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Mpyuau H.B.

Ku1ackue c1pa1areum
(ynpaxueuun n cxeua1usauuu)






















Hpeucnoeue
Hoynrentno npnunno x nanncannm anno xnnrn tna conepmenno
npaxrnuecxax saaua npenoanannx cxemarnsannn (cxemarnsannn,
onpeenxemo ncxnmunrentno xax rexnnxa oprannsannn nonnmannx-
ecrnnx). Crpararemt oxasannct yauntm marepnanom, nosnonxmmnm
cocrannrt ontmoe xonnuecrno saau nx yuenoro xypca. Ho no xoy paort
na crpararemamn menx sannrepeconana cama rema, npnmnoct npounrart
nexoropte pyrne rexcrt, n saaua nemnoro rpanc]opmnponanact. Hoxnnnact
saaua nonnmannx camnx crpararem, nx exrentnocrno cymnocrn. 3ro
norpeonano ropaso onee rnyoxoro anannsa crpararem, uem x ocymecrnnxn
nnauane, n emoncrpannn camoro meroa anannsa.
Ho+romy xnnra nocrpoena xax copnnx ynpaxnenn no cxemarnsannn, c
neontmnm npenapnrentntm nneennem n remy crpararemt.

Beeenue
Knracxne crpararemt npoyxr mnoronexonoro pasnnrnx mxont
mtmnennx, na nporxxennn rtcxuenern npaxrnuecxn nnxax ne
cranxnnanmecx c enponecxo mxono. H pesyntrart +roro pasnnrnx ne
menee ynnnrentnt n nmontrnt nx enponena-]nnoco]a, uem cymuarte
snepn Ancrpannn tnn n cnoe npemx nx enponena-soonora.
B npencnonnn x cnoe xnnre Cmpamaee+i (o rumacro+ ucrvccmee
rumi u eirueami) Xappo ]on 3enrep nnmer: C ono cropont, xnrant
+ro rumai c nx nenonropnmtm, cyryo xnracxnm xyntrypntm ocroxnnem.
Ho nmecre c rem onn xnnxmrcx raxnmn xe nmtmn, xax nce nmn c npncymnmn
ncem nm omeuenoneuecxnmn uepramn. K omeuenoneuecxnm uepram xnranen
ornocnrcx, es comnennx, n xnrpocrt. 3a ro npemx, uro xnrant, ne
crecnennte xpncrnancxnmn n nntmn sanantmn npeyexennxmn,
rtcxuenernxmn nccneonann xnrpocrt, onn ntxnnnn xoe-uro
omeuenoneuecxoe. Hror xnracxoro nccneonannx xnrpocrn cnncox 36
crpararem nmeer omeuenoneuecxoe snauenne. On ne snaer nn
npocrpancrnenntx, nn npemenntx rpannn, ne cnxsan nn c cncremo
omecrnennoro ycrpocrna, nn c nannonantno npnnanexnocrtm
1
. Hosnonm
cee ne cornacnrtcx c anropom.
Bo-nepntx, crpararemt npoyxr cnenn]nuecxn, conepmenno
xnracxn. Koneuno, ceuac, nocne roro, xax crpararemnoe mtmnenne crano
axrnnno ocyxartcx n sanano nnreparype, mt moxem ynnert n
onosnart crpararemt no mnornx cotrnxx enponecxo nnn nno ncropnn.
Onaxo +ro onpeenennax aeppannx spennx. Bnert ro, uro xnrant
nastnamr crpararemamn, n Fnnnn, n cxasxax parten Ipnmm, n rpeuecxnx
mn]ax n a]pnxancxnx nerenax
2
osnauaer ntymtnart ncropnm, xoropo
nnxora ne tno, npnnnctnart nmxm mornnt n npecrannennx, xoroptx y
nnx ne morno trt. 3ro osnauaer nontsonartcx nx anannsa onpeenenntx
xnsnenntx cnryann nonxrnxmn, ntpaoranntmn na ocnonannn conepmenno
pyroro ontra xnsneexrentnocrn. Hmontrno, uro cam ]on 3enrep mpncr,
n, ymam, nnxora ne cran t mpnnuecxn xnann]nnnponart ecrnnx,
conepmennte n ono crpane, na ocnonannn saxonoarentcrna pyro crpant.
Bo-nroptx, urot nx ocnonrt (r.e. no-nacroxmemy nonxrt), npocro
npounrart npo nnx neocrarouno. axe ecnn nnemne nexoropte ns
]opmynnponox ntrnxxr nnonne nonxrntmn nx uenonexa, nocnnrannoro n
enponecxo xyntrype, nexamee n nx ocnone mnponosspenne nnoe. Hnoe n
rom cmtcne, uro nx ero nonnmannx nao norn n xnracxn xstx n xyntrypy,
nnert cnt na xnracxom xstxe, snart cxasxn n ercxne cunranouxn. Moxno
ne nepnrt n Cynt V-xyna (napx oestxn), no nao nmert n ercrne ontr
nepexnnannx cex xax coyuacrnnxa ero nyremecrnnx na 3ana. A raxxe nmert
orpomnoe xonnuecrno pyroro ymennoro, +monnonantnoro n mtcnnrentnoro
nmenno xnracxoro ontra n nor rora nam yer xcno, uro nmeercx n nny n

1
r. 2, c. 58. 3ect n anee es yxasannx na paory nnr. no Crpararemt (o xnracxom ncxyccrne xnrt n
ntxnnart), Xappo ]on 3enrep, M., 2004 r.
2
r. 1, c. 19
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
camom pennem ns nsnecrntx nam na ceronx rpaxraron o 36 ynonxax,
cosannom npnmepno 500 ner nasa: Hnt n xn no nsanmno cnxsn menxmr
nosnnnn, /Knmu x noee ranrcx n +rnx nepemenax. [36 Cmpamaee+
(Corpoeeuua ruuea o eoeuuo+ ucrvccmee)]
3
. Ocnonno rexcr H suu (Kuuea
nepe+eu), na xoropym onnpaercx +ror rpaxrar n, coornercrnenno, crpararemt
noome, tn nanncan n XVIII nn. o n.+. rora xe, xora n H.uaoa (IX - VIII
n. o n.+.). To ecrt, n +ro xe npnmepno npemx n Ipennn counnxmrcx +nnuecxne
no+mt, onnctnammne oxecrnennoe nnemx repoen, ns xoroptx mnorne
nornnn n xecroxnx nonax n yxacntx nrnax: onn no crenamn
cemnnparntx unn n crpane Kama, cpaxaxct sa nacnecrno 3nna, pyrne no
Tpoe, xya nx npnnecnn xopann no mopcxnm npocropam
4
. H ra, n pyrax
nnrara npo nony. Houyncrnyre pasnnny mexy noxoamn.
Koneuno, nonnmanne Knrax nmxm, ntpocmnm n enponecxo
nnnnnnsannn, ne saxptro. Hpocro xorenoct t nouepxnyrt, uro crpararemt
cnenn]nuecxn npoyxr xnracxo nnrennexryantno rpannnn, n nx
ecrnnrentnoro ocnoennx cront snaunmtx +nemenron xnracxo xyntrypt
neoxonmo rnyoxoe nsyuenne xstxa, ncropnn n pyrnx acnexron +ro
xyntrypt.
Ha mo nsrnx, ncxxn pas, xora mt ntraemcx nonxrt crpararemt, mt
ntraemcx ocymecrnnrt nepeno crpararem c xstxa H suu na xstx H.uaoi.
Ho crpararemt, xax, nanepnoe, n ouent mnoroe n xnracxo xyntrype, rnyoxo
cnmnonnunt, a nepeno cnmnonon eno ouent cnoxnoe. B +ro xnnre x xouy
cenart necxontxo pyroe
5
. Honpoyem ne cpasy nonnmart, a cnepna
orpe]nexrnponart ynnert, uro sa ecrnne cronr sa crpararemo xax sa
cnmnonom. A sarem cxemarnsnpyem +ro ecrnne, n rem camtm oprannsyem
cnoe nonnmanne. Bet cxemarnsannx ocrarouno +]]exrnnnax rexnnxa
oprannsannx nonnmannx, pasnnnammaxcx nocnenee npemx, npnuem nmenno n
pycne cyryo pannonanncrnuecxo, sananoenponecxo rpannnn.
Taxnm opasom, npenpnnxrax namn nontrxa napnconart rpa]nuecxne
cxemt crpararem moxer nomout nx nonnmannm, nycrt axe ne
reopernuecxomy, a cyryo exrentnocrnomy.

Koneuno, npanomepen pyro nonpoc: moxno nn cxemarnsnponart (n
axe npocro xommenrnponart) ro, uro nonnmaemt nectma npnnnsnrentno? Ha
mo nsrnx, +ro moxno enart, ecnn trt cxpomntm n oranart cee oruer, uro
cxemarnsnpyemt ne onee uem cocrnennoe nonnmanne.

3
r.2, c.21
4
Iecno, nnr. no Hnxonac Xammon, Hcropnx penne Ipennn, M., 2003r.

5 Bcx rnnornnosa (nsopaxenne, subjectio sub adspectum) xax uyncrnennoe nonnomenne tnaer noxxo: nnn
cxemarnuecxo, xora nonxrnm, xoropoe nocrnraercx paccyxom, aercx coornercrnymmee anpnopnoe
cosepnanne; nnn cnmnonnuecxo, xora no nonxrne, xoropoe moxer mtcnnrtcx rontxo pasymom n xoropomy
ne moxer coornercrnonart nnxaxoe uyncrnennoe cosepnanne, nononrcx raxoe cosepnanne, npn xoropom
opas ecrnn cnoconocrn cyxennx cornacyercx c rem opasom ecrnn, xaxo ona nanmaer npn
cxemarnsannn, rontxo no ananornn, r. e. cornacyercx c nnm rontxo no npannnam +roro opasa ecrnn, a ne no
camomy cosepnannm, crano trt, rontxo no ]opme pe]nexcnn, a ne no coepxannm. H. Kanr, CC r.5, cc. 373
Hrax, cnepna mt ocynm omee npecrannenne o crpararemax, sarem
npoemoncrpnpyem nx cxemarnsannm.

Bce crpararemt n npnmept, nx pasxcnxmmne, nsxrt ns xnnrn Xappo
]on 3enrepa.
1. Hecxonuxo oux sameuanu.
Hpexe ncero, neoxonmo ormernrt rpannnonnym nx Knrax
xonnenrpannm nnnmannx ne na nonpoce uro ecrt, a na nonpoce xax enart.
Kora mnn no nennxomy nyrn, Honeecnax npnnanexana ncem, [nx
ynpannennx] nsnpann myptx n cnocontx, yunnn nepnocrn,
conepmencrnonannct n pyxenmnn. Ho+romy pontmn uenonexy tnn ne
rontxo ero pocrnennnxn, a ertmn ne rontxo ero ern. Herepnnmtm
|cunranoct] rora ocrannxrt opo na semne, no n ne onxno tno xonnrt ero
y cex; necrepnnmo tno ne art cnnam ntxoa, no n ne nonaranoct [paorart]
rontxo nx cex. Ho +ro npnunne ne nosnnxann [snte] samtcnt, ne unnnnnct
xpaxn n rpaexn, mxrexn n cmyrt, a nmn, ntxox ns omy, ne sannpann
nepe. 3ro nastnanoct nennxnm ennennem.
3rn cnona onee uem nyxrtcxuenerne annocrn nsxrt ns
xon]ynnancxoro xanona Hu si n nonecrnymr o camo nsnecrno xnracxo
yronnn
6
. Knracxax yronnx +ro nennxn (npannntnt) nyrt, npannntnte
ecrnnx. Koneuno, +ro nepexnnxaercx c nnecxnm npanentm nyrem nepe
nnnom Iocnoa, no noonax nonnax xonnenrpannx na meroe ocoennocrt
nmenno antnenocrountx nnnnnnsann. H crpararema cnenn]nuecxn
npnem, ntpaorannt reopernuecxo mtcntm nx ecrnn n onpeenenno,
moentno ocranonxe. 3ro nn n xoem cnyuae ne nporpamma, nxnmuammaxcx
npn onpeenenno onenxe cnryannn. Ho n ne npannna nx pyxonocrna yma,
ne omne perynxrnnt nosnannx, ne sanncxmne or cnryannn. 3ro cxopee moxno
nasnart cxemt nonnmannx-ecrnnx nnn cxemt anannsa cnryannn:
nx xnranen 36 crpararem cnyxar ne rontxo moentm noneennx, no n npexe
ncero cnocoom nosnannx, nomorammnm ntrn ns pamox otunoro, nannnoro,
oycnonnennoro rpeonannem onosnaunocrn nsrnxa na nemn n opecrn raxo
yron spennx, xoropt nosnonxer c nono rouxn spennx orxptrt nx cex yxe
nsnecrnoe n ynnert no-nonomy yxe snaxomoe. ononnxercx crpararemntm
nocnpnxrnem ecrnnrentnocrn, nosnonxmmnm ynnert moent saxynncnoro
]ynxnnonnponannx mnpa n ynnert ecrnnrentno cymecrnymmee sa
nnnmocrtm peantnocrn
7
. H sect naxno eme pas nouepxnyrt ornnune
crpararem or enponecxnx ananoron. Crpararema moent ontmo no
xonnuecrny yuacrnnxon, xonnuecrny ocymecrnnxemtx ecrnn n no
npemenntm rpannnam cnryannn n ee enncrne, nenocrnocrn (ecrt, xoneuno, n
crpararemt nx manentxnx cnryann, no onn nnmt nouepxnnamr omee
npannno). Cnryannn, cnnmxom mnoronapnarnnno n mnorosnauno nx
enponena. He noromy, uro xnrant ymnee, a noromy, uro n Enpone raxnmn

6
r. 2, c. 11
7
r.2, c. 46
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
moenxmn ne sannmannct. Bnpouem, pasnnna sananoro n nocrounoro
menrannrera xnno ntxonr sa rpannnt name remt.

Crpyxrypa xnnrn Xappo ]on 3enrepa, ne cunrax omnpntx noxcnenn
omero xapaxrepa no nneennxx n oonx romax, xanonnuecxax 36 rnan, n
xaxo ns xoroptx cnauana yxastnaercx crpararema 4 nepornn]a, 4
xnracxnx cnona, 4 ocnonntx nepenoa +rnx cnon (necxontxo crpararem
cocroxr ns 3 nepornn]on). 3arem ]pasa cnxsnt nepeno n xparxn
xommenrapn ]on 3enrepa. Hocne +roro cneymr necxontxo (or 5 o onee 40)
ncropn, nnnmcrpnpymmnx npnmenenn anno crpararemt. Ho cyrn, +ro
]opmynt-cxemt c xommenrapnxmn, caxammnmn nx na marepnan. Kaxax
]opmyna coepxnr npannno ecrnnx n onpeenenno moentno cnryannn
(Cnacrn rocyapcrno uxao, ocann rocyapcrno B+, nocxa xoroporo
ocannn rocyapcrno uxao, Ipanrt no npemx noxapa, Btnyrt xnopocr
ns-no xorna, urot npexparnrt xnnenne not n r..). Hpnmept
(xommenrapnn) noxastnamr, xax +ro ]opmyna paoraer n pasntx peantntx
cnryannxx. uon 3nnrep ncnontsyer marepnan ne rontxo ns xnaccnuecxnx
xnracxnx paor, no n cocrnennte npnmept ns conpemenno sanano xnsnn
n nonnrnxn.
Pasnpax crpararemt, x onapyxnn xax mnnnmym onn cnyua, xora, na
mo nsrnx, ]on 3enrep omnaercx n npnnonr nenpannntnt npnmep. B
cnyuae, onncannom nm n xauecrne npnmepa x Crparareme 9, na camom ene
peannsontnanact pyrax crpararema, a ne enxrax. Hmontrno, uro cam ]on
3enrep yxastnaer, uro nn onn ns xnracxnx anropon ne npnnonr annt
mnpoxo nsnecrnt ncropnuecxn npnmep x enxro crparareme n oxcnxer
+ro rem, uro n nponecce mnoroxparnoro npnmenennx Crpararemt 9
opasnte ntpaxennx n xparxo ]opmynnponxe conepmenno cxptnnct sa
acrpaxrntm cmtcnom . Ho+romy, cxemarnsnpyx crpararemt, x yy
crapartcx onnpartcx rontxo na npnmept, npnnonmte x nnm xnracxnmn
anropamn.

2. Hpecmaenenue o cmpamaaemax.

Cam repmnn crpararemt tn nneen ]on 3enrepom nx nepenoa
xnracxoro nonxrnx nsn, osnauammero neuro npoe ynonxn, xnrpocrn c
nerpantno +rnuecxo oxpacxo (xnrpocrt xax nncrpymenr). B
xocmoronnuecxom yannsme Hnt-n (renenoe conneunoe, nennnmoe
nnnmoe n r..) crpararemt coornocxrcx c Hnt. Camt pennn ns nsnecrntx
rpaxrar Cauiuu.m su (Muooui ouuqa) (36 Cmpamaee+ (Corpoeeuua ruuea
o eoeuuo+ ucrvccmee)), cocrannennt n xanonnuecxo ]opme, tn nanncan
npnmepno 500 ner nasa
8
. Onaxo ]opmynt crpararem, nomemne sarem n
xanon, ncrpeuamrcx n counnennxx or IV n. o n.+. Hexoropte npnmept, x

8
r. 2, c. 20
xoroptm opamamrcx ]on 3enrep n pyrne anropt copnnxon, eme onee
pennne. B nenom necomnenna ontmax ncropnuecxax yxopenennocrt
crpararemntx ]opmynnponox.
Paccmorpnm npocrpancrno snauenn nonxrnx crpararem.
Hpexe ncero, crpararemt neoxonmo ornnuart or ocrarouno
nnsxoro nonxrnx mypocrn (uxn): xnnra Cauiuu.m su: oov :ru
(Tpuoami uecmi cmpamaee+: cocmsauue v+a). Mypocrt (uxn)
ynomxnyrtm ntme My y (803-852) pasxcnxercx rax: Mypocrt +ro
ymenne rocnocrnonart n nmo ocranonxe n snanne nocroxncrna n
nepemenax. Kommenrarop M+ ou+nt (1002 1060) ner axe antme:
mypocrt (uxn) +ro ymenne trt naxounntm n nsompenntm. Hao Hst
coornocnr mypocrt c cosnyuntmn xnrpocrn nonxrnxmn: Kora noxnnnoct
mypcrnonanne (uxn), nosnnxno n nennxoe nnnemepne
9
. Mypocrt
nonnmaercx Kon]ynnem rnanntm opasom xax ymenne pasnnuart opo n sno,
ncrnny n noxt. Bnpouem, nnora y Kon]ynnx +ro cnono nmeer orrenox
xnrpoymnx
10
.
Hcxnmuent ns nonxrnx crpararema (nsn) n xononcrno, n pennrnosnte
uyeca, a raxxe neotunte peaxnnn uenonexa
11
. Bce +ro nouepxnnaer
paccyount, pannonantnt xapaxrep crpararem.
Baxnax cocrannxmmax uacrt nonxrnx, xnnxmmeecx npxmo ocnono
mnornx crpararem neotunoe (nn), nonnmaemoe n nanexrnuecxom
enncrne c perynxpntm (otuntm) (uxen). Heotunoe (nn) nponsnoxr
ns otunoro (uxen); ne yt otunoro, nentsx tno t nponsnecrn
neotunoe. 3ra yxcnxmmax xnracxoe nonnmanne xnrpocrn mtcnt namna
ntpaxenne n raxom oopore peun: uy u uxn m+n, uro ocnonno osnauaer
cneymmee: nponsnecrn neotunoe n onrtcx noet
12
.
Taxxe ontmym pont n nonxrnnom none nrpaer nepornn] nmant: nec;
rnpx, nexamax na npornnononoxno uame necon; nsnemnnart; oymtnart;
enart pacuer; cnna; nnnxnne; [cyexrnnnoe] npano (xentmaui npana
uenonexa)
13
. Ho +ror xe nepornn] oosnauaer: npenapnrentnt,
nenocroxnnt, npnmenxrtcx, orxnonxmmncx or xanona, upesntuanax mepa.
uan ns+ moy nsnn, xnt ns+ nyn maui (B otuntx ocroxrentcrnax
npnepxnnartcx xanona, npn [cymecrnennom] nsmenennn [npnnxroro xoa
neme] cneonart sa npornnonecom [xanona])
14
. B nexoroptx xnracxnx
xnnrax n xauecrne oosnauennx crpararem ynorpenxercx repmnn mauimoy
nonnrnuecxax raxrnxa, npnem n oman
15
.

9
r. 2, c. 28-29
10
r. 2, c. 30
11
r. 2, c. 40
12
r. 2, c. 40
13
Ouent xopomax nnnmcrpannx rpynocrn nsanmononnmannx: npana uenonexa (n enponecxom nonnmannn
cntme ncem annte, pannte, neoremnemte) na xnracxom snyuar xax nec (nnnxnne) uenonexa (xaxono
nnnxnne, raxne n npana).
14
r. 2, c. 34
15
r. 2, c. 35
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Mnorne crpararemt nponnstnaer aoccxax xonnennnx neexnnx y
n+; +rn crpararemt uacrnuno npnnanexar x ocrnxennxm nerncron, , n
ocoennocrn x rexnnxe nnacrn (my), xoropym nerncrt nomemann n cepne
nnacrnrenx pxom c saxonntm npanom (]a) n coxpanennem nonoxennx
(mn). Mnoxecrno npnmepon npnmenennx crpararem nponnxnyro nymnm or
nerncron yxom rocyapcrnenno mypocrn c ero npnopnrerom
rocyapcrnenntx nnrepecon na xon]ynnancxnmn +rnuecxnmn nopmamn.
16

Haxonen, ouent naxno yunrtnart nne+rnuecxn, nncrpymenranncrcxn
xapaxrep xnracxnx crpararem. Xorx +ro n xaxercx ouennntm, no orcyrcrnne
+rnuecxnx onenox xnnxercx nx naxno xapaxrepncrnxo nmenno n
npornnonocrannennn enponecxoro nonnmannx xnrpocrn xax nnoxoro
uenoneuecxoro xauecrna (npornnocroxme xopomnm xauecrnam mypocrn n
npocrore).

