B, x M ,
U B, x, x. ,
B M .
3.13. M . M
. M , , M
. M , , M
, M . M
, , M .
3.42. M . , M .
3.43. M . , .
3.44 (*). M
. , M .
3.45 (!). . , .

85

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
3.46.
.
3.47 (**). .

3.1.
,
. 2 , . , , ,
, , .
( )
-
, .
, .
3.14. M , Z M
. x M Z, x z Z. {xi } x,
x xi .
, .
3.48. ; .
3.49. M . , .

86

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

3: -
3.50 (*). (..
)? M
?
3.51. M . , M 1.
3.52. f : M M 0
Z M . , f
Z f (Z). , f
.
3.53 (!). . , .
3.54. M . Z M .
, Z Z.
3.55 (!). M , M 0 , f : M M 0 , . , f .
. .
3.56 (*). , M ? M 0 ?

87

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.

4.


4.1. M B M . B
M ,
(, ) , B, ,
.
B. M , ,
.
4.1. R . ,
.
4.2 (!). M . , M .
4.3 (*). M , |M | = 2n ,
, B M . , |B| n. , 2n .
4.4. R , B , .
, R.
4.5. B M , ,
B = M . ,
B, M
. , M .
4.2. , B.

88

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

4.
4.3. M1 , M2 . S M1 M2 ,
U1 M2 , M1 U2 , U1 , U2 M1 , M2 . (M1 M2 , S)
M1 M2 .
4.6. , M1 M2 M1 . , U1 U2
M1 M2 .
1

4.7. X M1 ,
2
X M2 . , ,

1 2
X M1 M2
.
4.8. M1 , M2 , . , M1 M2 .
. 1.
! (2).
. 3.
. .
! .
. .
4.9 (**). 4?
4.4.

x (x, x) X X
,
X X.
4.10. , ( X X
X X).

89

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
. 4.7.
4.11. , X 1 , , .
4.12 (!). , X ,
X X.
4.13. , X
, X X.
4.14. X Y

X Y . , ?

4.15 (!). X Y ,
Y . , .
4.16. M1 , M2 , M = M1 M2
, d M M .
, d M .
. d((m1 , m2 ), (m01 , m02 )) = d(m1 , m01 ) + d(m2 , m02 )
. d((m1 , m2 ), (m01 , m02 )) = max(d(m1 , m01 ), d(m2 , m02 ))
p
! d((m1 , m2 ), (m01 , m02 )) = d(m1 , m01 )2 + d(m2 , m02 )2
4.17 (!). , M1 M2 . ,
M1 M2 , .

4.1.
4.5. I (,
), M = X I I
X. X I X, I,

90

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

4.
X . W (i, U ) X I
I X, i
U X. B X I
: U B, U = W (i, U ) - i I
- U X.
, .
4.18 (!). 1 , 2 , . . . X I . , ,
k (i) i I.
. :
X I
I X, .
4.6. I .
[0, 1]I .
4.19. M
i : M [0, 1],
I. ,
Y
Y
i (m)
i : m
iI

[0, 1]I .
4.20. , .
4.21 (*). , 2 3.
4.22 (!). [0, 1]I , I . ,
.
. , U = W (i, ]a, b[) a, b [0, 1]I , 4.2.
4.23 (**). I
. , [0, 1]I ?

91

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
. W . , W .
4.24 (!). M = [0, 1]N [0, 1], N. d : M M R,
qX
i2 |i i |2 .
d({i }, {i }) =
,
[0, 1]N .
4.7. [0, 1]N , , .
4.25 (!). {i (n)} [0, 1]N .
, , .
4.26 (*). ,
.
. , I ,
[0, 1]I .
4.27 (*). I . [0, 1]I ?

4.2.
4.8. A, B M M . f : M [0, 1] , f (A) =
0, f (B) = 1.
4.9. , ( 4), , A, B M
.

92

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

4.
4.28. A, B M , 1 (
). , M .
4.29. , A M
d(x,A)
. , A , , A (x) = d(x,A)+1
[0, 1[, A (z) = 0 z A.
4.30. f, g
M . , max(f, g) .
. , f g : M R R , max : R R R . max(f, g)
.
4.31. , A, B M , A , B ,

A
, AB := max(
. , 0 AB 1, AB A = 0,
,
)
A
B

AB B = 1, AB (z) = 0 z A.
4.32. , , 21 (AB +
(1 BA )) .
4.33. , .

4.3.
4.10. A, B M M . f : M [0, 1] , f (A) =
0, f (B) = 1.
4.34 (*). M , A, B M
. , Up/2q A, 0 < p/2q < 1, :

93

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
(i) p, q, B Up/2q .
(ii) p1 /2q1 < p2 /2q2 , Up1 /2q1 Up2 /2q2 .
. .
4.35 (*). ,
f : M [0, 1]


f (m) = sup p/2q | m
/ Up/2q
A f A. , f
.
. , ]p1 /2q1 , p2 /2q2 [
[0, 1]. ,
f 1 (]p1 /2q1 , p2 /2q2 [) = Up2 /2q2 \Up1 /2q1 .
, f .
. : M ,
M .
4.36 (*). M B, 4, I U1
U2 B, , U 1 U2 , FU1 ,U2 , U 1 M \U2 , F :
I
M
Q [0, 1] , F (m) =
U1 ,U2 I FU1 ,U2 (m). , F .
4.37 (*). , G :
F (M ) M , F .
{xi } M , FU1 ,U2 (xi ) y F (M )I (U1 , U2 ) I. , {xi }
x := F 1 (y). , G .
4.38 (*). , M , 4 .

94

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

4.
. . .
4.39. , .
4.40.
?

95

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.

5:
5.1. M .
M Ui MS(, , ), M = Ui . M , ,
M . Z M M
, .
5.1. , [0, 1] .
? ?
5.2 (*). M : ( ). M .
5.3 (!). Z , a Z 0 Z Z. ,
Z 0 .
?
5.4. M , Z
M , x
/ Z .
. , Z {Ui }, Ui x.
* 1-, .
5.5 (!). M . , M .
. .
5.6. . , .

96

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

5:
5.7 (!). . , 4.
5.8 (*). , , ?
5.2. , ,
.
5.9. . , 3.
5.10 (**). ,
,
?
5.11 (**). ,
, ?
5.12.
X. b X S{} (X,
X
b
, ) : U X
U , U X,
6 U , U X. ,
b .
, X
b 5.3. X
X.
b ?
5.13 (*). X
5.14. X = Rn . ,
b n- .
X
5.15. M , Z . , .
(i) z Z U 3 z,
Z.

97

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
(ii) M Z .
(iii) Z .
5.4. Z M ,
5.15, .
5.16. Z
M . , M .
Zi M . ,
, Zi , Zj
Zi Zj Zj Zi .
5.17. , M ,
Zi M i Zi .
5.18. M
. , M ,
M .
. M ,
5.16 , M . , , M , M S = {Ui }, , S M . Ui
Uj , j i, , U1 U2 U3 ..., Ui
M .
A1 A2 ..., . Ai ,
, .
5.19 (!). M
. , M ,
M .
. .
5.20 (**). , ?

98

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

5:
5.21 (*). M ,
.
. M ?
. M , ?
** M .
M , ?
5.22 (!). f : M N . , Z M , f (Z) .
5.23. Z R.
. , Z , ( [a, b]).
. , Z ,
Z.
5.24 (!). f : M R . , f M .
5.25 (*). , 4. f : M R,
.
. , - .
5.26. f : M N , M , N . ,
f .

99

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
5.27. f : M N , M , N . ,
f . , f .
5.28. f : M N , M ,
f . (N ).

5.1.
5.5. f : X Y , K Y f 1 (K) X .
5.29 (!). Y
. , f : X Y X
Y .
. Z X, .
yi f (Z),
y Y , f (Z).
5.30 (**). ?
5.31 (!). X, Y . , X Y .
. , U V , U X, V Y X Y ,
, X Y
. y Y X {y} X Y , -
Ui Vi , , Vy = Vi
Y .
5.32. X Rn . ,

100

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

5:
(i) X
(ii) X (.. - ).
5.6. f : X Y
, .
5.33 (*). f : X Y ,
f 1 (y), y Y . f ?

5.2.
5.34. ai (n) N
[0, 1]. ,
ai1 , ai2 , ai3 , . . . , {aik (n)} n.
5.35 (!). , [0, 1]N .
5.36 (*). M .
(, ) {V } M ,
V V0 ( , {V }
, - ). V .
, V
.
5.37 (*). , , X M {V },
, {V }
, .
. .
.
5.38 (*). {V } M . ,

101

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
U1 , U2 {V }, , {V }. ,
, {V }, {V }.
. .
5.39 (*). M R. X M
{V }. , {V } R.
. .
. (
). M S. X M ,
X S
. (
. . ) .
5.40 (*). , [0, 1]I I.
. ,
[0, 1] [0, 1] ]a, b[[0, 1] . . .
( ).
.
. . Map(I, [0, 1]) I [0, 1], .
Map(I, [0, 1]) . , {ai (x)}
{aik (x)},
{aik (x)} x I.
5.7. M , I , M I I M ,
I M . x I U M
U (x) M I , ,

102

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

5:
x U . M I ,
U (x). (
).
5.41 (*). M . , M I .

5.3.
P (x) = xn +an1 xn1 + +a0
. P
C C. , C R2 .
, P (x) = 0, - x C.
5.42. , P .
5.43. , C , |x| > C,
|P (x)xn |
< 1/2.
|xn |
. |x| > 2 max (1,

|ai |).

5.44. , C , |x| > C


|P (x)| > Rn .
. |x| > 2R max (1,

|ai |),

5.45. , |P | a C.
. |P | xn , . , |P (x)| > Rn ,
|x| . |P | |x| R
, .
, ,
|P | . ,
|P | . . k

103

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
1, 2, 3,q
. . . , n, ak 6= 0. P a1
0 ,
x=z

a1
k ,

Q(z) = 1 + z k + bk+1 z k+1 + bk+2 z k+2 + . . .


5.46. , z, ,
|z| < 1,
X 
|Q(z) 1 z k | < |z k+1 |
|bi | .
5.47. , > 0 ,
z C, |z| < ,
1
|Q(z) 1 z k |
<
.
|z k |
2
P
. |z| < 21 ( |bi |)1
.
5.48. , c < z, z k = c,

|Q(z) 1 + c| < c/2.


. , Q
1 + zk .

k
, , |Q( )| < |Q(0)|(1
1
) . , 2
0.
5.49 (!). : P C.

104

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

6:

6:
,
. X , I , X I I X, . X I .
6.1. ,
. ,
.
6.1. X, Y , {f }
X Y . {f }
, ,
- f
- (, f ).
6.2. f : X Y , . , f . ?
6.3 (!). X, Y , {fi }
X Y . , {fi } f . , f .
. , f ,
, , {fi }, .
X, Y ,
Map(X, Y ) X Y .
6.4. f, g Map(X, Y ) dsup (f, g)
supxX d(f (x), g(x)). , dsup (f, g)
Map(X, Y ).

105

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
6.2. sup- Map(X, Y ).
6.5 (!). , {fi } Map(X, Y ) f . , f , sup-.
. supxX d(f (x), fi (x)) > C i. {xi }, d(f (xi ), fi (xi )) > C,
x . , d(fi (xi ), fi (x)) .
d(fi (x), f (x)) + d(fi (xi ), fi (x)) d(f (x), fi (xi )),
.
6.6 (!). ( -) ( sup-)
Map(X, Y ). , .
. .
, , X Y !
6.7 (**). ( , ) -.
6.8 (*). K X V Y . U (K, V ) Map(X, Y )
K V . Map(X, Y ), U (K, V ). ,
sup-.
6.3. Map(X, Y ) , .
6.9. ,
; , Map(X, Y )
Map(X, Y ) .
6.4. Z M . Z diam(Z) := supx,yZ d(x, y).

106

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

6:
6.10. f Map(X, Y ) , X
, , (f, ) diam(f (B))
- B X. , lim (f, ) = 0.
0

.
i , - xi X C
diamf (Bi (xi ))) > C. x {xi }. - x Bi (xi ) (
i), , -
C. , f .
6.11 (!). f Map(X, Y ),
X . , f .
.
lim (f, ) = 0.

6.12. Map(X, Y ). ,
,
lim sup (f, ) = 0.

0 f

6.13 (*). dsup (f, g) < . , (f, ) < (g, ) +


.
6.14 (*). {fi } (Map(X, Y ), dsup ).
, .
. ,
lim sup (fi , ) = 0

o , , fi , - - (Map(X, Y ), dsup ), (fi , )


, . , supi (fi , ) < (fN , ) +
N , ,
sup (fi , ) < + max (fi , )
iN

0 , fi .

107

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
6.15 (*). , (Map(X, Y ), dsup )
.
6.16 (*). (Map(X, Y ), dsup ) ?

6.1.
f

[a, b]. [a, b] Rn , f (a + (1 )b) = f (a) + (1 )f (b), 0 < < 1.


,
[a, a1 ], [a1 , a2 ], [a2 , a3 ], . . ., f . , , .
f [0, 1] [0, 1] [0, 1] : f ([0, 1])
x = y x = y.
ell
,,%
eell
,,%%%
e

















,,%

,,%%%













llee
%,%,
%
,
lele
%,

, [a, a1 ], f ,
f [a, a1 ] Q, ,
. Pl .
, - f Pl k -
4k :

108

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

6:
,,%
,,%%%

%,%,
%,%,

ell
,,%
eell
,,%%%
e































lee
%,%,
lle
%,%,
le

,,%
,,%ell
,,%%%
,,%%% eelel





















lee

%,,
%

lle
%

le
%l,,

eel

,,%
l

l
,,%%%
ee 

















 













lee
lee
%
,
%,%,
%
lle
lle %,,
%,%,
le
le%,
ell
eell
e









(f ) .
1. a0 , a1 , . . . , ak , f . (f ) ai f (ai ).
2. [ai , ai+1 ] :
[b4i , b4i+1 ], [b4i+1 , b4i+2 ], [b4i+2 , b4i+3 ], [b4i+3 , b4i+4 ].

(f ) [b4i , b4i+1 ] [f (ai ), f ai +a2 i+1 ], [b4i+3 , b4i+4 ]

[f ai +a2 i+1 , f (ai+1 )].
3. , [f (ai ), f (ai+1 )],
: f (ai ),A, f (ai+1 ), B.
(f ) [b4i+1 , b4i+2 ] [f ai +a2 i+1 , B], [b4i+2 , b4i+3 ]

[B, f ai +a2 i+1 ].
:
ell
eell
e

















%%

,,
,,

%%

109

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
6.17. . f Pl, [f (ai ), f (ai+1 )]
k. dsup (f, (f )) k2 .
6.18. f Pl,
[f (ai ), f (ai+1 )] k.
(f ) k/2.
6.19. f0 Pl, f1 = (f0 ), . . . , fn = (fn1 ), , f0 , k. ,
k
dsup (fn , fn+1 ) <
n
2 2
6.20 (!). , {fi } dsup .
6.21. f Pl, [ai , ai+1 ]
f ,
[f (ai ), f (ai+1 )]
, (ai+1 ai ), -
. , (f, ) , (f, ) ,
.
6.22. f0 Pl, f1 = (f0 ), . . . , fn = (fn1 ),
[ai , ai+1 ] f0 , [f (ai ), f (ai+1 )] ,
(ai+1 ai ). , (fn , ) 2n .
6.23. f Pl,
[f (ai ), f (ai+1 )] k. ,
((f ), ) 2 k2 + (f, ).
6.24. f0 Pl, f1 = (f0 ), . . . , fn = (fn1 ), , f0 , k. ,
(fn , ) 4

k
2nm

+ 2m
2

(6.1.1)

n, m (n > m)

110

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

6:
6.25. , < 22m , n > 2m. (6.1.1)

4k 2 +
(fn , )
.
2m
, i
!

4k 2 +
, 22m .
(fi , ) max
m
2
6.26 (!). f0 [0, 1/2] [(0, 0), (1, 1)],
a [1/2, 1] [(1, 1), (0, 0)]. , {fi } .
. , lim supi ((fi , )) = 0.
0

6.27. -, lim fi (
sup-) P : [0, 1] [0, 1]
[0, 1].
6.5. P
.
6.28. P(q), q =
.

a
2n

(a Z) -

6.29. Q2 - . , P(Q2 ) .
6.30 (!). , P .
. , .
6.31 (!). [0, 1]
? ?

111

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.

7:
7.1. M . W M , . M ,
M , M . Z M , .
7.1. R?
7.2 (!). X, Y . , X Y .
. X Y . U X {y}. , X {y} ( ) X, U X {y}
.
7.3. Rn ( )?
7.4. M
x, y ,
[0, 1] M , (0) = x, (1) = y. , M .
. M .
7.5. . ,
.
7.6 (!).
. R2 . ,
.
. . ,
.
7.7 (!). , : R, R2 , .
7.8 (!). , , .

112

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

7:
7.9. f :
. , f .

X Y . X

7.10 (!). [0, 1]. ,


, .
7.11. f : X R. X
, f , . , f - .
7.12 (*). M . , M .
7.13. M , . , .
7.14 (!). x M ,
W , .
, W .
7.2. , W x ( ).
7.15. , W M , , W , .
7.16. , M .
7.17. , M .

7.1.
7.3. M
, M .

113

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
7.18. , ( , R) . ,
.
7.19 (*). , p-
.
7.20 (*). , .
7.21.
S. S . , S
.
7.22 (!). {0, 1} , {0, 1}I I {0, 1} , I . , {0, 1}I
.
. .
7.23 (*). ,

M , M1 M , M M1
( ). M1 U M1 ,
1 (U ) M . , M1 . 2
, M
M2 M
M2

M M1 M2 ( , 2 ).
7.24. U {Ki }, U . , {Ki } , U .
7.25 (*). M . , x M
M , .

114

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

7:
. P
M , x. , . ,
{x} . , P P1 ,
P2 . , 4 ( ), P1 , P2
U1 , U2 . ,
U1 U2 W M , x. , W Ui , ,
P {x}.
7.26 (*). M . ,
M .
. U M
x. M \U , x (, ).
{U } M \U . M \U , {U } U1 , ...Un . , Ui
, x U .
7.27 (*). M , x, y M
. , M {0, 1} (
) , o x 0, y 1.
7.28 (*). M , I M {0, 1}.
M {0, 1}I . , , M
.
7.29 (*). M
. ,
(i) M
(ii) M {0, 1}I -
I.

115

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
. , M
f : M X X,
f M f (M ) X .

116

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

8:

8:

8.1.
8.1. M .
, M [a, b] M .
, (a) (b). M
, M
[a, b] M .
8.1. a, b, c M , a
b, b c. , a c.
8.2. , M , x M , .
8.2. ,
- x, M .
8.3. X R2 : sin(1/t), [(0, 1), (0, 1)]. , X
, , .
.
8.4 (*). , .
8.3. {M } F,
A. A M
, (, m) |
A, m M ,
M .

117

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
8.5. ,
F
. , A M A
A .
8.4. M ( ),
x M ( ) .
8.6. M . ,
M ( ) M
( ).
8.7. , ,
.
8.8. Rn . ,
.
8.9 (**). , :
[0, 1] . X [0, 1] [0, 1] , x, y , (x) > (y). , X . , X
, .
. , X . V [0, 1] [0, 1]
, X. , V .
, V : [a, b] [0, 1], , ((a)) < (a). , .

8.2.
8.5. M . , M [a, b] M , . , M , .
, .

118

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

8:
8.6. M . , M ,
C 1, x, y M > 0
P x1 = x, x2 , . . . , xn = y, d(xi , xi+1 ) < ,
i d(xi , xi+1 ) Cd(x, y). , n
x y , ,
, , , Cd(x, y).
8.10 (*). , M M , 1.
. -.
8.11 (!). (M, d) , C. dh : M M R
X

lim inf
d(xi , xi+1 ) ,
0

inf x1 = x, x2 , . . . , xn = y,
d(xi , xi+1 ) < . , d(x, y) dh (x, y) Cd(x, y)
x, y M . , dh , (M, d) (M, dh ).
8.12 (*). , (, dh ) , C > 1.
8.13 (*). , (, dh ) ( , ).

