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12.

75

12.6.

700 500 , , .. .

0.8 700 0.6 500.
, (. 12.5.1):
12.5.1

700

500

< 30

1.5

1.2

30-35

1.2

35-45

1.0

700

500

45-55

0.8

0.6

1.0

55-85

0.7

0.5

0.8

85-100

0.6

0.4

. , ,
, 700
500.
1 (. 12.11) L(x, y)
t.
,
Tm H 12 (. . 3)
H2-H1=H 12 = k1,2 Tm

..

12.

76

Y
L

. 12.12. L(x, y).

(x, t) (y, t), :

H 2

t x

T
H 1

= k 1, 2 m
t x
t x
H 2 H 1
T

= a1, 2 m .

t y t y
t y

(12.5.1)

H 1
H 2

=
t x
t x

+ k 1, 2

H 1
H 2

=
+ k 1, 2
t y
t y

Tm

t x

Tm
.

t y

(12.5.2)

1 , 2
, , , ,
H H
= 0 , ,
=
x
y

d H d H
d
=
= 0 ,
, :
dt x dt y
dt

2H1
2H1
H 1

= 0,
+
C
+
C

x
y

t x
x 2
x y
2H1
2H1
H 1
+ C y
= 0.

+ C x
t y
x y
y 2

..

(12.5.3)

12.

77

2H1
2H1
H 1

,
=
C
+
C

x
y
t x
x 2
x y

(12.5.4)

2H1
2H1
H 1

.
+ Cy

= Cx
t y
x y
y 2

(12.5.4)

H 1

,
t x

H 1

(12.5.2),
t y

2 H1
2 H1
H 2

=
C x
+
C
y
2
t x
x
x y

+ k 1, 2 m
t x

2 H1
2 H1
H 2
+ C y
=
C x
2
t y
x y
y

T
+ k 1, 2 m
t y

(12.5.5)

L, x Cy (x, y), :

H 1
H 2

=
+ k 1, 2
L x
t x
H 1
H 2
C

=
+ k 1, 2
L y
t y
C

Tm

,
t x
Tm

.
t y

(12.5.6)

( i j), :


C
(gradH 1 ) = (gradH 2 ) + k 1, 2 (gradTm ),
t
t
L
L ,

2 H1
H 2
Tm
C
=
+ k 1, 2
.
2
L t
L t
L

(12.5.7)

, :
(,
) 700 500,
Tm H 12 .

..

12.

78

(12.5.5) ,

2H1

, , x y
, , ,
. (
) .
(12.5.7).

2 H 1 2 H 1
,

L2 x 2

2 H 1
> 0,
y 2

>0, (12.5.7) . (12.5.7):

H 2
Tm
+ k 1, 2
>0
L t
L t

k 1, 2

H 2
Tm
> 0,
< 0.
L t
L t

, , ,
( ) , 2-
, , , ,
.

H 2
.
L t

, , ,

H 2 , H 2 , ,
:
H 2
< 0.
L t

i

..

12.

79

i ,

2H1
L2

< 0 , >0,

(12.5.7) . (12.5.7):

H 2
Tm
+ k 1, 2
< 0.
L t
L t

k 1, 2

H 2
Tm
<0,
> 0.
L t
L t

( ) , 2- , , , , . ,

2H1
L2

i ,

i , .
(12.5.5) ,
2 H1
H 2
T
H 1
+ Cn
C s
=
+ k 1, 2 m ,
2
t s
t s
n s
s
2 H1
H 2
H 1

Cs
+
C
=

n
2
t n
n s
n

+ k 1, 2 m
t n

(12.5.8)

s n 700 500. s n .

..

12.

80

H 1
=0,
s

2 H1
H 2
Tm

C s
=

k
+

1
,
2
2
s t
s t
s

(12.5.9)

2 H1
H 2
Tm
=
C n

+ k 1, 2

2
n t
n t
n

(12.5.10)

(12.5.9) ,
s, ,

T H 2 ,
(

2H1
s 2

).

(12.5.10) ,
s, n 0, . , H 2 (. 12.13).

Y
X (S)

n
n

. 12.13. s n
( )

..

12.

81

(12.5.10) ( )
700
500 , 700 500, , (,

H 2 H 2

=
n t t n

).

H 2
n

, .

H 2
,
n

, , .
(12.5.10) ( )
700 500 , Tm , , .

, . .
,

Tm ,
.
,

2H 1
, .. , n 2

.
(12.5.10) :
H 2

H
t n
t n ,
Cn =

2H 1
2P0

2
n 2
n

..

12.

82

2P0

(500)2,
H . 1000 ,
t n
n 2

Hn
t
.
2 P0
n 2

312
Cn =

2P0
2
2 (250) ,
n

Hn
t
.
2 P0
n 2

78
Cn =

n >0 ,
n <0 .

n >0

2 P0
n 2

H n <0 ( ), n <0
H >0 ( ).
t
t n


n >0

>0, ,

2 P0
n 2

<0, ,

H n >0 ( ), n <0
H >0 ( ).
t
t n

.
40-50 /,
80-100 /.

.
, . , , ,
.
, - , ,

..

12.

83

. , - .
( ),
.
. , ..
, , , ().
.

..