3. Memo paomm
Kax yxe ronopnnoct, n xaxom-ro cmtcne nama cxemarnsannx crpararem
yer nororonxo x nepenoy. Haunem paory (+ran 1) c nocrpounnxa
ocnonnoro nepenoa xaxoro nepornn]a ncxono ]opmynt, sarem cnxsnt
nepeno ]opmynt nennxom (sect x yy ocnonno cneonart ncrounnxy
xnnre ]on 3enrepa). Bsxrte ocnonno ]parmenrt cnaxamrcx cctnxo na
crpannnt xnnrn.
Hs-sa nenosmoxnocrn nnrnponannx orpomntx xycxon rexcra npnmepon,
nponeypy ]opmnponannx cmtcnonoro nonx na ocnone anannsa npnmepon x
emoncrpnponart ne yy. Hocne ]opmynt crpararemt x yy xparxo nsnarart
coepxanne nexoroptx npnmepon, xoropte, na mo nsrnx, ornocxrcx x +ro
crparareme (+ran 2). 3arem pesmme no npnmepam x +ro crparareme, ntenxx
ro, uro, na mo nsrnx, nanonee naxno, cymnocrno (+ran 3). 3ect x yxe n
nexoroptx cnyuaxx nauny ncnontsonart xstx cxemarnsannn (cnryannx,
repo, ecrnne n r.n.)
17
.
Kcrarn, no ncex onapyxenntx mnom rexcrax npo crpararemt
oxcnennx anropa cneymr cpasy sa nepenoom ]opmynt crpararemt. 3arem
yxe anrop noxcnxer cnom nnrepnperannm npnmepamn. Hocxontxy y nac saaua
oparnax ne oocnonart cnoe mnenne, a nonxrt, uro nmeercx n nny n
]opmyne crpararemt, mt yem cnepna anannsnponart npnmept, a norom yxe
enart ntno.
Hocne ntnoa-pesmme nam npecronr eme pas ntennrt cmtcnt
crpararemt, yxe n npnnxsxe x ]opmynnponxe crpararemt. Hpn +rom yem
ntrartcx pasopart cmtcnt, croxmne sa xaxtm nepornn]om ]opmynt
crpararemt (+ran 4). axe n rex cnyuaxx, xora xaxercx, uro camo no cee, es

16
r. 1, c. 42
17
Bo nropom rome nocne ]opmynnponxn crpararemt Xappo ]on 3enrep onnctnaer cmtcnonoe none
crpararemt. Onaxo, anannsnpyx cmtcnt crpararemt, x conepmenno ne coornomyct c +rnmn paccyxennxmn.
Mne tno naxno nocneonarentno ocymecrnnrt n npoemoncrpnponart nponeypy cxemarnsannn, n nce
ntenennte mnom cmtcnt pexoncrpynponant ns paccmorpenntx npnmepon.
cocenero cnona, cnono, xoroptm nepeneen nepornn], ne necer nnuero
nonoro. Hao nocroxnno yunrtnart, uro xaxt nepornn] cmtcnonax
xoncrpyxnnx, sauacrym ouent cnoxnax (xax npnmep cm. ntme none cmtcnon
nepornn]a nmant). K romy xe, ecnn sa necxontxo coren ner n ]opmyne ocrancx
nmenno +ror nepornn], nanepnoe, on snaunr uro-ro naxnoe. Ho+romy yem
ntrartcx narn xax moxno ontme orrenxon, pasnpax npnmept. Cneymmn
+ran (5) ntenenne nanonee omnx nonxrn yxe cxemnoro xstxa, croxmnx
sa nepeuncnenntmn cmtcnamn, n nx coornomenn (cooprannsannn), xoropte n
cocranxr +nemenrt namnx cxem. 3ect ecrt eme ona pexypcnx nonropnt
xpyr anannsa npnmepon, xoropt x emoncrpnponart ne yy (na cxeme
nynxrnpom). H, sanepmenne pncynox cxemt ononpemenno c ee onncannem
(6).
B rex cnyuaxx, xora cxema npocro ns +nemenron ne cxnatnaercx, nam
npnercx cnepna noymart na omnm npnnnnnom, croxmnm sa cmtcnamn
crpararemt (mera-cmtcn (7)). H, coornercrnenno, na omnm npnnnnnom
cxemarnsannn raxoro poa mera-cmtcna. Tontxo nocne +roro mt cmoxem,
ncnontsyx ntenennym cxemy-npnnnnn (8), cxoncrpynponart cxemy
xonxperno crpararemt.
Hocneonarentnocrt ecrnn yer ntrnxert npnmepno rax (Cxema
01):

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Cxema 01.

Fyem npnepxnnartcx cneymmnx ocnonntx oosnauenn npn
cxemarnsannn:
6. Onucauue
cxeru
5. Snereufu
cxeru
7. Mefa-crucn
cfpafareru
3. Kpafkoe
peskre ua
ocuoee
npurepoe
4. Crucnu sa
kapur us
uepornuqoe
qoprynu
0. Rpurepu
peanusauuu
cfpafareru
0. Auanus npurepoe,
qoprupoeauue
crucnoeoro nonn.
Bupeneuue rnaeuoro.
1. Packnapka
qoprynu ua
snereufu
1. 4opryna
cfpafareru
8. Cxera-
npuuuun
2. Kopofkue
usnoeuun
npurepoe (us
kaporo -
rnaeuoe).
6. Cxera
repo xnmuenax ]nrypa-nosnnnonep, ror, xro peannsyer
crpararemy.

npar, pyro nnte nosnnnn n crparareme.


cnryannx conoxynnocrt nnemnnx ycnonn, n marepnantntx
n exrentnocrntx, xoropte mt moxem n cnoem anannse
oennnrt nmecre n xoropte xnnxmrcx omnmn nx onoro
nnn necxontxnx nosnnnonepon.
nosnnnx (nnn mecro) cocrnennax, nnyrpennxx cnryannx
nx ]nrypt, nxnmuammax n cex: 1) nenn annoro
nosnnnonepa, 2) nmemmnecx y nero cpecrna, 3) xaxne-ro
xauecrnennte xapaxrepncrnxn. Cocrnenno ronopx, npocro
]nrypne nosnnn n cxeme ne tnaer. Ho o +rom mt
noronopnm n xonne name paort. Ceuac nam naxno, uro n
nexoroptx cnyuaxx nam npnercx ocyxart ne nosnnnm
nennxom (repox nnn npara), a ee orentnte cocrannxmmne
+nemenrt. Moxno n raxnx cnyuaxx ronopnrt o mecre nx
nosnnnonepa.
ecrnnx nosnnnonepon.

Hnte oosnauennx yem nnonrt no mepe neoxonmocrn.
3ect naxno eme pas oparnrt nnnmanne na nne+rnuecxn xapaxrep
crpararem: repo n npar - npocro oosnauennx nosnnn n ne xoppennpymr
c onnosnnne xopomn - nnoxo. Knraen, ronopxmn: sect nonnnn
pty n myrno noe, moxer npn +rom nmert n nny, uro on nonxmn pty;
nnn, uro on pta, xoropym nonnn raxo-ro; nnn, naxonen, uro on cam
npocro +nemenr cnryannn myrno not, n xoropo xro-ro uro-ro nonnn. H
+ro nce conepmenno esonenouno.

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4. Cxemm
C1pa1areua N 1.

mant rxnt ro xa
omanyrt Hmneparop (raxxe neo) nepenntrt mope

Omanyrt nmneparopa, urot on nepenntn mope
18
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe, or xoroporo tna cenana ]opmynnponxa
crpararemt, noenauantnnxn xorenn noenart sa mopem. Hmneparop onrcx
mopcxoro nnanannx n ormenxer nony. Honxonont, ne cmex orxptro
nospaxart, nsroronnnn xopant, samacxnponannt no om. Hpnrnacnn
nmneparopa n om, onn ornntnn n, rem camtm, onnnct, urot nmneparop
nepenntn mope.
B pyrom npnmepe ponte xorenn, urot mnoma xennncx. Onaxo
ntpannax nm nenecra nm pemnrentno ne npannnact. Ho cnntntm annennem
pontx n pyse xennx pacropraer nomonnxy. Onaxo n nnctme o
pacropxennn on samn]pontnaer coomenne nmnmo, uro nnxora ne
nsmennr e. onex sarem pontx o oruaxnnx onrnm nepeopom nenecr, on
coomaer nm, uro namen cee nenecry. Honyunn cornacne, nnonr n om
nmnmym enymxy (nmecre c xoropo rano roronnncx nce +ro npemx x
cnate), n pontm nnuero ne ocraercx, xax cornacnrtcx.
B pyrom npnmepe nyxno tno ornpannrt ronna ns ocaxennoro ropoa.
Fyymn ronen necxontxo ne ntesxan sa nopora n na nnueno reppnropnn
ycrpannan rpennponxy n crpente ns nyxa. Haxonen, xora ero ynpaxnennx
yxe conepmenno nepecrann npnnnexart nnnmanne ocaxammnx, nnesanno
npopnancx cxnost narept nparon n ycxaxan.
B pyrom npnmepe noenauantnnx rpnxt npenpnnnmaer nepememennx
n xonnenrpannm nocx. Ha rpern pas nparn nacrontxo norepxnn
nrentnocrt, uro, nnesanno araxonan, on nerxo noenn.
B pyrom npnmepe +n Cxonnna onnnxnn n saremnennn ncrnnnoro
xypca - n rom, uro, emoncrpnpyx cnoe snanne mapxcnsma, na camom ene on
orpexancx or nero.
B pyrom npnmepe Conercxn Coms onnnxnn n rom, uro ero
anrnpacnsm n noepxxa napono-ocnoonrentntx nnxenn n Rxno
A]pnxe ecrt nnmt macxnponxa ncrnnntx nene ocrnxennx
crparernuecxoro npenocxocrna n oecneuennx mopcxnx nyre.
B pyrom npnmepe paccmarpnnaemym crpararemy n rpaxrare 36
cmpamaee+. Taua ruuea eoeuuoeo ucrvccmea xommenrnpymr ]paso:
Bectma uacro xax pas omensnecrnoe cxptnaer no coom rnyouamym
rany
19
.

18
r. 1, c. 52
19
r. 1, c. 71

Pesmue: repo ntraercx ocymecrnnrt ecrnne, no, ncrpernn
nenpeoonnmoe npenxrcrnne, ycrynaer, noxno cornamaercx c nnm. 3arem on
ocymecrnnxer ecrnnx, xxot cornacymmnecx c npenxrcrnnem, ne
napymammne ero, axe xax yro ycnnnnammne. Fnaroapx +rnm noxntm
ecrnnxm repo nonyuaer nosmoxnocrt nporn cxnost npenxrcrnne (cnonm
ecrnnem), ocrnrnyn ncrnnno (nosmoxno nepnonauantno) nenn.

qopuyna cumcnm
mant omanyrt; ]antmt; noxt; ecrnne; macxnponxa; nsmenenne;
ncxaxenne; pyroe (nonoe); oannennoe;
rxnt nmneparop; nenosmoxnocrt ocymecrnnrt; nenpeoonnmt sanper;
npenxrcrnne; nponema;
ro nepenntrt; nent; saaua; npeoonenne; sanepmennoe ecrnne;
xa mope; cnryannx; ycnonne;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; ecrnne; npenxrcrnne; neyaua; ]antmnnxa;
oannrt; ycnemnoe ecrnne.

Onncanne cxeum: repo ne moxer conepmnrt ecrnne ns-sa
npenxrcrnnx, oannxer n npenxrcrnne omannt (]antmnnt) +nemenr,
ocymecrnnxer ycnemnoe ecrnne no npeoonennm npenxrcrnnx ram, re +ror
+nemenr nnxnnnponan npenxrcrnne.

Cxema 1

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C1pa1areua N 2

n+ B+ nsm uxao
ocanrt B+ cnacrn uxao

Ocanrt B+, urot cnacrn uxao
20
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe, or xoroporo tna cenana ]opmynnponxa
crpararemt, nocxa rocyapcrna B+ nanann na rocyapcrno uxao n ocannn
cronnny. Tora comsnnx uxao, rocyapcrno Hn, nanano na B+ n ocanno ero
cronnny. Vsnan o +rom, nocxa B+, pocnn ocay uxao, cnemntm mapmem
nepnynnct omo, cnacart cnom cronnny.
B pyrom npnmepe nnrart ns pennemero n mnpe counnennx o
noennom ncxyccrne Cynt-nst Tparmam o eoeuuo+ ucrvccmee (cepenna
nepnoro rtc. o n.+.): B none cneyer nserart nonnoro n nponnxart n
nycroe. Hoxnnxcx n mecrax, xoropte npar onxen yer ooponxrt n cnemxe.
Cnemno nn rya, re npar ne oxnaer rex
21
.
B pyrom npnmepe nnrart ns oxnaa Mao Hs+yna Cmpameeu:ecrue
npoo.e+i napmusaucro eoui npomue noucro aepeccuu 1938 r.:
Ononpemenno namn rnannte cnnt npenpnnnmamr nacrynnenne n paone,
ns xoroporo npornnnnx xnnncx. Mt nontmaem ram cnom axrnnnocrt, urot
npoynrt sacenmero n ooponxemom namn paone npornnnnxa x orxoy n
nanaennm na namn rnannte cnnt. 3ro mero Ocanrt B+, urot cnacrn
uxao
22
.
B pyrom npnmepe xnracxoe nanaenne na Bternam n 10979 r.
paccmarpnnaercx xax nontrxa sacrannrt Bternam ntnecrn cnon nocxa ns
Kamoxn. Onaxo, nocxontxy yrposa oxasanoct cnnmxom cnao, nent ne
tna ocrnrnyra.
B pyrom npnmepe nsxrne amepnxancxnx sanoxnnxon n Terepane raxxe
paccmarpnnaercx xax npnmenenne anno crpararemt n pesyntrare +roro
ecrnnx Hpan onncx or CBA roro, uero xoren.

Pesmue: repom nao nserart nonnoro (r.e. paona, sanxroro
nenpnxrenem), n nrn n nycroe, r.e. n paon, xnsnenno naxnt nx npara,
no es npaxecxnx nocx. Tora repo sacrannxer npara ecrnonart
npecxasyemtm opasom. On oxastnaer nnnxnne na npara, eme ne ncrynnn n
npxmoe nsanmoecrnne c nnm.
Crpararema nocrpoena na nonxrnn ananca - mexy ecrnnxmn repox
n ecrnnxmn npara.

20
r. 1, c. 72
21
r. 1, c. 74
22
r. 1, c. 75
qopuyna cumcnm
n+ ocanrt; npnrn; nanacrt; saxnarnrt; araxonart;
B+ ropo B+; naxnoe nx npara mecro; nennocrt, npemenno
ocrannennax es npncmorpa; npaxecxax reppnropnx, ceuac
essamnrnax, nerxo ocrynnax;
nsm cnacrn; ornneut npara; ntnynrt yrn; oxasart annenne na npara;
nonnnxrt na npara; sacrannrt npara cenart nnxenne n nyxnom
nanpannennn;
uxao ropo uxao; mecro, xoropoe araxonan npar; nennocrt nx repox;
mecro, nonnoe npaxecxnx nocx;

3neuen1m cxeum: ecrnne npara; ecrnne repox nxoxenne n
cnryannm n nanaenne; mecro (nosnnnx) npara; oexr nanaennx.

Hpnnnnn: xnmuenoe nonxrne (mera-cmtcn) n crparareme ananc.
Fananc cnn, ananc ecrnn. Cxema ananca yer xnnxrtcx cxenerom,
cxemo-npnnnnnom nx cxemt crpararemt. Taxnm opasom, es noponoro
pasopa +roro nonxrnx cxoncrpynponart cxemy crpararemt nenosmoxno.
Bxparne npoemoncrpnpyem +ror pasop:
1. Cmtcnonoe none nonxrnx: pannonecne; panencrno; Hnt-n; nect,
coomammnecx ccyt; cnna-cnaocrt; nyxnoe xonnuecrno; crontxo, cxontxo
nyxno n cxontxo moxno; ytnt-npntnt; pannax opta; nsanmonepexo
ono-pyroe, noea-nopaxenne; nentsx noenrt; na (mnoro) mecr
nanonnxmrcx; ananc mexy npemeramn, mecramn, cnnamn, ecrnnxmn;
onpeenxer nnemnn nanmarent; ncera ecrt pyro, pyrax uama necon;
neunax cnxsxa anancnpymmnx; enncrno n opta npornnononoxnocre; es
cnxrnx npornnopeun; rnrp n paxon n xpyre; neuno noxannsonannax neunax
opta nyx mecr (neme); omax cnryannx nsmenxercx, ocranaxct raxo xe no
cyrn.
2. Koncrpyxnnx: na cnmmerpnuntx nsanmoecrnnx.
B pesyntrare +roro pasopa moxno cxemarnsnponart npnnnnn
ananca:
Cxema 2.0

Tenept, na ocnone anno cxemt-npnnnnna, moxno crponrt cxemy
crpararemt.

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Onncanne cxeum: npar yxonr ns cnoero mecra n nanocnr yap no
xaxomy-ro mecry, repo nxonr n cnryannm n nanocnr yap no mecry npara,
npar nosnpamaercx.
Cxema 2.1



C1pa1areua N 3.

nse ao ma xent
oonxnrt nox ynrt uenonex

Bsxrt nsamt nox, urot ynrt uenonexa
23
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe mnnncrp nasnauaer cnoero npara
(mrarcxoro uenonexa) noenauantnnxom na rpynym anexym nony, re ero,
es comnennx, ytmr.
B pyrom npnmepe xnxst xenan ynrt rpex moryunx nonnon, xoroptx
nnxro ne mor noenrt. On noctnaer nm na nepcnxa co cnonamn: nycrt
nostmer cee ror, utn sacnyrn ntme. B pesyntrare ccopt nce rpoe norynnn
cex.
B pyrom npnmepe xnxst, xenammn ocnanrt pyroe xnxxecrno, nnmer
noxnt oronop mexy coo n nyumnmn noenauantnnxamn n unnonnnxamn
+roro xnxxecrna o rom, uro nocne cnoe noet on nx mepo narpanr. 3arem
ycrpannaer ropxecrnennym nepemonnm cnoe xnxrnt no +romy oronopy.
Bpaxecxn xnxst ysnaer o nepemonnn, nepnr, uro cnyrn ero npeann n xasnnr
nx.
B pyrom npnmepe Kon]ynn, ysnaer, uro morymecrnennoe rocyapcrno
Hn roronnr nanaenne na ero ponoe rocyapcrno Hy. On noctnaer cnoero
yuennxa, ncxycnoro n xpacnopeunn, n ror cnepna yronapnnaer Hn nanacrt ne na
Hy, a na V. 3arem yronapnnaer V nanacrt na Hn, a sarem Hsnnt nanacrt na V.
B pesyntrare rpn napcrna nommr mexy coo, a cnaoe rocyapcrno Hy
cnaceno or nanaennx.
B pyrom npnmepe npaxecxne arenrt pacnycxamr cnyx, yro
noenauantnnx xouer conepmnrt rocyapcrnennt nepenopor. Knxst nepnr n
xasnnr cnoero noenauantnnxa.
B pyrom npnmepe onnctnaercx, xax n anrycre 1944 r., xora Kpacnax
apmnx nomna n npnropot Bapmant, nontcxax nonontnax apmnx nonxna ram
noccranne n saxnarnna ropo. Ho onn xnnxnnct nonnrnuecxnmn npornnnnxamn
nontcxnx xommynncron, utx apmnx noomna x ropoy nmecre c conercxo.
Crannn npnxasan ocranonnrt nacrynnenne na Bapmany, n rontxo xora nemnt
nonnocrtm noannnn noccranne, conercxax apmnx nomna n ropo.
B pyrom npnmepe xnracxax ]npma onnxxom ononr o cneennx
xonrparenra, uro xxot paccmarpnnaer xonxypnpymmne npenoxennx. Taxnm
opasom ona ntraercx nanxsart naprnepam onee ntronte nx cex ycnonnx.
B pyrom npnmepe n xauecrne nnnmcrpannn x crparareme npnnonrcx 4
pncynxa. Ha nepnom uenonex, nosyxenno xecrnxynnpyx, pyraer pyroro
uenonexa, croxmero nepe nnm. Ha nropom pncynxe uenonex axe
nonptrnnaer or xpocrn. Ha rpertem on uyrt ne nonaercx or rnena, on
xpacnt, nonoct croxr tom. Ha nocnenem pncynxe on, oeccnnennt,

23
r. 1, c. 78
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cnnr na xoprouxax, rxxeno tma. Bce +ro npemx ero npornnnnx cronr
cnoxono, pyxecxn yntaxct n ne ronopx nn cnona.

Pesmue: repo cam ne nanocnr yapa on oprannsyer eno rax, uro yap
no npary nanocnrcx pyrnmn. On nocrannxer npara n onacnym cnryannm, no
yap. Hcnontsyer uyxym, ne cnom cnny nx noet na nparom.

qopuyna cumcnm
nse oonxnrt; ncnontsonart; es menx, nonpexn mne; ynorpenrt;
nocrponrtcx;
ao nox; cnryannx, ocroxrentcrna; cnna npara; uyxax cnna; ne mox
cnna; +nemenr cnryannn;
ma ynrt; cmeprt; ymep; ncuesnonenne; ymentmenne;
xent uenonex; neocrynnt npar; c xem cam ne mory cnanrt; nne
ocrynnocrn moero yapa;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; npar; cnnxxa cnryannn; neocrynnocrt nx
npara; cmeprentno onacnax cnryannx.

Onncanne cxeum: repo, cam naxoxct nne cnryannn, oprannsontnaer
cnnxxy cnryannn (nnn nonnocrtm cam crponr nonym cnryannm) raxnm
opasom, urot npar nonan n nee n ona crana nx npara cmeprentno.

Cxema 3

C1pa1areua N 4.

n n a nao
nocpecrnom noxo oxnart yromnennt

B noxoe (neexnnn) oxnart yromnennoro (npara)
24
.

Hpnuepm: B nepnom npnmepe nnrnpyercx rpaxrar VI-V nn. o n.+. Cynt-
nst o noennom ncxyccrne: Honnsocrn or nonx nrnt xart nymero
nsanexa npara; oroxnyn, oxnart ycranoro; nactrnnmnct, oxnart
rononoro
25
.
B pyrom npnmepe nonxonoen, cosan yrposy cronnne npornnnnxa,
nocxa xoroporo tnn anexo, ntpan nyxnoe mecro nx nrnt n cran xart
npornnnnxa. Ero nocxo oroxnyno n, xora yromnennt tcrptm mapmem
npornnnnx npnmen cnacart cnom cronnny, on pasrpomnn ero.
B pyrom npnmepe nonxonoen cnennantno orcrynan, enax nn, uro ero
nocxo tcrpo cnaeer n ymentmaercx. Hpornnnnx ocrannn cnon rnannte
cnnt n pocnncx nanerxe noronxy. Honxonoen, paccunrtnax na +ro, ocrannn
sacay n norynn npornnnnxa.
B pyrom npnmepe apmnx nsmartnana nanaammero npornnnnxa,
nymero no npaxeno reppnropnn, menxnmn nanaennxmn, a ocnonnte
uacrn ne ncrynann n o, noxa ne cosanact ntnrptmnax cnryannn.
B pyrom npnmepe nnrnpyercx Mao Hs+yn, xoropt n 16 nepornn]ax
nsnoxnn ]opmyny naprnsancxo nont:
Bpae uacmvnaem +i omcmvnae+,
Bpae ocmauoeu.c +i mpeeoru+,
Bpae vmo+u.c +i oie+,
Bpae omcmvnaem +i npec.eove+
26
.
B pyrom npnmepe nnrnpyercx Tparmam o 36 cmpamaee+ax:
cnntnoro npara cneyer ocnanxrt ycranocrtm
27
.