8.7. , [a, b] M , C > 0, d((x), (y))


C|x y|, x, y [a, b]. , .
8.14 (*). M
. , M C, , , .
. d(x, y)
dh (x, y) Cd(x, y).

119

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
. , .
8.15. S , . , S , 2 .
8.16 (*). , 2 , .
8.17 (**). ]0, [ R2 ,
= 1/x, r = x ( ,
1
, 2n
). X
(, , ). , X . , X ,
C .
8.18 (*). M
. S (x) x.
, .
(i) M , C
(ii) x, y M r1 , r2 > 0, r1 + r2 1,
Sdr1 (x), Sdr2 (y) Cd(1r1 r2 ),
d = d(x, y).
. (ii), x, y . (ii) . x Sd(1C 1 ) (y) ;
x2 , (
, , -, )
.
. , - ( )
, Sdr1 (x), Sdr2 (y) d(1
r1 r2 ).

120

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

8:

8.3.
8.8. (M, x)
. (M, x) [0, 1] M ,
(0) = (1) = x, - ( U (K, W ) , K [0, 1] W M ). (M, x)
(M, x).
8.19 (!). M . , (M, x)
,
d(, 0 ) = sup d((x), 0 (x)).
x[0,1]

8.20. (M, x) , M0
x, M1
x. , (M, x) = (M0 , x) = (M1 , x).
8.21. X, Y , W X M , - .
Y W X Y M .
8.22 (!). , 0 (M, x) .
:
(i) : [0, 1] (M, x), 0 .
(ii)
[0, 1] [0, 1] M ,


{1} [0, 1] x, , [0,1]{0} = , [0,1]{1} = 0 .
8.9. , 0 (M, x), : [0, 1] [0, 1] M , ,
.
8.23. , ,
(M, x) (M, x).
8.24. ,
.

121

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
. .
8.10. (M, x) .
1 (M, x).
8.25 (*). M R2 [(0, 1), (0, 1)]
3, 4, 5, . . . , (0, 1) (0, 1).

1111111111111
0000000000000
, M . , x M
(M, x) .
8.26 (*). (M, d) , > 0
x, y M , d(x, y) < , , x y,
. M M x, y M , d(x, y) < .
M , . , .
. {(xi , yi )} , (x, y), {zi } .
, {zi } . {zi } , x y. , {zi }
.

8.27 (*). [0, 1] M ,



x, y M , d(x, y) = d, t [0, 1] x,y dt ,
x,y , x y ( ,
(x, y, t) = x). , .

122

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

8:
. , -.
8.11. M . :
[0, 1] M -, [0, 1] [0, a1 ], [a1 , a2 ], . . ., [an , 1],
d((x), (y)) = i |x y|, - i
, , (
).
. M Rn ,
, , 4, . , .
-.
8.28 (*). 8.26, (M, x) ( sup-). ,
(M, x) ,
- B () (M, x).
8.29 (*). , (M, x) .
. , 1 (M, x) (M, x).
8.30. M Rn . ,
(M, x) .
. , (
-) .

123

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.

8.4.
8.31. 1 , 2 (M, x).
1 2 (M, x), :
(
1 (2)
[0, 1/2],
1 2 () =
2 (2 1)
[1/2, 1].
, 1 2 1 , 2 : 1 10 , 2 20 , 1 10 2 20 .
8.32. , (1 2 )3 1 (2 3 ).
8.33. (M, x). 1 1 (x) = (1 x). , 1 1 [0, 1] x.
. , , .
8.34 (!). , 1 , 2 1 2 1 (M, x)
.
8.12. M .
f

8.35. X Y
, x X .
f

(X, x) (Y, f (y)),

7 f.

, f , .
8.36. M , x, y M . (M, x, y)
[0, 1] M , x y, - .
, ( ) (M, x, y).

124

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

8:
(M, x, y) (M, y, z) (M, x, z), 1 , 2 7 1 2
, 8.31. ,
, .
8.37 (!). x, y M , xy [0, 1] M , 1
1
x y. xy
xy
() = xy (1 ).
1
(M, x) (M, y), 7 xy xy (M, y) (M, x),
1
. ,
7 xy xy
. f , g . , f g , xy
1 (M, x) 1 (M, y).
. , 1 (M ) ,
1 (M, x)
= 1 (M, y)
xy . ,
, M 1 (M ).
.
8.38 (!). , x = y, xx
. ,

xx
1 (M, x)
1 (M, x)

1
.
xx : xx xx

8.5.
8.13. M . , M , M ,
.. 1 (M ) = {1}.
8.39. , Rn .
8.14. (M, x)
, M [0, 1]
M ,

(M {1}) = {x}, M {0}
M = M {0} M . (M, x) . , ,
M {x}.

125

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
8.40 (!). (M, x) . ,
y M (M, y) .

. M [0, 1] M

{x}, [1, 0] M , x
1
y. M [0, 1] M , (m, t) (m, 2t)
t [0, 1/2] (m, t) (2t 1) t [1/2, 0].
8.41. ,
.
. ,
(M, x) x.
M .
8.42. , .
8.43 (!). V Rn (Rn , x),
, , x Rn ,
V , x V . , V
.
8.44. V Rn . ,
.
8.15. N M
. M N

M [0, 1] M , (M {1}) N ,

N , M {0}
. N M .
8.45 (!). N M , n N
N . , 1 (N, n) 1 (M, n)
.

126

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

8:
8.16. M ,
. , , M/ . M/ : M/ , M . , M
G, : x y
g G, g x = y. M M G,
M/G. G-
M.

8.46. M ,
{x1 , . . . , xn } M {y1 , . . . , ym } M
. , {x1 , . . . , xn } {y1 , . . . , ym }
.

8.47 (!). M ,
G , M . M/G . ,
M/G .

. x, y , G. x, y G- .

8.46
Gx, Gy, U ,
T
T
0
0
U , gG gU , gG gU .

8.48 (*). , M , M/G ( , , ).

8.17. ,
{V}, {R}, ,
.

127

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.

, V, R
{R} {0, } {V}. {R} [0, ], , :
, ,
( ). {R}
[0, ] .

8.49. , .

8.50. , . , .

8.51 (**). .
, , , ,
.

8.52 (!). , n n 1
( ).

128

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

8:

, M .
8.53 (*). , . , 1 (M ) = {1}.
8.54 (*). S n n- (n > 1). ,
S n .
. .

8.6.


8.18. M
M . , U , 1 (U )
U K,
1 (U ) U
1 (U ) = U K U . ,
M .
M

S 1 S 1 = R/Z.
S 1 .
8.55. n . S 1 S 1 , t nt. , .
8.56. , R S 1 = R/Z
.

129

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
8.57. , Rn (S 1 )n

8.58. S n S n /{1} = RP n
, ( , ). , .


0 M
8.59. M
M , M
0

, M . , M
.
M


8.60. M
M , M
. , M . ,
M .
M


8.61 (!). M
M , M

. , M ,
.


8.19. : [a, b] M , M

M M . : [a, b] M
, = .

M , : [a, b] M
8.62 (!). M
, x y. , x 1 ({x}),
, a x.
8.63 (!). , , (y) 1 ({y})
(M, x, y) x.
. 1 (M, x, y)
x y.

1 ({x}) 1 (M, x, y) 1 ({y})


8.20. M
M , M .
,
M
.

130

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

8:
. . , 8.61
.
, M


8.64 (!). M
M .

x M x 1 ({x}). 1 (M, x)
1 ({x}), 8.63, () = (
x, ). , .
8.65. , 1 (S 1 ) = Z.
8.66. , 1 ((S 1 )n ) = Zn .
8.67 (*). , n > 1 1 (RP n ) = Z/2Z.
8.68. , (, , ).
8.69 (*). , n n
. M . ,
1 (M ) = Z.

131

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.

9:
, , .
.
- .
,
. ,
, , .
.


9.1. M
M , M1

M . , (M1 ) M .


M
9.2 (!). M
M , M
, . , .
0


0
M . 9.1. M
M, M
M
0,
: M
M , , 0 = .
,M
0 ).
Mor(M
, , , 1 = Id, 1 = Id.

M
0 . ,
9.3 (!). : M
0
M
.
: M


9.4. M
M .


. , x M
U , : U (U ) .
U , ! x M
: U (U ) . ?

132

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

9:


9.5. M , M
M .
, M .
0


0
0FM

9.6. M
M, M
M , M
. , M .

9.7. M , M
M . ,
F

, {M
} M
, M
= I M
M .

M
9.2. M

M M = V M , V
.


9.8. M
M M .
, ,
M .
M

9.1.

1
2
9.9 (!). M1
M , M2
M . M1 M2

M1 M M2 := {(m1 , m2 ) M1 M2 | 1 (m1 ) = 2 (m2 )}.


M1 M M2 ( , M1 M2 ). , M1 M M2 M .
9.3. M1 M M2 M M1 , M2 .
.
.
,
, .

133

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
9.10. M1 , M2 , M3 M . , M3 M1 M2 1 : M3 M1 , 2 : M2 M1 .
9.11. R S 1 . R S 1 R?

9.4. M1 M2 M . M1 M M2 ,
(m, (m)) m M1 .

9.12 (!). M1 M2 M , . ,

M1 M2 .
: M ] , M M
( 9.13. [M
M M

). X M
. , X
M
, : M
.
X
=M
: M ] . 9.14 (!). [M
M M
M
M
. ( ) M

)
MorM (M , M M M
M .
M
. .
: M ] , M M
.
9.5. [M
: M ] , M
M
[M
M
. M

M [M : M ] ( : M ])).
Gal([M
, - deck transformation group (
).
: M ] ,
9.15 (!). M , [M
M n ( : M ] n
n-). , [M
.

134

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

9:
M M
: M
] n-, . , [M
.
9.6. G S.
, g G, s S, s 6= gs, g 6= 1.
, s1 , s2 S,
g G , g(s1 ) = s2 .


)
9.16. M
M , G = AutM (M
. , M . ,
x M G 1 (x).

M , x M 9.17 (!). M
: M ]) 1 (x)
. , Gal([M
.
. 1 (X)
M M
9.14.
M


9.18 (!). M
M , x M .
)
, AutM (M
: M ] .
1 (x), [M

9.19. Rn Rn /Zn
= (S 1 )n . ,
.
9.20. n Z. n- S 1 S 1 ,
t 7 nt. , .
9.7. M , G
, M . G- M/G. (. 10),
M/G : M/G
, M . M/G M
G.
: M ] , G AutM (M
)
9.21 (!). [M

[M : M ] . , ,
/G M .
M

135

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
. G ,
G- .
: M ] , G 9.22 (!). [M
/G M ,
. , M
: M ] .
[M
. 9.18.
1

9.23. M1 M2 M3 , i , . ,
i .


, M
M

[M : M ].

9.24 (!). M1 M2 M3 , Mi , [M1 : M3 ] . ,


M1 M3 M2 M1 .
. 9.23,
M1 M3 M1 M1 M3 M2 M1 M3 M3 .
9.25 (!). M1 M2 M3 , [M1 : M3 ] . , [M1 : M2 ]
.
. 9.23.
9.26. M1 M2 M3 .
,
M1 M3 M1
= M1 M2 (M2 M3 M2 ) M2 M1 .
9.27. : M1 M2 M3
, [M1 : M2 ] [M2 : M3 ]
, [M1 : M3 ] .

136

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

9:
: M ] , G , G0
9.28. [M
/G0 . , [M
:M
/G0 ]
G . M
0
, G .
M .
9.8. M
: M ] M
0 M , [M
M
0 M , M
M
0 .
M
: M]
9.29 (!). ( ) [M
G. , /G0 : M ]. ,
G0 G [M

.
9.30. M1 M2 M3 ,
[M1 : M3 ] .

M1 M3 M1 M2 M3 M2 .
g Gal([M1 : M3 ]), eg M1 M3 M1
{(m, g(m))} M1 M3 M1 . , g Gal([M1 : M2 ]) Gal([M1 :
M3 ]) , M2 M3 M2
eg .
9.31. M1 M2 M3
. ,

M1 M3 M1 M2 M3 M2

Gal([M1 : M3 ]) Gal([M2 : M3 ]).


, ker = Gal([M1 : M2 ]).
. , Gal([Mi : M3 ]) Mi M3 Mi ,
.
M , G0 M
/G0
9.32 (!). M

, . , G0
/G0 : M ] .
, [M

137

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.

9.2.
9.9. M . ,

M [a, b] M , d((x), (y)) =


|x y|. .
, .
. ||.
9.10. , M . , , .
9.33 (!). , , . , .
9.34 (!). . ,
r M , [0, 1].
M , ,
i

[ai , bi ] [i , i ] r , i .
P
|| :=
|i , i |, , . d(x, y) := inf ||,
, x y. , d(x, y) ,
M .
9.11.
.
9.12. M
, M .
9.35. , Rn (
) .
9.36 (*). M = R2 , M , .

138

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

9:
9.37 (*). , ,
n n 1 . , M
.
9.38 (*). , M .
, .
9.39 (!). M ,

, M
M , x y
. Sx,y M
, x
M
y, M .
M

M
y) = inf |()|.
d(x,
Sx,y

y) d((x), (y)).
, . , d(x,

9.40 (*). , , M
.
9.41. M M . ,
, M

, d).
(M
. , .
y) d((x), (y)).
d(x,
9.42 (!). (M, d) ,



M
M . , , x M
, Ux y M , x

, (Ux , d)
. , Ux M

M
. , M
.
. .
M 9.43. M = [0, 1] [0, 1] , M
. , .

139

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
9.44. M ,


M
M . , .
. x, y 1 (x0 )
. , M
, , . := (
) .
M ,
,
X M ( ). M

X , .


, , X
X ,
, x = y.
9.45. , , M .
9.13. M ( ) . M ,
M .
. ,
, 8.
M
9.14. M . M
, .
9.46 (!).
. , .
. ,
.
,M
0 M .
. M
M M
0 M
, M
0 , M
, M
0 .
M
0
M M
, M
0

M , M .
9.47. M1 M2 M2 M3 .
** , M1 M3 ?
! M3 . , M1 M3 .

140

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

9:

9.3.


9.48. M , M
M ,
x M . , 1 (x)
, 1 (M ).

9.49. , 1 (x) ,
M [0,1] [0, 1] M .

M M ,
9.50 (*). M
x M . , 1 (x) ,
|22S |, |22S | S S.
. x1 , x2 1 (x). , {U } 1 (S), U0
U , U0 ,
[ 
{x1 , x2 } = 1 (x)
U .
S, , , (U ) . , x2 ,
x1 , {(U )}, , U .
9.51. M , V . R , X M V ,
X M . ,
M - R,
. M , V |M [0,1] |
* V |22S |, S M .
. . ,
; , . , - ,
.

141

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.

M } M ,
9.15. {M
I (, ,

). (m1 , m1 , . . . )
Q
M , (m ) = m - m M .

Q
{M } M M .

M}
9.52. M
, {M
Q
. M M . U M , {U M } Q
Q ,
U . ,

M M Q
Q U
M M . , M M

* ,

M M ?

! , M Q . , M M M .
Q
9.16. M M M M ,

M
M.

9.53.
Q {M M } . , M M .

9.54 (!). {M
M } . ,
M
.

. 9.53.
M . 9.55. M
Q
) Q Mor(M , M
)
Mor( M M , M

9.56 (*). {M
M } S 1 S 1 ,
t nt, Q
n Z. , M M R R/Z = S 1 .

142

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

9:


M ,
9.57. M
M , M
M M
,
x M , x1 , x2 1 (x), W M
M M
M M
,
x1 x2 , W1 M
x1 x2 x2 . , W1 W (
) .

9.58. , {x } 1 (x),
I, W
Q 
Q

M
M,I M I M , W1
M
M,I

M , {x } x0 , x0 {x }. , W1 W .

9.59 (!).
, x M . Q M M

, M,{1 (x)} M M
G Q

1 (x), M
M,{ 1 (x)} M , G M M

x { 1 (x)}. , M

MG . , MG M .
. , -
.
9.60. M , R


M , {M
Q

M } , M
M M
. , 0 M
M
M
0.
M
. .
9.61. , , M
.
M , 9.62 (!). , M
0
M M
M
.
M
. 9.24.

143

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
9.63 (!). M M , . ,
, M
.
M
. , . ,
.
9.64 (!). M , M
: M ]) . ,
, Gal([M

Gal([M : M ]) M .
9.17. : M ]), M
M 1 (M ) := Gal([M
.
9.18. G1 , G2 G , g G, G1 G2
x 7 xg .
M1 M
9.65 (*). M1 M , M
: M ]) =
. G1 Gal([M
1 (M ),
. ,
M 1 (M ).
9.66 (!). ,
. .
9.67 (*). M ,
.
?
9.68 (*). B P (t) = tn +an1 tn1 +
an2 tn2 + + a0 C, , B1
(x1 , . . . , xn ) Cn xi C. B B1
Cn .
Q

B1 B, (x1 , . . . , xn ) (t xi ). ,
. .

144

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

9:
9.69 (*). , .

145

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.

10:

10.1.
, .
10.1. f1 , f2 : X Y . , f1
f2 F : [0, 1] X Y ,


F {0}X f1 , F {1}X f2 .
10.1. ,
1 (X) 1 (Y ).
10.2. f : X Y , g : Y X
, f g g f
X X Y Y . , X Y
.
10.2. , . ,
.
10.3 (!). f : X Y . , f .
10.4. X Y . ,
X Y .
10.5 (!). X . ,
X , .

146

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

10:
10.6 (!). , n n .
, .
10.7 (!). M ,
x, x0 , y, y 0 M . , (M, x, x0 ) (M, y, y 0 ) .
. xy , x y x0 y0 , 1
(t) = xy (1 t) x1
x0 y 0 . xy
0 y 0 (t) = x0 y 0 (1 t). 0
f : (M, x, x ) (M, y, y 0 )
1
x0 y0 , (M, x, x0 ) xy
0
0
g : (M, y, y ) (M, x, x ), (M, y, y 0 ) xy x1
0 y0 .
, f g gf .

10.2.
10.3. M . M ,
.
10.8. M . , M .
10.9 (*). M
, - > 0 ,
< , . ,
M .
10.10. , .
10.4. M n, ,
Rn .
. , , .

147

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
10.11 (!). , S n .
. .
10.12. M , x, y M . ,
(M, x, y) .
10.13 (!). (M, x, y)
M , {U }
M . {U } , (
, ). V1 , . . . , Vn [0, 1] , Vi 1 (Ui ), Ui . Vi
, Vi Vi+1 ti , ai := (ti ).
, 0 (M, x, y), , 0 (ti ) = ai ,
0 ([ti , ti+1 ]) Ui , .
. .
10.14 (!). M , (M, x, y) . , U (M, x, y), 0 U .
. .
. ,
> 1 , ;
, .
10.15 (!). M (, ) 1, (M, x) . ,
, .
. .
10.16 (!). n > 1. , n- .

148

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

10:
. .
, , [0, 1] S n \{x},
x . , Rn ,
.
10.17 (*). M , F : M [0, 1] M M y
M . M (M, y, ), t, m F (m, t)
(t [0, 1], m M ). , .
10.18. M , x, y M ,
(M, x, y) . , U (M, x, ), 0 U, x a,
(M, x, a).
10.19 (*). M
, x M , (M, x, ) , x, . (M, x, ): 0 ,
0 x y, (M, x, y). (M, x, )/ ,
. Uy 3 y,
F
Uy (Uy , y, ) , 10.17.

(M, x, y) , Uy (M, x, ) ,
a Uy F (a) ( , [0, 1/2]
t (2t), [1/2, 1] F (a, 2t 1). , (

Uy ) (M, x, ) (M, x, )/
Uy (M, x, )/ .
. , . ,
Uy (Uy ), ,
. ,
(M, x, )/ M , 0 0 (1), , Uy .
10.20 (*). (M, x, )/ M , (M, x, y) y = (1). ,
.

149

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
. .
10.21 (!). , (M, x, ) .
10.22 (*). (M, x, )/ . ,
(M, x, ).
. , (M, x, ) , , (M, x, )/
(M, x, ) .
10.23 (*). , (M, x, )/ .
. (M, x) . M (y M ,
(M, x, y)).

10.3.
10.5. (M1 , x1 ), (M2 , x2 ), (M3 , x3 ), . . . (, )
.
(M , x ) {x1 } {x2 } W{x3 } . . .
, (M , x ). (M1 , x1 ) (M2 , x2 ) (M3 , x3 ) . . .
10.24. M ( , ).
, ( , ).
10.25 (!). M . ,
.
10.26 (!). , n
n + k 1 . , M
k .

150

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

10:
. r,
v1 , v2 , 0 , n 1 n + k 2 ,
. r,
v1 v2 . , M M0 .
10.6. {a1 , a2 , . . . } N (N
, ). N -
DN , . DN ai . , A1 A2 . . . Ak
A1 A2 . . . Ak Ak+1 ( Ai {a1 , a2 , . . . }).
10.27. , DN N + 1 .
10.28 (!). MN N -
, , . , MN (
). , .
10.29 (!). 2N 1- . N , , 2
. N , . M2N 1
N , , ai . ,
.
10.30. {a1 , a2 , . . . } N , W () ai , a1
j , 1
1
ai ai , ai ai . 0 e. ,
1
ai a1
i , ai ai , . , W .
10.7. , {a1 , a2 , . . . }, FN .

151

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

II.
10.31. , F1 Z.
10.32 (!). G , {g1 , g2 , . . . } G, {a1 , a2 , . . . }. ,
FN G, ai gi .
10.33 (!). FN
M2N 1 2N 1- , .
10.34 (!). , M2N 1 /FN N ,
.
10.35 (!). , (, )
.
10.36 (!). ,
.
. .
10.37 (*). G1 , G2 , . . . - . W Gi , ,
. A Gi ,
W . A
Gi , . A ,
. , , W. W ,
. , .
10.8. G1 , G2 , . . . .
10.38. , N
N Z.
10.39. ,
.

152

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

10:
10.40 (*). (M1 , x1 ), (M2 , x2 ), (M3 , x3 ), . . .

. , W
1 ( (M , x )) 1 (M1 , x1 ), 1 (M2 , x2 ), 1 (M3 , x3 ), . . . .

153

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III

155

1: , , p-

1: , ,
p-
1.1.
.
.
R0 .
1.1. M . M d : M M R0 ,
:
:

d(x, y) = 0 , x = y.
d(x, y) = d(y, x)

d(x, y) d(x, z) + d(z, y)

x, y, z M .
"".
1906- , " " (metrischer Raum) .
"" "", " x y". " x
y d".
1.2: : M
, d(x, y) = 1 x 6= y. .
1.3: Rn , d(x, y) = |x y| . .
1.4. M, N .

M , N ,

157

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

Maurice Frechet
(1878 1973)

: dM (x, y) = dN ((x), (y)), x, y M . , , .


1.5. x M .
- B (x) x , x , :
B (x) = {y M | d(x, y) < }
1.6. M . {i } M ,
> 0, {i }, , -. {i }, {i } , 0 , 0 , 1 , 1 , ... . (,
.)

158

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

1: , , p-
1.7. , {i } x M , 0 , x, 1 , x, 2 , ... .
, x {i }.
M , .

. R,
.
, ().
(i)

( ).

(ii)

. .

(iii)

{i } , , {i }.

1.8. X M supx,yX d(x, y).


, - 2 ().
, x M , y, z, d(y, z) < ,

|d(x, z) d(y, z)| < 2,


(1.1.1)
. (1.1.1) ,
{i }, d(x, i ) : {i } -,
d(x, i ) 2. , {i }, {i }, {d(i , i )} . , {i }, {i } , {d(i , i )} . !
M . M
M .
M
d({i }, {i }) := lim d(i , i ).

159

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
, .
1.9. M , , M .
,
R
(
Q). , Grundz
uge einer Theorie der geordneten Mengen,
(1914).
.
,
{i (0)}, {i (1)}, {i (2)}, ...
{i (0)} M .
, {i } M
M , {i (0)}, {i (1)}, {i (2)}, ... {i }. ,
i := i (i). , i- .
N {i (N )} ,
, , , i (N ), i+1 (N ), i+2 (N ), ...
2i . k (k), k+1 (k + 1), k+2 (k + 2), ...

2k+1 + 2k + 2k1 + ... < 2k+2
. , {i (N )}
{i (i)} , 2N +1 . , {i (i)}
{i (0)}, {i (1)}, {i (2)}, ...
.
1.10: d(x, y) = 1 x 6= y
().
1.11: Q , R. ,

160

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

1: , , p-
R , R. R
Q, ,
.
1.12: Rn ().

1.2.
, , . .
1.13. G , d G.
x, y x + y . , (G, +, d) ,
x x , x x + g g G.
,
.
1.14. : G R0

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

(g) = (g), (0) = 0.


(g) > 0 g 6= 0.
(g + g 0 ) (g) + (g 0 ), g, g 0 G.

, d (x, y) := (x y)
G, . ,
(x) := d(x, 0) ().
, , .
. A, B G .
{a + b | a A, b B} A + B.

161

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
, , 0 + 0 . , {ai }
{bi }, {ai + bi }, ,
.
, G. ,
.
;
.
1.15. A , , , : A R0 A.
,
(i)

(ii)

A , , . . , (g) > 0
g 6= 0, (0) = 0, (g) = (g), (g + g 0 ) (g) + (g 0 ).
: (xy) = (x)(y).

t |t|, Q R. :
(t) = 0, t = 0, 1 .
, xy = 0 x = 0 y = 0 (
).
,
d (x, y) = (x y).
, , , ,
.1 R d .
, ,
.
. ,
1

, I A A, ,
a A, I a I.
. :

A A1 , .

162

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

1: , , p-
, . , , , , .
, ,
3-4 .
, .
, Q,
R.

1.3. p- :

,
. p.
1.16. x Z x = p x1 , x1
p, Z0 . p- p (x) p .
p (0) = 0. , . Z p- ,
Zp .
, Q, Qp ,
p- .
, n, m a Q a = p m
n
p, ,
a . (a) := p . , Q.
p- , : d(x, y) = (x
y). ,
:
d(x, y) max(d(x, z), d(y, z)).
, .
,
(x + y) max((x), (y)).

163

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
, .
p- .
. x, y, z, a, b, c.
, . , a
. , a max(b, c),
b c , ( ) , .
, : , .
B (a) - , a,
x, y , d(x, y) max(d(x, a), d(y, a)) . B (a) B (a).
, .
, . , ,
, , () , .

1.4. p-
,
, P
,P
gi , (gi ) ().
(pi z) pi ,
P
zi , i=0 zi pi p . ,

(zi p )

i=0

pi =

i=0

p
p1

( ).
,
1 + p + p2 + p3 + ...
1
1p
p-! ,
, 1 p, 1 ( ).

164

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

1: , , p-
a, b -, 2 < pi ,
a b pi ().
{i } p- ,

0000000000000000000000000000000000020
0000000000093275091374509172340957210
0000000000000026381637617631863181610
0000000000007927931793719279129881610
0000000000000000009812038102829881610
0000082739812739127397038102829881610
0003719237912723927397038102829881610
7213719237912723927397038102829881610
, : i- , - ,

. , ,
P
i
i=0 zi p , 0 zi p 1 i- , p- N , N .
, p-
,
. , - p- .
n, p, nx = 1 mod p
. v := 1 nx. , (v) p1 ,
1+v +v 2 +v 3 +... . (1+v +v 2 +v 3 +...)(1v) = 1,
1
1 + v + v 2 + v 3 + ... = xn
, n1 = x + vx + v 2 x + v 3 x + ....
, p-
n, p.
, a Q p , a = m
, n
n
p. , a Q p , (a) 1. p- 1 Qp , , ,
( ).
p- , , .

165

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
,
S :=

X
i=0

(1)i (2i)!xi
(1 2i)(i!)2 4i N 2i1

(1.4.1)

S 2 = N 2 + x, . S 2 = N 2 + x

( x),
. , , (1.4.1) - (, p-) ,
S 2 = N 2 + x.
p , N , 4i N12i1 p-
. (2i)!
, .
(i!)2
, i-


xi
(i )
(1 2i)pi
(1.4.2)
1 2i
(
 
1

k
k
k;
). (1.4.2),
P
(2i 1)pi (), ,
(1.4.1) . p- , p, N 2 + x,
x p, N p.
1.1. Zp ?
Qp ?
. (Hensels lemma) ,
P (x) = 0 Zp , P (a) = 0 mod p -
a, P 0 (a) 6= 0 mod p. P 0
P . ,
P (ai ) = 0 mod pi+1 , ai ai1 = 0

166

mod pi .

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

1: , , p-
1.2. .

Kurt Hensel
(1861 1941)

p- 1897 , . , ,
. , p-
, , . , p- .
,
, Zp ; p- , . , ep
p- , e.
p- 1910-
, (Riesz) ,
.
1912- , (Jozsef K
urschak, 1864 1933) () , p . 1917- ,

167

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
(1893-1986), , Q. , Q p-
( ) () .
.

1.5. ,
p-
.
, , , ,
-;
. p-
. . . p-
.
, .
., p- , p- -, .: , 1982.
, .-., , .: , 1972,
http://ega-math.narod.ru/Books/Arithm.htm
.., ..
, .: , 1979
p- :
http://www.fen.bilkent.edu.tr/ franz/LN/LN-padic.html

168

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

2:

2:
2.1.
,
R.
2.1. V R, :
V R0 . V ,
: (v) > 0, v 6= 0,
: (v + v 0 ) (v) + (v 0 ).
:

(v) = ||(v),

v, v 0 V , R. V
.
, ,
(0) = 0, (x) = (x). V .
2.2:
V = Rn . v = (x1 , x2 , ..., xn )
|v|L := max |xi |.
, .
V = Rn . v = (x1 , x2 , ..., xn )
|v|L1 :=

|xi |.

, .

169

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
V = Rn . v = (x1 , x2 , ..., xn )
qX
x2i .
|v|L2 :=

: x c|x|.
| |L2 , .
-.
- (CauchySchwarz inequality). , , x, y g; ||L2

p
p
p
g(x, x) + g(y, y) g(x + y, x + y).
, , :
p
g(x, x)g(y, y) g(x, y).
(2.1.1)
, g(x y, x y) > 0 ,

P () := g(x, x) 2g(x, y) + 2 g(y, y),


. , D = g(x, y)2 g(x, x)g(y, y)
. (2.1.1).
, , x, y, ,
g g((x1 , x2 ), (y1 , y2 )) = x1 y1 +
x2 y2 . , (
)
p
g(x, y) = |x||y| cos |x||y| = g(x, x)g(y, y)
~x ~y .

d (x, y) = (x y).
, , . .

170

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

2:


(1804-1889)

2.3. , Z V , x, y Z, Z [x, y] .
2.4: .

B1 (0) := {x V (x) < 1}
.
: , [x, y] x + (1 )y, 0 1 .
. B1 (0) ,
(x + (1 )y) < 1
x, y , (x) < 1, (y) < 1, [0, 1]. ,
(x + (1 )y) (x) + ((1 )y) (x) + (1 )(y) 1

171

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
( , (x) < 1, (y) < 1).
R2
y

0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
1
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111

111111111111111111
000000000000000000
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
0000000000000000001
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111

L -

L1 -
y
1

0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
00000000000000000001
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111
0000000000000000000
1111111111111111111

L2 - ()
| |L1 , | |L , | |L2 , (
R ), .
2

, . ( ),
, "" () . , | |L2
, ()
( ),
| |L1 | |L .
L1 , L2 , L Rn ,
. v = (x1 , ..., xn ) Rn ,
p , p 1. Lp -
qX
p
|xi |p .
|v|L := p

172

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

2:

; .
(
M ), Lp -, p 1,

sZ
|f |Lp = p
|f |p .
M

|f |L = sup f
M

|f | , |f |p , ( ),
. L1 , L2 L -
().

2.2.
2.5. Z M
,
( ).
(i) -
(ii) z Z, Z .
2.6. {zi } (M, d). , zi z, lim d(zi , z) =
i
0
2.7. (M1 , d1 ) (M2 , d2 ) , f : M1 M2 . , ( ).
(i) f : {zi }
z, {f (zi )} f (z).

173

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
(ii) z M > 0 > 0 ,
d1 (x, z) < d2 (f (x), f (z)) < .
(iii) .
.
2.8. .
,
,

Q {0, 1},
> 2 1, 2 0. {0, 1} 4 : {0}, {1}, {0, 1}; ,
.
2.9: z M .
dz
x
d(z, x) M R . , , dz (x) dz (y) d(x, y).
2.10. , , ,
.
0 V ,
(V, ) (V, 0 ).
(V, ) (V, 0 ) ,
0 . r, s,
1 (V, 0 ) s/r . ,
0 (x) 1 (x) s/r. :
(x)
rs . (V, 0 ) (V, )
0 (x)
, . .
2.11: 0
V . ,
C1 , C2 , , x V

C1 () 0 (x) C2 (x).
(2.2.1)

174

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

2:

.
2.12: .
, L1 , L2 , L R2
, (. ).
V = Rn , ||L1 L1 -, x1 , ..., xn
V . ,
X
X
(z)
|i |(xi ) max (xi )
|i | = C|z|L1 ,
i

z =
i i xi , C = maxi (xi ).
(2.2.1), . , Id
(V, | |L1 ) (V, ) .
, , . .
, () , .
,
. , Rn , 1 . ,
.
.
: V R ,
Id
( 2.9). (V, | |L1 ) (V, ) V L1 -.
C1 .2 , C1 .
1

" - ".
, L1 - - .
2

175

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
(v) C1 |v|L1 . (v) C|v|L1
. V .

2.3.
V , ,
B . , B (
), , .
, .
2.13: V , B
, , V . , B -, v B
v B. B
- .
: A, B V , A +
B V a + b, a A, b B. R,
A a, a A.
B B + (1 )B B, [0, 1]
0 1 ( ). B
B + B ( + )B.
B : V R
B (x) := inf { > 0 | x B}

B 0, ,
x, B (x) 6= 0. B (x) = ||B (x)
. , B + B ( + )B. , x, y ,
x ( + )B y ( + )B. x + y ( + + 2)B.
> 0, B (x) = , B (y) = (x + y) + + 2.
. B , , , - B. , B B.

176

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

2:

2.4. ,

.
"" .
- (Augustin Cauchy) 1821- .
, 1859-; 1888- (Hermann Amandus Schwarz), ,
,
, ,
.

Stefan Banach
(1892 1945)

, 1906- . 1909- , (Frigyes Riesz) ,


177

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
, , . ,
1914- Grundz
uge einer
Theorie der geordneten Mengen, , .
, ,
XIX (Paul Mongre).
" " . Lp , 1910- .
1920- .

178

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

3:

3:
3.1. -
M . , M . ,
.
3.1.
{U } M S
M , M = U . {U }
{U }, .
3.2. M ,
M .
3.3. M , {xi } M .
3.4: ( -)
,
.

. , x M
, x. x {xi } , x
{xi }. {xi } ,
.
x
/ {xi }, x {xi }. U ,
M \{xi }. xi Ui ,

179

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
{xi }, {U, Ui },
.
1
( ) ( )
.
3.5: M , f : M R . f M . , x, y ,
f (x) = sup f (z),

f (y) = inf f (z).


zM

zM

: {xi } ,
lim f (xi ) = sup f (z).
zM

, {xi } {x0i }. x. f , f ,
lim f (x0i ) = f (x). , f (x) = supzM f (z).
.
.
3.6. (M1 , d1 ) (M2 , d2 ) , C > 0 . f : M1 M2 C- (C-Lipshitz map) x, y M1 ,

d2 (f (x), f (y)) Cd1 (x, y).
f : M R C, C- M R . , - C, ,
(Lipschitz continuous).
1

A B" .

180

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

3:
, . ,
().

Rudolf Otto Sigismund Lipschitz


(1832 1903)
dz (x) := d(z, x) z M
. , |dz (x) dz (y)| d(x, y),
( ).
C- f : R R, |f 0 | C ().

181

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
, B (x)
x.
3.7: M , U := {U }
.
U (x) := sup { R | B (x)

U}.
U 1-.
: y M , x , U (x) >
0 . , B0 (x)
U. ,
B0 (y) B0 (x) ().
U (y) U (x) d(x, y)
(y, x),
d(x, y) |U (y) U (x)|.

.
3.8. - M
V M , M -
V . - , V .
, , > 0. , ,
{xi } , xi - .
, d(xi , xj ) i 6= j.
-.

182

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

3:
M ,
U := {U } . -, , U .
U : M R, . , U , U min > 0. ,
x M , min - x
U.
M min - V {Bi }
V , min . min ,
Ui U.
[
[
M=
Bi
Ui ,
, {Ui } U. .
, - : , Rn .
, ,
, (
) .
-
(1862), R.
(Heinrich Eduard Heine, 1821-1881) ( ) 1872- . 1895-
, , Rn . ,
(Arthur Moritz Schonflies, 1900) (1898, 1904).
- -" (Theor`eme de Borel-Lebesgue).

3.2. :

1906-
,

183

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

Emile
Borel
(1871 1956)


. , ,
. ,

.
, 1980-.
XIX , . , .
1914- Grundz
uge der
Mengenlehre ( ).
, ,

184

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

3:

Felix Hausdorff
(1868 1942)

, ,
.
, 2M M .
3.9. M , U 2M , . , U M ,
(i)

185

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
(ii)
(iii) M .
M .
, : , , ,
. .
XX , ( ,
) . " (point-set topology). arxiv.org " math.GN;
- , http://arxiv.org/list/math.GN/07 .
: .
( ). , ,
. ,
, .
, - ( ). : (
"), .
( ) , .

." "
".

3.3.
M . ,
Z M , ,

186

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

3:
, BC (x), - C > 0.
:
d(x, Z) = inf d(x, z).
zZ

, 1- M . Z M ,
d(x, Z) = 0 , x Z ().
, Z1 , Z2 M , dH (X, Y )



dH (Z1 , Z2 ) := max sup d(x, Z2 ), sup d(x, Z1 ) .
xZ1

xZ2

3.10: dH ,
M .
: supxZ1 d(x, Z2 ) , Z1
Z2 BC (z),
BC (z) 2C (). ,
, Z1 Z2 ; . .
.
Z M , > 0, Z() (-
Z) - z Z. :
d(Z1 , Z2 ) := inf { R | Z1 Z2 (), Z2 Z1 ()} .

Z1 Z2 , Z1
- Z2 , Z2 - Z1 ".
,
Z()(0 ) Z( + 0 ).
(3.3.1)
dH (Z1 , Z2 ) < dH (Z2 , Z3 ) < 0 , Z1 -
Z2 , Z2 0 - Z3 . Z2 Z3 (0 ),
(3.3.1) Z2 () Z3 (0 + ). :
Z1 Z2 () Z3 (0 + ).

187

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
, Z3 , Z2 Z1 ,
Z1 Z2 () Z3 (0 + )
dH (Z1 , Z2 ) < dH (Z2 , Z3 ) < 0 dH (Z1 , Z3 ) < 0 + .
dH . , .