Pesmue: Araxymmn, axrnnnt npornnnnx rparnr ontme cnn. Iepo
sacrannxer npara pacxoonart cnnt eme o cronxnonennx, nocreperaer ero
nocne onroro nepexoa, nocne npeoonennx npenxrcrnn. Kax napnanr
repo ne pearnpyer na npetymne ecrnnx npara, rem camtm enax nx
eccmtcnenntmn.


24
r. 1, c. 105
25
r. 1, c. 106
26
r. 1, c. 109
27
r. 1, c. 110
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
qopuyna cumcnm
n nocpecrnom; ncnontsyx; ocymecrnnxx; ynorpenxx; npnmenxx;
n noxo; +xonomnrt, epeut cnnt; samnrnrtcx or rpart; xpannrt;
xoncepnnponart; ne opamart nnnmanne;
a oxnart; ntxnart; xart ncrpeun; xart npnxoxmero;
ntnynrt x ecrnnm; nomannrt; nocrepeut;
nao yromnennt; ocnanennt; nspacxoonart no opore; neocrarox,
nexnarxa; ytnart, ymentmartcx; rparnrt pecypc;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; npar; nsanmoecrnne c cnryanne;
ymentmartcx n macmrae; cnryannx nyrn; mecro repox.

Onncanne cxeum: Bpar rparnr pecypc nx roro, urot ncrynnrt n
cxnarxy n cranonnrcx cnaee repox (mentmero macmraa). Ero cnryannx
nepememenne n nsanmoecrnne c cnryanne, cnryannx repox noxo (n cnoem
mecre, cnoe nosnnnn).

Cxema 16.1

C1pa1areua N 5.

uent xo a nse
ncnontsonart noxap sannmartcx rpaex

Ipanrt no npemx noxapa
28
.

Hpnuepm: B nepnom npnmepe n monacrtpe nosnnx noxap. paxon,
npnnerenmn na nomomt monaxam, cnyuano ynnen n ono ns xomnar
paronennoe oexnne. Tyr xe cxnarnn ero n yneren.
B pyrom npnmepe xnxst onro xan cnyuax oromcrnrt sa nopaxenne.
Onaxt no npaxenom xnxxecrne nauanact sacyxa, ymep rnannt
nonxonoen, a nnacrnrent yexan n rocrn. Knxst ryr xe nanan n ynnuroxnn
npaxenoe rocyapcrno.
B pyrom npnmepe nxrt xnxxecrn oxasannct nonneuent n nony pyr c
pyrom. Tora pyroe xnxxecrno, nocnontsonanmnct +rnm, saxnarnno cocenee
rocyapcrno. B nno, mnpno cnryannn emy t ne nosnonnnn +roro cenart.
B pyrom npnmepe rocyapcrno, ocnanennoe nopaxennem n none,
pyrne rocyapcrna ntnyxamr saxnmuart nentronte oronopa.
B pyrom npnmepe nerpamornomy xpecrtxnnny cpouno tnn nyxnt
entrn. On sanxn y nomemnxa no onronym pacnncxy. Hosnee ntxcnnnoct,
uro n pacnncxe, no xoropo on nocrannn orneuarox nantna, on npoan sa
xpoxornym cymmy cnom nnemxnnnny.

Pesmue: Hcnontsonart npemennte rpynocrn npara nx nonyuennx
ntrot or nero (no ne oxsarentno noet) es npxmoro cronxnonennx. Hpn
+rom npar nsnauantno cnntnt, moxer trt axe neocrynnt nx
nanaennx. Xaoc, pasnan n nosnnnn npara ntsnant nocroponnnmn npnunnamn,
repom nao nmn nocnontsonartcx.

qopuyna cumcnm
uent ncnontsonart; ynorpenxrt; nontsonartcx nosnnxme
cnryanne;
xo noxap; xaoc; rpynoe nonoxenne; npemennax cnaocrt;
nnemnne nnn nnyrpennne nponemt; pasnan;
a sannmartcx; ecrnonart; ocymecrnnxrt;
nse rpanrt; ornpart, part cee; npncnannart; nonyuart
ntroy;


3neuen1m cxeum: repo; npar; cnryannx; npemer; ecrnne saxnara;
nsanmoecrnne npara c cnryanne.


28
r. 1, c. 111
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Onncanne cxeum: Bpar cpaxaercx c cnryanne, repo npncnannaer
npemer (ntroy) ns mecra npara.

Cxema 5

C1pa1areua N 6.

m+n yn nsn cn
mymert nocrox nanaart sana

Honxrt mym na nocroxe nanacrt na sanae
29
.

Hpnuepm: B nepnom npnmepe xnxxecrno Hsnn roronnr nocxo xxot x
nanaennm na rocyapcrno Hn. Onaxo xora pyroe xnxxecrno, Hnnt,
nposopnnno ntctnaer nocxa nx samnrt cnonx rpannn, Hsnn npexpamaer
noennte npnroronnennx.
B pyrom npnmepe apmnx xnxxecrna uy sanepra n ropoe c nyx cropon
nymx apmnxmn npemenno oennnnmnxcx xnxxecrn Hn n Xant. Tora
noenauantnnx ocaxenntx nsopasnn axrnnnoe coomenne c xantcxo apmne
- orxptn nopora nanpornn nx nosnnn, nent ent ram nnrannct nocxa, no
nouam ropenn ]axent. Apmnx Hn ncnyranact, uro uy n Xant saxnmuar coms n
oromna or ropoa.
B pyrom npnmepe npornnnnx sanxn nosnnnm na npornnononoxnom
epery pexn, copan n yronnn nce noxn n nocroxnno narpynnpyer eper.
Tora nonxonoen nocrannn cno narept npxmo nanpornn npornnnnxa,
nocroxnno nn n apaant n nsopaxan ypnym exrentnocrt no nororonxe
nepenpant. Tem npemenem ero rnannte cnnt rano ymnn anexo nont pexn n
nepenpannnnct.
B pyrom npnmepe nonxonoen, nanmax sa ocaxenntmn nparamn,
nauan noxnoe nacrynnenne na ropo. Kora ocaxennte nce pocnnnct na
samnry crent, on nanan c pyro cropont n nomen n ropo.
B pyrom npnmepe Kpacnax apmnx nanana na naxnt ropo
uanxamncron, cosan nneuarnenne ontmoro nacrynnennx. 3arem nononnna
cnn Kpacno apmnn nnesanno orcrynnna, tcrpo npomna 130 mnnt n sanxna
pyro crparernuecxn naxnt ropo.
B pyrom npnmepe nnrnpyercx crartx Mao Hs+yna Bonpoci
cmpameeuu peeo.muouuo eoui e Kumae (1936): Mt moxem ntstnart
npomaxn npornnnnxa n ncxyccrnenno, nyrem roro, uro Cynt-nst nastnan
cosannem nnnmocrn (cosanart nnnmocrt na nocroxe, a yap nanecrn na
sanae,)
30
.
B pyrom npnmepe pasonnxn, sacenmne na rope n rpynonpoxonmo
mecrnocrn n ocaxennte nocxamn, ycrpannamr mymnte ntnasxn ro na
sananom, ro na nocrounom cxnone. Inannte cnnt conar meuyrcx noxpyr ropt
n nx cnnt tcrpo ncromamrcx.

Pesmue: Iepo onennnaer nce npemx cnryannm nennxom (snaer npo
npara, xax on pearnpyer). On ocymecrnnxer nmnrannm, noxnte ecrnnx

29
r. 1, c. 119
30
r. 1, c. 126
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
(mym), sacrannxmmne npara omnouno ecrnonart. Hocne +roro nanocnr yap
(ocymecrnnxer nnoe ecrnne) n nnom mecre.

qopuyna cumcnm
m+n mymert; noxnte ecrnnx; nocontnanne; oman; orno rnas;
sacrannrt omnnrtcx; esnn]opmannx;
yn nocrox; pyrax saaua; noxnax nent; pyroe mecro; ]antmnnxa;
nsn nanaart; ecrnne; yap; nanecenne ymepa
cn sana; nacroxmee mecro; pyrax uacrt npara; nent; nacroxmee
ecrnne;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; npar; noxnoe ecrnne; ecrnne;
pe]nexcnnnax nosnnnx.

Hpnnnnn: n +ro crparareme naxno, uro repo naxonrcx ononpemenno
n nyx nosnnnxx ecrnymmero n cnryannn n nnxmero cnryannm
nennxom. Bropym nosnnnm mt yem nastnart pe]nexcnnno no ornomennm
x cnryannn ecrnnx. Iepo cnocoen sanxrt +ry nosnnnm, noromy uro nnnr
n onennnaer n cnryannn n cnon ecrnnx n nonoxenne, n ecrnnx n
nonoxenne npara. Tem camtm repo moxer ocymecrnnrt ocmtcnennte
ecrnnx, nyxnte nx noet. Koneuno, ]nsnuecxoe reno repox rontxo
ono, pe]nexcnnnax nosnnnx na cxeme ecrt rontxo nsopaxenne nonnmannx
repox.
Koncrpyxnnx, noxastnammax +ror mera-cmtcn: ne nosnnnn, cnxsannt
ronxo ocrpo nynanpannenno crpenxo, pe]nexcnnnym nosnnnm (mt ee
yem nomeuart snesouxo *) naxonrcx no nnemnem npocrpancrne no
ornomennm x nosnnnn, ocymecrnnxmme ecrnne.
Cxema 6.0

Tenept, na ocnone +ro cxemt-npnnnnna, moxno crponrt cxemy
crpararemt.

Onncanne cxeum: Ho ornomennm x npary repoem ocymecrnnxercx 2
pasntx ecrnnx: nmnrannx ecrnnx (mym) n ncrnnnoe, cocrnenno
ecrnne. Iepo ecrnyer, naxoxct ononpemenno n nyx nosnnnxx
cocrnenno nosnnnn ecrnnx n pe]nexcnnno (onennnamme ncm cnryannm
nennxom). Bpar pearnpyer (nanocnr yap) no nanpannennm myma, nocne
+roro repo nanocnr yap no npary.

Cxema 6.1


Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
C1pa1areua N 7.

y uxyn m+n m
netrne nyrpo nosnnxnyrt, nsnneut trne

Hs nep netrnx nosnnxaer trne; ns nnuro nosnnxaer neuro. Hsnneut ns
nnuero neuro
31
.

Hpnuepm: B nepnom npnmepe noenauantnnx, ocaxennt n ropoe,
npnxasan noutm co cren cnycxart na nepenxax conomenntx xyxon, noxoxnx na
nme. Ocaxammne octnann nx crpenamn. Ocaxennte nonxnn xyxon n
nsxnn cee crpent. B cneymmn pas no crenam crann cnycxartcx nacroxmne
nonnt. Ocaxammne pemnnn, uro nx onxrt xorxr omanyrt, ne crann
pearnponart, nonnt nanann na narept npara n noennn.
B pyrom npnmepe rnana noccranmnx noxnatnan cee uyecnte
npnmert n noctnan nme, nepeoertx npnspaxamn, noutm ntxpnxnnart
npopouecrna n cnom nontsy. Tem camtm on npnnnex n cnom apmnm nme.
B pyrom npnmepe npopouecrna o yymem nape tnn ntpesant na
nncrtxx epenten n pasnocnnnct noo. Tax o nnx crano mnpoxo nsnecrno.
B pyrom npnmepe crpancrnymmn mypen npenaraer xnxsm npnnesrn
ns antne crpant xpacnntx xenmnn, sarem rano coomaer o +rom xenam
xnxsx. Xent nyramrcx conepnnn n rano nnarxr mypeny, urot on +roro ne
enan. Mypen no npemx npomantnoro nnpa nnnr xen xnxsx xxot n nepnt
pas n ronopnr, uro onn camte xpacnnte na cnere, orxastnaxct npnnosnrt
pyrnx xpacannn.
B pyrom npnmepe xena, xenax noxasart myxy, xro ero ncrnnnte
pystx, a xro npnrnopxercx nx ntrot, crannr myxa xxot n cmeprentnym
onacnocrt. Ona nopactnaer emy noxnt rpyn uenonexa (ynrym coaxy). B
xpnrnuecxo cnryannn (nomout trt onnnenntm n coyuacrnn n yncrne)
nce npoxnnxmr cnoe ncrnnnoe ornomenne x myxy.
B pyrom npnmepe myx, urot nomnpnrt xeny n cnexpont, oemaer
xene orpannrt cnom mart, no, urot nnxro nnuero ne sanoospnn, xena
onxna necxontxo neent xnrt co cnexpontm n mnpe n cornacnn. Xena
cornamaercx. Onaxo, ee ycrynxn (nonauany nencxpennne) ntsnann
ncrpeunte ycrynxn n nocrenenno xenmnnt nopyxnnnct.
B pyrom npnmepe no+ra pocamr n rmptmy sa crnxn, n xoroptx
nexoropte crpoxn xxot ocxopnxnn nmneparopcxn nop.
B pyrom npnmepe uenonexa ocyxamr sa ro, uro: n ero paore
Cnxmennte neant ro n eno ronopnrcx o npo]eccnn mopennanarenx,
nerunxa, yuenoro, nncarenx, nnxenepa, yunrenx n nnxora peut ne ner o
paounx, xpecrtxnax n conarax
32
.

31
r. 1, c. 129
32
r.1, c. 152
B pyrnx npnmepax uenonexa onnnxmr n npecrynnennn nourn es
ncxxnx ocnonann, na ocnonannn nenponepenno cnnernn nnn axe c
]opmynnponxo, uro npecrynnenne npenonoxnrentno, nannno (mo cm
m).
B pyrom npnmepe nnrnpyercx nsanne no crpararemam: cnyxn nmemr
ontmoe snauenne nx ycrpamennx. C nomomtm nemnornx cnon moxno
ycrponrt rax, uro t repo cnoxnn opyxne n axe urot uenonex noxonunn c
coo.
33


Pesmue: Iepo enaer noxnte, omannte ecrnnx. Onaxo npar
cunraer nx nacroxmnmn n orneuaer na nnx rax, xax n onxen nocrynart, n
repo noexaer. Hnn: repo nycxaer cnyxn (xnenery, nnn noxt, nnn
npecxasannx), xoroptm nepxr n na ocnone xoroptx enamr peantnte
ecrnnx xoropte coornercrnymr nenxm repox. T.e. ncrnnnte nenn repox
ocrnramrcx peaxnne npara (pyrnx nme) na noxnte ecrnnx (moxer
trt cnona, xnenery) repox.
nx nonnmannx crpararemt naxno samernrt, uro sect npar - ror, xoro
repo omantnaer n xoropt ocymecrnnxer ecrnnx, nyxnte repom, a ne ror,
xro moxer nocrpaart n pesyntrare raxnx ecrnn. Hanpnmep, n nocnennx
npnmepax npar - re, xro nepnr xnenere n no+romy xasnnr nennnnoro.


qopuyna cumcnm
y nnuro; netrne; nycrora; ]antmnnxa; npante; cnyxn, xnenera;
orcyrcrnne ]axron;
uxyn nyrpo; ocnonanne nx ntnoon; ocnonanne nx nept; rnnonte
cxemt cosnannx; crepeornnnte cxemt ecrnnx (peaxnnn);
m+n nosnnxnyrt; nsnneut; camo noxnnnoct; cenart eno; onrtcx
cnoe nenn; nepennrepnpernponart;
m neuro, trne; nacroxmne ecrnnx; nsmenenne cnryannn;
peantnax cnryannx; nent; xenaemoe;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; noxnax cnryannx; nacroxmax cnryannx;
uenoneuecxne crepeornnt; ecrnnx npara (nnn nsmenenne cnryannn).

Hpnnnnn: n +ro crparareme naxno, uro ecrt npannna peaxnnn, n
coornercrnnn c xoroptmn ecrnyer npar. urot noxasart nannune +rnx
npannn, n cxeme onxno trt na npocrpancrna npocrpancrno peantntx
ecrnn n npocrpancrno crepeornnon, nopm, cranapron, rnnontx ecrnn,
saxpennenntx n xyntrype n npeonpeenxmmnx nonnmanne nparom cnryannn.
Koncrpyxnnx, noxastnammax +ror mera-cmtcn: na npocrpancrna,
pasenenntx nnnne. Hpocrpancrno xyntrypntx nopm yem nomeuart

33
r. 1, c. 157.
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
xnpno N. Perynnpymmne ecrnnx nopm na exrentnocrt yem oosnauart
crpenxo c xpyxxom na xonne.

N
Hopru.
Rpueuku,
Cfepeofunu
Cxema 7.0

Tenept, na ocnone +ro cxemt-npnnnnna, moxno crponrt cxemy
crpararemt.

Onncanne cxeum: repo ]opmnpyer noxnym cnryannm (netrne).
Bpar coornocnr ee co cranapramn n nocnpnnnmaer ee xax cranaprnym. Ha
ocnonannn +roro nonnmannx cnryannn npar ocymecrnnxer ecrnnx rax, xax
onxen n coornercrnnn c +rnmn cranapramn n nonaaer n nyxnym repom
peantnym cnryannm.
Cxema 7.1
N
Hopru.
Rpueuku,
cfepeofunu

C1pa1areua N 8.


ant y u+nt nan
rano ntcrynart u+nt nan
Tano ntcrynnrt n u+ntnan.

Hnora raxxe 8 nepornn]on:
mnn cm uxant ao ant y u+nt nan
nnnmo noccranannn-
nart
epeno mocr-
xn
rano ntcry-
nart
u+nt nan

nx nna unnnrt epenxnnte mocrxn, rano ntcrynnrt n u+ntnan
34
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe, or xoroporo tna cenana ]opmynnponxa
crpararemt, napt nasnauaer onacnomy nonxonony nx xnxxennx antnmm
nponnnnnm. Tor, yxox co cnonm nocxom n ntenennym onacrt, cxnraer sa
coo mocrxn uepes ropnte ymentx emoncrpnpyx, uro ne conpaercx
nosnpamartcx c apmne (saono samnmaxct +rnm or nosmoxnoro
neoxnannoro nanaennx). 3arem, xora nacrynnn yont momenr nx
noccrannx, naunnaer unnnrt mocrxn xxot nx nanaennx. Ho urot nx
nounnnrt, nao ouent mnoro npemenn, no+romy npar ne ecnoxonrcx. Tem
npemenem on c apmne oxonr ropt n nanaaer.
B pyrom npnmepe no npemx noennoro noxoa xnxst oxnnn o
ecxrnnennom ortxe, xoropt tn nx nero otuntm. Bpar nonepnn, a
xnxst nnesanno nanan.
B pyrom npnmepe no npemx xnracxo-nternamcxo nont nauana 1979 r.
xnrant ntxcnnnn, uro nternamnt, yunrtnax otunt xnracxn manenp
oxonrt npornnnnxa c ]nanron, rano cnannn ]nanrn cnoe oopont
ycnnenno orneno momtm n mnnntmn nonxmn. Tora xnracxne nocxa
nanann c ]ponra n npnnenn npara n nonnoe samemarentcrno.
B pyrom npnmepe xenmnna, no npenorom nomomn crapo
pocrnennnne, ncrpeuaercx c nmonnnxom.
B pyrom npnmepe nnrnpyercx xnnra no crpararemam, re pasxcnxercx,
uro npn nponeennn ornnexammero ecrnnx nanpannenne spennx n cnyxa
uenonexa orxnonxercx n cropony, orxya nosnnxaer cnoonoe npocrpancrno, n
xoropoe neoxnanno nptnaercx nerep r.e., nonnomaercx conepmenno pyroe
namepenne.

Pesmue: repo conepmaer otunte (ecrecrnennte, omenpnnxrte)
ecrnnx, macxnpyx nmn nororonxy neotuntx, xoropte ocymecrnnxmrcx
nnesanno.


34
r. 1, c. 158
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
qopuyna cumcnm
mnn nx nna; ne ocnonnoe; noxt; ornnexammn manenp; pasnexa
oem;
cm noccranannnnart; unnnrt; nopmantnt pexnm; oxnaemoe nparom
ecrnne ecrnnrentno enart; ecrnonart no xanony;
uxan epeno; peantno cymecrnymmee; cnocrno nyrn;
ao mocrxn; nyrt; oexr ecrnnx;
ant rano; pyroe mecro; pyroe ecrnne; neoxnanno;
y ntcrynnrt; ocymecrnnrt ecrnne; onnartcx xenaemoro;
u+ntnan mecro u+ntnan; ncxonax nent; xoneunt pesyntrar ecrnnx;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; npar; ecrnnx-xanon; cnryannx; pyroe
ecrnne-neoxnannocrt; ntxo sa npeent cnryannn.

Onncanne cxeum: Iepo, ecrnyx perynxpno, n coornercrnnn c
cnryanne, nanaaer na npara. Onaxo ononpemenno c +rnm on enaer pyroe
ecrnne, ntxoxmee sa rpannnt cnryannn (neperynxpnoe, ne no xanony), no
raxxe neymee x nenn (yap no npary).

Cxema 8

C1pa1areua N 9.

r+ ant ryant xo
npornnononoxnt eper nanmart oront

Hanmart oront c npornnononoxnoro epera
35
.
nnn
nso mant ryant xy oy
cnert ropa nanmart rnrp nrna

Cnx na rope, nanmart sa opto rnrpon
36
.

Hpnuepm: B nepnom npnmepe xnxst Hao Hao ne cran npecneonart
nparon, xoropte namnn yexnme y pyroro xnxsx, tnmero panee nparom n
nm, n Hao Hao. Ecnn t on nanan na nnx, onn t oennnnnct npornn Hao
Hao, no on ocrannn nx n noxoe, n ncxope pyro xnxst ynn npnmemnx x
nemy noenauantnnxon.
B pyrom npnmepe apmnx ocaxana ropo, n xoropom tno ouent mnoro
nocx, no mano npoyxron. Ocaxammne ne npenpnnnmann nnuero n
ocaxennte nauann cpaxartcx pyr c pyrom sa npoonontcrnne, n ncxope
cannct.
B pyrom npnmepe xnxst, npxuact, nanmaer sa rnrpamn,
noxnpammnmn txa. On ne nanaaer na nnx, ntxnax, xora onn
nepeepyrcx. Bcxope onn naunnamr partcx, onn rnner, pyro panen. Tora
xnxst nanaaer n ynnaer nroporo rnrpa.
B pyrom npnmepe Mao Hs+yn onnnxer n 1939 r. sananym ypxyasnm
n nontrxe crpannrt CCCP n Iepmannm, urot onn ncromnnn pyr pyra, a
camnm nanmart sa nrno rnrpon.

Pesmue: repo cnenr sa opto nparon, n xoropo onn nornner, a
pyro ncromnrcx, npn +rom camomy roronnrtcx nanacrt. Iepo npncyrcrnyer
n cnryannn, nparn moryr snart nnn ne snart o +rom, no ne oxnamr or nero
nanaennx n cnoxr pyr c pyrom cuert.

qopuyna cumcnm
r+ npornnononoxnt; neocrynnt; nnnmt, no nne
ocrnxnmocrn; neyxsnnmt; samnmennt;
ant eper; ropa; yxptrne; pyroe mecro;
ryant nanmart; ne nmemnnartcx, no npncyrcrnonart; oxastnart
nnnxnne cnoe nnsocrtm, no ne ecrnnem; cymecrnonart pxom;
trt n cnryannn, no nne npxmoro nsanmoecrnnx;
xo oront; opta nparon; cmeprentnax cxnarxa;

35
r. 1, c. 174
36
r. 1, c. 179
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; opta nparon; pyroe mecro; omax
cnryannx; neocrynnocrt; snart ncm cnryannm.

Onncanne cxeum: repo naxonrcx n ro xe cnryannn, uro n na npara,
cpaxammnxcx mexy coo, no neocrnxnm nx nnx, moxer trt axe
nennnm. Hnn onn ero nnxr, no ne snamr ero namepenn. Cnonm
npncyrcrnnem moxer nnnxrt na cnryannm optt, nanmaer, no ne
ecrnyer.
Cxema 9

C1pa1areua N 10.

A) ]opmynnponxa A
cxo nn nan ao
yntxa n cxptnart xnnxan

Cxptnart sa yntxo xnnxan.
F) ]opmynnponxa F
xoy mn ]y nsxnt
por me xnnor meu

Bo pry me, sa nasyxo meu
37
.

Hpnuepm: B nepnom npnmepe paccxastnaercx o canonnnxe, xoropt
ncem yntancx n npecrannxncx xporxnm n cxpomntm, onaxo crpemnncx
norynrt ncex, xro xort n uem-ro npornnocroxn emy.
B pyrom npnmepe xnxst ns ux+n npenaraer cocenemy xnxsm
rocyapcrna Xy, norennnantnomy oexry saxnara, cnom out n xent. Kpome
roro, xora na noennom conere onn ns mnnncrpon npenaraer nanacrt na Xy,
oesrnannnnaer +roro mnnncrpa. Knxst Xy nonepnn n pyxy n pocrno n
nepecran saornrtcx o rpannne c ux+n. Bnesanno xnxst ux+n nanan n
ynnuroxnn rocyapcrno Xy.
B pyrom npnmepe norepnenmn nopaxenne xnxst, nmecro roro, urot
exart, caercx n nnen n oraer nce cnon coxponnma. 3arem rpn roa camtm
ynnxenntm opasom cnyxnr noenrenm. Kora ror ornycxaer ero omo,
rano roronnr penanm n, naxonen, nanaaer.
B pyrom npnmepe ocaxennte noctnamr nparam ntxyn n cornamamrcx
na nmte ycnonnx xannrynxnnn. Kora nparn nnxymr, nnesanno ntcrynamr ns
ropoa n nanaamr.
B pyrom npnmepe nennxn nonxonoen, cronxnynmnct c cnntno
oopono, enaer nn, uro saonen n yxonr n orcranxy. Ero npnemnnx
noctnaer npary noapxn n ntcrnnoe nnctmo. Bpar ocnanxer oopony,
nonxonoen nanaaer.

Pesmue: repo ntcrnr, noompxer, emoncrpnpyer noxntnocrt n
cocrnennym esonnocrt, rem camtm yctnnxer nrentnocrt n nseraer
ynnuroxennx. Bo ncem coecrnyer npary r.e. naxonrcx n sone ero nnnxnnx.
Tem npemenem rano roronnrcx x nanaennm (nanpaercx cnn). Bpar nepecraer
onacartcx, pasopyxaercx, cnnmaer samnry. Hocne +roro repo nanaaer.
Ornomennx nounnennocrn ocramrcx, noxa cnyua nanacrt ne npecrannrcx.


37
r. 1, c. 184
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
qopuyna cumcnm +neuen1m cxeum
cxo yntxa; ecrnnx, naronpnxrnte nx
npara; noompenne, noepxxa; cnxrne
npaxt; emoncrpannx nounnennoro
nonoxennx;

nn n; nnyrpn; sa ]antmnanentm; naunnxa;
nropo nnan;
nan cxptnart; cnpxrano; samacxnponano;
nennnmo; nororannnnart;
ao xnnxan; yap; ecrnne; nanaenne;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; npar; ecrnnx sa; trt n ynpannennn;
ecrnnx npornn; pyroe mecro; roronnrtcx.

Hpnnnnn: Bo-nepntx, sect y repox ecrt ne exrentnocrnte nosnnnn
ononpemenno on naxonrcx n ynpannennn y npara n, n ro xe npemx,
roronnr n ocymecrnnxer pyrne ecrnnx, nanpannennte npornn npara. 3ro
nsopaxaercx nymx nosnnnxmn, cnxsanntmn ronxo nynanpannenno
crpenxo. npnuem nnemnxx nosnnnx repox, xax n n crparareme 6 nonxrt mym
na nocroxe nanacrt na sanae, pe]nexcnnnax repo nnnr n anannsnpyer
ncm cnryannm nennxom.
Bo-nroptx, ro, uro repo naxonrcx n ynpannennn, nsopaxaercx
nxnmuennem repox no nnyrpennmm onacrt nosnnnn npara, nnn n mecro
npara. Ho mecrom mt sect yem nonnmart nosnnnm, nxnmuammym n cex
ecrnnx, nenn, ocroxrentcrna, npemert (n rom uncne nme-nounnenntx)
]axrnuecxn, cnepnyrym nnunym cnryannm. Ee ocoennocrt n rom, uro ona
nonnocrtm xonrponnpyercx nosnnnonepom (n annom cnyuae nparom). Tor
nosnnnonep, utx +ro cnryannx, nomeuaercx ynpannxmme crpenxo.
Koncrpyxnnx, noxastnammax +ror mera-cmtcn: onan, nnepxy
nosnnnonep, utx +ra onacrt ynpannennx. Bnnsy ror nosnnnonep, xem
ynpannxmr, nosmoxno pyrne +nemenrt (ecrnnx, npemert, nente
cnryannn).
Cxema 10.0


Tenept, na ocnone +ro cxemt-npnnnnna, moxno crponrt cxemy
crpararemt.

Onncanne cxeum: Iepoem ocymecrnnxmrcx ecrnnx sa, n rom xe
nanpannennn, n noepxxy. Iepo n ynpannennn (no nnnxnnn) y npara. B
pyrom npocrpancrne (nennnmom nx npara), roronxrcx ecrnnx npornn,
nosmoxnt yap no npary.

Cxema 10.1

Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
C1pa1areua N 11.

nn a rao nsxn
cnnnonoe epeno nmecro nepcnxonoe epeno sacoxnyrt

Cnnnonoe epeno sactxaer nmecro nepcnxonoro
38
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe, or xoroporo tna cenana ]opmynnponxa
crpararemt, cnnnonoe n nepcnxonoe epentx pacryr pxom. Kora npnxoxr
nacexomte n naunnamr rptsrt xopnn nepcnxonoro epena, cnnnonoe epeno
oraer nmecro nero cnon xopnn n sactxaer nmecro nepcnxonoro epena.
B pyrom npnmepe par npnnna, snax, uro no npnxasy orna na roro
onxnt nanacrt ynnt, ntaer cex sa npnnna. Haemnnxn ynnamr ero.
(Onaxo n antnemem cam npnnn, ns ctnone nournrentnocrn ne xenax
napymart nonm orna, opamaercx x ynnam co cnonamn: 3ro menx nt
onxnt tnn ynrt! Vnnamr n ero roxe).
B pyrom npnmepe romnntanoncxn renepan, na ocnonannn
nenponepenno nn]opmannn o ncrynnennn xnonnen n ropo, noxor ero.
Hornno o 30 rtc. uenonex. Kora ero npnsnann x ornery, on yronopnn pyrnx
renepanon, cnonx nounnenntx, nsxrt nnny na cex, oemax, uro ecnn
ocranercx na cnooe, on cmoxer cnacrn ncex. Onaxo, npnexan n cranxy,
onnnnn nounnenntx no ncem, onpanan cex n nacroxn na nx paccrpene.
B pyrom npnmepe xpynnoe xnxxecrno Hnnt npenoxnno manentxomy
xnxxecrny Xant nmecre nanacrt na pyroe xpynnoe xnxxecrno, uy. Kora xe
Xant nontranoct coxpannrt nerpannrer, Hnnt nanano na nero camoro. Tora
Xant cornacnnoct orart Hnnt cno xpynnt ropo, n nmecre c Hnnt nanacrt
na uy, npnmennn crpararemy cnnnonoe epeno (uy) sactxaer nmecro
nepcnxonoro (Xant). Onaxo conernnx xnxsx uy noconeronan romy npnmennrt
+ry xe crpararemy npornn Xant. On nanpannn n Xant nocnon n noapxn n
yronopnn xnxsx Xant nsmennrt comsy c Hnnt, oeman cnntnym apmnm n
nomomt. Kora xe pasrnenannt nsmeno xnxst ns Hnnt cran rpomnrt Xant,
uy rontxo enano nn, uro conpaercx nomorart. B pesyntrare Xant tno
pasrpomneno (crano cnnno), nocxa Hnnt nonecnn norepn n ne nmenn cnn
nanacrt na uy (nepcnxonoe epeno) n ymnn omo.
B pyrom npnmepe noenauantnnx xeprnyer cnao uacrtm cnoero
nocxa, urot cepxart npornnnnxa, a rem npemenem cnntnax uacrt oxpyxaer
npornnnnxa n noexaer.
B pyrom npnmepe n nrpe n n+nn (ananor nrpt ro) pexomenyercx
nrn na manym norepm reppnropnn, ecnn ona cynnr ontmoe npnoperenne
reppnropnn.

Pesmue: Iepo cranonnrcx n onacnym cnryannm nmecro pyroro. 3ect
naxnt acnexr, uro +ra xeprna ocymecrnnxercx oponontno. Hnn repo

38
r.1, c. 193
nocrannxer nmecro nennoro npemera n onacnym cnryannm pyro npemer,
menee nennt nx repox. Ha +rom na xeprne crpararema saxanunnaercx.

qopuyna cumcnm
nn cnnnonoe epeno; menee nennoe; xeprna; pyro; nennnonnt;
mentmax uacrt; norepnenmn; nponrpanmn
a nmecro; samena; nocranonxa; oman; noxeprnonart; yxo;
rao nepcnxonoe epeno; nennocrt; ontmax uacrt; oexr nanaennx;
nnnonnt; ntxnnmn; noenrent;
nsxn sacoxnyrt; cmeprt; ymep; nanaenne; yrposa; nopaxenne;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; npar; pyro; onacnocrt; yxo ns cnryannn;
npnxo n cnryannm.

Hpnnnnn: sect, necomnenno, ecrt pe]nexcnnnax nosnnnx, rax xax
repo ne npocro ecrnyer, a paoraer co nce cnryanne n nenom. Bropo
mera-cmtcn n crparareme npnnnnn ananca. pyro nosnnnonep yxonr ns
onacnocrn repo npnxonr. Koncrpyxnnx, noxastnammax +rn mera-cmtcnt:

Cxema 11.0


Tenept, na ocnone +ro cxemt-npnnnnna, moxno crponrt cxemy
crpararemt.

Onncanne cxeum: xnmuenoe cotrne cxemt samena nennoro (pyroro)
na menee nennoe (repox) n cnryannn onacnocrn. Iepo ne npocro npnxonr n
onacnym cnryannm, on nnnr nce nennxom ns pe]nexcnnno nosnnnn n
ocymecrnnxer ecrnne sament (nocranonxn cex).


Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Cxera 11.1

C1pa1areua N 12

mynt moy nxnt xn
nerxn pyxa ynecrn onna

Vnecrn onny nerxo pyxo.
39


Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe Hapt oestxn, nocnontsonanmnct rem, uro
monaxn roronnnn npecrynnenne n pasnenn xocrep, ynyn n oparnn nnamx n
nyxnym cee cropony.
B pyrom npnmepe napt noenan n antnnx onacrxx n ne mor cnenrt sa
cnopno reppnropne. pyro xnxst sanxn ee es rpya.
B pyrom npnmepe xnxst, nocnontsonanmnct npocto pyroro
xnxxecrna o nomomn, nnen na ero reppnropnm manentxn orpx, xoropt
ntxnan n ne npnnnman yuacrnx n oentx ecrnnxx. Kora nce nommmne
ncromnnn pecypct, on saxnarnn uacrt reppnropnn tnmero comsnnxa.
B pyrom npnmepe cnacammncx or ynronmnxon nmneparop pacctnaer
na opore paronennocrn. Bonnt pocamrcx nx conpart (ynonrt onny),
satn o norone sa nmneparopom.
B pyrom npnmepe nexoropte nmn ynpexamrcx n rom, uro nnuero ne
enamr nx pemennx nponem, a xora ona cama coo pemaercx, nerxo
pyxo cptnamr nepcnx.
B pyrom npnmepe n naprnno npecce ronopnrcx: yxpacrt ro, uro
nnoxo nexnr +ro nastnaercx nerxo pyxo ynecrn onny.
B pyrom npnmepe n ranantcxo xnnre no crpararemam nouepxnnaercx,
uro ycnonnem ynoa onnt xnnxercx nesamernocrt n ecnpenxrcrnennocrt.

Pesmue: Bocnontsonartcx cnyuano orxptnmecx nosmoxnocrtm
nonyunrt otuy. Cenart +ro nerxo, cpasy. Bcera trt rorontm x romy,
urot samernrt n ncnontsonart cnyua n cnom nontsy nnn npemennym
cnaocrt npara, nnn cnyuanym otuy na oounne, nnn nosmoxnocrt yxpacrt,
nnn npnnncart cee uyxne sacnyrn.

qopuyna cumcnm
mynt nerxn; roront xo ncemy; pasnocroponnn; rnxn; nocroxnno
ornxtnammncx no croponam n noncxax otun;
moy pyxa; cocrnennax cnna; ecrnne;
nxnt ynecrn; sapart; npncnonrt; npnnncart cee; noenrt; yxpacrt;
xn onna; cnyuant ntnrptm; otua; nennocrt;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; roronnocrt x cnyuanocrn; ecrnnx pasnte;
otua; npncnonrt.


39
r. 2, c. 220
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Hpnnnnn: Ono ns xnmuentx nonxrn (mera-cmtcn) crpararemt
roronnocrt x cnyuanomy. 3ry nerxocrt, nocroxnnym roronnocrt
ocymecrnnrt nmoe ecrnne, mt moxem noxasart nannunem y repox
nocroxnntx xnasn-ecrnn, nanpannenntx no nne, nnenenentx, npocro xax
t omyntnammnx oxpyxammee npocrpancrno.
Koncrpyxnnx, noxastnammax +ror mera-cmtcn:
Cxema 12.0


Tenept, na ocnone +ro cxemt-npnnnnna, moxno crponrt cxemy
crpararemt.

Onncanne cxeum: Cxema crpararemt pncyercx xax ycnemnoe
cnyuanoe ecrnne no npncnoennm xaxoro-ro npemera nne nocroxnno
ocymecrnnxemtx perynxpntx ecrnn.



C1pa1areua N 13.

a nao nsnn m+
nrt rpana cnyrnyrt smex

Fnrt no rpane, urot cnyrnyrt smem
40
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe xnrenn noann xanoy nauantnnxy yesa
na ero nounnennoro. Hauantnnx, xoropt cam tn sameman n +rnx
npocrynxax, nanncan: nt eme rontxo nocryuann no rpane, a x yxe nooen
ncnyrnyro smee.
B pyrom npnmepe monoo uenonex enaer nn, uro onennnaer
nmymecrno cnonx eserntx xn n rern (cnoe yymee nacnecrno).
Fesernax rerx npnmna n xpocrt n cenana ro, uero n xorenn onrtcx
nnemxnnnx n xx paspemnna myxy nsxrt nanoxnnny nx poxennx
saxonnoro nacnennxa.
B pyrom npnmepe conernnx xnxsx, urot noynrt roro xennrtcx na
nmonnnne, paccxastnaer napm ns cocenero, ropaso onee cnntnoro
rocyapcrna o ee xpacore. Tor noxenan ee. Conernnx coomnn o +rom cnoemy
xnxsm. Tora xnxst nemenenno xennncx na nmonnnne, urot nsexart
nosmoxnoro rpeonannx orart xenmnny (xeny norpeonart tno
nenpnnnuno).
B pyrom npnmepe napt npnrnacnn crponrnnoro xnxsx n cronnny, xxot
nx cnatt co cnoe cecrpo. Ha camom ene on xoren saxnarnrt ero n nnen n
norpeonart orart xpynnt ropo. Ho xnxst (no conery cnoero conernnxa)
oprannsonan mnpoxym nynnunym nororonxy x cnate eme o cnoero
npnesa n cronnny, nsnecrnn n mart napx n pyrnx crapmnx pocrnennnxon.
Mart napx cnepna ynnnnact, sarem, ysnan o samtcne ctna, nosmyrnnact n
norpeonana ne nosopnrt cecrpy, ncnontsyx ee xax npnmanxy. Hapm npnmnoct
ecrnnrentno orart cecrpy n xent n, nocne cnatt, ornycrnrt xnxsx.
B pyrom npnmepe ontrnt noenauantnnx ornycxaer xpaporo o]nnepa
no ero npocte c neontmnm orpxom nnepe, na npara. Kora ror nonaaer n
sacay, ocnonnte cnnt apmnn ocrannct nent.
B pyrom npnmepe crpararema 13 onpeenxercx xax pnropnuecxax
xnrpocrt. Pexomenyercx n xpnrnuecxom pasronope ronopnrt xoporxne,
npononnpymmne, paspaxammne npornnnnxa sameuannx. B orner na nnx on
yer ntcxastnartcx n pacxpoer cnon ncrnnnte mtcnn.
B pyrom npnmepe pexomenyercx ne araxonart mantmn cnnamn, es
nororonxn, urot ne nacropoxnrt npornnnnxa.

Pesmue: npar saxptr or repox, repo ne snaer, re npar (nnn xaxon on), n
cnonmn ecrnnxmn, nanpannenntmn ne nnpxmym na npornnnnxa, a cxopee na
ero oxpyxenne (nnn noxntmn) ntnyxaer npara pacxptrt cnon cnnt,

40
r. 1, c. 233
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
ocymecrnnrt xaxne-ro ecrnnx, ntnesrn na nonepxnocrt. Hpn +rom ecrnne
ocymecrnnxercx nanxo - r.e. camomy naxoxct nne sont nosmoxnoro
ornernoro yapa npara, onaxo nnx ncm cnryannm.

qopuyna cumcnm
a nrt; ecrnonart; araxonart; paspaxart; npononnponart;
yrpoxart;
nao rpana; cocrnennax cnryannx; oxpyxenne (cnnra, pocrnennnxn);
uyncrna, +monnn;
nsnn cnyrnyrt; ntnynrt ecrnonart; pacxptrt, noxasart cex;
araxonart
m+ smex; npar; sarannmncx; cnpxranmncx;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; npar; cnryannx npara; ecrnnx repox;
ecrnnx npara; nnemnxx nx npara cnryannx.

Onncanne cxeum: Bpar recno nsanmoecrnyer c +nemenramn cnoe
cnryannn (sanncnr or nee). Iepo naxonrcx nne cnryannn n araxyer ne npara,
a cnryannm. Cnryannx nsmenxercx, n npar ntnyxen pearnponart n rem
camtm nonaaer n npocrpancrno repox.

Cxema 13


C1pa1areua N 14.

nse mn xyant xynt
nosanmcrnonart rpyn nepnyrt yma

Hosanmcrnonart rpyn, urot nepnyrt ymy
41
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe, or xoroporo, nepoxrno, tna cenana
]opmynnponxa crpararemt, yxam nao tno nepnyrt ymepmero uenonexa
(nexoero R+ Boy) na semnm. Ho xena R+ yxe coxrna ero rpyn. Tora yxn
nsxnn rpyn pyroro uenonexa n nomecrnnn ymy R+ Boy n nero. B nonom
onnunn R+ nepnyncx na semnm n nauan xnrt.
B pyrom npnmepe noccrano nacenenne nponnnnnn, tnme xora-ro
orentntm napcrnom. Boccranmne namnn nnyxa cnoero panee ymepmero napx
(paorammero nonacxom). On npnnxn nmx napx n noccranne npnopeno
nernrnmnocrt.
B pyrom npnmepe tnn naent pyxonncn, npnnnctnaemte pennnm
yuentm, n r.u. Kon]ynnm. Xorx nx nonnnnocrt ocnapnnanact ontmnncrnom
yuentx, onn tnn nepensant, npn +rom nounment rax, xax +ro tno
ntrono napm.
B pyrom npnmepe Mao Hs+yna onnnxmr n rom, uro on saxnnn o
npnnepxennocrn rpem npnnnnnam Cynt rcena (xoropte noepxnnannct
ontmnncrnom xnranen), urot npnnneut comsnnxon. Onaxo on n ne yman
nx npnepxnnartcx n, noenn, axe ne ncnomnnan o nnx.
B pyrom npnmepe nennxn nonxonoen (xoroporo oxnnct nparn) ymep
n ero apmnx pemnna orcrynart. Ho, xora npornnnnx nx npecneonan, onn
cenann manenp n crnne ymepmero nonxonona n ntnesnn nepe apmne ero
xyxny. Hpornnnnx pemnn, uro nonxonoen ne ymep (a npernopxncx ymepmnm,
urot ntmannrt npara na o) n nocnemno exan.
B pyrom npnmepe nennxn nonxonoen, cnyxa necxontxnm noxonennxm
nmneparopon, npnopen raxoe morymecrno nx cnoe cemtn, uro ero ctn
nnocnecrnnn ynn nmneparopa n cam nonapnncx.
B pyrom npnmepe napt nocnontsonancx npocto o noenno nomomn
comsnnxa, nnen cnon nocxa n ero xnxxecrno n nnocnecrnnn annexcnponan
ero, xorx nsnauantno tn cnaee n nnpxmym nanacrt ne cmor t.
B pyrom npnmepe nonte axnnonept, ammne xannran, nastnamrcx
rpynom, n xoropt ntxamr nonym ymy +xonomnuecxn noem
npenpnxrnx.