3.4. -
, -.
, - M
V M , M -
V . - , V .
3.11. M , > 0 . V M -, ( )
(i) V () M
(ii) dH (M, V ) <
(iii) V -.
3.12: M . M , > 0 M
-.
:
- M .
M -.
{B (xi )}. , {xi } -.
, , M 2N -, N .
{xi }, V1

188

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

3:
20 -. {xi } 20 -. {xi } , .
21 -, {xi } ,
21 -, . i:
i- {xi } , 2i , i. : N -
, N -
. , (), .
- 4
. , ().
, .
3.13: {Zi } M . ,
{Zi } , Z .
Z .
:
Z M , . Z, Z 3-,
. - x0 , ..., xk Zi ,
dH (Zi , Z) < , z1 , ..., zk Z , d(zi , xi ) <
( , dH (Zi , Z) < ). V
{x0 , ..., xk }. V () x0 , ..., xk . , , V (2) Zi . dH (Zi , Z) < ,
Zi () Z, , V (3) Z. , V 3-.

3.5. :
-
1920- , . .
( , ), . . ,
(Kazimierz Kuratowski), (Alfred

189

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
Tarski) (Waclaw Sierpi
nski). , : , .
, ( ) .
( ,
Rn , , ,
).
.
. . .


(. 23 1943)

. Z1 , Z2

190

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

3:
, M
( ). inf dH (Z1 , Z2 ) . ,
, .
(" -").
. ,
-; .
2000- . ,
- (" "),
. , , , .
, . , , , ,
. ( ")
.
, .

191

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

4:

4.1.
M , : [0, ] M
. (0)
(), (0) () , .
[0, ] ,
[0, ] = [0, 1 ] [x1 , x2 ] ... [xn1 , ].
x0 := 0, xn := .
L (x1 , ...xn1 ) =

n1
X

d((xi ), (xi+1 )).

i=0

4.1.
L() :=

sup

L (x1 , ...xn1 ),

x1 ,...,xn1

.
, , C : [0, ] M C ().
, L() d(x, y), x, y (
).
, x, y
M , , x y. ,
L() ( x y")
M ().
M (intrinsic metric"),
d(x, y).
M , , M . , ,
x, y M
x y, ( ).

192

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

4:

.
-:
M . x, y
M , r < d(x, y),
d(y, Br (x)) = d(x, y) r.
.
, d(y, Br (x)) d(x, y)r , (). -
d(y, Br (x)) d(x, y) r.
: [0, 1] M x y, d(x, y) + .
, . L() ,

d(x, z) + d(z, y) d(x, y) + .

(4.1.1)

z ().
d : [0, 1] R, d (t) := d(x, (t)).
d , d (0) = 0, d (1) = d(x, y) + ,
[0, d(x, y) + ] . t0 , d (t0 ) = r .
z := (t0 ) Br (x). (4.1.1),
d(y, z) d(x, y) + d(x, z) = d(x, y) + d (t0 ) = d(x, y) r + 2.
d(y, Br (x)) d(x, y) r + 2, > 0.
-.
, ,
-, . ,
, - ( ).

193

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

4.2.

, , .
M , x M , r > 0 .
r (x) := {y M | d(x, y) r}
B
r x. r (x), d(x, y) > r,
. , y
/B
r (x) d(x, y) r
B (y) B
( ).
, Z
, Z. , ().
, Br (x) r (x). M d(x, y) =
B
1 x 6= y; B1 (x) x,
M .
M -, Br (x)
r (x). , y B
r (x).
B
- , d(y, Br (x)) = 0 ( ).
Br (x) y, ,
y Br (x).
4.2. M , x M r > 0
r (x) .
, B

,
, -
BC (x).

194

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

4:
4.3: ( -, 1) M
-.
:
(i) M
(ii) , M .
:
(ii) (i) . , {xi } ,
(ii), {xi } .
,
- ,
.
1.
(),
- , M .
2.
: M R,
(x) }.
(x) := sup{ R | B

x, ,
x . , M ( ). ,
.
, 1-, . d(x,y) (y) B
(x) ( , B
). |(x) (y)| d(x, y).
3.
(x) (x) . ,
, B
, (x) ,
r (x)
, B
r < (x).

195

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
- Br (x)() = Br+ (x), Z() - Z. r (x) B
r+ (x):
B
r (x), B
r+ (x)) = .
dH ( B
, {ri }, r (x) r, B
i
r (x).
( ), B
ri < (x), (x).
(x) (x) B
r (x) . , B
i
-, .
4.
(x) (x), ,
B
(x)+ (x) > 0.
B
.
(x) (x). B

, B(x) (x) ,


B

(x) (x)

2 > 0,

- R. 2(x) (x) .
z B
(x) (x). B
(x) (x) V (),
V - B
(x) (x)() V ()() = V (2).
B
(x)+ (x) 2 , B
V . , (x)+ (x) ( ), B
. , (x)
(x) : . , B
4.3 .

196

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

4:

4.3.
4.4. M
. : [0, ] M , d((0), ()).
. , (t1 ), (t2 ) 0 , , ,
(0), () , 0 t1 , t1 t2
0 t2 ; , , .
, ,
.
: [0, ] [0, ] , x y, x y. ,
. , ().
.
, , ,
.
4.5. : [0, ] M ,
x y, d((x), (y)) = |x y| x, y.
, . ,
[0, ] M .
4.6: : [0, ] M ,
x y, d(x, y) = . .
: 4.6 . , . (t) .

197

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
t , ; ( , " ") .
4.6,
.

4.7: M N .
Z .
: (Z) ; Z, .
M , M N . , ,
; , , .
,
.
4.6. : [0, ] [0, ], (t) = d(x, (t)). ,
dx (y) = d(x, y) ( ; ). ,

: , d(x, (t)) [0,t] ,
. ,
, .
0 = 1 . t [0, ],
d(x, (1 (t))) = (1 (t)) = t,
, 0 .
- ( 4.3). -
,
.

198

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

4:
4.8: ( -, 2) M , , x0 , x1 M , d(x0 , x1 ) = . : [0, ] M , x0
x1 . , M .
/2 (x1 )) = /2.
: -, d(x0 , B
/2 (x1 )
dx0 (y) := d(xo , y) , B
/2 (x1 ) -. B
x 1 , d(0 , 1 ) = d( 1 , x1 ) = /2. , 2
2
2
x0 , 1 , , x 1 ,
2
4
d(0 , 1 ) = d( 1 , x 1 ) = /4. ,
4
4
2
= 2nk ,1 0 1 x M ,
d(x , x0 ) = | 0 |.
( -) [0, ]
M . M , .
[0, ] M . .
4.8.

4.4. , ,

1930- . , , , ( , )
, .
, ( ) Rn . , .
; Rn Rn . ( ), .
1

-.

199

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

Heinz Hopf
(1894-1971)

, ( ). ,
; x, y
x y. , Rn
. ,
.
20-30 ( , -)
,

200

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

4:
.
(Willi Rinow, 1907-1979)
- 1931- , .
- (Stephan Cohn-Vossen, 1902-1936).
,
. ", "
. , , , . . (.
, . , . , . ).
, .
, ., , .: , 1965 .
, ., , .: , 1990.
.., .., .., , : " ," 2004.
. , : , 2002, 160 .
. , :
" ", 2000, 128 .
Gromov M. Metric structures for Riemannian and non-Riemannian
spaces, Progress in Math., 152, Birkhauser (1999).
. , .
.
http://www.math.psu.edu/petrunin/papers/papers.html

201

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

5:
5.1.
, ,
.
, 2M M .
5.1. M , U 2M , . , U M ,
(i)
(ii)
(iii) M .
M .
5.1. , , , .
5.2. , .
, , ,
, . : (i) , (ii)
", (iii) M ".
5.3. Z M
, Z.
Z M , Z.

202

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

5:
5.2. , . Q R.
5.4. M , M . ,
M .
5.3. , ( ).
5.5. M , N . : M N ,
.
5.6. {xi } M x M , x
{xi }.
5.4. ,
. , , .
5.7. M .
(base of topology) M U 2M M , , , M U.
5.8. Z M M . U Z, U M , Z ().
M.

5.2.
, , : . ,
, .

203

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
5.9. M , (separated, Hausdorff), x 6= y M U 3 x, V 3 y.
5.5. , .
. R , Spec(R) , a f R
. Af Spec(R), , f . Spec(R)
, Af , f R.
, Spec(R) .

Oscar Zariski
(1899 1986)

5.6. Spec(Z), . , .
1920- , T0 -T6 ,
(separation axioms).

204

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

5:
( ). ,
T0 -T6 " ".
5.10.
T0 ( ) x 6= y M ,
, .
T1 ( ) x 6= y M , x , y. : M
( ).
T2 ( ) x 6= y M .
T2 1 ( ) x 6= y M 2
, .
T3 M T0 . ,
Z M , x
/ Z, Z x .
T4 M T1 . , M .
T5 M , , T4 .
T6 M T4 . , .
, ,
. , T0 -T6
, T2 .
M T6 ( ,
). , - (), . , M T4 , , Z1 , Z2 M ,

205

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
x Z1 B r3 (x), r = d(x, Z2 ).
, Z2 ,
.
5.7. Z1 , Z2 , T4 . , Z1 , Z2 , .
T6 T5 . Z M ,
K, K 0 Z , Z. K
0 . , K K
0,
M K,
K 00 K
K
0 . K 00
K 0 K.
Ui . K\U0 , K 0 \U0 V0 , V00 .
, , V0 , V00 . T4 V0 K\U1 , V00 K 0 \U1 , V1 , V10
K\U1 , K 0 \U1 , .
, V0 V1 V2 ...,
V00 V10 V20 ... , Vi K\Ui Vi0 K 0 \Ui .
Vi K, ,
Vi0 , K 0 .

, ,
.
5.8 (*). Ti , , , .
5.9. , Spec(R) T0 , T1 Spec(Z).

5.3.
5.11. M , x M
. {U 3 x}
("local base"), x -
U .

206

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

5:
5.12.
, .
(first axiom of
countability).
().
M , Z M
, . ().
,
,
.
5.13.
, . (second axiom of
countability).
-, , , first-countable, second-countable.
, ""
. , "" " , ". !
5.10. , , ,
.

207

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

6:
[ 6:
]

6.1.
6.1. M . , M
{U } 2M ,
U . M {U } 2M ,
(, ) {U }.
6.2. {U } 2M , ,
[

U = M,

M .
M , {U }. ,
.
6.3. ,
M {U } 2M ,

S
1
U = M ().
0

M, M 0 . U 2M M
M M 0 , U U 0 ,
U M , U 0 M 0 . , U
( ). ,
M M 0 .
1

{U }
,
T
U1 , ...Uk {U }, i Ui {U }.

208

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

6:
6.4. M M 0 ,
U U 0 , U M , U 0 M 0 .
M1 M2 .
6.1. , , () ,
() .
,
, .
. , (x, x0 ) (y, y 0 )
M M 0 . x 6= y, x0 6= y 0 . , . U, V x, y,
U M 0 , V M 0 (x, x0 ) (y, y 0 ) .

6.5. M M M , x (x, x) , . ,
.
6.2. , M
,
M M.

: (M1 M2 ) M3 .... ,
.

6.2. M M 0
6.6. M : U1
U2 . , U1 U2 , U2 U1 ,
(M, U2 ) (M, U1 ) .
, ,
; , ,
.

209

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
, M M 0

0
, M M 0 M , M M 0 M 0 .
, M M 0
.
.
6.7: M, M 0 , X , a

0
M M 0 M , M M 0 M 0 .
X M M 0 , , 0 .

( )


(6.2.1)

0
X M , X

M
M0
:
(6.2.1) : (, 0 )
x ((x), 0 (x)). , , 0 , .
,
1
1 (U U 0 ) = 1 (U ) 0 (U 0 )
( ). , 1 (V )
V M M 0 , , 0 .
f : X Y . f (x, f (x)) X Y .
.

6.3.
, , R0 .
6.8: (M, d) (M 0 , d0 ) ,
: (R0 )2 R0 , :

210

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

6:
: (, ) = 0 = = 0
: (x + y) (x) + (y)
: (a, b) (a1 , b1 ), a a1 , b b1 .

d ((x, x0 ), (y, y 0 )) := (d(x, y), d0 (x0 , y 0 ))


M M 0 .
: d , . :
d ((x, x0 ), (z, z 0 )) = (d(x, z), d0 (x0 , z 0 ))
(d(x, y) + d(y, z), d0 (x0 , y 0 ) + d0 (y 0 , z 0 ))
(d(x, y), d0 (x0 , y 0 )) + (d(y, z), d0 (y 0 , z 0 ))
= d ((x, x0 ), (y, y 0 )) + d ((y, y 0 ), (z, z 0 )).
( , ).
p
2 (x, y) = x2 + y 2 . ,
(), d2
.
. , RRR...
Rn .
p
x2 + y 2 ,
(x, y) := max(x, y) 1 (x, y) := x + y. ,
M M 0 .
6.3. a, b R0 . .

a2 + b 2 a + b 2 a2 + b 2 .

max(a, b) a + b 2 max(a, b).


211

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
,
(M M 0 , d2 ) (M M 0 , d1 )

(6.3.1)

, . , (6.3.1)
. ,
(M M 0 , d ) (M M 0 , d1 ) .
6.4 (*).
(M M 0 , d2 ) (M M 0 , d )
: (R0 )2 R0 , ,
? ?
, (M M 0 , d )
Br (x) Br (x0 ). , , ,
M M 0 (M M 0 , d )
. 6.7, (M M 0 , d ) M
(M M 0 , d ) M 0 ( ).

6.4.
6.9. d : M M R0 ,
: d(x, x) = 0
:

d(x, y) = d(y, x)

d(x, y) d(x, z) + d(z, y)

x, y, z M . d ("semimetric").

212

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

6:

: d(x, y) = 0 x = y.
, d(x, y) = 0 M , (). ,
d(x, y) = 0,
d(z, x) + d(x, y) d(y, z), d(z, y) + d(y, x) d(z, x),
. d(z, x)
d(y, z), d(z, x) d(y, z), d(x, y) = 0. ,
d M
d(x, y) = 0. ().

6.10: (M, d) : M M (M , d),
d(x, y) = d((x), (y)).

(6.4.1)

: M M M
(M , d), M d (6.4.1). (). 6.10
, .
,
.
6.11. V R, :
V R0 .
V ,
: (v + v 0 ) (v) + (v 0 ).
:

(v) = ||(v),

v, v 0 V , R.

213

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
,
d(x, y) = (xy). , (x) =
0, - (nullspace).
, 6.10, , V V V , V .
6.12. M , {d }. d

Br,d (x) = {y M | d(x, y) < r}.


, , Br,d (x), x M, d {d }, r R>0 .

6.5.
Map(A, B)
A B.
M , I ( ), M I M I .
M I , I, Map(I, M ).
M , I , I,
: M I M M I .
M I Map(I, M ), f : I M
f ().
- 1 , ..., n I,
1 ,...,n : M I M n
M I 1 , ..., n .
6.13: , U
M I , . U

214

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

6:

{1 (U ) | I, U M, U }.
, U
{11 ,...,n (U1 U2 ... Un ) | 1 , ..., n I, Ui M, Ui }.
: 1 (U )
, , .

\

1i (Ui ) = 11 ,...,n (U1 U2 ... Un ),

(
).
6.14. M I
, .
6.5. M . , M I .

6.15: (M, d) .
I, d M I
d (x, y) = d( (x), (y)). U1 ,
M d . .
: U1 Br,d (x). ,
Br,d (x) = 1 (U ),
U = Br ( (x)) M ( ).
U1 , .

215

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
6.16. (M, {d }) , {xi } M . , {xi }
, , > 0,
{xi } - B,d (x). , (M, {d }) , ,
.
6.17: M , I
. M I ,
, . M I .
: {xi } M I .
M I Map(I, M ), ,
xi
M . , {xi } xi I
, I, {xi ()} M . M , {xi ()}
x
x() M . I M ,
{xi }.
,
{xi } Map(I, M )
x

I M ,
{xi ()} .
, .
M = R, I = N ( ), M I
,
. .
.
, .
, 1909- ( ),

216

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

6:

Frigyes Riesz
(1880 1956)

. . ,
.

6.6.
6.18. V , U. (V, U)
, x, y x + y V V V , R,
x x V V .
( ).
, , .
.

217

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
6.19. V {d } ("Frechet space"),
V , V
.
, , . () . RN , ( , 6.17). ,
RN .

6.7.
[0, 1], [0, 1]N [0, 1]. {xi }, {yi } [0, 1]N ,
v
u
uX |xi yi |2
dh ({xi }, {yi }) := t
i2
i=1
, dh [0, 1]N ().
6.20.
([0, 1]N , dh ) ("Hilbert cube").
6.21. [0, 1]N ("Tychonoff cube").
6.22: .
:
1. Ih , It .
n : [0, 1]N [0, 1] {xi } xn .
n : Ih [0, 1]

218

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

6:
n2 - (), n Ih .

2. X, X
It , i i ( ; .
6.7).
n : Ih [0, 1] ( 1), Ih It .
3.
: (M, {d }) , {d }, d (x, ) : M R ,
y d (x, y). d (x, ) .
: Br,d (x) .
r,d (x) = {y M | d (x, y) r}
B
, y, , B,d (x), < d(y, x) r.

d (x, )1 (], [)
( ).
4. v = {xi } [0, 1]N . v : It R,
v ({yi }) :=

X
dk ({xi }, {yi })
k=1

k2

dk ({xi }, {yi }) = |xk yk |. dk k- , ,


{yi } dk ({xi }, {yi })
, 3. v
.

219

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

5.
: f : X M (M, d). z M ,
dz : M R0 , dz (x) := d(z, x). f , f dz : Z R
z.
: dz , 1-. f , f dz .
,
(f dz )1 ([0, [) = f 1 (B (z)),
f dz f 1 (B (z)),
f .

6. It Ih . 1 1, , , , .
5, ,
dh (v, ) : It R , v = {xi } [0, 1]N .
v ({yi }) :=

X
dk ({xi }, {yi })
k=1

k2

4 , . 6.22 .
!

6.8. ,
" " [0, 1]N
.
A, . [0, 1]A . .
[0, 1]N ,
, [0, 1]N

220

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

6:
. A [0, 1]A
, .


(1906 1993)
1924- ( 18 ).
1924- ,
( 4) . ( 1925- ) Mathematische
Annalen, .
1930- ,
( ), , :
(Eduard Cech)

221

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
1937- .
,
, .
( 1930- )
. 1920- 1930-, ,
.
, ,
.
,
1924- .

222

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

7:

7:

7.1.
7.1. M ,
A B M .
7.2. , . , . 4, .
7.3. U, V , U V .
: U b V .
7.4. a . U A
A. V A , V b U . B := M \U ,
. U
A, W B. W , V , U ,
V U .
7.5. U0 b U1 . U1/2 , U0 b U1/2 b U1 . , A U0 , .
7.6. M . M . , A, B

223

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

.
[
[
B 1 d(z,A) (z).
V :=
B 1 d(z,B) (z), W :=
2

zB

zA

( ).

7.2.
7.7. A, B M . :
M [0, 1] (Urysohn function),
A = 0, B = 1.

7.8. ,


d(x, A)
.
(x) = min 1,
d(x, B)
7.9: ( ) M . M , .
.
U1 B, U0 A. U1/2 , U0 b

224

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

7:
U1/2 b U1 , U1/4 , U0 b U1/4 b U1/2 U3/4 , U1/2 b U3/4 b U1 . . ,
- 1 [0, 1] U ,
> 0, < , U b U .
: U1 [0, 1]
(x) := inf{ | x U }.

= 1.

M
,

B


, A = 0. , ,
. ,
1 ([0, [) , 1 ([0, ]) , , [0, 1].

[
1 ([0, [) =
U
<

( ). . ,
!
\
\ [
1 ([0, ]) =
1 ([0, [) =
U .
>

>

<


1 ([0, ]) =

U .

>

U U .
U U U+
2

> ,
\
\
\
\
U
U
U+ =
U .
2

>

>

>

>


1 ([0, ]) =

U ,

>

, , . .
7.10. , ().
1

, -
2nm , n, m .

225

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

7.3. " "


" " , ,
1920- , , .
. . . . , . 1910- ,
. 1917-
-
( , X
2X ). , -,
. , ,
. , , , .
, .
. . , 2 .
, . . ,
, , 1915-
, 17- , . , , .
. , , 1921 1922 , .
, ,


.
1921-22 ,
" ",
, ; . . " ".
, , . . ( 18 , ,

226

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

7:
. . ).
,
1923- ,
(
"";
).
1923- 1924- . , , , .
, 20 ,
.
2 , 1924- (
), ;
, .
( ),
.
,

. , , : ,
, .

(Tietze extension theorem): A M , f : A [0, 1]
A,



F : M [0, 1] , F A = f .

:
f ,
P
fi : M [0, i ],
i < 1,
A, M [0, i ]
.

227

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.


(1898 1924)

7.4.
-
M . , M 6, , M
.
7.11: , M
6.

1: {Ui } M ,
Ui A.
S
, i Ui = M \A.

228

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

7:
2: , Ui , Vi := M \Ui ,
Ui Ui . Vi A, Ui
A. ,
\
\
[
Vi (M \Ui ) = M \ Ui = A.
i

, M 6.
7.12: M ,
A M . .
(i) A Wi A.
(ii) f : M [0, 1] , A =
f 1 (0).
:
(ii) (i). ,
T
A = i f 1 ([0, 21i [), . (i) (ii)
, ,
. B , TV1 V2
V3 ... , i Vi = A.
U 2mn , U b U <
, , U 1n Vn .
2
, U 1n U 1n Vn .
2
2
, , U 1n
2
1 , U 1
A U 1n b U n1
U 1n Vn ,
2
2n
2
2
.

f (x) := inf{ | x U }
, {U }, 0 A. f 1 ([0, 21i [) Vi ,

 \
\
1
1
1
f (0) =
f
0, i

Vi = A.
2
i
i

229

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
7.13. A M , ,
f : M [0, 1] A =
f 1 (0). A -.
, 6 M
, M , ,
M -.

7.5.
M , . x, y M
fx,y : M [0, 1], 0 x, 1 y.
I = M M \,
. fx,y
Q

(x,y)I fx,y

M [0, 1]I

(7.5.1)

; ,
Q
. fx,y (x) 6= fx,y (y), F := (x,y)I fx,y .
. F ,
M F . , [0, 1]I , I .
, , .
7.14: M ,
. ,
M , [0, 1]N .
, M .
7.15. 7.14 : , M . , M [0, 1]N , , ( .
).

230

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

7:

7.14.
{Ui } M , Ai := M \Ui . M
, , Ai -. , 7.11 ,
M 6. 7.12 ,
fi : M [0, 1], , fi1 (0) = Ai .
M :
Q

fi

i
M
[0, 1]N .

Ui ,
x 6= y Ai , x y (
). fi1 (0) = Ai ,
Q fi (x) = 0, fi (y) 6= 0. := i fi .
7.14, ,
M . , . , M , M [0, 1]N , .
, ,
M 1 (U ), U [0, 1]N . ,
Ui , , Ui = fi1 (]0, 1]), Ui

[0, 1] [0, 1] ]0, 1] [0, 1] [0, 1]N .
M
Ui , M
[0, 1]N . . .

7.6.
.
, .

231

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

, , .
, .
. . (1951), . .
7.16. {U } M
, M {U } {V }
{U }, {V } -
{U }. M ,
M .
(Arthur Harold Stone),
, 1948- ,
. , , , ,
.
( ,
Rn ).

232

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

8:

8:
8.1.
.
8.1. M , M .
"" ,
. . . . .


(1896 1982)

8.2. (). , , .

233

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
, ,
. .
, X M , z
, Z. , x X U 3 x,
Ux z. {Ux } , Ui , i = 1, 2, 3, ..., n X, i,
Ui z.
n
[

Ui =

i=1

( ). ,

n
[

Ui

i=1

Sn

i=1

Ui z.

8.3. ,
.
().
.
8.4: f : X Y .
X .
. Z X , f (Z)
. {U } f (Z). {f (U )}
Z;
{U }.
8.5. M
, {xi }
M (, {xi }).1
8.6. ,
, -.
1

234

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

8:
8.7:
.
: M .
, ,
,
A1 A2
. {xi } M , Rn T
{xn , xn+1 , xn+2 , ...}, a Rn .
i Ri . , {xi }. , M
.
8.8. M , M
.
8.9: M , 1 ( M ).
M .
: M , {xi } , . Un := M \{x1 , ...xn1 }.
1 {xi } , Ui . {Ui } M , .
, , M , {Ui }
, S
, Vn := ni=1 Ui . , {Vi } ,
, Vi1 Vi Vi , , Vi1 ( Vi .
{xi } , xi Vi \Vi1 , x . , x VN . {xi }
VN , .
f : M R . , {xi }

235

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
, ,
lim f (xi ) = sup f (x),

xM

x . f , f (x) = supxM f (x) ().


, :

8.2.
,
.
8.10: M ,
. M .
.
1: , M 3, A M , x
/ A, A x. , A
, x.
z A, Uz 3 z,
Uz x ( ). A , Uz
A,
U1 , ..., Un .
S
Ui x,
n
[
i=1

Ui =

n
[

Ui .

(8.2.1)

i=1

2: T3
T4. A B M .

236

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

8:
A , B. z A Uz ,
B, T3. {Uz } ,
, A
U1 , ..., Un S
, Ui B = . (8.2.1), , Ui A, B.

.
8.11: f : X Y , X . f (X) Y , . f .
: , ,
f (X). ,
.
,
. X , . A X Y , , .
, ,
.
8.12. , 8.11 , , M [0, 1]I ,

I = M M \. M [0, 1]I
(7.5.1) M , . 8.11,
M .

237

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

9:
9.1. , ,
9.1. f : X Y . f ,
, , , ,
.
9.2. X Y . , (, ) Y X, .
, . , X , , .
9.3. .
X Y , X Y Y . , , (W ) X Y . U V ,
U, V X, Y , (W ) = V .
9.1. ,
,
,
9.4. M (). {A } M , , A1 , A2 , ..., An

238

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

9:
{AT
} . Ai . , A = , {M \A } M .
f : X Y ,
y Y , f 1 (y) f .
9.5: f : X Y , , f . f .
: K Y . 9.5,
, f 1 (K) . Y K, X
f 1 (K), Y .
1: {A } X ,
A1 , A2 , ..., An {A } .
{A } {A }, X, .
, {A } .
2: Y , f (A ) , {f (A )}
y Y ().
1
3:
T f (y) X. A1 , A2 , ..., An {A }.

i Ai {A }, f (A ) 3 y
T
. , i Ai f 1 (y). , {A f 1 (y)} .
f 1 (y) , , {A f 1 (y)}
. 9.5.

9.2.
, ( ) . , . (John L.
Kelley) 1950- , .
, , . , .

239

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
X, Y , : X Y Y .
X, . ,
X Y 9.5, .
9.6: X, Y ,
X , : X Y Y .
.
: Z X Y , y
(Z). y (Z)
, 1 (y) Z 6= . (Z) , -
1 (y) Z = .
, (x, y) 1 (y) Ux,y ,
Z. Ux,y , ,
Ux,y = Vx,y Wx,y , Vx,y X x X, Wx,y Y
y Y .
{Ux,y } 1 (y).
{Vi Wi }. {Vi } X.

\
[
X Wi
Vi Wi
i

T
(). ,T X i Wi Z. y i Wi , (Z), ,
. , (Z) .

9.7. X , 9.6 . , R R R, , Z R R, {(x, y) | xy = 1}.


, (Z) ().

9.6 9.5, , .

240

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

9:

0 1
1
0
1111111111
0000000000
0 1
1
0
0000000000
1111111111
0000000000
1111111111
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0000000000
1111111111
000000
111111
0
1
0
1
000000
111111
0
1
0
000000
111111
0001
111
0
1
0
1
000
111
0
1
0
1
000
111
0
1
0
1
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0
1
0
1
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0
1
0
1
0000000
1111111
00000
11111
00000
11111
0
1
0
1
00000
11111
00000
11111
0
1
0
00000
11111
00000
11111
0y 1
1
0
1

XxY

9.3.
( ) ( 1 R , 1 x = x
x).
, R I R,
,
. x R, I, x
I. : RI I.
,

R1 R2 , 1 1, 0 0, ( (x + y) = (x) + (y),
(xy) = (x)(y)).

R1 R2 R1 , 0.
, (). I R, R/I (). , , R R1 .
9.8. R , S R R.
I R,

241

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

n
X

i s i ,

i=1

si S, i R. , I .
, S.
9.9. r R , rR
R. , rR 6= R ,
r 1 R ( ).
R, R 0,
().
9.10. R , I $ R . I , I1 I $ I1 $ R.
9.11: I R ,
R/I .
: , I1 I - R/I ( ).
I $ I1 $ R , R/I
0 R. 9.9, ,
R/I .
9.12. , I R R
, x, y R, xy I , x I
y I.
9.2. , .
, S1 2M , , p, q S1 , p q,
q p. S 2M s S, r S, r s
r = s.
, (Zorns Lemma) , . S = {S }
1

, r R R, rr1 = 1,
- r1 R.

242

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

9:
2M M ,
S : {S } S,
S S. S .

.
9.13: I $ R . I1 I.
: S 2R ,
I, R.
S ,
{I } S, I , R. ,
(
S
). I R, 1 R - I ,
, I $ R. S 2R ,
, S . , I.

9.4. : ,
1935- .
, (Emil Artin). 1930- ( ,
, ), .
. , ,
,
.


(
"well-ordering principle").
. ("The Axiom of Choice is obviously true,
the well-ordering principle obviously false, and who can tell about Zorns
lemma?" , ).
,

243

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

Max August Zorn


(1906 1993)

, ( " ") . ( ) .
, , .
" " (John Tukey).
,
. ,
("octonions", "Cayley numbers"), ,

244

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

9:
.

9.5.
9.14. A, B M M .
A4B
A4B := (A B)\(A B).
9.15. S 2M M . , S ,
S S. S ,
M , , S M .
9.16. , 2M .
9.17. M M .
: M {0, 1},
(
1,
x ,
n u(x) =
0,
x
/ .
M . {0, 1} F2 2,
, F2 .
2M
M {0, 1}.
, .
S 2M M . a S, : M F2 .
.

245

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
9.18: M
RS := { : M F2 | a S}

, S M .
: , M ,
+ = 4 , = ,
S RS . ,
X4X = , .
, M S, M = 1.
(, )
S 2M .

9.19. , , RS k, k . ,
RS a2 = a ( . k .
, P (x) i i
k ( ). k x2 x = 0, k .

9.20. I R 2M
, : R F2 R R/I, A R -
. M = 1, A M \A I. , A I, (A) = 1,
(M \A) = 1 (A) = 0.

246

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

9:
9.21. M , 2M M , I 2M . M
X M , I.
9.22. x M .
2M F2 , : M F2 (x).
, , . .
X M , x:
\
\
B = {x},
A = \{x}
B I
/

AI

( , A I (M \A)
/ I,
9.20).
9.23. , , ,
. , , , . ,
, .
, .
9.3. M , U 2M .
, .
(i) U .
(ii) .
A. A B, A U, B U.
B. A M , A, M \A U (
).
C. A, B U, A B U.
1937- ,
,
.

247

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

Henri Cartan, 1996


(1904 2008)

9.24. S 2M .
2M , S. 2M , M
S ().
M
S S = {X } 2 M ,
X = M , S
M . , , M = Z, S
Z.
, S, M 9.24.
I.
[
[
A
X = M,
AI

.
9.25. S 2M

248

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

9:
: S R0 , (AB) = (A)+(B)
A, B S.
9.4. U 2M .
: 2M {0, 1}, A 1, A U, 0,
A
/ U. ,
, U .
, 1937- , ,
. ( ,
) , .
, , ,
.

9.6.
9.26: M , V
2M M . I 2M , V.
.
(i) V
(ii) I = 2M .
:
U1 , ..., Un , S
Ui = M , , I. 1 I, I = 2M .
I = 2M ,
1=

n
X

i Ui ,

i=1

i 2M , a Ui V.
M = (1 U1 )4(2 U2 )4...4(n Un )

249

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
A4B A B,
M = (1 U1 )4(2 U2 )4...4(n Un )

n
[

Ui ,

i=1

, V .
9.27: ( , Alexander subbase
theorem) M {U }.
, M {U }
. M .
: M , P M ,
. I 2M , P. , I 6= 2M . Im 2M
, I.
1. U {U }, Im . , U M . Im
, Im .
, Im M . x M , M ,
x Im .
U ,
\
x
Ui Im ,
i

T
Ui . i Ui ImT. Im , Im . , i Ui Im ,
Ui Im . , x Ui U. , U
.
2. , , U M . Im 6= 2M , U Im .
U M . . , M
.

250

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

9:

James Waddell Alexander


(1888 1971)

9.28. ,
( ). .
.
. , , .
,
( ).

. , . 1950- ,
; 1951-
Institute
of Advanced Studies, . 1971-
, .

251

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
1954-
,
, 1954-
.
.

9.7.
{M } .
( ).
F
M .
9.29. {M } ,
I.F, M I M ,
Q I M . M , .
I, U M ,
M1 ... U ... M1 ... M ...
( {M }, M U , ). F,U . ,
, ,
.
9.30: ( )
Q {M }
. M .
: . {F,U, } .
,
[
[
F,U, =
F,W ,
,

S
W = U, .
Q , W 6=SM , x
M \W . , x F,W .
S , {F,U, } ,
U, = M , - . , U,

252

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

9:
1111
0000
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111

111111
000000
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111

1111111111111
0000000000000
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111

, M1 M2

M . M , U, Q U,i . F,U,i Q
M . , M
Q . ,
M .

253

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

10:

10.1.
10.1. (V, ) . ,
(V, ) , , .
10.2. , (V, 2 ) , 2 (v) = g(v, v), g , . 2 ,
Id
(V, ) (V, 2 ) , (
Id
). , (V, ) (V, 2 )
. (V, ) .

10.3: 1 .
, (V, ) . , (V, 2 ),
Id
(V, ) (V, 2 ).
. .
1 V
(V, ) , B
1 , V .
V . B
1

254

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

10:
1 , B
1 . 1: B
21 .
{x1 , ..., xn } , .
v V , |v| 1, - xi |v xi | < 12 .
2: , w V , , |w| ,
- xi {x1 , ..., xn } |w xi | < 21 .
3: - v V , |v| 1. xi1 {x1 , ..., xn }
, |v xi1 | < 12 .
w = v xi1 , = 1/2, ,
1
1
|v xi1 xi2 | < ,
2
4
- xi2 P
{x1 , ..., xn }.
1
n1
, ,
w = v n1
k=1 2k1 xik , = 1/2



n
X


1
< 1.
v
x
i
k

k1
2
2n
k=1

4: ,

X
1
xi k .
v=
k1
2
k=1

, v {x1 , ..., xn },
V . V .
M . ,
f : M R , supxM |f (x)| < .
Cb (M ) , , M .
|f | := sup |f (x)|.
xM

, (). L , sup- , , .

255

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
10.4. , sup- , Cb (M ), . , , .
10.5: . , Cb (M ) sup .
. 1. {fi } .
|fi (y) fj (y)| sup |fi (x) fj (x)|,
xM

y M , {fi (y)} .
fi f : M R.
2. : M R , , M R
- m [(m) , (m) ].
, + c, c
[, ]. , , .
= Id : M R R R. , , =
1 (W ), W R R,
(x, y), , |xy| . W , ,
, .
3. i, i |f fi |. f
fi ,i . {i }
,
\
f =
fi ,i .
i

f , .
4. f ,
f : M [C, C]. : M [C, C] M
. , f 1 ([a, b]) = (f M [a, b]). : M [C, C] M , ( ). f 1 ([a, b]) =

256

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

10:

y=x+

y=x

= Id x
,

f, 1 (W )

(f M [a, b]) , , [C, C] .


, f . , {fi }
.

10.2.
V , , { }. , V , {xi },
, x V .
M , V
M .
K M , V ,
|f |K := sup |f (x)|.
xK

K , f , supxK |f (x)| < .


V ,
. ,
V ().

257

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
,
C ([0, 1]) . ,
n, |f |C n , :
|f |C 0 = sup |f (x)|, |f |C 1 = sup |f (x)| + |f 0 (x)|, ...,
x[0,1]

x[0,1]

|f |C n := sup

n
X

|f (i) (x)|.

x[0,1] i=0

,
||C n |(k) |C nk
n- . ( ).
(k)
, {fi } C nk -,
{fi } C n .
C 0 - , ,
C k - k . (k)
, fi k- fi , , f k-
(k)
f (k) := lim fi ( , ,

).
10.6. , C k ([0, 1]) k [0, 1] | |C k . , {fi }
. | |C k | |C 0 , 10.5 , | |C k .
, k .
C ([0, 1]) , C i ,
i = 0, 1, 2, .... , {fi } , .
C ([0, 1]) .

10.3. sup-
10.7. X , Y . f : X Y

258

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

10:
, f (X) Br (y) - y Y , r R.
Mapb (X, Y ) X Y sup- d(f1 , f2 ) := supxX d(f1 (x), f2 (x)) (, ). Cb (M ) sup- (). , 10.5 Cb (M ), Cb (X, Y ) , . , ,
{fi } Cb (X, Y ) f Mapb (X, Y ),
f ,
. .
10.8: f : X Y , f X Y . , Y
. f .
: X : X Y X .
A Y ,
f 1 (A) = X (f X A).
Y , X ( 9),

X (f X A)
, , f ().
10.9: X , Y
, Cb (X, Y ) , , sup-. , Y . Cb (X, Y ) .
10.9.
1: d(f1 (x), f2 (x)) d(f1 , f2 ),
{fi } f Mapb (X, Y ). Cb (X, Y )
, f .

259

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
2: , Y .

{fi } Mapb (X, Y ),
{fi } - .
Y , , 10.8.
f ,
.
3: : X Y , X , Y .
, X Y
, = {(x, y) X Y | d(f (x), y) }.
, , . , : X Y Y Y
(x, y) ((x), y), A Y Y (y1 , y2 )
, d(y1 , y2 ) . A , , (),
, = 1 (A ), , .
4: i = d(f, fi ).
f =

fi ,i

(). , f . 2, f .
10.9.

10.4. ,
1821-
, . , , a .
, ,
(Christoph Gudermann). 1841- , "gleichmaig konvergent",

260

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

10:
" " (-
uniform convergence).

Karl Theodor Wilhelm Weierstra


(1815 1897)

261

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

11:
11.1.
C(X, Y )
X , Y
, C(X, Y ) X
Y . , C(X, Y ) sup-
d(f, f 0 ) = sup d(f (x), f 0 (x)).
xX

X ().
, Z , Z.
Y Y ,

= {(y, y 0 ) Y Y | d(y, y 0 ) < }.


: X Y , =
IdY : X Y Y Y . ,
= 1 ().
, := 1 ( ) , .
11.1. , d(, 0 ) <
, 0 , .
ev

11.2. X C(X, Y ) Y , (x, )


(x). ().
.
11.3: X , Y
, C(X, Y ) X Y , . ,

262

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

11:

y=x+

y=x

= Id x
,

, 1 (W )

X . ev
X C(X, Y ) Y . , , ev .
11.4. 11.3 , C(X, Y )
X Y .
11.5. , ,
. ev ()
d(fi (xi ), f (x)) d(fi (xi ), f (xi )) + d(f (xi ), f (x)),
{fi } C(X, Y ) , f , {xi } X , x.
11.6. , ( ).
ev
X C(X, Y ) Y , , X
().

263

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
11.3 .