Pesmue: Honoe (ro, uro xouercx cenart) macxnpyercx craptm -
xopomnm, xxot cnyxnr emy. Oxnnxmrcx crapte nenn, npnmenxmrcx crapte
]opmt, crapte crnnn exrentnocrn. Onaxo enaercx nmenno nonoe, ro, uro
crapoe cenart ne morno nnn ne xoreno.

41
r.1, c. 266
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )

qopuyna cumcnm
nse nosanmcrnonart; nsxrt cee; npncnonrt; npncoennnrtcx [x
uemy-ro]; ncnontsonart;
mn rpyn; crapoe; nernrnmnoe; xopomee; ntstnammee n ceuac
onepne; crapte nsanmoornomennx; rpannnx; nnemnee;
xyant nepnyrt; ncrannrt nnyrpt; nomennrt; samacxnponart; cenart;
ocymecrnnrt;
xynt yma; xenaemoe; conpemennoe; nent; nnyrpennee; cnpxrannoe;
ncrnnnoe;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; crapax nosnnnx; nonax, cocrannax nosnnnx;
]opma; coepxanne - ecrnne.

Hpnnnnn: n cxeme ecrt rpn npocrpancrna: npocrpancrno npomnoro,
re pacnonoxeno crapoe, xoropoe repo eper, npocrpancrno yymero,
re ]opmnpyercx nonoe, n npocrpancrno ecrnn repox. Iepo, naxoxct
nne npemenn n nacroxmem ]opmnpyer yymee.
Koncrpyxnnx, noxastnammax +ror mera-cmtcn: rpn npocrpancrna,
pasenennte npxmtmn nnnnxmn. Tax xax otuno mt cunraem npannntntm
nnxenne cnena nanpano (no connny) a n nnmem rax, ro cnena y nac yer
npocrpancrno npomnoro, cnpana yymero, npocrpancrno ecrnn repox
cnepxy.
npomnoe
yymee
Cxema 14.0


Tenept, na ocnone +ro cxemt-npnnnnna, moxno crponrt cxemy
crpararemt.

Onncanne cxeum: Iepo cosaer cnom cnoxnococrannym nosnnnm on
naenaer na cex, cnom nent n cnoe nenenoe ecrnne ]ynxnnonantnoe
mecro, sanmcrnyx ero ns npomnoro.


Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
C1pa1areua N 15.

xo xy nn mant
noynrt rnrp noxnnyrt ropa

Cmannrt rnrpa c ropt na pannnny
42
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe xnracxax nocnonnna rnacnr: Ecnn rnrp
cnycxaercx na pannnny, na nero ryr xe napactnamrcx coaxn.
B pyrom npnmepe xnxst, snax o rantx ysypnaropcxnx namepennxx
mnamero para, cenan nn, uro yexan ns xnxxecrna. Kora mnamn par
orxptro nnnyn nocxa na saxnar cronnnt, xnxst nanan n noenn ero.
B pyrom npnmepe nmneparop, snax, uro onn ns xnxse samtcnnn
nsmeny, ycrpannaer coner ncex yentntx xnxse. Knxst, urot ne trt
onnnenntm n nenonnnonennn, tn ntnyxen roxe xnnrtcx n tn apecronan.
B pyrom npnmepe napt noctnaer xnxsm-conepnnxy nennte noapxn n
npocty nomout npornn omero npara (ouent cnntnoro). Knxst nepnr
ntcrnnomy nnctmy n ero nocxo nnxstnaercx n rpynym nony na antnem
pyexe. Tora napt nanaaer n saxnartnaer xnxxecrno.
B pyrom npnmepe nonxonoen omanyn npara nsnecrnem o xxot
npnmemem noxpennennn, npar orcrynnn n rem camtm ycrynnn ntronym
nosnnnm. 3arem nonxonoen oepxan noey.
B pyrom npnmepe romnntanoncxn orpx sannman cnntnoe
yxpennenne. Tora xommynncrt mantm orpxom nponenn arpapnym
pe]opmy n nnxame epenne, an cexart onomy ns orpanenntx
oraue. Iomnntanonnt ryr xe pemnnn yrpom ntrn n epennm, no orpx
xomnaprnn rem xe yrpom noxpancx x nx ase n, nocne yxoa uanxamncron,
sanxn ee.
B pyrom npnmepe noenauantnnx n xnxst, ocaxammne ropo, nenn
onrym ecey cnennantno nnsxo no crenamn ocaxenntx. Kora
noenauantnnx ocaxenntx, ocxopnennt nx eccrpamntm noneennem,
pacxptn nopora n nanan na nnx, onn exann, ynnexax ero sa coo. A nx
nocxo, roronoe x nanaennm, nopnanoct n ropo uepes pacxptrte nopora.
B pyrom npnmepe napt cymen nocexrt neonepne mexy napem-
npornnnnxom n ero naxnemnm mnnncrpom. Tor ocxopnncx neonepnem n
noxnnyn napx, rem camtm ocnann ero.

Pesmue: Hsnauantno npxmoe nanaenne na npara nenosmoxno. Tora
nponsnonrcx ecrnne, xoropoe, ne xnnxxct npxmo araxo na npara,
ntnyxaer roro pacxptrtcx, yrn ns ntrono nosnnnn n crart cnatm,
yxsnnmtm nx araxn.


42
r. 1, c. 285
qopuyna cumcnm
xo noynrt; nosecrnne; crnmynnponart; cnpononnponart;
ntnynrt; omanyrt;
xy rnrp; npar, rant nnn xnnt;
nn noxnnyrt; cenart ecrnne; nanacrt; orxptrtcx; yrn;
ocnanyrt; nnmnrtcx; norepxrt;
mant ropa; comsnnx; ntronax nosnnnx; cnna; yxpennennax asa;
rana;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; npar; mecro repox; cnryannx; nsmennrt
cnryannm; yxo ns mecra.

Onncanne cxeum: Bpar naxoxrcx nnyrpn cnoero mecra. Iepo
ecrnyer na cnryannm, n xoropo naxonrcx npar (+nemenrom xoropo
xnnxercx mecro npara) n ocymecrnnxer ecrnne no ee nsmenennm. B
pesyntrare npar ntxonr ns cnoero mecra n, rem camtm, nonaaer n onacnym
cnryannm.

Cxera 15

Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
C1pa1areua N 16.

m nnnt ry nsyn
xorert cxnarnrt cnepna ornycrnrt

To, uro nonnmt, cnauana ornycrn. Tomy, uro xouemt saxnarnrt, cnauana
a yrn
43
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe nsynronanmncx napnapcxn xnxst pas sa
pasom conpaer nocxa, nanaaer na nocxa nennxoro nonxonona, repnnr
nopaxenne n nonaaer n nnen. Tor ero yromaer n ornycxaer. Tax nponcxonr
cemt pas. Haxonen, napnapcxn noxt npnsnaer nnacrt xnracxoro nmneparopa
n n antnemem ne noccraer.
B pyrom npnmepe Mao Hs+yn ornycxan nnenntx uanxamncron,
npenapnrentno pacnponarannponanntx. Ornymennte noptnann oeno
yx apmnn Iomnntana.
B pyrom npnmepe apmnx cnxna ocay c ropoa n orcrynnna. 3amnrnnxn
noxnnynn ero, a ocaxammne nepnynnct n sanxnn.
B pyrom npnmepe oxpyxenntm cnennantno ocrannnn xxot nyrt x
orxoy. Kora xe onn nauann ntxonrt ns oxpyxennx, na nnx nanann n nerxo
ynnuroxnnn.
B pyrom npnmepe oren, xenammn ntart samyx cnom out, cnepna
orxastnaer norennnantnomy sxrm. H rontxo xora on cranonnrcx ouent
nacrounn n cnaraercx yxe onro, cornamaercx na pax.
B pyrom npnmepe cytx ornycxaer noospenaemtx, nnny xoroptx ne
moxer oxasart, no noctnaer ctmnxa cnenrt n nocnymnnart. Ctmnx
cntmnr nx pasronop n naxonr oxasarentcrna nnnt.
B pyrom npnmepe ctmnxn ne apecrontnamr mnnonon, a cnexr sa
nnmn, noxa ne pacxptnamr ncm cert arenron.
B pyrom npnmepe mypen, xenammn yenrt napx n npenmymecrnax
cnoe mxont, cnepna paccxastnaer o pyro mxone rocyapcrnennoro
ynpannennx, a rax nnoxo n cxyuno, uro napt npn paccxase sactnaer. H, rontxo
nonnocrtm ncxpenrnponan npornnnnxa, paccxastnaer cnon nen n
onnaercx narocxnonnocrn napx.
B pyrom npnmepe nncarent nosnocnr cnoero repox na nepmnny
cuacrtx, urot norom cnntnee nouepxnyrt nonnt xpax ero antneme
cytt.
B pyrom npnmepe naoopor, anrop crannr repox n rxxenoe nonoxenne, a
sarem cnacaer.
B pyrom npnmepe yrnepxaercx, uro nnnonnnxa anromonntno anapnn
nentsx cpasy pyrart rora on nauner samnmartcx n onpantnartcx. Ero nao
yremnrt, art npnrn n cex n rontxo nocne +roro onnnxrt n napymennn
npannn.

43
r. 1, c. 306

Pesmue: B +ro crparareme ner repox n npara xax npornnocroxmnx pyr
pyry. Iepo nonnocrtm xonrponnpyer cnryannm, on ]axrnuecxn nrpaer
nparom xax nrpymxo, mannnynnpyer. On xxot ne memaer, axe noompxer
npara, aer emy nosmoxnocrt conepmnrt ero ecrnne, npornnononoxnoe
oxnnenno nenn repox. 3arem repo ocymecrnnxer cnoe ecrnne n npar
noexen.

qopuyna cumcnm
m xorert; nmert nosmoxnocrt; sannannponannoe; nmert nent;
xenanne; saymannoe; yymn pesyntrar ecrnn;
nnnt cxnarnrt; noenrt; nonyunrt; onrtcx; ocrnrnyrt; conepmnrt;
nonnocrtm onnaert; xonrponnponart;
ry cnepna; o roro; nepe rem, xax; nx roro, urot; nmex ranym
nent; na nepnom +rane peannsannn nnana;
nsyn ornycrnrt; camomy npeocrannrt nosmoxnocrt nx pyroro; ne
memart no xonrponnponart; nmert nosmoxnocrt, no ne
ecrnonart; art ysnnxy nnnmsnm cnoot; oecneunrt cnooy
ecrnn cnaomy;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; xonrpont cnryannn; nnan n nent; noea; npar
n ero ecrnne.

Hpnnnnn: B c1pa1areue repo xonrponnpyer npara, onaxo npar ne
oxsarentno nonnocrtm nxnmuen n ero mecro (nosnnnm). Ho+romy, xorx
asonax cxema nx crpararemt yer ananornuna asono cxeme crpararemt 10
Cxptnart sa yntxo xnnxan, mt cxoncrpynpyem ee nemnoro nnaue. Iepo
sannmaer oprannsannonno-ynpannenuecxn ]oxyc na npocrpancrnom, re
pasnopaunnamrcx ecrnnx, n y nero ecrt nnan, no xoropomy on ecrnyer.

Cxera 16.0

Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Tenept, na ocnone +ro cxemt-npnnnnna, moxno crponrt cxemy
crpararemt.

Onncanne cxeum: Iepo nonnocrtm xonrponnpyer npara n ero
ecrnnx. Bpar ocymecrnnxer cnoe ecrnne. Kora on peannsyer ero o xonna,
repo moxer nanecrn yap, n coornercrnnn c nnanom.

Cxera 16.1

C1pa1areua N 17.

nao uxyant nnt m
pocnrt xnpnnu nonyunrt xmma

Fpocnrt xnpnnu, urot nonyunrt xmmy
44
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe nponnnnnantnt no+r xoren ntmannrt
crnxn y pyroro no+ra saesxe snamennrocrn. 3nax, uro ror nocernr mecrnt
xpam, on sapanee nanncan na crene na ne ouent ncxycntx crnxa nononnny
uernepocrnmtx. ecrnnrentno, nennxn no+r ne yepxancx, n saxonunn
uernepocrnmte.
B pyrom npnmepe yncxn yunrent cnpocnn yuennxon: Kro yxe
rnyoxo nosnan yuenne? Bce yuennxn, xax n onxno, nauann nocne +roro
nonpoca menrannm. Hnmt onn camoynepennt neoyuxa ntcxounn nnepe.
Vunrent cxasan: pocnn xnpnnu, urot nonyunrt xmmy. A nmecro +roro
nonyunn neooxxennt xnpnnu!
B pyrom npnmepe onn coecennx nepeuncnxer nsnecrnte emy
xommenrapnn x H nsnn, urot pyro coecennx paccxasan o pyrnx, emy
nensnecrntx.
B pyrnx npnmepax anropt raserntx crare, xenax ntsnart ncxyccnm
no ocyxaemomy nonpocy, ronopxr, uro onn pocamr xnpnnu n oxnannn
xmmt.
B pyrom npnmepe mypen, xenax nanxrtcx n conernnxn x napm,
conepmaer ouent neotunte ecrnnx, n rem camtm npnnnexaer ero
nnnmanne.
B pyrom npnmepe pexnamnpymr ronap, pacxnannnax ero n npnnnctnax
xauecrna, xoropte nenosmoxno nponepnrt.
B pyrom npnmepe napt, anax noxnte oemannx, paspymnn
nanpannennt npornn nero coms. B pesyntrare pyro napt, nonepnnmn emy,
tn ntnyxen ycrynnrt omanmnxy cnon ropoa.
B pyrom npnmepe noenauantnnx oemaer nonnam, crpaammnm or
xaxt, uro cxopo onn oyr o pomn cnnn, xoropte yronxr xaxy. H nonnt
npoonxamr noxo.
B pyrom npnmepe enxx nce cnon necuacrtx cam cee
nepennrepnpernpyer xax noet.
B pyrom npnmepe nnrnpyercx Hao-nst:
To, uro xouemt orpannunrt, cnauana cneyer pacmnpnrt.
To, uro xouemt ocnanrt, cnauana nao ycnnnrt.
To, uro xouemt onpoxnnyrt, cnauana nao nocrannrt.
V xoro xouemt uro-nnyt sapart, romy cnauana nao uro-ro art.
B pyrom npnmepe nommmax apmnx cnennantno ornpannxer rpynny
cnonx ponocexon sa ponamn es oxpant. Bparn saxnartnamr nx n nnen. Ha

44
r. 1, c. 355
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
cneymmn ent nce npaxecxoe nocxo meuraer saxnarnrt n nnen
essamnrntx ponocexon. Ho xora npaxecxne conart pocamrcx sa nnmn,
onn nonaamr n nonymxy n repnxr pasrpom.
B pyrom npnmepe nonxonoen, orcrynax, cxptnan oropnte nocxa, a
na rnasa npornnnnxa noxastnannct rontxo crapnxn n nnnannt, xoroptx ror
nerxo noexan. 3amannn npara, nonxonoen oxpyxnn ero n noenn.
B pyrom npnmepe xnracxne nmneparopt oranann snarntx xnraxnox n
xent xnxstxm napnapon, urot re, noponnnmnct c xnracxo snartm,
nepecrann nanaart na nmnepnm.
B pyrom npnmepe xnxst conmaer oronop, x xoropomy ero ntnynnn
no yrposo yncrna, xorx moxer +roro n ne enart. B pesyntrare pyrne
xnxstx nocxnmamrcx ero naropocrnom n onepxmr ero cnony. Bcxope on
cranonnrtcx npenonrenem ncex xnxse.

Pesmue: Oranax uro-ro, repo npnoperaer npenmymecrno (ocrnraer
cnoe nenn) nno n nne ornernoro apa, xoropt opoxe, uem ero noapox,
nno n nne nosmoxnocre nanacrt, noenrt, nonyunrt. Hpenmymecrno
npnoperaercx camnm axrom apennx npnnxrnx noapxa. 3ect ner
cocrnenno npornnocroxnnx, no+romy ner n nosnnnn npara.

qopuyna cumcnm
nao pocnrt; noapnrt; orart no rpeonannm; orart no
ocroxrentcrnam; nepeart; norepxrt; nnmnrtcx; nooemart;
omanyrt; noynrt x ecrnnm;
uxyant xnpnnu; noapox; cpannnrentno manax nennocrt; xeprna; oman;
]antmnnxa;
nnt nonyunrt; noenrt; saxnarnrt; peantno nonyunrt; nsxrt;
ocrnrnyrt;
m xmma; paronennocrt; nacroxmax nennocrt; npenmymecrno;
ntnrptm; noea; ocrnxenne nenn;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; nepeaua; nonyuenne; npemert; cnryannx;
nosnnnx repox.

Onncanne cxeum: Ecrt nnyrpennxx nosnnnx (mecro) repox n ecrt
nnemnxx cnryannx. Iepo ne npocro ocymecrnnxer ecrnne, a oraer
npemer ns cnoero mecra (nnocnr ero) n cnryannm n rem camtm nsmenxer ee. B
pesyntrare pyro npemer ns cnryannn nepexonr n nosnnnm repox, n mecro
menxercx cranonnrcx raxnm, xaxoe nyxno repom.
Cxera 17

Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
C1pa1areua N 18.

nnnt ns+ nnnt nan
nomart pasonnxn nomart rnanapt

Ecnn xouemt nomart pasonnutm maxy, noma cnauana rnanapx.
45


Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe, or xoroporo tna cenana ]opmynnponxa
crpararemt, nennxn no+r y uy nncan:
H ecnn n nnen epemt conar
Cnepna nx xnxsx n nnen nostmn.
B pyrom npnmepe Mao Hs+yn ronopnr: Kora epeno cpyamr,
oestxnt c nero paseramrcx n ncx cnryannx menxercx.
B pyrom npnmepe xnaccnuecxn xon]ynnancxn ncrounnx yrnepxaer:
Hoxa uenonex xnn, npononrcx ero nonnrnxa, ecnn on ymper, ymper n ero
nonnrnxa.
B pyrom npnmepe n oranennom yese xpent n xonyntx, nontsyxct
cyenepnxmn mecrntx xnrene, conpann c nnx orpomnym ant, a norom
npnnocnnn uenoneuecxym xeprny cynpyry peunomy ory. Hont rnana
yesa ne cran cnopnrt c cyenepamn, n cam npnmen na nepemonnm
xeprnonpnnomennx. Onaxo no npemx cnatt on saxnnn, uro xeprna
neocrarouno xpacnna n ocranonnn xeprnonpnnomenne. nx neperonopon c
peuntm orom no +romy nonpocy on ornpannxer n pexy cnepna xonyntm,
sarem xpenon n necxontxo pyrnx nx croponnnxon. C rex nop nnxro ne
ocmennnancx ronopnrt o cnate peunoro ora.
B pyrom npnmepe nonxonoen nnxax ne moxer noenrt noccranmnx.
Inanapt ynronmnxon oer xax nce n cpaxaercx nmecre co ncemn. Tora no
npemx nrnt nonxonoen npnmenxer xnrpocrt n ysnaer, xro nosrnannxer
apmnm ynronmnxon. 3arem on nanaaer n pannr ero. Panent noxax ryr xe
npnsnaer nopaxenne n nce ero nocxo orxonr.
B pyrom npnmepe Kpacnax apmnx ocanna apmnm romnntana n xopomo
yxpennennom ropoe. Bmecro roro, urot mrypmonart onn ysen oopont sa
pyrnm, ona saxnartnaer crparernuecxn naxnym ropy, nocne uero ncx nnemnxx
nnnnx oopont oxastnaercx n ee pyxax.
B pyrom npnmepe nsxrne Kayna conercxnmn ecanrnnxamn n 1979 r.
paccmarpnnaercx xax npnmenenne +ro crpararemt (cnepna tn nnxnnnponan
Amnn).
B pyrom npnmepe xnracxn nacrontnt rennncncr otrpan nyumero
nrpoxa xnoncxo copno. Hocne +roro ocrantnte xnracxne cnoprcment
raxxe crann ntnrptnart.
B pyrom npnmepe pasnpaercx yuenne Mao Hseyna o ocnonnom
npornnopeunn. Ha xaxo crann pasnnrnx nonnrnuecxoe pyxonocrno
onxno ntpart ocnonnoe npornnopeune n nanpannrt nce cnnt napoa na ero

45
r.1, c. 415
paspemenne. (Hanpnmep: 1. B 1937-1945 rr. Knra npornn nonnn. 2. B 1945-
1949 rr. xomnaprnx npornn romnntana. 3. B 1949-1976/78 rr.
nponerapnar npornn ypxyasnn. 4. C 1978 r. moepnnsannx nx
npeoonennx orcranocrn). Hmte nonpoct omecrnenno xnsnn rpaxrymrcx
raxxe xax npornnopeunx n pemamrcx, ncxox ns nene pemennx ocnonnoro
npornnopeunx.

Pesmue: repom npornnocronr necxontxo nparon (nnn cocranno npar).
Iepo ntenxer rnannoro npara (rnannt +nemenr) n ynnuroxaer (noexaer,
saxnartnaer) ero. Hocne +roro nce nparn nornamr (xoncrpyxnnx,
npornnocroxmax repom, paspymaercx).

qopuyna cumcnm
nnnt nomart; noenrt; pemnrt; saxnarnrt; pasrpomnrt;
ns+ pasonnx; nponem; saaua; nent;
nnnt nomart; narn; noenrt; ynnuroxnrt; pasrpomnrt; saxnarnrt;
pemnrt;
nan rnanapt; ocnonno +nemenr; npenonrent; nonxonoen;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; npar; nosnnnx npara; ecrnne.

Hpnnnnn: To, uro cpen nparon ecrt onn rnannt, noxastnaercx rem,
uro Inannt npar xax t nxnmuaer n cnom nosnnnm ocrantntx nparon. nx
+roro ncnontsyem asonym cxemy, noxoxym na cxemy-npnnnnn crpararemt 16
To, uro xouemt nomart, cnepna ornycrn, no sect Inannt npar sannmaer
ynpannenuecxn ]oxyc na necxontxnmn ecrnymmnmn cyexramn.