11.2. T,
X, Y , C(X, Y )
X Y .
W X Y . SW
C(X, Y ), f C(X, Y ) , f W . C 0 (X, Y ) , ,
SW , W U
V X Y Y , K X .

X C 0 (X, Y ) X Y , (x, )
(x, (x)). U V X Y ,
W := U V (X\U ) Y.
SW ,
1 (U V ) = U SW .
, C(X, Y ), (U ) V
, W . , : X C 0 (X, Y ) X Y .
, ,
ev
X C 0 (X, Y ) Y .
, C 0 (X, Y ) SW , W = U V (X\U ) Y .
(1 (A)), : X C 0 (X, Y ) C 0 (X, Y )
, A = U V X Y . C 0 (X, Y )
, .

11.7. X C(X, Y ) X Y -
C(X, Y ) ev
. , ev ,
ev X C(X, Y ) X.

264

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

11:
, C 0 (X, Y ) , ev. 11.3 , C 0 (X, Y ) C(X, Y ).
X
Y . 11.3,
Id

C 0 (X, Y ) C(X, Y ).
C(X, Y ) S, ( 11.1). C 0 (X, Y ),
Id
C 0 (X, Y ). C 0 (X, Y ) C(X, Y ) ,
, SW , ,
.
, C 0 (X, Y ) , ev
, X C(X, Y ) Y , C 0 (X, Y ) , C(X, Y ). ,
.
11.8: Y ,
Z , X . A
C(X, Y ) C(Y, Z) C(X, Z) .
A

: C(X, Y ) C(Y, Z) C(X, Z) ,


Id A

X
X C(X, Y ) C(Y, Z)
X C(X, Z)

. 11.3, X C(X, Z) ev1 (U ), U Z . , ,


ev2 (X C(X, Y ) C(Y, Z)) Z, (x, , ) ((x)) .
, ev2 : (x, , ) ((x), ), ((x), ) ((x)),
, 11.3.

265

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

11.3.
C(X, Y ), , - ,
X ( ) Y . K X U Y , V(K, U )
, K U . - (compact-open topology) C(X, Y ) ,
V(K, U ).

Ralph Hartzler Fox


(1913 1973)

11.1 (*). , - , X , Y
.
11.2 (*). , C(X, Y )

266

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

11:
C(Y, Z) C(X, Z) , - , X, Y , Z .
- 1945- ,
, ,
.

267

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

12:

12.1.
12.1. M , a A M
, . A
- (clopen).
12.2. , M -. M
- U , M , M , , , U M \U . ().
12.3. M , X
M ,
. X (connected),

(i) X - , X .
(ii) X ,
,
12.4: [0, 1] ,
.1
: X [0, 1] , , . [0, 1]\X
, X x > y < . ,
X ,
X [0, [ X], 0].
, , I ,
I ,
1

268

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

12:
X Y , x X . , , I (
). Ix , X
x. Ix ], [ I, ,
I. , , I. Y . Y , ,
Y , ,
X.
12.5. Z Z . , Z U V , U Z V Z

. Z Z,
().
12.6. X , f : X Y . f (Y ) . , f (Y ) , Y
12.7: f : X R
f (X) , . , f f (x1 ) f (x2 ).
XIX ,
.

12.2.
12.8. X Y M . X Y
( ).
12.9. x M , Ax M , x.
, Ax . Ax x.

269

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

Jules Henri Poincare


(1854 1912)

12.10. .
12.11. M ,
U V ,
M U V ().
, , .
12.12. f : X Y . , X
, U V .
f , U V .

270

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

12:
U = f 1 (U1 ), V = f 1 (V1 ), U1 V1 .
f , U1 V1 .
12.13: f : X Y , Y . X .
12.14. , X Y . , : X
Y Y () .
12.15. f : X Y , X
Y f . ,
R R . , , R
, , .
12.16. , .
12.17.
, .
12.18: M , , -
. M .
: m M . , m1 6= m , m.
T {m} - , {m} = U .
Z M , m,
T - ().
Z U = {m}.
12.19: Zp p- .
, Zp ( ).
12.1. Zp ?
12.20. M ,
f : M X . X

271

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
: U X , f 1 (U ) . X , f .
12.21. M , M
M . M
, : M M .
M M .

12.3.
12.22. M ,
x, y M
: [0, 1] M , x y .
12.23. . , [0, 1] , , , - .
f f (x) = sin(1/x),
f : ]0, 1] [1, 1].
f ; ,
f {0} [1, 1].
f ]0, 1] (
f , ).
.
f 12.24:
.
f , : : [0, 1]
{0} [1, 1]. ,
{0} [1, 1]. U [0, 1] , 1 (f ), U0 - U , U0
, Z = (U0 ). , Z {0} [1, 1] (
([0, 1]) f , ).

272

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

12:

f (x) = sin(1/x)

1: U0 , Z ,
.
2: (U0 ) {0} [1, 1], f . , (U0 )
{(, sin(1/)) | 0 < < c},
Z {0} [1, 1] .
3: Z\(U0 ) {0} [1, 1], (U0 \U0 ) {0} [1, 1]. ,
U0 \U0 .

273

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

13:
13.1.
M . , M (totally disconnected),
M , , ,
M .
, U M (clopen), .
13.1. , , .
13.2. M . M . ,
().
13.3. , M , . . , Z M .
, Z , Z
Z (
M ).
13.4. M ,
. M I I
(). .
13.1. ,
.

274

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

13:
13.5: M = {0, 1} , ( ). ( ),
.
13.6. , (M, d) , d : M M R (x) .
], [, > . B

, B (x) = B+ (x), , + ], [,
B+ (x) .
13.7: , Zp p . , p-
{ps , s Z}, Zp ().
13.2. , Z2 {0, 1}N .
13.8: , Q ( ,
) ( ) .
13.3. Q.

13.2.
13.9. , ,
(Stone space).
13.10: M , x, y M . x y ,
.
T
: Z = U , x. Z y, - U 3 x y,
M \U y, , x y . ,
Z = {x}.

275

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

Marshall Harvey Stone


(1903 1989)

1: , Z 6= {x}. Z M , . ZF, Z
Z = Zx Z 0 ,
Z,1 Zx x, Z 0 x. Z ,
Zx , Z 0 M ( ).
2: M , M ,
1

F
X = Y Z , , X
Y Z.

276

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

13:
, M ( 8). Zx , Z 0 ,
Ux Zx , U 0 Z 0 .

Zx
V

Ux
Zx , Z 0

3: K M \(Ux U 0 ) Z =
T
U ,
[
K (M \U ).

K , S
M , K .
K (M \U ) :
K

n
[

(M \Ui )

i=1

Sn Ui , Z. , U :=
0
i=1 Ui , x, M \K = Ux U .
F
4: U = (U Ux ) (U U 0 ). Ux , U 0 , U Ux
U . , V = U Ux M .

277

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
Z 0 , x, . ,
x
Z 0 . , , Z = {x}. 13.10
.

13.11: M . M
, .
: T M , T1 , , M .

Id

(M, T ) (M, T1 )
(). 13.10,
(M, T1 ) ( ). , , T T1 .
13.12. 13.10 , x, y M ,
f : M {0, 1},
1 x 0 y.
R = C(M, F2 ) M F2 = {0, 1}.

M {0, 1}R ,
Q
m R (m). , ( ). 13.12 ,
; M , ,
.
13.13: M . M {0, 1}I ,
- I.

278

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

14:

14:
14.1.
14.1. C (" ", " " ), , .
:
: Ob(C) C ( , Ob(C), , , , ).
: X, Y Ob(C), Mor(X, Y )
X Y .
: Mor(X, Y ), Mor(Y, Z),
Mor(X, Z),
.
: A Ob(C)
IdA Mor(A, A).
.
: 1 (2 3 ) = (1 2 ) 3 .
:
Mor(X, Y ), IdX = = IdY .
.
, ( ), ( ), , , ( ),

279

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
( ) .
;
.
14.2. C1 , C2 . C1 C2 .
(i) F : Ob(C1 ) Ob(C2 ), C1 C2 .
(ii) F : Mor(X, Y ) Mor(F (X), F (Y )), X, Y Ob(C1 ).
C1 C2 , F () F () = F ( ),
F (IdX ) = IdF (X) .
, ;
, .
14.3: " " . , X 2X
, M M I ,
I, V V V . .
,
.
14.4. C,
("opposite category") C op . C op , C, MorC op (A, B) = MorC (B, A).
, C op op C op .
, .
14.5. C1 C2
C1op C2 .
14.6: , V V .

280

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

14:
, M R- M (, ).
14.7. X, Y Ob(C) C. Mor(X, Y ) ,
Mor(Y, X) , = IdX = IdY . ,
X Y .
14.8. X Ob(C) C. Y Mor(X, Y ) C Set ( ), Y Mor(Y, X)
C Set (). .
14.9. F, G : C1 C2 , X Ob(C1 ) X :
F (X) G(X), Mor(X, Y ),
F () Y = X G().

(14.1.1)

14.10.
. , ,
(14.1.1)
F ()

F (X) F (Y )

X y
y Y

(14.1.2)

G()

G(X) G(Y )
F

14.1. C Set C
. , F : F Y Mor(X, Y ). , X
.
14.11. F : C1 C2 , G, G0 : C2 C1 ,
F G C1 , G0 F C2 .

281

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
14.12. , : F ,
Mor(X, Y ) Mor(F (X), F (Y )).

Saunders Mac Lane


(1909-2005)

, .

282

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

14:

14.2. : ,
1942-45 , . , (, )
. , , " ", M C(S 1 , M ) ( 11).
, ,
. , , .
; 1940-,
,
, .
, 1950-
, , .
1950- , . , . ements de geometrie algebrique" ,
, "El
,
, 1960-.
, "", "".
, A B C
A B, X Mor(X, A B) C X Mor(X, A)Mor(X, B).

, .1 ,
1

, , (F. W. Lawvere),
1963- ;
, .

283

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

Samuel Eilenberg
(1913-1998)

- , , Ob(C)
( , )
, .
, -
. , Ob(C) Mor(X, Y )
. "" (, ,
) , ,
, , ( ) , ,
. ,
, .
,

284

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

14:

Alexander Grothendieck
(. 28 1928)

.
ZFC (-
). ZFC ZFC,
.
ZFC ZFC,
, ZFC.

14.3.
14.13. , x2 = x. (,
), .
14.14. ,

285

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
2x = 0 x. ,
0 = (x + 1)2 x 1 = (x2 x) + 2x = 2x.
, ,
.
14.15. A ,
(, ""), (, ""), (,
""), 1 ("") 0 (""). A
, .
: a (b c) = (a b) c, a (b c) = (a b) c
: a b = b a, a b = b a
: a(bc) = (ab)(ac), a(bc) = (ab)(ac)
: a (a b) = a, a (a b) = a
: a a = 1, a a = 0.
14.16. , , , . ("", "", "")
.
14.17. A . A
: a b := a b, a + b := (a b) (a b)
( " ", , ,
" ").
( , ; ). 1 0 1, a2 = a
a + a = 1, ( a)
a + a = a
a = 0 (), a2 = a.
F .

286

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

14:
14.18: .
: , F : C C1 ,
G,
. : A
, , , a = 1 a, a b = ab,
ab = ab+a+b.
( ), F G .

14.19: M , R =
C(M, F2 ) M
F2 . R . M ,
.
9.
14.20: R , I R
R. R/I
= F2 .
: R , R/I
. ,
x2 x = 0. , m
m , , R/I
.
14.21. ,
. , I R
. R/I ,
. x R/I, x(1 x) = 0,
, x 1 x 0.

14.4.
14.22. R , Spec(R)
( ; 14.21,

287

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
R ) R, .
,

Af := {m Spec(R) | f
/ m},
f R - R. Spec(R) , R.
F
14.23. f R, Spec(R) = Af A1f . , f
/ m (1 f ) m, R/m = F2 .
14.24. ,
Af , , Spec(R) ().
14.25. x 6= y Spec(R) , f x, f
/ y. , Af , A1f x y. , Spec(R) .
14.26: R , Spec(R) . Spec(R) .
S
: M = Af SM = Spec(R). , Af (). Vf := M \Af .
, f . I ,
f . ,
\
[
Vf .
Af =
M=

f . , I
, 1 I. ,
1 f :
1=

n
X

i fi , i R.

i=1

,
=

n
\

Vfi ,

i=1

288

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

14:
M =

Sn

i=1

Afi . , M = Spec(R) .

14.27. , Spec(R)
, , . .
14.28.
R Spec(R)
1 ( ).
, M
. 14.32, , ,
M C(M, F2 ) M
F2 = {0, 1}.
14.29: M , R = C(M, F2 ).
m $ R . f m
M (, ).
. 1. m ,
M=

f 1 (1).

f m

M . M ,
.

Sn
1
f1 , ..., fn m , M = i=1 fi (1).
2. f R U , U = f 1 (1), U
US.
Ui Ui m, M = ni=1 Ui .
1

, , , .

289

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
S
3. U V = U + V + U V . W = ni=1 Ui . , , W = P (U1 , U2 , ...), P
.
4. , 1 = M = P (U1 , U2 , ...) = P (f1 , f2 , ...). 1 m. ! , m .

14.30: M , R = C(M, F2 ) M , F2 = {0, 1}.


m R . f m (, ).
: 14.29.
x1 6= x2 M , f m
x1 x2 . M
,

R F2 F2 , (f ) = (f (x1 ), f (x2 ))
(). , (m) = 0,
m x1 , x2 .
: R/m F2 F2 . R/m = F2 , . ! .

14.31. 14.30 Spec(R) M , R =


C(M, F2 ). , .
M ,

Af = {x M | f (x) = 1}.
Af Spec(R).

14.32: M , R = C(M, F2 )
M , F2 = {0, 1}.
M Spec(R).

290

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

14:
14.33. , , , , F2 - Spec(R)
R. , (f, m) f /m R/m = F2
R C(Spec(R), F2 ).
, (). Spec(R)
Af (),
R
Af = (f ).

Marshall Harvey Stone


(1903 1989)
, M C(M, F2 ) R Spec(R)
. .
14.34: ( )
R Spec(R) , , .
14.35. ( 14.18).

291

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

14.5. : ,
, ,
(George
Boole) 1847- (August de Morgan) 1860-.
(Edward Vermilye Huntington, 1904),
(1930-). 1960- , , , -.

( ) .
, ,
() ( ) .

292

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

15:

15:
15.1.
15.1. f0 , f1 : X Y . f0 f1 f :


X [0, 1] Y , f X{0} = f0 , f X{1} = f1 .
15.2. ,
.
" f0 f1 ", " f0 f1 "; .
15.3. f0 , f1 - , , C- X Y . ,
f : X [0, 1]
Y A, t,
ft := f X{t} : X Y A.
15.1. f, g : Rn R . ,
f g .
.
15.4: f0 , f1 : X Y ,
g : P X, h : Y Z . f0 h
f1 h, g f0 g f1 .
: f : X [0, 1] Y f0 f1 . f0 h f1 h f h : X [0, 1] Z
(, ). g f0 g f1 ,
g Id[0,1] : P [0, 1] X [0, 1] f : X [0, 1] Y .
, .

293

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

15.5: f0 , f1 , f2 : X Y , f0 f1 , f1 f2 . f0
f2 .
: f : X [0, 1] Y f0 f1 ,
f : X [1, 2] Y f1 f2 . f :
X [0, 1] Y
(
f(2),
21
f (x, ) =
(15.1.1)
f(2),
1
2

f , , , f0 f2 , 15.5, , f
.
, : A B ,
Z (Z)
Z A, (Z)
( ).
Z X [0, 1] ,
Z1 = Z X [0, 1/2] Z2 = Z X [1/2, 1].
, Z = Z1 Z2 ,
f (Z1 ) f (Z2 ) f (Z1 ) f (Z2 )
f (Z)


( , f X[0,1/2]


f X[1/2,1] ). f . 15.5 .
15.6. , "" : f0 f1
f1 f2 , f0 f2 .
, ,
, , .
15.7. 15.5 , f g" . (). f : X Y

294

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

15:
, .
15.2. Ob(C) ,
Mor(X, Y ) X Y . , .
, .
.
15.8: f0 , f1 [a, b]
[c, d], fi (a) = a0 , fi (b) = b0 . f0 f1
, a a0 , b b0 .

f : [a, b] [0, 1] [c, d],

f (x, t) = tf1 (x) + (1 t)f0 (x)

( ).

15.2.
15.9.


M , m M
(pointed space), (M, m). , .
15.10.
: (X, x) (Y, y) X
Y , x y. ,

.

295

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
, C Ob(C), , X, Y Ob(C) Mor(X, Y )
X Y .
Mor(X, Y ) Mor(Y, Z) Mor(X, Z),
. Mor(X, X) IdX ,

15.11. , : ,
a,
Id(X,x) : (X, x) (X, x)
.
15.12. f0 , f1 : (X, x) (Y, y) . f0 f1 f : X [0, 1] Y , f (x, t) = y
t [0, 1].
15.13. M . , x M y M
: [a, b] M [a, b] M , (a) = x, (b) = y.
15.14. (M, m)
. : [0, 1] M m
m. M .
(M, m).
M , (M, m) sup-,
d(, 0 ) = sup d((t), 0 (t)).
t[0,1]

(M, m) M . M , (M, m) M ( 11). (M, m) .


296

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

15:
15.15. S 1 .
, : [0, 1] M m m (S 1 , 0) (M, m), . , (M, m)
(S 1 , 0) (M, m).
15.16. .
:
. - , "
" " ,
", .

15.3.
(M, m) .
15.5, (S 1 , 0) (M, m), , ,
m m.
m m 1 (M, m).
f0 :
, 0 : [0, 1] M m m,
[0, 2] M ,
(
f0 () = (),

0 ( 1),

1
1.

, 15.5 ( f : X Y , Z X
Z).
f0 (2).
0 0 () =
, . , . , M

297

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
, ; , ,
, .
15.17: (M, m) : 0 1 , 00 10 ,
0 00 1 10 .
:
: [0, 1] [0, 1] M, 0 : [0, 1] [0, 1] M
, 0 1 , 00 10 .
M , , m,
, m (
0 , 1 , 00 , 10 ).
0
g0
g
0 0 1 1 ,
(
1
f0 (, t) = (, t),

0
( 1, t),
1.
( f : X Y , Z X Z) , , , 0
0
0
g0
g
0 0 1 1 . 0 0 1 1 ,
0
g0
0 00 1 10 g
0 0 1 1 .
, , 0 0
1 (M, m)
m m.
15.18:
1 (M, m) 1 (M, m) 1 (M, m)
1 (M ).
: .
: [0, 1] M [0, 1] m M .

298

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

15:
. 0 : [0, 1] [0, 1]
t max(0, 2t 1), 1 : [0, 1] [0, 1]
t min(1, 2t).
1

f(x)

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

f(x)

0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0 (t)

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1 (t)

, = 0 , = 1 . 15.8,
1 2 x x , 0 1. K
(e 15.4), ,
.
1 : 1 (t) = (1 t). : [0, 1] [0, 1], (t) = min(2t, 2 2t),
1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

(t)

, 1 = .
t 0 , 0 1 0 ( 15.8),
1 = .
.

299

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

, . 0 , 1 , 2 m m, ^
0 1 2 : [0, 3] M ,

0 (),
^
1 ( 1),
0 1 2 () =

2 ( 2),

0 1
1 2,
2 3.

1 , 2 : [0, 1] [0, 3]

1 (t) = max (2t, 4 (t 1/4)) , 2 (t) = min (4t, 2 (t + 1/2)) .

1 2 -,
. 1 (0,0) (1/2,1),
(1/2,1) (1,3). 2
(0,0) (1/2,2), (1/2,2) (1,3).

300

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

15:
3

2.5

2.5

1.5

1.5

0.5

0.5

0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1 (t)

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

2 (t)

, 0 (1 2 ) = 1 ^
0 1 2 (), (0 1 )2 = 2 ^
0 1 2 ()
(). 1 2 , , 0 (1 2 ) (0 1 )2 . , 1 (M, m) .

15.19. 1 (M, m), , (, m).


15.20.
f

(X, x) (Y, y)
. (X, x),
f (Y, y). . f
( 15.4), , f
1 (X, x) 1 (Y, y). , . ,
f , .