Cxera 18.0


Tenept, na ocnone +ro cxemt-npnnnnna, moxno crponrt cxemy
crpararemt.

Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Onncanne cxeum: nosnnnx npara cocronr ns Inannoro npara n rpynnt
pyrnx nparon, xoroptx on xonrponnpyer n oennxer cnonm ynpannxmmnm
ecrnnem. Iepo nanocnr yap no Inannomy npary, xoropt xnnxercx
ocnonntm +nemenrom ncero npornnocroxmero repom oexra.

Cxera 18.1


C1pa1areua N 19.

]y n uoy cnnt
xoren no ntramnrt xnopocr

Btramnrt xnopocr ns-no xorna ntramnrt ronnnno ns ouara, urot
npexparnrt xnnenne not
46
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe nnrnpyercx rpaxrar Becui u oceuu
eocnoouua Hm, III n. o n.+.: B nam nex ntcmne raamr ncemn cnocoamn,
npoymr pasnte saxnnnannx, no onesne n neyron y nnx nce ontme. 3ro
noxoxe na crpenxa, xoropt, npomaxnynmnct, cnemnr nonpannrt mnment.
Pasne or +roro ynyumnrcx merxocrt? Ecnn nnrt ropxuym noy n xnnxmym,
ymax npexparnrt xnnenne, noa saxnnnr eme nyme. Hao ypart oront, rora
xnnenne npexparnrtcx. Hocemy xonynon n npauenarene, xt n cnaotx, c
nomomtm xoroptx moxno saxnxcrt nnn ntneunrt onesnt, nmn pennocrn
npesnpann ns-sa nx nonepxnocrnocrn
47
. B pyrom mennnncxom rpaxrare
nauana XIX n. ronopnrcx, uro nyxno ouent rmarentno ntxcnnrt npnunny
onesnn n ycrpannrt ee. Taxo opas ecrnn nastnamr ntracxnnart
xnopocr ns-no xorna
48
.
B pyrom npnmepe n xnnre Xyanant-nst paccyxennx o naxnocrn
aoccxoro ycmnpennx n cee uenoneuecxnx nneuenn, ocnooxennx cosnannx,
orxasa or uyncrnenntx crpacre notroxnnamrcx cnonamn: Honnnax
xnnxrox n xnnxmym noy, xnnennx, xoneuno, ne ocranonnrt. Hcrnnno
nonnmammn xopent ena ynpaer oront, n nce
49
.
B pyrom npnmepe sanper npnxonrt na ntcranxy c cymxamn
oxcnxercx neoxonmocrtm oronnnyrt xnopocr or ouara n rem camtm
npeornparnrt xpaxn co crenon.
B pyrom npnmepe n crarte, n xoropo ocyxaercx sannannponannax
ceccnx OOH, nocnxmennax nternamcxnm exennam, cnpamnnaercx, yacrcx nn
sacrannrt nternamcxoe npannrentcrno nocrannrt sacnon macconomy ncxoy
nacenennx, nnn nce cneercx x nontrxam ne ononrt noy o xnnennx ee
nomemnnannem, no npe rocyapcrnam Rro-Bocrouno Asnn n ocrantnomy
mnpy.
B pyrom npnmepe onnctnaercx, uro n pesyntrare exrentnocrn
Kon]ynnx xax rocyapcrnennoro unnonnnxa napcrna Hy ono crano
ycnnnnartcx. Tora cocenn napt pemnn yannrt Kon]ynnx, paspymnn ero
onepnrentnte ornomennx c napem Hy. On npncnan napm Hy nocemtecxr
xpacnntx nennuex. Hapt Hy npnnxn ap n, ynnexmnct xenmnnamn, sapocnn
ena. 3ro nonnmmee napymenne pennnx pnryanon n otuaen, xoropte tnn

46
r. 2, c. 65
47
r. 2, c. 68
48
r. 2, c. 70
49
r.2, c. 74
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
upesntuano naxnt nx Kon]ynnx, ntnynno ero noart n orcranxy. Taxnm
opasom, cocenee napcrno copnano nosmoxnoe ycnnenne napcrna Hy.
B pyrom npnmepe, xora nsynronannct nonnt n onom ns rapnnsonon,
unnonnnx, cnemno npntnmn noannxrt mxrex, oparnncx x nnm c peutm.
On nanomnnn nm o cyte nx nnsxnx, xoropte raxxe yyr xasnent, n
npenoxnn rem, xro nnmt npnmxnyn x ecnopxxam, copartcx orentno
nenoanexy. Conart nocnymannct, ontmnncrno oromno n cropony,
ocranmnecx necxontxo saunnmnxon tnn cxnauent.
B pyrom npnmepe nonxonoen ncero c 20 rtcxuamn noenn 100
rtcxunym apmnm. On, nocnontsonanmnct ecneunocrtm npornnnnxa, cxer ero
cxnat, nnenntm orpesan noct, a nx nomaxm xstxn. 3ro npnneno n yxac
npornnnnxa, emopannsonano nce ero nocxo.
B pyrom npnmepe ecrnnx CCCP no npemx sanepmennx nont Cynoro
nx (1973 r.) paccmarpnnamrcx n xauecrne npnmepa npnmenennx +ro
crpararemt. Hoxa apacxne apmnn nenn ycnemnte nacrynarentnte ecrnnx,
CCCP ne nmemnnancx. Ho xora nonoxenne ernnrxn crano xpnrnuecxnm,
Conercxn Coms npnmennn nce ycnnnx n n Conere Fesonacnocrn, n n
neperonopax c CBA (n rom uncne yrposy cnoero nmemarentcrna) urot
ocranonnrt noennte ecrnnx n coxpannrt ernnercxym apmnm. Tem camtm
coxpannnnct ycnonnx, urot xon]nnxr mor cnona pasropertcx.
B pyrom npnmepe onnctnaercx, xax nonxonoen nen nrny. Hpornnnnx
rpnxt pocan nocxa n araxy. Honxonoen samnmancx n ne xonrparaxonan.
Tem camtm on sacrannxn npara pacrpaunnart cno oeno yx (myxecrno).
Kora xe nocne rperte araxn myxecrno npornnnnxa nccxxno, nonxonoen
nnepnte araxonan n nerxo oparnn npara n ercrno.

Pesmue: V crpararemt na naxntx acnexra. Bo-nepntx, +ro
xapnnantnoe, oxonuarentnoe pemenne nponemt. Bo-nroptx, +ro pemenne
nponemt ocymecrnnxercx sa cuer nnxnnannn npnunnt, xoropax nopoxaer
nponemy. Cocrnenno npara n crparareme ner. Iepo onxen nsmennrt xaxoe-
ro nonoxenne en (npexparnrt xaxoe-ro ecrnne). V +roro ecrnnx (y +ro
cnryannn) ecrt npnunna. Iepo ynpaer npnunny (nosecrnyer na nee) n
cnryannx menxercx (ecrnne npexpamaercx).

qopuyna cumcnm
]y xoren; xnnenne not; cnecrnne; ecrnne; ea; napymenne;
nnoxoe eno; pesyntrar;
n no; oecneunnaer; aer cnecrnne; nopoxaer;
uoy ntramnrt; nnxnnnponart; npexparnrt; ycrpannrt;
npeornparnrt;
cnnt xnopocr; ncrounnx; npnunna; ocnonanne; oocnonanne;
nosmoxnocrt; ycnonnx;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; npnunna; cnecrnne; ecrnne.

Hpnnnnn: Bo-nepntx, sect neoxonmo cxemarnsnponart npnunny
xaxoro-nno ecrnnx (cocroxnnx). Hannune npnunnno-cnecrnenno cnxsn
mexy nymx oexramn oosnaunm mnpoxo crpenxo. Bo-nroptx, nam
nyxno noxasart, uro ecnn npnunna yer nnrtcx no npemenn, cnecrnne
yer nocnponsnonrtcx. Ho+romy mt ]nxcnpyem, uro cnxsxa npnunna-
cnecrnne nepexonr ns npomnoro n yymee es nsmenenn. Fonee roro,
urot nouepxnyrt +ry nnrentnocrt, napncyem npnunny necxontxo pas n
coennnm nx crpenxo nepexoa npnunna xax t rpancnnpyercx no npemenn
es nsmenenn.
H ncxxn pas ns +ro npnunnt yer cneonart ono n ro xe
cnecrnne.
Taxxe yunrtnart, uro y repox sect ecrt pe]nexcnnnax nosnnnx
nmenno ona nosnonxer repom pasennrt npnunny n cnecrnne.
Koncrpyxnnx, noxastnammax +rn mera-cmtcnt:
Cxera 19.0
npounoe uacfonee

Tenept, na ocnone +ro cxemt-npnnnnna, moxno crponrt cxemy
crpararemt.

Onncanne cxeum: ecrt npnunna (npemer), nopoxammax cnryannm.
Ecnn npnunna nponnrcx n yymee, cnryannx yer nocnponsnonrtcx. Iepo
nanocnr yap no npnunne. Iepo cam ne oxsarentno naxonrcx n
nopoxaemo cnryannn, moxno cunrart, uro y nero rontxo pe]nexcnnnax
nosnnnx.

Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )

Cxera 19.1
npounoe uacfonee


C1pa1areua N 20

xynt my mo m
myrnrt noa nonnrt pta

1. Myrnrt noy, urot nomart pty.
2. Honnrt pty n myrno noe
50
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe, or xoroporo tna cenana ]opmynnponxa
crpararemt, onnctnaercx cnoco ptno nonnn, xora anamyrxr noy
mecramn. Pta ntcxaxnnaer x nonepxnocrn not n nonaaer n cern.
B pyrom npnmepe ocranmncx n cronnne namecrnnx xoren no
ntymanntm npenorom sarpynnrt nonos npoonontcrnnx x nocxy napx.
3ro morno ntsnart ecnopxxn n cosart nx nero ycnonnx saxnara nnacrn.
B pyrom npnmepe saesxn ropronen xouer ne ropronart (nonnrt
pty), a npocro myrnrt noy - xxot ropronart, a na camom ene nnrt n
pasnparnnuart.
B pyrom npnmepe n ynecennrentnom saneennn oraroro nonecy
yromamr n pasnnexamr (myrxr noy), urot on nporynxn ram nce entrn
(nomart pty).
B pyrom npnmepe cnyra naxnnaercx no npemx ecrnenno cnryannn
xosxnna.
B pyrom npnmepe +n Cxonnn onnnxer rex, xro npononnpyer
ecnopxxn n rom, uro onn myrxr noy pan cnoe ntrot (urot cnopyune
nonnrt pty).
B pyrom npnmepe npnnonrcx ona ns nenanarn noenntx
xnrpocre ns Boeuuoeo ucrvccmea Cvui-si: noxopx npornnnnxa, nonopxx
n ero crane pasna.
B pyrom npnmepe monrontcxn nonxonoen nepe mrypmom ropoa
pasnepnyn crxrn c nanncxmn: Bcxxn ynnmn xapaercx cmeprtm n
nanpannn nocnon c raxnm xe nonornnmem. Cnrte c ronxy, xnracxne
samnrnnxn ne onaxnnn opyxne, n ropo tn saxnauen es norept.
B pyrom npnmepe amepnxancxne nponsnonrenn npecrannnn
xnracxnm noxynarenxm nsnnmne noponym cnenn]nxannm na
nponsnocrnennym nnnnm, ncrannn nnmnne nosnnnn n santcnn nent na
orentnte xomnnexrymmne. Onaxo xnrant yannnn ncm myrt ns pexn, rax
uro noa crana conepmenno npospauna.
B pyrom npnmepe Knra onnnxer CBA, uro npana uenonexa - +ro
nanxa, xoropo re myrxr noy nnyrpenne nonnrnxn cynepenntx rocyapcrn.
B pyrom npnmepe yxastnaercx, uro n cnnmxom uncro noe pta ne
nonrcx.


50
r.2, c.170
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Pesmue: Myrnrt noy enart paspymammne nopxox, neotunte
ecrnnx, nenonxrnte pyrnm. Cnryannx menxercx, cnnraercx, cranonnrtcx
necrpyxrypnponanno. pyrne yuacrnnxn cnryannn nepecramr
opnenrnponartcx onn ne nonnmamr, uro ona coepxnr noxnte +nemenrt,
nnn ne snamr xaxne nmenno. Tor, xro myrnr noy moxer roxe ne snart, xax
nmenno cnryannx nsmennnact. C nomomtm npnroronnennoro nncrpymenra
(sapanee paspaorannoro nnana, nnn cnoero nonoxennx, nnn ener, nnn pyrnx
nme, nnn r.n.) on nonyuaer xenaemt pesyntrar.

qopuyna cumcnm
xynt myrnrt, anamyrnrt; cosanart nepasepnxy; napymart nopxox
neme; sanyrart ocranonxy; ncnoprnrt nnnmocrt nx pyrnx;
nnocnrt n cnryannm noxnt +nemenr; nsmenxrt cnryannm
my noa; cnoxnnmncx nopxox; rnnonax (oxnaemax) cnryannx,
mo nonnrt; nonyuart xenaemoe cnacrxmn; nsnneut ntroy es
optt, no rpyom; npnmenxrt nncrpymenr;
m pta; otua; ntroa; npoyxr; pesyntrar;

3neuen1m cxeum: paspymammee ecrnne; +nemenrt cnryannn;
nonyuenne npemera; mecro.

Onncanne cxeum: Iepo paspymaer cnryannm noxpyr cex n conpaer x
cee (n cnoe mecro) +nemenrt paspymenno cnryannn.

Cxera 20

C1pa1areua N 21

nsnnt uant ro nxo
sonorax nnxaa cpactna
rt
xoxon

Ornnnammax nosonoro nnxaa cpactnaer ornnnammym nosonoro
uemym/oonouxy. Hnxaa crapaercx nesamerno cexart, ocrannxx xoxon,
urot rem camtm ornneut nnnmanne npecneonarene
51
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe nonanmn n nenonxym cnryannm
coecennx nontsyercx nepntm xe npenorom, urot yrn.
B pyrom npnmepe ooporent cpactnaer c cex mxypy n, noxa
npecneonarenn xonorxr ee, yeraer.
B pyrom npnmepe apmnx npn orcrynnennn ocrannna pasnenammnecx
crxrn n tmmne apaant. Hpecneonarenn nent ent ne pncxonann nanacrt.
B pyrom npnmepe enymxa, sacrnrnyrax sa nocnymnnannem, enaer
nn, uro nmer pyrym enymxy, rem camtm ornnexax nnnmanne or cnoero
npocrynxa n npnnnexax nnnmanne x pyro.
B pyrom npnmepe onnosnnnx na Tanane ntnnraer connantnte
rpeonannx, xoropte nenosmoxno ocymecrnnrt ns-sa cocroxnnx mxera.
Onaxo ncm ornercrnennocrt sa orxas ]nnancnponart +rn rpeonannx ona
nosnaraer na npannrentcrno.
B pyrom npnmepe xnrant cunramr, uro, ecnn onn cornacxrcx na
npenaraemym Tananem ]opmyny ona crpana - na npannrentcrna, ro
nnxaa cpocnr uemym n Tanant oxnnr cex nesanncnmtm rocyapcrnom.
B pyrom npnmepe nexoropte oponontno npnsnamrcx n uem-ro
nropocrenennom, npnnnexax x +romy nnnmanne n ntnrptnax npemx, urot
nsannrtcx or ynnx rxxenoro npecrynnennx.
B pyrom npnmepe unnonnnxn n paouee npemx ne naxoxrcx na paore,
ocrannxx ram rontxo cnon nantro.
B pyrom npnmepe pennxx xnracxax nnreparypa omononnact, xax
nnxaa cpocnna uemym.
B pyrom npnmepe yunrent cnepna nomoraer yuennxy nert cnoe
]nero, sarem yuennx xax nnxaa cpactnaer uemym n noer yxe cam.
B pyrom npnmepe xax nnnxmmax nnxaa cpactnaer oonouxy, rax
ocrnrmn conepmencrna uenonex moxer nsmennrtcx.

Pesmue: Iepo, ocrannxx cnntnomy npecneonarenm (npary), xoropomy
nentsx npornnocroxrt, nesnaunrentnym uacrt cex (nnn npocro ]antmnnxy),
nonyuaer cnooy (ntxo ns cnryannn). Hnn npexnnxer nanaammemy uro-
ro, ornnexax nnnmanne or cnoe cnaocrn. Hnn nsmenxercx, conepmencrnyercx
cam n coornercrnnn c xaxnmn-ro nnemnnmn rpeonannxmn.

51
r. 2, crp. 216
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )

qopuyna cumcnm
nsnnt sonoro; nennocrt nx npecneonarene; ro, uem moxno
noxeprnonart; ]nxnnx, omannt opas; ro, na uro ornnexamr
nnnmanne npecneonarene; cranmee nenyxntm;
uant nnxaa; cnat; npxuymncx; uecrnt (uncrt, npannnt);
oexr araxn;
ro cpactnart; oranart; ocrannxrt; nocontnart; npxrartcx;
menxrt onnx, nepeoenartcx; yexart;
nxo xoxon; rmptma; crecnenne; npexnn nn, crapte; onexa
nauantcrna (yunrenx); onacnocrt; nnemnne ocroxrentcrna;

3neuen1m cxeum: ocrannennte npemert, ocrannennoe mecro;
nepememenne; onacnax cnryannx; repo.

Onncanne cxeum: nosnnnx repox naxonrcx n onacno cnryannn. Iepo
yxonr ns onacno cnryannn, ocrannxx cnom nosnnnm (cnoe mecro, xaxne-ro
cnon npemert). Cam repo npn +rom moxer nsmennrtcx.

Cxera 21

C1pa1areua N 22

ryant m+nt uxo ns+
sannpart nopora cxnarnrt nop

3anepert nopora n cxnarnrt nopa
52
.
3anepert nopora n nonrt coaxy (ryant m+nt a roy)
53
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe orpx npornnnnxa samannnamr n nonymxy,
samtxamr oxpyxenne n ynnuroxamr.
B pyrom npnmepe conerymr onnart coaxy, c xoropo pancx n
xoropym sanep (nnn cronxnyn n noy).
B pyrom npnmepe na npara, samemero n recnoe ymente, nanaamr co
ncex cropon, nepexptn nyrn.
B pyrom npnmepe npaxecxoe nocxo paspesamr na uacrn, no uacrxm
oxpyxamr n noexamr.
B pyrom npnmepe nonnrnuecxoro npornnnnxa samannnamr n nomemenne
n apecrontnamr.
B pyrom npnmepe nnrnpyercx Boennoe ncxyccrno Cynt-nst: Ecnn
oxpyxaemt nocxo npornnnnxa, ocrant n oxpyxennn pemt. 3ro
nnnmcrpnpyercx ncropne, xora ocaxenntm, xoroptx ne moryr noenrt,
cnennantno ocrannxmr nosmoxnocrt ntrn ns ropoa. Kax rontxo onn
ntxoxr ns ropoa, nx noexamr. Tem camtm orxastnamrcx or crpararemt
rax xax ne moryr nonrt saneprym coaxy.
B pyrom npnmepe onn npncxxnt, nontsyxct rem, uro tn neoxonm
xoncencyc n ncem tno neoxonmo xax moxno cxopee pasornct no omam,
manraxnpyer cnoe neycrynunnocrtm ocrantntx 11 npncxxntx n ntnyxaer
nx cornacnrtcx co cnonm mnennem.
B pyrom npnmepe noospenaemomy n xnmennn pasxcnxmr, uro, xorx
npxmtx ynnx npornn nero noxa ner, no nmo napnanr oxcnennx
nponsomemero osnauaer ero nnny. Tora on cosnaercx.

Pesmue: Oxpyxenne onxno trt nonntm n nenpeoonnmtm. Ho urot
sarnannt n yron npornnnnx or oruaxnnx ne npenparnncx n emenym coaxy,
nptrammym na creny, n ne paspymnn cnnmxom mnoroe nepe cnoe rnentm,
neoxonmo nmert nonnoe npenocxocrno. B +rom cmtcne estcxonocrt
npara onxna trt nonnax, n rom uncne n mopantnax, ne rontxo marepnantnax.
Hpn +rom npar cmeprentnt, n ntnycxart ero nentsx (coaxa, on nanaer
cnona), nao onrt o xonna.


52
r. 2, crp. 291
53
r.2, crp. 298
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
qopuyna cumcnm
ryant sannpart; oxpyxart; crannrt n estcxonocrt; esnaexnocrt;
es nontrox conpornnnennx; nsxrt no xonrpont;
m+nt nopora; samxnyrax cnryannx; cnaoe nonoxenne npara; nonnt
xonrpont;
uxo cxnarnrt; nonrt; esnaxasanno ynnuroxnrt; naxasart;
nocropxecrnonart; noannrt;
ns+ nop; coaxa; cnat npar, xoropt onacen, xora cnooen;
manenpennt, no ne momnt npar; cmeprentnt npar;
nencnpannmt npar; nont npar;

3neuen1m cxeum: cnryannx; nonnt xonrpont; ynnuroxenne;
npenmymecrno.

Hpnnnnn: nonnt xonrpont cxemarnsnpyercx nxnmuennem npara n
mecro repox (ananornuno crparareme 10). Ho n annom cnyuae repo
naxonrcx na pasptne rpannnt cam on ne nnyrpn +roro mecra, nx nero +ro
rontxo ono ns npocrpancrn ecrnnx.
Cxera 22.0

Tenept, na ocnone +ro cxemt-npnnnnna, moxno crponrt cxemy
crpararemt.