301

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
15.21. , C1 C2
F : Ob(C1 ) Ob(C2 )

F : Mor(X, Y ) Mor(F (X), F (Y )),
X, Y Ob(C1 ), IdX IdF (X)
.
15.22. ( ).
15.23. f0 , f1 : (X, x) (Y, y) .
. , f0 f1 , f0 f1 ,
(X, x).

15.4. , ,
15.24. (X, x)
. x : X X,
X x. X , x IdX .
15.25: (X, x) Rn .
, x0 X, [x, x0 ]
X.

X [0, 1] X,
(x0 , t) x t(x x0 ). , IdX
x ( ). ,
.

302

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

15:
15.26. (X, x) . , x : X X

x
1 (X, x)
1 (X, x)

( 1 (X, x) 1).
x , Id
, 1 (X, x) 1 (X, x)
, 1. 1 (X, x) = {1}.
15.27. 1 (X, x) = {1}, (X, x) . ,
(X, x) .
15.28. X Y . ,
1
Y
X, X Y ,
IdY . X Y . 1 IdY
Y X.
15.29: Y Rn ,
1
v
X, v |v|
X Y . Y
.
1 :
(v, t) =

v
|v|t

1 0 = IdY .

15.30. (X, x) , {x} X.


f

15.31. X Y ,
g, g 0 : Y X , g f IdY , f g 0 IdX . f
. (X, x) (Y, y)

303

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
, g, g 0 : (Y, y) (X, x),
g f IdY , f g 0 IdX
.
j

15.32: X , Y , X Y . , j

1
X , Y Y
X IdX , 1 j IdY , .
, .

15.33. (X, x) (Y, y) f

, 1 (X, x) 1 (Y, y) .
g, g 0 , , g f IdY , f g 0 IdX . f
, 1 (X, x) 1 (Y, y) (
f g 0 = Id1 (X,x) ). , g f = Id1 (Y,x) ,
f

1 (X, x) 1 (Y, y) . ,
.
15.34: (X, x) (Y, y)
. 1 (X)
= 1 (Y ).

15.4.1. ,

, 1895- . 1866- ; ,
(
, 1860-, , ).
( ) . : , , , ..
, .
.

304

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

15:

Marie Ennemond Camille Jordan


(1838 1922)

CW-, ,
( ) .
, , CW-, , . ,
.
( ) , , .

. ,
.
XX ;
, ,

305

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
.
, , " ". " : ". "
". " " -.

306

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

16:

16:
16.1.
16.1. M , . U M/
M/ , M . , M/ .
, M/ .
16.2. M . , Bij(M, M ) M M . , G M ,
G Bij(M, M ). ,
g G, m M , g(m), g(g1 (m)) = gg1 (M ),
g, g1 G.
16.3. , x M
Gx := {y M |y = gx, g G}
, x G.
16.4. M , G
. , G M , G M , G M ,
g G, m gm .
16.5.
G C. X Ob(C) G Mor(X, X) ,
.
16.6. G , M . M/ , x y,
x y G.
G.

307

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
16.1. M , G , M . M/G ?
16.7. G ,

M . M M/G
. , U ,
GU gu, g G, u U . GU
gU , .
1 ((U )) = GU , (U ) M/G.

16.2.
, :
16.8. M , M

M M . ,
U 3 x ,
x M

U : U (U )
. ,
x M , U 3 x , 1 (U ) U S, S


1
, 1 (U ) : (U ) U
U S U . M ,
x 1 (x).
16.9. , ( ).
16.10. U X ,
. j : U X ,
().
M . ,
16.2. M , : M
1 (x) 1 (y), x, y M .
16.11: S 1 R/2Z.
R S 1 (). Rn T n = Rn /Zn ( ).

308

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

16:
16.12. G , M . , G ,
x M U , U gU =
g G , g
U.
16.13: G ,
M . M M/G
.
: x M , U 3 x ,
U gU = g G , g(x) 6= x.
, U := (U ) (x). : U U .
U1 U
GU1 , U1 U ( 16.7), : U U
. M M/G . 1 (U )
gU , g G,
.
16.14: (R S 1 , Rn T n ). .

16.3. M (,
1, 0), . , .
M (m) = m,
. , .
0


0
16.15. M
M, M
M M .
M
0 : M
, 0 = .

0 =

309

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

0
/M

! 

(16.2.1)

, . , , , ,
, .
, (16.2.1) ,
0 = .
16.16. M . M , .
( ).
M
0 Mor(M
,M
0 ).
16.17. M
M ,
,M
0)
MorM (M
M
0 M ).
( " M

M . ,
16.18. M

, M = M V , V
, M . .

16.19. M
M . U M

, 1 (U ) : 1 (U ) U
(). U . U M
, . ,
, , ,
M , , M .

310

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

16:
M 16.20. M , M
= M S, S M
.
M . M
M , M
.
M
0 16.21. M , : M
0
= M S, M
= M S 0 , S, S 0
M . M
, M
0 . M

M
0 .
, , M
0
S : S S , .
(m, s) = (m, S (s))
().
16.22. M . M , M ,
, M
.
16.23. ,
, . , (. 16.26 ).
M
0 M ,
16.24: : M
0.
M . M
: M , , M
0 .
, M , M
0
0
= M S, M
= M S , a (m, s) = (m, S (s)),
16.21, M
S ,
M
0 . (m, s) = (m, S (s))
M
0 .
M
0 ().
M

311

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

16.3.
16.25. M , M .
.
M , M 16.26: M

.
, M . M
: M , M
. ,
, M
,
x M

M . M ,
, . M
.
16.27: , Rn
.
. 1: M ,

Rn , M
M . M (

), M . M
. M ,

M . , M
.
, M (), M
2: M
, 16.26.
3: M , , Rn . x, y M

,
: [a, b] M
. l()
M
:= M . (t), (t + )
,
U M

312

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

16:
U M , ((t), (t + ))
, ((t)), ((t + )). ,
( ). ([a, b]) , .
((t), (t + )) , ,
, : [a, b] M . ,
.

M
y) = inf l(),
d(x,

, x y. ,
().
M
,
4: d M

x M 1 (U ), U 3 (x) (x). , d .
M
. ,
5: , M

d(x, y) d((x), (y)) (). , {(xi )} . {xi } M


M , {(xi )} x M .
{xi } 1 (U ), U 3 x. , , U
, , U . U , , 1 (U ) ( 1 (U )), U .
, , {xi }
().
U0 . , U0
U . , {xi } 1 (x) U0 . M
.
( 6: , M
), , -.

313

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
( 5) (
Rn ). -, M
y) = a,
, d(x,
, x, y M

.
[0, a] M
. x U M
, 7: x M
(U ). U ,
, (U ) ( ). y U ,
y) = d((x), (y)), (x), (y) d(x,
, ,
, M
U (U ) . M

. , : (M , d) (M, d) .
, .
16.28: , , .

16.4.


16.29. M
M , X M

. X M
,

>M

M 16.30. X M , M
X M
,
. X
.
(x, m)
, (x) = (m),
, X M
,
X M
.
X M M
16.4. M . , X M M

X M .

M , X M M
X M
M . . X

314

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

16:
X. U 3 (x), X X
: 1 (U ) = U S. UX := 1 (U ),
1
X
(UX ) = UX S ( ). , .


16.31: M
M , X M
. X M M
X.

X 16.32. , X M M
X.
, .
, .

X M

M , X M 16.33: M
. , X .
. , x X
X M

315

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

x 1 ((x)), X M

, (x)
= x.

X .
: X : X
= X S. , X
X
M

X X,

: X M . , 1 ((x)):
.

16.5.
16.34. (M, m) ,
, m)
(M
, (M, m) . , : [0, 1] M
, (0) = m.
: [0, 1] M
. , :
(0) (1).
16.35: (M, m) ,
, m)
(M
(M, m)
, , 0 (M, m) , , 0 . (1) = 0 (1).
: h : [0, 1][0, 1] M , 0 . , h
0 , m.
: [0, 1] [0, 1] M
,
, h h
, (0, 0) m.
h
, , , . . ,
h
0) = h(1,
1) = 0 (1).
(1) = h(1,

316

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

16:

16.36: (M, m)
, . M .


: M
M .
, M , . x1 , x2 1 (x). , , ,
M
x1 , x2 . := .
, 1 (M, m) = {1}.
, , .
16.35, , , x1 = x2 .

,
.
, 1 (M, m)
m M . x, y M , x y.
(M, y), 1 ,

0 1/3
(3),
1
() = (3 1),
1/3 2/3,

(3 2),
2/3 1
( x y , y , x
). , 0 1 1 0 1 (). 1
1 (M, y) 1 (M, x).
, , (), 1 (M, y) 1 (M, x). , .
1 (m, x)
m x. , ,
1 (m, x) 1 (M, m).
(M, m) ,
. , M ,
U 1 (U ) = {1}. U , x,

317

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
m x. U (y, 0
1 (m, y)), y U , y x,
U , 0 1 ( ).
x y, U , ,
U U ( ).
(x, 1 (m, x)), ,
M
U . ,
, U
. M
M ,
M
1 (U ) U m
x U , .
, 1 (M, m) , ,
, , (0) (m, 0 ), m
M
. (1) (m, ), , M .
M

16.37: (M, m) ,
. , M
, U 1 (U ) = {1}, M
. 1 (M, m) = {1}.

16.38. , M 1 (M, m) =
{1}. . 16.37, 1 (M, m) = {1}
, M , ,
.
, 16.39. 1 (M, m) 6= {1}. M
16.37, , ,

11. (M,
m) m. , (M, m), m

x, (M,
m) ,
m x. 16.37 (). 0 , , 0 m

318

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

16:
(M,

x. M
m)
. M M ,
, x = (1), , M
(). .

16.6.
0


0
16.40. M
M, M
M M . M M
0 M
M
0 ,
M
M
0 , , (x) = 0 (y). M
M M
0
(x, y) M
.

M M
0 M .
16.41. M
S M , M
0 S 0 M ,
, M , M
0
0
M M
S S M .
, M
16.42. , M1 M ,
M M
0 ) = Mor(M1 , M
) Mor(M1 , M
0 ).
Mor(M1 , M
16.43. : M1 M2 M .
M1 M M2 ,
(x, (x)). M .
16.44. M1 ( ). M . M
M ,
M1 M M2 .
M .
M
: M ].
, [M
: M ] . 16.45. [M
.
, M M
: M ] , M
16.46: [M

. M

i
Mi . , M
M .

319

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

: M , M
M , . ( ). , M

M
. U M
. 1 (U )
, M
U . i , , M
i 1 (U )
M
i .
U . M
: M ] .
16.47: [M
,M
) M
M M
.
Mor(M
0

M M M M
,M
) , M
0 Mor(M
0
M
.
M
0 , M
M M

: M
0

( , M
M M
). .
M
,
0 M
,
, M

0 M
.
M = M
0 .
, M

: M ] .
16.48. [M
M M
M
.
M

,M
M M
) = MorM (M
,M
).
MorM (M
,M
M M
) , MorM (M
M M
,
M

M , ,
.
M

320

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

16:

16.7.
: M ] . 16.49. [M
M M
M
.
, M
16.50. ,
,M
M M
) = MorM (M
,M
).
MorM (M
: M ]
( 16.48). [M
M M
, (x, y) M
. ,
, , .
M
.


16.51: M
M .
.

: M ]
(i) [M
, , (x) = (y), (ii) x, y M

M , x y.

16.52. G ,
M . , g G m M , gm 6= m.
, M .
: M ] . 16.53. [M
: M ] M
M . Aut[M
: M]
Aut[M

M . , g Aut[M : M ] , x M . g
Id .
M M
, :
M
g = Id .

321

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
M
, : M
1 (x), x M .
16.51
( ).
: M ]
16.54: [M
: M ]
, Aut[M
: M ] .
[M
: M ] .
16.55. [M
: M ] .
Aut[M
16.56. G
.
, M

[M : M /G] . :
:M
/G], G [M
: M ] (
[M
).

16.8.
( ).
16.57: W1 W2 W2 , W1 W2
, [W2 : W3 ] . W1 : W3 .
16.58: M1 M2 M3 ,
[M1 : M3 ] . [M1 : M2 ] .
:
M1 M2 M1 M1 M3 M1 M1 .
M1 M3 M1 M1 , [M1 : M3 ] , M1 M2 M1 M1 M3 M1
(). , ,
M1 M2 M1 M1 .

322

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

16:

16.59: M1 M2 M3 ,
[M1 : M2 ] , [M2 : M3 ] .
[M1 : M3 ] .
:
M1 M3 M1 = M1 M2 (M2 M3 2 ) M2 1 .
, [M2 : M3 ] , M2 M3 2 =
- I,

M2 ,

M1 M3 M1 =M1 M2 (M2 M3 2 ) M2 1
!
G
G
=M1 M2
M1 M2 1 .
M2 M2 1 =
I

M1 . [M1 M3 M1 : M1 ] .
: M ] , G = Aut[M
: M]
16.60. [M

. , G M
( ), G0 G,
/G0 , .
M
: M ] . 16.61. [M

0 : M ] , [M : M ] [M
M
0.
M
16.62: ( )
: M ] , G = Aut[M
: M ] ,
[M
0
0
/G M . ,
G G . M

[M : M ] .
0 : M ] [M
: M ].
: [M
M
0 M , [M
: M ] M
0
:M
] (
, , [M
0
0

M
0.
16.58). M = M /G , G0 M

M
0

M , G Aut[M : M ]. - .

323

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

16.9.
: M ] . 16.63. [M
, M
.
16.64. , M
M M
. , M

M .
16.65.
, M
0 . , M
0

. M M , M M
0 M
M
0 , ,
M
.
16.66.
M ,
, .

16.67. {M
M }

Q M .
Q , M = S M , M MQ M S . ,
Q M ,

x (s ) = x, Q
, U S , U M
, M 1 (U ) = U S .

16.68. ,
. , , ,
( , ).

: M ] . M
16.69: [M
.

324

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

16:

: Q
[MG : M ] .
M M , M M
MG . MG
1: MG M M
Q
. , MG

M M ,
Q

MG M M MG , MG M M M
MG . MG M MG MG .
2: x1 MG , x M . x,
, y M

Mor(MG , M ), x1 y. MG MG M
).
MorM (MG , M
, , MG M
MG .
MG M M
M
3:
Y

M , Fx ,


Q Fx x, MG ,
Q x1 = yFx y. y M M , y Fx . y (x1 ) = y.
x, , y M
, x1 y. 2, ,
MG , 1 MG
MG M M
.

M Q
M M , M . , ,
M .
: M ] S = {U M }, [M
, U S , S
M
= S

U , U S. M , , , S .
S N |S| (), , S N 2|M | .

325

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

||N2|M |
S M , 22
( ).
,
M .
16.70: M ,
Q
, MG M M ,
M M . MG
M .
. 1: [M1 : M ] , MG0
M , M1 .
Y
M M M1 = MG0 M M1 M M1 .
M

M1 M M1 M1 ,
Y
M M M1
M

Q
M M . ,
Y
M M M1
M

MG M M1 MG

M , , -

. [M1 : MG ], MG MG
M1 ( ) MG M M1 :
MG MG M1 , MG M M1 ,
, . M1 MG .
2: M2 MG (
). , M2 [M1 : MG ], . M2 ().

326

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

16:

16.10.


M , M
M , x M . (M, x),
. Aut[M
: M ] 1 (x),
M
: M ] . Aut[M
: M ], (0) (1). g Aut[M

Aut[M : M ] ,
g .
: M ].
1 (M, x) Aut[M
0
, (M, x) , , 0 ,
y1 y2 , 0 y2 y3 . , 0
, y1 y3 .
: M ] . 1 (M
, y1 ) = {1},
1 (M, x) Aut[M
(M, x) y2 : M ]
, (0) = y1 . Aut[M
: M]
1 (x), 1 (M, x) Aut[M
.


16.71. M
M .

Aut[M : M ]
M .

, y1 ) = {1},
16.72. 16.37, 1 (M

Aut[M : M ] 1 (M, x). .


, [M1 : M ] .
16.5. , [M1 : M ] ,
: M ] .
Aut[M

16.11. ,

1851 . (

327

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
) . ,
, , .
, ,
. ( 2), .

Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann


(1826 1866)

1860- ,
, . ( , )
, 1895- , , .

328

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

16:
, , ,
.
, 1961- "Revetements etales et groupe fondamental" (SGA1),
SGA (Seminaire de geometrie algebrique), . , ,
. , , ,
.

Alexander Grothendieck
(. 28 1928)

329

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
, . C\{x1 , ...xn } (C
). B A C.
,
1 (C\A) 1 (C\B)
( ). 1 (C\A) A C. , C(t). , ( ) C\{x1 , ...xn }.
SGA1 " , ( ) ,
, ."
, "
", SGA1 .
SGA LATEX arxiv.org:
http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0206203 (SGA1) http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0511279 (SGA2).
,
" ",
.
. . " . "" ,
, . ., . 35.

330

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

17:

17:

17.1.
, .
M . M
0 , , : M
M :

0
M

! 

M , M M
,
M

, M ,
, m)
. , 1 (M

m, 1 (M , m1 ) 1 (M , m2 ), m1 m2
( ).
.
, .
M

0
, x M
.
, M
M
0
,
M
. y1 , y2 1 (x) , ,
, x x,
. () M

, 1 (M , x) = 0.
(), () ,
( ). y1 = y2 , 1 (x)
0
, M

. M
=M
.
M1 , M2 , 1 , 2 M . ,

331

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
M1 M2 M M1 M M2 , (m1 , m2 ) M1 M2 , , 1 (m1 ) = 2 (m2 ).
M1 M M2 M1 M2 , .
: M1 M2 M M
(m1 , m2 ) = (1 (m1 ), 2 (m2 )).
, M1 M M2 = 1 (), M M .
, M ,
M1 M2 .
,
.
M .
M

,
M . M M M M
M M
M
, (m1 , m2 ) m1 .
M
M
, , M

M M . M , M M M .
, M
, .
M
M M

. M

M , .
M
, M

M M , , .
, M . , X M

, 1 , 2 : X M
1
, X 1 2 ( ).
M M
, (x, y) M

Aut[M : M ], Aut[M : M ]
M ( M

M ).
M . m M ,
M
1
x, y (m), ,
M M
. ,
(x, y) M
1
2 (1 (x, y)), (x) = y ( ).
xM
: M ] , Aut[M
M M
1 (m). M

332

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

17:
, 1 (x) = 2 (y) 1 = 2 . ,
: M ] 1 (m) .
G := Aut[M
/G, G M
.
M =M

g Aut[M : M ] g(x), x 1 (m). ,


, x M
x g(x). , ( ). : [0, 1] M
, M
. 1 (M, m) g . , g x g.
: M ] 1 (m) , Aut[M
, x, g(x), , y, g(y), y
1 (m). , g 1 (M, m)
x, g
: M ]. Aut[M
: M ] 1 (M, m).
Aut[M
: M ], g1 x y, g2
g1 , g2 Aut[M
y z, g1 g2 x z. g1 g2
( 0 ), x y, 0 y z. ,
: M ] 1 (M, m)
g1 g2 = g1 g2 , Aut[M
.
, ().
.
M , M
17.1: M
, , M
.
M

/G,
, G = Aut[M : M ]. M = M
M G.

17.2. 1 (M, m) /G M
G,
, M
. , M
S 1 Z. , S 1 = R/Z,
1 (R) = {1}, R . , 1 (T n ) = Zn , T n = Rn /Zn n- .
1 M1 , M
2 M2 17.3. M

, 1 (i ) = Gi . M1 M2 ( ) M1 M2 (),

333

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
1 M
2 /G1 G2 = M1 M2 , 1 (M1 M2 ) = G1 G2 .
M1 M2 . M
, .
17.4. , : X M1 M2
X M1 X M2 .
.