Onncanne cxeum: mecro, re naxonrcx npar, nonnocrtm
xonrponnpyercx repoem. Macmra repox ontme macmraa npara. Iepo
nanocnr yap na ynnuroxenne.
Cxera 22.1


Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
C1pa1areua N 23.

mant nsxo nsnnt ryn
antnn pyxnrt nnxnn noenart

pyxnrt c antnnm n noenart c nnxnnm
54
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe, n xoropom nnepnte c]opmynnponana
crpararema, noennt conernnx xnxsx n raxnx cnonax ]opmynnpyer
crparernuecxn xypc xnxxecrna Hnnt no ornomennm x oxpyxammnm
xnxxecrnam. 3ror xypc, peannsyemt na nporxxennn nxrnecxrn ner,
nosnonnn Hnnt x 221 r. o n.+. sanoenart nect Knra.
B pyrom npnmepe anannsnpyercx conpemennax nnemnxx nonnrnxa KHP,
n xoropo CCCP (Poccnx), naxoxmncx pxom, paccmarpnnaercx xax ontmn
npar, uem CBA.
B pyrom npnmepe, urot nnecrn pasop n rmpxcxn xaranar, xnracxn
nnnomar coneryer noepxnnart xanon, xoropte xnnxmrcx cnatmn
nperenenramn na nnacrt n crapartcx nsonnponart camoro xarana.
B pyrom npnmepe annym crpararemy conocrannxmr c nonxrnem
oxonoro nyrn no nnemne nonnrnxe sauacrym onee nnnnt n
nsnnnncrt oxono nyrt oxastnaercx xparuame oporo x nenn. Hpn
+rom ntnemnn coms cnyxnr nx sanrpamne annexcnn
55
.
B pyrom npnmepe n rpaxrare 36 cmpamaee+ (Corpoeeuua ruuea o
eoeuuo+ ucrvccmee) +ra crpararema pacronxontnaercx c nomomtm 38
rexcarpammt pasna (xy) Kuueu nepe+eu. Bnepxy rpnrpamma oront,
nnnsy rpnrpamma osepo, r.e. oennenne ornx n not. B coornercrnnn c
raxnm pacnonoxennem naropont myx npn nce nmemmecx omnocrn ne
ynycxaer ns nny pasnnun, axe ecnn npn pacxoxennn no mnennxx on na
npemx npnmnpnncx c npornnnnxom
56
. 3ect nouepxnnaercx npemennt
xapaxrep comsa npn coxpanennn npnnnnnnantnoro npaxenoro cocroxnnx.
B pyrom npnmepe pasxcnxercx, uro npnmennrentno x oprannsannn
crpararema osnauaer crporne nopxxn nnyrpn oprannsannn, npnrom, uro no
ornomennm x nnemnnm nx oprannsannn nmxm emoncrpnpymr repnnmocrt n
cnncxonrentnocrt.
B pyrom npnmepe na nsnecmena conepnnuamr sa onn axrnn ox n
nopry Ionxonra. Ho onn ns nsnecmenon pemaer, uro cnepna on cocpeorounr
ycnnnx na saxnare pyro xomnannn. Tora nropo onpeenxer, uro nepnt
cran nx nero antnnm nparom, ncrynaer c nnm n xoannnnm n no
cocrnenno nnnnnarnne nomoraer n ero nnanax, n omen na neontmo naxer
axnn oxa. 3arem, naroapx +romy naxery n nenmemarentcrny nepnoro
nsnecmena n antnemym onepannm, nropo ]opmnpyer nyxnt nx
xonrponx naxer axnn.

54
r.2, c. 330
55
r. 2, c. 343
56
ram xe
B pyrom npnmepe nmneparop neyauno npnmenxer crpararemy 23 on
saxnmuaer coms c monotm arpeccnnntm rocyapcrnom uxypux+ne npornn
rocyapcrna xnane, naxoxmnmcx mexy nnmn, c xoroptm xnrant
cocecrnonann onee-menee mnpno yxe cro ner. B pesyntrare uxypuxenn,
pasrpomnn xnane, sarem saxnarnnn n xnracxoe napcrno.
B pyrom npnmepe Knra, naroapx Hepunncxomy oronopy 1689 r.,
ocranonnn nponnxenne Poccnn na nocrox na 170 ner n pasnxsan cee pyxn n
ornomennn crponrnntx monronon.
B pyrom npnmepe pasxcnxercx, uro crpararema 23 npnmenxercx rontxo
n noennoe npemx. B mnpnoe xe npemx cneyer npnepxnnartcx
npornnononoxnoro npannna: nnsxn coce nyume antnero pocrnennnxa.
B pyrom npnmepe mnnncrp pasxcnxer napm, uro nonyunrt noepxxy y
pyrnx xnxxecrn ne yacrcx, no onn anexo, a cnntnoe n onacnoe rocyapcrno
pxom. Kora cocrnennoe xnxxecrno cnaoe n rontxo ooponxercx,
npnmenxrt crpararemy 23 ecnonesno.

Pesmue: Crpararema npnmenxercx npornn nnxnero, r.e. onee onacnoro
nx repox npara. Ocymecrnnxercx cronxnonenne c nnxnnm n comse c antnnm,
npn +rom nmeercx n nny, uro antnn +ro pyrax nosnnnx, ne nounnennax
repom, npemennt comsnnx.

qopuyna cumcnm
mant antnn; npar; norennnantnt oexr saxnara; npemennt
comsnnx; ne onacnt; nomomnnx; nonyrunx;
nsxo pyxnrt; saxnmuart coms; ecrnonart cornaconano; nomorart;
ne memart; nerpannsonart nmemarentcrno; noepxnnart;
nsnnt nnxnn; onacnt npar; oexr araxn, arpeccnn; nanaammn,
arpeccop;
ryn noenart; araxonart; saxnartnart; conpornnnxrtcx;

3neuen1m cxeum: nnxnn npar; antnn npar; cronxnonenne;
conmecrnoe ecrnne.

Hpnnnnn: B crparareme repom npornnocroxr necxontxo nparon pasnoro
rnna: antnne n nnxnne, nnn, nnaue, re, xro onacen nx repox n re, xro
ne onacen. 3ry pasnnny rnnon mt cxemarnsnpyem pasnnne macmraon
nsopaxennx nparon.
Bropo xoncrpyxrnnnt +nemenr cxemarnsannx cocroxnnx pyxt.
Hoxaxem +ro nxnmuennem nparon n npocrpancrno, naxoxmeecx no
oprannsannonno-ynpannenuecxnm nosecrnnem repox (ananornuno cxeme-
npnnnnny crpararemt 18 urot nomart pasonnutm maxy, nao nomart
rnanapx). Koncrpyxnnx, noxastnammax +ror mera-cmtcn:
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Cxera 23.0

Tenept, na ocnone +ro cxemt-npnnnnna, moxno crponrt cxemy
crpararemt.

Onncanne cxeum: repo oennxer cnonm oprannsannonntm
ynpannennem nparon (rem camtm ntnox nx ns-no oprannsannonnoro
nosecrnnx rnannoro npara) n, conmecrno c nnmn, ecrnyer npornn rnannoro
npara.

Cxera 23.1




C1pa1areua N 24.

nsx ry ]a Io
sanmcrnonart nyrt nanacrt Io

Horpeonart npoxoa, urot nanacrt na Io
57
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe, or xoroporo tna cenana ]opmynnponxa
crpararemt, xnxxecrno Hsn npocnr y xnxxecrna R paspemennx nx cnonx
nocx nporn uepes ero reppnropnm nx nanaennx na xnxxecrno Io. B
nepnt pas R roxe conpaer nocxa n conmecrno c Hsn ycnemno
saxnartnaer y Io ropo. Bocxa npoxoxr oparno. 3arem Hsn cnona npocnr
paspemennx na npoxo nx nanaennx na Io. Bo nropo pas nocne ycnemnoro
noxoa n Io nocxa Hsn cranonxrcx narepem n R n neoxnanno saxnartnamr
xnxxecrno.
B pyrom npnmepe xnxst npocnr nroporo xnxsx nomout emy nocxamn
npornn nparon. Bropo n orner ynnuaer nepnoro, uro ror ntraercx npocnrt
npoxoa n Io - sa cuer uyxnx nocx noenrt nparon, a sarem saxnarnrt
ocnanennoe xnxxecrno nroporo xnxsx.
B pyrom npnmepe unnonnnx ntraercx npnmennrt +ry crpararemy
nepeaer uepes nepnoro mnnncrpa nmneparopy xanoy na coomnnxa camoro
xe nepnoro mnnncrpa. Ho ero samtcny, nepnt mnnncrp, osnaxomnnmnct c
xanoo, nomer, uro ror npocnr npoxoa n Io, ncnyraercx n opasymnrcx.
B pyrom npnmepe noccranmne xnxstx rpeymr xasnnrt nepnoro
mnnncrpa. Onaxo, xora nmneparop, n crpaxe nepe noccranmnmn, xasnnr
nepnoro mnnncrpa n oemaer mxrexnnxam npomenne, ecnn re cnoxar opyxne,
noccranmne orxptro ntcrynamr yxe npornn camoro nmneparopa.
B pyrom npnmepe nocrpaanmemy or xpaxn yanoct cxnarnrt
coomnnxa nopa. On nooeman, uro npocrnr ero, ecnn ror yxaxer camoro nopa.
Ho sarem, nax nopa, nepeaer nonnnnn n nopa n coomnnxa.
B pyrom npnmepe npoanen xnaprnpt, nonyunn saarox, orxastnaer
ocrantntm noxynarenxm. Onaxo nnecmn saarox noxynarent nnesanno
naunnaer cnona ropronartcx. Hpoanny, xoropt xoren nocxopee npoart
xnaprnpy, nnuero ne ocraercx, xax cnntno cnnsnrt neny (net on ocrancx es
pyrnx noxynarene).
B pyrom npnmepe out c nomomtm orna yronapnnaer mamy ycrponrt
yromenne n uecrt nant (n, ecrecrnenno, naxomnrcx cama), a sarem ntnyxaer
orna n orner yrocrnrt ee.
B pyrom npnmepe conercxn rpancnoprnt camoner 20 anrycra 1968 r.
sanpamnnaer n Hpare paspemennx na anapnnym nocaxy n nonyuaer
paspemenne. Onaxo npn npnsemnennn ns nero ntxoxr ecanrnnxn n
saxnartnamr a+popom.

57
r.2, c. 357
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
B pyrom npnmepe saxnarnnmne nocne cmeprn xnxsx nnacrt neocronte
ysypnaropt cnemar x nonxonony nmneparopa, urot cartcx. Onn ntcrxr n
emoncrpnpymr nonnym noxopnocrt. Honxonoen xnannr nx n ocrannxer
xomanonart ]norom. Kora conernnx nonxonona ynnnxercx raxomy
pemennm, nonxonoen oxcnxer, uro y nero ceuac ner nnxoro, ymemmero
noenart na noe. Kora xe nona xonunrcx, on pemnr, uro enart c +rnmn
neocrontmn nmtmn.

Pesmue: Iepo npocnr nomomn y pyroro nosnnnonepa, urot n comse c
nnm (c ero nomomtm) noenrt npara. Onaxo ncrnnno nentm repox
(nentm npnmenennx +ro crpararemt) xnnxercx cam nomomnnx, xoropt n
xnnxercx nparom n anno crparareme. Oxastnax noepxxy repom, npar
nocrannxer cex, oraer no nnacrt repox. Iepo, nocne nonyuennx nomomn,
noexaer n tnmero nomomnnxa.

qopuyna cumcnm
nsx sanmcrnonart; nonpocnrt; yronopnrt; noxynnrt; ntnynrt;
norpeonart; sacrannrt;
ry nyrt; npoxo; nomomt; coecrnne; rpeonanne;
]a nanacrt; conmecrnoe, omee ecrnne;
Io xnxxecrno Io; nent; conmecrnax saaua; nepnonauantnax nent
repox; nent comsa; oexr nanaennx, saxnara; otua;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; npar; pyro npar (oexr-nent); conmecrnoe
ecrnne; ecrnne.

Hpnnnnn: nonoe n +ro crparareme, nx uero nyxno narn cxemarnsm
npocta o nomomn. nx +roro nam nao ntennrt npocrpancrno cnon
(xommynnxannn) orentno or npocrpancrna ecrnn. Iepo n npar xaxt
sannmamr no ne nosnnnn n npocrpancrne exrentnocrn n n npocrpancrne
xommynnxannn. ecrnnx xaxoro yuacrnnxa n npocrpancrne xommynnxannn
nnnxmr na nosnnnn, no camn no cee ne menxmr exrentnocrnym cnryannm.
Onn moryr trt nnmt npnunno ecrnn (repox nnn npara), xoropte nsmenxr
cnryannm.
Oxono nosnnn, naxoxmnxcx n npocrpancrne xommynnxann, yem
crannrt snauox pe]nexcnn, r.x. xommynnxarnnnte nosnnnn nnxr n onennnamr
cnon exrentnocrnte cnryannn.
Koncrpyxnnx, noxastnammax +ror mera-cmtcn:
Cxera 24.0

Oxasanne nomomn ecrnne, nocne xoroporo nomorammn
oxastnaercx no nnacrn repox, noxaxem xax nepememenne npara no
ynpannenne repox.
Tenept, na ocnone +rnx cxem-npnnnnnon, moxno crponrt cxemy
crpararemt.

Onncanne cxeum: Iepo opamaercx x npary n npocrpancrne
xommynnxannn. B exrentnocrnom npocrpancrne npar nepememaercx no
ynpannenne repox. Iepo ocymecrnnxer na ecrnnx nmecre c nparom xax
ennoe nenoe n nnyrpn cnoero oprannsannonnoro ]oxyca npornn npara.
Cxera 24.1






Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
C1pa1areua N 25.

roy nxn xyant uxy
ntxpacrt anxa nomennrt xononna

Btxpacrt [onopnym] anxy n nomennrt xononnt
58
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe, or xoroporo tna cenana ]opmynnponxa
crpararemt, ronopnrcx: om noxocnncx ns-sa npornnnmnx onop, no nosnonrt
nont naxnano. H rora pxom c npornnnmnmn cronamn no xptmy nx ee
nonopxn nosnoxr nonte cront. Onn onxnt trt nnnnee craptx onop,
nnaue re ne yannrt. 3arem menxmr npornnnmne onopt
59
.
B pyrom npnmepe nccneonarent crpararem R Cm+nnt nnmer:
ranax, nocnynax nomena cymnocrn n npecrannxer coo nanonee
nonnoe ntpaxenne crpararemt 25
60
.
B pyrom npnmepe Conercxn Coms nocne roro, xax Tapaxn saxnarnn
nnacrt n A]ranncrane, nanpannn rya conernnxon n cnennanncron, onnancx
yanennx c xnmuentx nocron npaxentx +nemenron, samenxx nx npoconercxn
nacrpoenntmn unnonnnxamn n o]nnepamn. 3arem orxptro nroprcx n
momenrantno saxnarnn crpany.
B pyrom npnmepe nnsxocoprnoe yopenne pac]acontnanoct n memxn c
nannctm ynaxaemoro rocyapcrnennoro xnmnuecxoro npenpnxrnx.
B pyrom npnmepe ana uertpex, ne menxx nasnannx nponecca
xpnrnxn pomana Pe:uie saeoou, xorena ocnonno nentm xpnrnxn cenart ne
xannrynxnrcrno (uro tno, no mnennm Mao, rnanntm neocrarxom pomana), a
pyro +nemenr pomana. Tem camtm pancx na npnnen onn ns ecrnymmnx
pyxononrene Knrax.
B pyrom npnmepe poxennoro y nanoxnnnt ctna nmneparopa oramr
nmneparpnne, xoropax enana nn, uro tna epemenna n renept ponna
nacnennxa.
B pyrom npnmepe uerneprt ctn nmneparopa noentnaer sanemanne
orna: nannct uertpnanart ctn on ncnpannxer na uerneprt ctn.
Taxnm opasom on nocxonr na rpon.
B pyrom npnmepe nanpannennt nenrpantntm npannrentcrnom n paon
ecrnnx ounmennt pnc nomenxncx cnepna no opore n nponnnnnm, sarem
n oxpyr, sarem n yes, n n nrore x nacenennm nonana xyxypysa nnoxoro
xauecrna.
B pyrom npnmepe conpemennt mtcnnrent nnrnpyer n oocnonanne
cnonx ne xnaccnuecxoe n anropnrernoe xon]ynnancxoe counnenne. Onaxo
npn +rom on nomenxer n ncrounnxe onn ns xnmuentx snaxon, n rem camtm
menxer cmtcn nnrart na ror, xoropt emy nyxen n xauecrne nornepxennx

58
r. 2, c. 396
59
r. 2, c. 398
60
r. 2, c. 402
(xapaxrepno, uro nexoropte opasonannte nmn, ynnenmne oman, oopnnn
ero net +ro rnnonax crpararema, peannsyemax c naro nentm).
B pyrom npnmepe +n Cxonnn n cnonx nporpammntx paorax onntno
nnrnpyer Mapxca, Hennna n, onee ncero, Mao. Onaxo on ncnontsyer rontxo
re nnrart, xoropte noxpennxmr ero cocrnennte nen, nnuero ne ronopx o
pyrnx nexx Mao, panee cunranmnxcx rnanntmn n naxnemnmn.
B pyrom npnmepe xnracxne pyxononrenn ronopxr, uro es
emoxparnn nenosmoxen nn connannsm, nn moepnnsannx. Onaxo cnono
emoxparnx nepenonrcx na xnracxn cnonom mnntuxoy, ocnonno
napoonpancrno. Hpn +rom napo n cnno-mapxcncrcxom cmtcne
oxnartnaer ne ncex xnracxnx rpaxan, a nnmt nepnonoanntx
61
.

Pesmue: n +ro crparareme ner npara. Iepo ocymecrnnxer ecrnnx c
onpeenenntmn npemeramn ne menxx ]opmt (nnemnero nna, ]acaa),
menxer nnyrpennee coepxanne na ro, uro emy nyxno. H +rn nonte npemert
cranonxrcx +nemenramn nnemne cnryannn.

qopuyna cumcnm
roy ntxpacrt; sapart; omanyrt; ypart; nnxnnnponart;
nxn anxa; ro, uro nyxno; npemer noxenennx; nnyrpennn
npemer; naunnxa; cnpxrannoe sa ]acaom;
xyant nomennrt; omanyrt; nocynyrt; ncrannrt; npncnonrt;
uxy xononna; nnyrpennxx onopa; cymnocrnt,, rnannt +nemenr;
naunnxa; croxmax csan ]acaa;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; npemert; cnoxnt oexr; nonte nnemnne
+nemenrt; crapte nnyrpennne +nemenrt.

Hpnnnnn: n anno crparareme nao cxoncrpynponart cxemarnsm
ntxpatnannx, ntnnmannx. Iepo xax t ntpesaer ns ome cnryannn
c]epy cnoero ynpannennx. Cnonm ecrnnem on cosaer cnom nnyrpennmm,
npnnanexamym emy cnryannm (cnoe mecro) ns +nemenron, uacrt ns xoroptx
pantme npnnanexann nnemne, ome cnryannn.
Koncrpyxnnx, noxastnammax +ror mera-cmtcn:


61
r. 2, c. 431
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Cxera 25.0

Onncanne cxeum: Iepo ynpannxer cnryanne, nomenxx xnmueno
+nemenr na nont, npnnanexamn panee emy camomy
.
Cxera 25.1

C1pa1areua N 26.

uxn can ma xya
yxastnart menxonnna rposnrt axannx

Iposnrt axannn, yxastnax na menxonnny
62
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe, ona ns xen oraroro uenonexa xsnnr n
snopacrnyer no nonoy ropx pyro xent n yrpoxaer e, no ne n nnno, a n
npncyrcrnnn cnyr n rax rpomxo, urot ra ycntmana n cnoe xomnare.
B pyrom npnmepe cnyxanxn, ne ocmennnaxct xpnrnxonart rocnoxy n
nospaxart na ee merot neennx omamnnx en, ocyxamr n nacmexamrcx no
nonoy ee xonxperntx npomaxon.
B pyrom npnmepe cnexpont, neonontnax cxyntm yromennem,
noanntm nenecrxo, ne ocmennnaercx ee pyrart, r.x. nenecrxa nponcxonr ns
nnnxrentno cemtn. Tora ona pyraer ctna sa ro, uro n cemte ner ener.
B pyrom npnmepe n xpnrnuecxo crarte npemen xyntrypno
penonmnnn anrop ncropnuecxoro nponsneennx ynpexaercx n rom, uro on
npnnnexaer pennocrt nx nopnnannx conpemennocrn, r.e., xnanx
exrentnocrt ncropnuecxoro nnna nmneparopcxoro unnonnnxa XVI n. no
nosnpamennm naenon, rem camtm nopounr ecrnnx xomnaprnn Knrax XX
n. no cosannm centcxnx xommyn.
B pyrom npnmepe paoun xanyercx cexperapm naprxoma na npexropa,
ncnontsymmero rocyapcrnennte cpecrna n cnonx nnrepecax. Ho cexperapt
pemaer, uro xpnrnxa nanpannena na nero camoro: Vxastnax na ntcoro
monaxa, sect, xax x nnxy, nonocxr onesnoro ocna
63
.
B pyrom npnmepe conernnx, ne ocmennnaxct nospaxart xnxsm, xoropt
xoren nanacrt na pyroe xnxxecrno, paccxastnaer emy ncropnm npo
xnnorntx, xoropte xorxr cxnarnrt otuy, ne noospenax, uro camn ceuac
cranyr otue pyrnx.
B pyrom npnmepe xnxst nnoxo ynpannxn rocyapcrnom. Ero conernnx
cnpamnnaer xnxsx, xax cneyer nocrynnrt c nnoxnm pyrom, norom xax
nocrynnrt c nnoxnm cyte. Knxst orneuaer, uro raxnx pyse nao orneprart,
cye orcrpanxrt. 3arem conernnx cnpamnnaer: Hy, a xax trt, ecnn n
npeenax ncex uertpex rpannn crpant ner nopxxa n ynpannennn? Knxst
nocmorpen no croponam n saronopnn o pyrom.

Pesmue: ecrt na pasntx npara. Onn uem-ro noxoxn pyr na pyra y
nnx ecrt omne +nemenrt, xoropte n xnnxmrcx oexramn xpnrnxn. Iepo
xpnrnxyer cnaoro npara (nanaaer na nero cnonecno), no ycrpannaer
cnryannm raxnm opasom, uro cnntnt npar nonnmaer, uro +ra xpnrnxa
apeconana emy. Bcx crpararema nocrpoena ne na ecrnnn, a na cnonax n

62
r. 2, c. 458
63
r. 2, c. 497
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
nnrepnperannxx cnon pasntmn yuacrnnxamn, no+romy nsopaxenne
crpararemt ocrarouno cnoxnoe.

qopuyna cumcnm
uxn yxastnart; noxastnart; xpnrnxonart; nanaart; pyrart;
nacmexartcx; xanonartcx na;
can menxonnna; ror, na xoro moxno esnaxasanno nanacrt; noxnt
oexr; samemammn; narnxnt npnmep;
ma rposnrt; cosanart yrposy; nmert n nny na camom ene;
xya axannx; naxnt uenonex; ne moxer trt oexrom xpnrnxn;
nacroxmn oexr nanaennx; nopasymenaemax ncrnnnax nent;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; ontmo npar; mant npar; cnonecnoe
nanaenne (xpnrnxa); cnryannx; +nemenrt nosnnnn; cnxst ontmero n
mentmero nparon.