17.2.
G , Rep(G, Sets) , G, , G.
G.
: M ], [M
: M ]
, G = Aut[M
M . S G, S, G g(m, s) = (g(m), g(s)) ( M
).
S . S, , M
S ( ),
G M

(M S)/G .
S)/G M .
17.5. , (M
, , M , M
M G, G S)/G
. , (M
X
S)/G
M X, , (M
M
1
. m M , x (m) (G X)/G = X.
M , G
17.6: M
: M ].
, G = Aut[M

Rep(G, Sets) Cov(M )


Rep(G, Sets) Cov(M ) M , .
.

334

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

17:

: m M .
Cov(M ) Rep(G, Sets)

. M 0 M M , SM 0 :=
1 (m) m. SM 0 1 (M ),
. x SM 0 , g G
. g (M, m), g, g m0 , x.
, ,
g (1) x g. ,
g G SM 0 SM 0 , , ,
x g (1) G SM 0 . , , , M 0 SM 0

Cov(M ) Rep(G, Sets).


G
, .
, , .
/G0 , G0 G ( M
" ",
). M/G0 ,
/G0 ) = G/G0 G.
, (M
,
G/G0 )/G = M
/G0
(G/G0 ) = (M
( ). , .
17.7. :
G
/Gi ;
M0 =
M
i


G
G/Gi
S=
i

335

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
G. G .
, ,
.

17.3.
17.8. G , C = Rep(G, Sets)
G. G C, G, (g, x) gx.
G , Aut(G) = Mor(G, G) G. , Mor(G, G) 1 x.
(g1) = g((x)) = gx. , , , x y xy .
Ob(C) Rep(G, Sets),
17.9: G


(i) G
X) .
(ii) X Ob(C), Mor(G,
G C.
G
. 1: C G. G/G0 ,
G0 . G/G1
G/G2 , G2 G1 ( ).
X) , G

2: Mor(G,
G/Gi , G.
X1 , X2 , X1
3: G
, ,
G. G
X1 , X1 X2 = G/G0 (
1). , ,
.

336

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

17:

( 3),
4: , G
G.
G ( 2). , G
17.10. , G
Rep(G, Sets): Rep(G1 , Sets), Rep(G2 , Sets) , G1 , G2 .

17.4.
G, H . G H, () g1 h1 g2 h2 ...gn hn , gi G, hi H. ,
g1 h1 g2 h2 ...gi hi gi+n hi+n ...gn hn g1 h1 g2 h2 ...gi gi+n gn hn

(17.4.1)

hi = 1,
g1 h1 g2 h2 ...gi hi gi+n hi+n ...gn hn g1 h1 g2 h2 ...gi hi hi+n gi+2 ...gn hn

(17.4.2)

gi+n = 1. , g1 1g2
g1 g2 , h1 1h2 h1 h2 . G H. :
g1 h1 g2 h2 ...gn hn g10 h01 g20 h02 ...gn0 0 h0n0 := g1 h1 g2 h2 ...gn hn g10 h01 g20 h02 ...gn0 0 h0n0 .
, , . (17.4.1) (17.4.2) ,
1
1 1 1 1
g1 h1 g2 h2 ...gn hn h1
n gn ...h2 g2 h1 g1 = 1,

, G H .
17.11. G H , , G
H.

337

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
17.1. , :
(F G) H = F (G H).
17.12. {G }, I.
`
G g1 g2 g3 ...gn , gi G .
,
g1 g2 ...gi gi+1 gi+2 ...gn g1 g2 ...gi gi+2 ...gn
gi+1 = 1 ( gi+1 , gi+1 1),
g1 g2 ...gi1 gi gi+1 gi+2 ...gn g1 g2 ...gi1 (gi gi+1 )gi+2 ...gn
gi , gi+1 G (
gi , gi+1 (gi gi+1 ), G .

a

G :=

G /

, G H;
, ( ). ,
G H.
`
17.13. G , ,
{G }.
17.14. ZZZ...Z (n )
`
n . G ,
G
= Z, .
17.15. ,
`
, G0 G , g0 g0 ( ).

338

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

17:

17.5.
C , A Ob(C) . hA : C Sets hA (X) = Mor(A, X).
F : C Sets C . ,
F , F - hA
- A Ob(C). , A F .
17.16. C, C 0 , F1 , F2 : C C 0 C C 0 .
: F1 F2
. X Ob(C),
X Mor(F1 (X), F2 (X),
,
Mor(X, Y ):
F1 ()

F1 (X) F1 (Y )

X y
y Y
F2 ()

F2 (X) F2 (Y )
, , 14.
: hA F C
, (IdA ) F (A).
:
f 7f

Mor(A, A) Mor(A, B)

A y
y B
F (A)

F ()

F (B)

Mor(A, B) . IdA
. ,
B () = F ()(A (IdA )),

339

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
, B : Mor(A, B) F (B)
A (IdA ) Mor(A, A).

17.17: ( , Yoneda lemma) C ,


A Ob(C) , hA : C Sets -, F : C Sets
.
hA F F (A).

F : C Sets :
F : C Sets, . , Mor(hA , hB ) =
Mor(B, A). .
17.18: C , F F : C Sets, ,
.
A hA C F .

17.19. , , ,
.
,
, hA (X) = Mor(A, X)
hA (X) = Mor(X, A).

17.6. : ,
(Shokichi Iyanaga, 19062006) . 1950- , , ,
. , . ,

340

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

17:

Nobuo Yoneda
(1930-1996)

( ), 1954- .
(
, ;
). ,
, , .
,
Ext ,
.
.
1960- ,
, 68,
.

341

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
,
,
.
, ( ), (
), ( )
, " ".
(1875-1960), . , . , 1898 .

17.7.
.
17.20: G, H , G H

, G , G H, H , G H .

G P , H P P
G H P ,
:
H

GH

  

, .

342

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

17:
: g1 h1 g2 h2 ...gn hn
(g1 )(h1 )(g2 )(h2 )...(gn )(hn ). , , .
, G H G H.
17.21. 17.20
.
G H. , , G H
P Mor(G, P )Mor(H, P )
, ( 17.19).
17.22.
: A, B Ob(C) ,
X Mor(X, A) Mor(X, B),
A, B Ob(C) ,

X Mor(A, X) Mor(B, X).


. , , ( 17.19).
17.23. (, , , ), , ( ).
17.24. , ; ,
, , . .

343

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

17.8.
, . 1882- ( ),
1888 .

Walther Franz Anton von Dyck


(1856-1934)

(
). 1882 , ,
, ; .

.

344

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

17:
" " (Jacob
Nielsen), , (Max Dehn), 1924- , -
.
,
X Mor(A, X) Mor(B, X),
"Groups, categories
and duality" (1948), () .

17.9.
17.25: ( , "Seifert-van Kampen
Theorem") M = X Y
X Y , X, Y , , M , X Y . 1 (M )
1 (X) 1 (Y ).
. 1: Rep(G H, Sets)
C , G H (, ). Rep(G H, Sets) C S
S, G H G , G H, H , G H. ,
I G H
G, H I , I I I.
G H, G H I . C
Rep(G H, Sets), , .
2: 17.10, G
Rep(G, Sets). 1 (M )
= 1 (X)
1 (Y ), , M
Rep(1 (X) 1 (Y ), Sets). , C 1 (X) 1 (Y ).

345

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
, , ,
Cov(M ) M C.


3: Cov(M ) C . M
M M .

= 1 (X) X, Y = 1 (Y ) Y
X
X Y . m
M
1 (X) ( 17.6).
X Y , 1 (m) X
1
(m) Y 1 (Y ),
1 (m) Cov(M )
. , M
C.
, .
4: S Ob(C) 1 (X) 1 (Y ),
X
Y

X
X, Y
Y ,
( 17.6). X Y , ,
1
X
(X Y ) = Y1 (X Y ) = X Y S,

x X,
y Y ,
S S.
1
1
x X (X Y ) y Y (X Y )
F .

x y. M = X Y / , . ,
M ( ). : M
,
, M
F
X Y 1
m m0 m X, m0 Y, m = m0 X Y ,
1 (U ) U S, X , Y U X, U Y .
C Cov(M ). , ( ). .
1

X Y M .

346

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

17:
, Cov(M ) M C 1 (X) 1 (Y ). 1 ,
C Rep(1 (X) 1 (Y ), Sets). 17.6, Cov(M ) Rep(1 (M ), Sets).
17.10,
Rep(1 (X) 1 (Y ), Sets) Rep(1 (M ), Sets)

1 (X) 1 (Y )
= 1 (M ).

S
17.26. M = Mi ,
Mi1 Mi2 ... , 1 (M )
= 1 (M1 ) 1 (M2 ) ... Mi
, . , . , ,
, , Mi ,
. .

17.10. ,
1933-
, , . , . , , , X Y , ,
.

. ,
. M . M ,
M , x y
x y. .

347

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

Egbert Rudolf van Kampen


(1908-1942)

,
. :
... , , , ,
,

, . , ,
,
, , ,
, , , , . , ,

348

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

17:
...

. U V . U V U V ( ).
,
, , .
(Ronald Brown)1 ,
.
"
". (1908-1942)
, 1931- , .
, .
.
( 21-
), , .

http://www.bangor.ac.uk/mas010/topgpds.html

349

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

18:

18.1.

18.1. ,
(, ), , ,
.
,
, .
, .
18.2. :
V V
( V E), E (x,y)(y,x)
. , - ,
, .
, .
18.3. , S . S , X :=
S [0, 1] S . s{1}
s {0} X, .
s1 s2 , x1 x2 ,
xi = si {1} xi = si {0} X. X/
.
18.1. , .

350

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

18:
18.4. ,
.
18.5. , .

1
0
0
1

18.6. ,
|I| . |I| .
(, ) .
, . X , X1 , X2 , ... .
Xi , , , . , 1 (X) = 1 (X1 ) 1 (X2 ) ... = Z Z Z ....
.
18.7: .

351

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

18.2.
18.8.
, n n 1 .

22 21

, X Y X,
j
Y X, X Y , j IdY Y .
X Y

, X Y

Y X, .
(. 15), , .
18.9. , 0 ,
, 0 . 0
.
18.10. 0 . , 0 .

352

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

18:
18.11. , 1 , . 1 , .

18.12: 0 , l (. ). 0
.
: s () l. : 0 l s,
0 . , . , , Id . , 0 l
s, 1 . t 0 , [0, 1] = l t l. ,
t , 0 = , 1 = Id . 0
.
18.13. , , ,
.
18.14: (..
).

353

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

: . n + 1
n . 1, , , 1 (
). . 0 , . n n 1 ,
, . , 0 , , 0 .
18.15. ,
, .
18.16: , , A An, An A n. ,
.
18.17: . .
. 0: , x, y
, [x, y], . ,
x, y , , 2 , 2 ,
. [x, y]
x, y .
1: (, m) , v1 , v2 , v3 , ... , . 0 t1 < t2 <
t2 < ... 1 , (vi ) = ti .
{ti } , t,
(lim ti ) = (t) = lim vi ,
. ,
vi .
2: , , x y, , ,

354

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

18:
[x, y]. , x,y , x y. , x,y ,
, [x, y], . [x, y]
x,y . , ,
[x, y], .
3: , , v1 , v2 , v3 , ..., vn [v1 , v2 ],
[v2 , v3 ], ... , , . , , ,
.

18.3.
18.18. , , n n .
18.19. , n m . , ,
n m, ,
2.

18.20:
. . ,
.
: . , s ,
[x, s] [s, y]. , ,
s [x, s] [s, y] [x, y] (.
).
, , , .

355

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.

n , n
n 1 , n 1

18.21: .
.
: 0 .
0 , ,
. , ,
, .
18.22. , ,
n n + k ,
k + 1 .
18.23: 1 , . , . 1 () =
Z.
: ,
1 , n n + k , k 0. l 1 , k = 0, 1
. \l, 1 \l , , 1 l. 1 \l, 1 \l , , .
, , 1 () = 1 (1 ) 1 (\l).
\l , , , 1 () = 1 (1 ) = Z.
18.24. , 1 () = Z.

356

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

18:

18.4.
18.25. .
0 , .
18.26. : \0 0 ,
. , ,
( ).
18.27: . 1 () .
. 1: 0 ,
l , I, l
0 l . 18.23, 1 (l ) = Z.
S
2: = I l , l l0 6= 0
0 , , .
,
a
a
1 () =
1 (l ) =
Z.
I

18.28. , 1 ()
, .
.
18.29: ( -, "Nielsen-Schreier theorem")
F , G F . G .
: F

M , . M
M , F ,

357

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

III.
/G G. , MG (MG = M
MG , 1 (MG ) = G.
). M
G ,
.

358

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

IV
.

359

0.

0.
.
, , .

. ,
; .

0.1. .
,
a a0 , a1 a2 . . . ,
a0 , a1 a2 . . . an
a. , , 1, 00000 . . . 0, 9999 . . . . ,
,
,
, . ,
( ). ,
.
.
0.1. ,
, , . {ai } = a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . . , {ai } , , > 0 [x, y] ,
{ai }.
0.1. a . ,
a, a, . . . .

361

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

. .
{a}.
0.2. {ai } . ai . , .
0.3. {ai } , I = [a, b], a, b Q. , {ai }
,
.
. I0 = [a, b] .
( I1 ) . {ai } , a0 ,
I1 . I1 , .. Ik , k- , ,
.
k-, ba
2k
0.4 (!). a1
a2 a3 . . . . , ai C: ai C. , .
. .
0.2. {ai }, {bi } .
, a0 , b0 , a1 , b1 , a2 , b2 , ...
.
0.5. a, b . , {a}
{b} , a = b.
0.6. , .
0.7. , {ai } {bi }, {bi } {ai }.
0.8 (!). {ai }, {bi } . , I1 , I2 , ai I1 , bi I2 .

362

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

0.
. =
n.

1
2n

0.9 (!). , {ai } {bi }, {bi }


{ci }, {ai } {ci }. ( .)
0.3. {ai }, {bi } . , {ai } > {bi }, ai > bi
i.
0.10. {ai }, {bi } . , {ai } < {bi }, {bi } < {ai }.
. 0.8.
0.11. {ai }, {bi } , {ai } < {bi }. ,
c, d , {ai } < {c} < {d} < {bi }.
. .
0.12. {ai } < {bi }, {bi } {ci }. ,
{ai } < {ci }.
. , < |c d|.
0.13. {ai } , c Q . ,
. {ai } {c}.
. ]x, y[, c, {ai }.
. ]x, y[, c,
{ai }.

363

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

. .
0.4. ,
, {ai } c.
0.14. {ai }, {bi } . ,
{ai + bi } {ai bi } .
0.15. {ai }, {bi } , bi
0. , {ai } {ai + bi }.
0.16. {ai }, {bi } . ,
{ai bi } .
0.17. , {bi } 1, {ai bi } {ai }.
0.18. {ai } , 0. , {a1
i }
.
. , 0 [x, y], {ai } [x, y].
{ai } I [x, y] . , {a1
i },
, I 1 (min(|x|, |y|)1 .
0.5. {ai } , {ai }. R.
0.19. , c 7 {c}
Q R.
0.20 (!). , , R 0.14- 0.18, R
.

364

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

0.

0.2. .
, :
. . ,

, .
0.6. R Q , Q. , R
, a R b < a , b R.
R ,
a, b R , b a.
R .
{ai } . R{ai } b, {b} < {ai }.
0.21. , R{ai } (.. b
R{ai } , c < b, c R{ai } ). , .
0.22. {ai } {bi }
. , R{ai } = R{bi } .
0.23. {ai } {bi }
, {ai } < {bi }. , R{ai } R{bi } ,
.
. [c, d] 0.11;
R{ai } , R{bi } ?
0.24 (*). {ai }, {bi } . , , R{ai } = R{bi } .
. 0.10 ( ).
0.25 (*). R Q . , R = R{ai } -
{ai }.

365

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

. .
. I0 = [a, b] , a R, b
. , I1 .
, ai Ii .
, , .
. ,
.
0.26 (**). R e, . .
. , a 1, .

0.3. .
0.7. A R R. A , A
C R. A
, A C R. A ,
.
0.8. A R R. A ( inf A) c R, c a
a A, ]x, y[, c,
A. A ( sup A) c R,
c a a A, ]x, y[,
c, A.
0.27. , inf A sup A ( ).

366

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

0.
0.28 (!). A . , sup A .
. a A , .. Q. R; a C,
. , inf A = R.
0.29 (!). A R . , inf A .
. A R ().
inf A = (sup A = ).

0.4. .
0.30 (!). Q, P = t2n+1 +
a2n t2n + a2n1 t2n1 + ... + a0 . RP x Q ,
P (t) < 0 ] , x]. , RP .
. , RP max(1,

|ai |).

0.31 (!). , RP
.
. , Q\RP max(1,

|ai |).

0.32 (!). , RP .
0.33 (!). , P :
I C > 0, |P (a)
P (b)| < C|a b| a, b I.
0.34 (!). RP . , P (RP ) = 0. ,
R .
. , P (RP ) 0. ,
P (RP ) < 0 0.33.

367

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

. .

0.5. .
0.9. A R o , c . c A,
I =]x, y[, c, I
A.
0.10. {ai } , c .
I =]x, y[, c, I {ai }, . , c
{ai } ( c = limi ai ). ,
ai c, c
0.35. c {ai }. , ,
c.
0.36 (*). {ai } [x, y].
, .
0.11. A R ,
.
0.37 (*). {ai } . ai A. , {ai } ,
A , .
0.38. 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, . . .. ,
.
0.39. 0, 1, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, . . .. , 0.
0.40. a1
a2 a3 ..., ai R. , ai C: ai C. ,

368

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

0.
. .
. , limi ai = sup{ai }, .
0.12. {ai } = a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . . , {ai } ,
> 0 [x, y] , {ai }, .
. .
0.41. {ai } -
c. , .
0.42. {ai } , x R. , {ai }
x.
0.43. {ai } . {bi }, bi = inf ji aj . , , bi .
0.44. , {bi } , limi ai = limi bi .
0.45 (!). {ai } . ,
{ai } .
.
. .
0.46 (!). {ai } . ,
{ai } .
.

369

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

. .
. {ai } ai (0), ai (1), ai (2), .... , , ai (i > n)
2n , ai (j) (j > m) 2m .
, {ai (i)} ,
{ai }.
0.47 (!). ( ) {ai }, {bi }, {ci }
, ai bi ci
i. , limi ai = limi ci = x. ,
limi bi = x.
0.48 (*).
{ai } x. P
, bj = 1j ji=0 ai x.
, {bj } , {ai } .

0.6. .
0.13. {ai } P
n
.

i=0 ai .
P

P , , i=0 ai .
i=0 ai = x,
x = lim

n
X

ai .

i=0

ai = x.
P

0.14.

ai ,
P
|ai |.
P
0.49 (!).
ai . ,
.
P
0.50.
ai . bi

a
i bi . ,
P

bi .
:

370

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

0.
0.51 (**).
i , bi P
P 2 aP
ai bi b2i . ,
,
ai ,
.
0.52 (*). ai .
n
Y
lim
(1 + ai )

i=0

Q

, ,Q
i=0 (1 + ai ).Q


i ) .
i=0 (1+
i=0 (1+a
P
ai ) . , i=0 ai .
Q
1
0.53 (*). ,
i=0 (1+ 3n )
.
P
Q
0.54 (**). ai . ,
i=0 (1+ai )
.
0.55 (!). a0 a1 a2 . . .

, P
i
.
i=0 (1) ai . ,
. .
P 1
0.56. ,
.
n(n+1)
.
0.57. ,

1
n2

0.58. ,

1
n!

1
n(n+1)

1
n

1
.
(n+1)

.
P 1
0.59 (!). ,
. ,
2n
.
P
xn
0.60 (*). ,
n=0 n! x R.
P xn
0.61 (**).
n=0 n!
A. x A?

371

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

. .

2005- , 5
.
, 2005- . , ,
, ; , .
,
.

372

, version 1.1, 27.07.2012

Оценить