Hpnnnnn: cxema nxnmuaer n cex necxontxo asontx xoncrpyxnn.
3ect, xax n n crparareme 24, nam nao pasennrt npocrpancrno cnon
(xommynnxannn), re ocymecrnnxercx ecrnne, n npocrpancrno
exrentnocrn. Mt cxemarnsnpyem xpnrnxy xax nanaenne, ocymecrnnxemoe n
npocrpancrne xommynnxannn ono nosnnnn na pyrym.
Cxera 26.01

Kpome roro, nam nao noxasart ornomennx noonx (noxoxecrn).
Cxemarnsnpyem nx xax nannune onnaxontx +nemenron n mecrax,
npnnanexamnx nosnnnonepam.
Cxera 26.02

H rpertx asonax xoncrpyxnnx pasenenne pe]nexcnnntx nosnnn or
exrentnocrntx nosnnn n cnryann. B +ro crparareme ycnex ocrnraercx sa
cuer roro, uro npar nonnmaer, uro na camom ene araxa nanpannena nmenno na
nero. Ho+romy mt onxnt orennrt cnennantnoe pe]nexcnnnoe mecro, n
xoropom repo n rnannt npar, ne nsanmoecrnyx pyr c pyrom, nce npo
ncex nonnmamr , r.e. nmemr y cex cxemt pe]nexrnpyemtx cnryann.
Cxera 26.03

Tenept, na ocnone +rnx cxem-npnnnnnon, moxno crponrt cxemy
crpararemt.

Onncanne cxeum: enncrnennoe ecrnne crpararemt nponcxonr n
npocrpancrne xommynnxannn. H no+romy omax exrentnocrnax cnryannx
nparon n repox n pamxax ocymecrnnennx camo crpararemt ocraercx
nensmenno (nocnecrnnx crpararemt mt ne paccmarpnnaem). Ocymecrnnenne
xommynnxannn rontxo cosaer npenoctnxn nx yymero nsmenennx
cnryannn.
Ecrt repo n na npara, y xoroptx ecrt onnaxonte +nemenrt. Iepo n
rnannt npar naxoxrcx n ono cnryannn. Mnamn npar moxer
npncyrcrnonart peantno, nnn +ro npocro ntymxa repox +ro ne naxno. Iepo
ocymecrnnxer xpnrnxy (xommynnxarnnno nanaaer na nosnnnm) mnamero
npara. Hpnuem nmenno na ror +nemenr mnamero npara, xoropt xnnxercx
onnaxontm y oonx nparon. Inannt npar, xax n repo, nmeer pe]nexcnnnym
nosnnnm n nnnr n cnryannm xpnrnxn, n cnryannm noonx. Hecmorpx na ro,
uro repo ne ocymecrnnxer nnxaxoro ecrnnx na nosnnnm rnannoro npara,
rnannt npar cam nepenocnr xpnrnxy na cex (n pe]nexcnn cam onennnaer
cnom nosnnnm, xax noneprmymcx nanaennm). Mt noxastnaem, uro repo n
cnoe pe]nexcnnno nosnnnn npennen raxym peaxnnm rnannoro npara (ero
pe]nexcnx nxnmuaer n cex pe]nexcnnnym nosnnnm npara).
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Cxera 26.1


C1pa1areua N 27.

nsx un y xnt
noentnt rnynt ne cymacmemn

Hpnrnopxrtcx rnynnom, ne repxx ronont
64
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe, n rpaxrare Tpuoami uecmi cmpamaee+
(Corpoeeuua ruuea o eoeuuo+ ucrvccmee) coneryercx Hyume cenart nn,
uro nnuero ne snaemt n ne xouemt nnuero enart, uem enart nn, uro
nnaeemt snannem n ecrnonart espaccyno
65
.
B pyrom npnmepe Cynt-nst n nepno ns cnonx nenanarn noenntx
ynonxax coneryer: Ecnn moxemt, noxastna npornnnnxy, uro ne moxemt.
B pyrom npnmepe noenauantnnx, nonanmn n pyxn npara, npnrnopnncx
esymntm n cen na ero rnasax eptmo, xoropoe ror npenonec emy sa cronom.
3ro yenno npara n cymacmecrnnn n nosnonnno nonxonony ntxnrt.
B pyrom npnmepe xnracxax naponax mypocrt rpaxryer crpararemy 27
rax: ne ynnnxrtcx npn nne crpannoro, n ono camo coo ncuesner.
B pyrom npnmepe n xnracxnx xnnrax n rnane no 27 crparareme
npnnonrcx nspeuenne: Hepnoocnono ncxxo crpararem xnnxercx xnrpocrt,
sanorom ee ycnexa conmenne rant, a naryo npexenpemennoe ee
pacxptrne.
B pyrom npnmepe nnrnpyercx Cynt-nst: nonauany yt poox, xax
nennnnax enymxa, a xora npornnnnx orxpoer ree nept, roruac crant
noontm ntpnanmemycx na cnooy sany n npornnnnx ne ycneer
oprannsonart ornop.
B pyrom npnmepe uenonex nemaer na nepxx yxa nepe -
nsopaxenne, ornyrnnammee or oma sntx yxon. Otuno +ro nsopaxenne
snoro noenauantnnxa c aneapo, onaxo on nemaer xaprnnxy opoymnoro
roncrxxa. Hpn +rom oxcnxer xene, uro nnxro ne cpannnrtcx c xecroxocrtm n
nnsocrtm rex, xro nanycxaer na cex nn, uro on opoymen n mnnocepen,
no+romy snte yxn onxnt yoxrtcx +roro nsopaxennx.
B pyrom npnmepe crapt xannnep, npaxonanmn c noenauantnnxom
(npn manonernem nmneparope), npn nocnanne noenauantnnxa enaer nn, uro
on ornox, onen n ymnpaer. Ho xax rontxo ror yxonr, crapnx ncxaxnnaer n
naunnaer roronnrt saxnar nnacrn.
B pyrom npnmepe npar pannr nonxonona crpeno n rpyt, no ror
norporan cnom nory n cxasan: 3ror napnap pannn menx n nanen, nocne uero,
rano crpaax or pant, xonn no cnoemy narepm, urot oopnrt nocxa.
B pyrom npnmepe Hanoneon, xoropt onro ne mor onrtcx or pyccxo-
ancrpncxo xoannnnn renepantnoro cpaxennx, pesxo ocnanxer narncx na
pyccxym apmnm n naunnaer npomyntnart nouny nx saxnmuennx mnpa. 3ro

64
r. 2, c. 504
65
r. 2, c. 506
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
yexaer Anexcanpa I, uro npornnnnx ouent cna n on, nonpexn mnennm
Kyrysona, nonen apmnm n o npornn ]pannyson no Aycrepnnnem.
B pyrom npnmepe n xnxxecrne npn cmene npannennx nonapnncx nonnt
ecnopxox. Hepnt mnnncrp, cnonmn myptmn coneramn nomorammn
npetymemy xnxsm, ne xenaer nmert eno c narntm n ryntm nacnennxom,
no+romy npnrnopxercx rnynnom n ycrpanxercx or en.
B pyrom npnmepe Kon]ynn noxcnxer: Vnaox naunnaercx c pacnnera,
ntcmee nacnaxenne nepexonr n cxopt, connne n sennre snaunr, naunnaer
canrtcx, nonnonynne neer x ymepy. Ho+romy mypocrt coxpanxercx
rnynocrtm, opasonanne n xpacnopeune nenexecrnom, cnna n myxecrno
crpaxom, orarcrno n npeycnexnne +xonomne, naroexnnx n pasaun
nosepxannem or nnx. Fnaroapx +rnm nxrn nemam npexnne nant xpannnn
Honeecnym n ne yrpaunnann ee; npenepexenne xe nmn neer x xpaxy.
Ho+romy Hao-nst ronopnr: Bepnte +romy nyrn nseramr nonnort; net
nsnamnnartcx, ne npenpamaxct n neuro nonoe, moxer rontxo nenonnt
66
.
B pyrom npnmepe na nnpy y napx neoxnanno racnyr cneun. Onn ns
rocre naunnaer sanrptnart c nmnmo nanoxnnne napx, ra orptnaer y nero
xncrt or manxn n xanyercx napm, npexnnn xncrt xax oxasarentcrno. Hapt
ne snaer, xro nponnnnncx, no, nonnmax, uro rocrt npocro ntxn, ne xouer
nnuero ntxcnxrt on npnxastnaer ne saxnrart cneun n ncem rocrxm oropnart
no xncrn or manox. Hnp npoonxnncx es cxanana. (B antnemem no npemx
nont +ror ntxnnna-annx npoxnnxer reponsm n cnacaer napx).
B pyrom npnmepe +n Cxonnn n 1989 r. oosnaunn nosynr nx nnemne
nonnrnxn: He ropxunrtcx n ntxnart yonoro cnyuax nn n xoem cnyuae ne
trt na nepntx ponxx.

Pesmue: n crparareme pasenxercx nnnmocrt ro, uro emoncrpnpyercx
npary, n nacroxmax cyrt repox. Hpn +rom ecrnnx repox onpeenent nmenno
nnnmocrtm n npornnopeuar ero ncrnnno cymnocrn. Vxe sa rpannne
crpararemt ro, uro naroapx +rnm ]antmnntm ecrnnxm repo cnacaer cex
nnn cosaer cnryannm, xora moryr npoxnnrtcx ero nacroxmne
xapaxrepncrnxn.

qopuyna cumcnm
nsx noentnt; ne nacroxmn; ncxyccrnennt; nnnmocrt;
]antmnnoe; emoncrpnpyemoe; nynnunoe; nnemnee;
un rnynt; ryno; pexuecxn; nenent; espaccynt;
ypanxn; neoxnannt;
y ne; ne nacroxmn; noxnt;
xnt cymacmemn; esymnt; nomemannt; ecneneno;
xaornuecxn; cnat; nponrptnammn;


66
r. 2, c. 544
3neuen1m cxeum: repo; nnemnxx uacrt nosnnnn repox; nacroxmax
xapaxrepncrnxa nosnnnn repox; cnryannx; ecrnnx.

Hpnnnnn: pasenenne na nnnmocrt n cymnocrt mt oosnaunm
nontm (nnemnnm n nnyrpennnm) onoom noxpyr nosnnnonepa, npnuem
nnyrpennmm rpannny nynxrnpom, noxastnax, uro ona nponnnaema
nsnyrpn. r.e. ne xnnxercx orpannunrenem nx camoro nosnnnonepa.
Cxera 27.0

Kpome roro, y repox, xoneuno, ecrt pe]nexcnnnax nosnnnx.

Onncanne cxeum: Cocrnennax nosnnnx repox (ero mecro) cocronr ns
nyx nnoxenntx mecr, uro oosnaueno nono rpannne. Bnemnee mecro
nsanmoecrnyer c cnryanne n ocymecrnnxer ecrnne n nanpannennn,
saanaemom cnryanne, nnyrpennxx oecneunnaer nesanncnmocrt or cnryannn
n cnooy n antnemnx ecrnnxx.

Cxera 27.1


Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
C1pa1areua N 28.

man y uoy rn
sanecrn xptma ypart necrnnna

3anecrn na xptmy n ypart necrnnny
67
.

Hpnuepm: uopmynnponxa crpararemt tna nnepnte cenana n rpaxrare
Boeuuoe ucrvccmeo Cvui-si: uac nrnt nao ycranannnnart rax, cnonno,
nsopanmnct na ntcory, nnesanno orranxnnaemt necrnnny. Hnn, nntmn
cnonamn: Hpncrynax x pemnrentntm ecrnnxm on [nonxonoen] cxnraer
cnon noxn n pasnnaer xornt
68
.
B pyrom npnmepe nonxonoen, nepenpannnmnct uepes pexy, noronnn
nce noxn n cya, pasnn xornt n ropmxn nx et n cxer nce manamn. Kora
nauancx o, xaxt ero nonn pancx sa ecxreptx, or nx oentx xpnxon
coporanoct neo, n onn pasnnn npornnnnxa.
B pyrom npnmepe amepnxancxn xypnanncr n 1936 r., pncxyx xnsntm,
ornpannxercx n xnracxne conercxne paont, uro n 1990 r. xommenrnpyercx
xax pemnmocrt pasnrt xorenxn, noronnrt noxn.
B pyrom npnmepe ctn xoren nonxrt noccranne n nosnecrn cnom cemtm
na rpon. Oren (nmneparopcxn namecrnnx) ne xoren ntcrynart npornn
nmneparopa. Tora ctn ntxpan nanoxnnn ns nmneparopcxoro nopna n, ne
paccxasan o +rom, or cnoero nmenn noapnn orny. uepes nexoropoe npemx on
orxptn, orxya xpacannnt. Orny oxasancx n esntxonom nonoxennn (sa +ro
ero t xasnnnn), n emy nnuero ne ocrananoct, xax nonxrt nocxa.
B pyrom npnmepe sacrenunnt cryenr Hn roronnr nx npnxrenx
oxna nx ncnyra. Ho ero npnxrent crannr na oxnae nmx Hn n noaer ero n
xomnccnm. Hn nnuero ne ocraercx, xax ntcrynart.
B pyrom npnmepe uenonexa samannnamr na xptmy, ynpamr necrnnny n
noxnramr crpoenne.
B pyrom npnmepe nmneparop, urot npncrpynnrt napanmero cnny
nonxonona, nasnauaer nroporo nonxonona xomanonart apmne, no, nocne
neyauntx noxoon pasxanonan ero n paspx npocronmnnon. Bropo
nonxonoen cxasan: Hmneparop nosnen menx na croxpycnym amnm, a ntne,
sapan necrnnny, yanxercx.
B pyrom npnmepe monooxent xorenn ns necxontxnx pecropanon
ntpart onn nx cnatt. Onaxo xosxnn nepnoro xe pecropana rax
nocrponn pasronop, xax yro onn yxe ntpann ero saneenne saanan nm
nonpoct npo nx xenannx n ronopnn, uro nce rax n cenaer. H n nrore
oxastnaercx, uro onn orann saxas emy.


67
r. 2, c. 556
68
nnr. no [1], r. 2, c. 557
Pesmue: Ecnn paccmarpnnart crpararemy xax nocneonarentnocrt
ecrnn, ocymecrnnxemtx onpeenenntmn nnnamn, ro moxno cenart ntno,
uro y crpararemt na pasnnuntx cmtcna. B nepnom cmtcne repo nomemaer
cex n cnryannm, enaer ee cmeprentno onacno nx cex (uro osnauaer, uro on
cam ee xonrponnpyer) n rontxo rora naunnaer araxy. Bo nropom npara
samannnamr n cnryannm, re repo, xonrponnpymmn +ry cnryannm, enaer ee
esntxono nx npara n sarem oxsarentno noenr. Ho+romy cyrt
crpararemt esornocnrentna x repom n npary, n ne onxna trt rontxo
ona nosnnnx (nx yocrna nomernm ee xax repo). Henaxno, xro n xax
oxasancx na xptme, a xro ypan necrnnny. H raxxe nne crpararemt
naxonrcx ro, uro yer antme araxa roro, xro sa coo cxer mocrt nnn
roro, xro cnapyxn saxnonnyn nept n nonymxy.

qopuyna cumcnm
man sanecrn; samannrt; sarn; nasnaunrt; nocrannrt; ornpannrt;
pemnrtcx;
y xptma; esntxonax cnryannx; samxnyroe, saxptroe mecro;
nensexnocrt;
uoy ypart; nepexptrt; nnmnrt; pemnrentnoe ecrnne;
rn necrnnna; nosmoxnocrt orxoa; nyrt; nomomt, noepxxa; ntop;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; nepememenne; nsmenenne cnryannn;
cmeprentnax cnryannx.

Onncanne cxeum: repo nepememaercx n cnryannm, sarem menxer
cnryannm rax, uro ona cranonnrcx esntxono n cmeprentno onacno nx
camoro repox.
Cxera 28

Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
C1pa1areua N 29.

my man xa xya
epeno na pacnycxartcx/ pacnycxart nnert

Ha epene noxnnxmrcx nnert; pacnycrnrt na epene nnert
69
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe nanoxnnnt, urot pasnecennrt
nmneparopa no npemx rpycrno snmt, nsrorannnnamr rtcxun ncxyccrnenntx
nneron, neornnunmtx or nacroxmnx, n nemamr nx na epentx.
B pyrom npnmepe apmecxax pnraa ncxycno macxnponxo onro
omantnaer npornnnnxa, xoropt ymaer, uro nepe nnm ocnonnte cnnt
apmnn npara.
B pyrom npnmepe n xnracxom ynnnepcnrere nnocrpanno enerannn
emoncrpnpymr npnop nx nccneonann, yrnepxax, uro c ero nomomtm
nonyuent xopomne pesyntrart. Onaxo oxastnaercx, uro npnop axe n ne
nxnmuann (n n nomemennn, re on tn ycranonnen, ne tno +nexrpnuecxo
poserxn).
B pyrom npnmepe xosxnn nonoro pecropana necxontxo ne ecnnarno
yromaer ncex cnonx pyse n pocrnennnxon. Hocne roro, xax pasnocnrcx cnyx,
uro pecropan npnnnexaer mnoro rocre, x nemy ecrnnrentno naunnamr
npnxonrt mnoro nocernrene.
B pyrom npnmepe unnonnnxn ncemn nosmoxntmn cnocoamn ynyumamr
nnemnn nn cnonx ropoon nepe nponepxamn, n raxxe noracontnamr
crarncrnuecxne noxasarenn.
B pyrom npnmepe unnonnnxy ne xnaraer ener nx nepeaun
ryepnaropy. On oronapnnaercx co cnyxamnm ryepncxo xasnt, uro
npnneser entrn nosnee. Cnyxamn aer pacnncxy, uro entrn nnecent n
xasny n pacnncxa npexnnxercx ryepnaropy nmecro nannunocrn.
B pyrom npnmepe n rpaxrare Tpuoami uecmi cmpamaee+ amrcx
noxcnennx: nocnontsonanmnct ocranonxo, yrnepnrt cnoe nonoxenne, n
axe neontmnmn cnnamn opecrn ontmym nnacrt
70
.
B pyrom npnmepe manentxn orpx, yerax or ontmoro nocxa,
nepecexaer mocr. Moryun npenonrent orpxa, nsnecrnt eccrpamnem n
cnno, cranonnrcx na mocry, a ero ncannxn nonnmamr n pome,
pacnonoxenno sa mocrom, ntnt xax yro ram mnoro nonnon. Kora nparn
npnnnxamrcx, npenonrent orpxa rpomontm ronocom ntstnaer nx na o.
Cnonm ronocom, yrpoxammnm nnom n nonxro cnpxranmnmncx nonnamn
ntntm on ycrpamaer nparon, n onn orcrynamr.
B pyrom npnmepe nponsnonrent xocmernuecxnx cpecrn samenxer n
crpouxe nsnecrno necnn, nocnxmenno Mao Hs+yny, cnono Mao na
nasnanne xocmernxn.

69
r. 2, c. 588
70
r. 2, c. 634
B pyrom npnmepe xnoncxax ]npma, xoropax camocroxrentno nnxax ne
morna ntrn na ptnox CBA, cosaer n CBA ouepnmm xomnannm n
conmecrno c ynaxaemo amepnxancxo ]npmo ntnycxaer npoyxnnm no
mapxo, nxnmuamme nasnannx oenx ]npm. Kora mapxa cranonnrcx
nsnecrno, xnonnt orenxmrcx or amepnxancxoro naprnepa n ynpamr
amepnxancxym cocrannxmmym nasnannx mapxn.
B pyrom npnmepe mypen oxcnxer napm, uro nparn oxrcx ne
nasnauennoro nm noenauantnnxa, a orpomnoe nocxo, xoropoe napt an
noenauantnnxy n nounnenne.

Pesmue: repo macxnpyer, yxpamaer cnom cnryannm sa cuer
ncxyccrnenntx +nemenron. Bpara, xax nosnnnonepa, n crparareme ner.
Cosaercx nont opas repox, xoropt nx nce pyrnx nosmoxntx
nosnnnonepon ntrnxnr rax, xax nyxno repom.

qopuyna cumcnm
my epeno; cnryannx; nosnnnx repox; nnemnn nn; nonoxenne
(cpen pyrnx); omee mnenne o cnryannn; npecrannennx;
nnacrt;
man na; nsnne; ononnnrentno;
xa pacnycxartcx; oannrt; nsopasnrt; npecrannrt; npnxpennrt;
yxpacnrt; yrnepnrt (saxpennrt);
xya nnert; noxnt +nemenr; ro, uero ner na camom ene; oman;
npnxptrne; macxnponxa; nnemnee; ocranonxa; mante cnnt;

3neuen1m cxeum: mecro; repo; ononnnrentnt +nemenr; nnemnn
opas nosnnnn.

Hpnnnnn: sect, xax n crparareme 27, mecro repox nmeer nonym
rpannny.

Onncanne cxeum: repo eper nsnne, ns oxpyxamme cnryannn nonte
+nemenrt n crponr eme ony cnom nnunym cnryannm (cnoe mecro), nnn ee
uacrt, opamennym x npary. Cxoncrpynponannoe mecro ntrnxnr nnaue, uem
nacroxmee.
Cxera 29

Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
C1pa1areua N 30.

]ant x+ n+ uxy
oparnrt rocrt n xosxnn

Oparnrt rocrx n xosxnna
71
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe, n xoropom, nepoxrno, nnepnte ynomxnyra
]opmynnponxa crpararemt, n counnennn Cvui-si. V-si: Tparmami o
eoeuuo+ ucrvccmee noenauantnnx pasxcnxer crpararemy napm: Ecnn
cnaxartcx sa cuer npornnnnxa [nex nony na reppnropnn npornnnnxa], +ro n
yer npenpamenne rocrx n xosxnna. Ecnn [yyun nann or cnonx as] camomy
trt ctrtm, a npornnnnxa sacrannxrt ronoart, camomy trt cnexnm, a
npornnnnxa yromnxrt, +ro yer npenpamenne xosxnna [anno reppnropnn] n
rocrx
72
.
B pyrom npnmepe +ry crpararemy pexomenymr ocymecrnnxrt n nxrt
npnemon: 1. crant rocrem; 2. nocnontsycx yontm cnyuaem; 3. ctmn cee
onpananne; 4. ynpout cnom nnacrt; 5. sanepmn nepexo nnacrn.
B pyrom npnmepe nsnecrnt nenen oronopnncx o ntcrynnennn na
xonnepre. Oprannsaropt cenann pexnamy, n san tn nonon. Ho nepe camtm
ntcrynnennem nenen saxnnn, uro ero ronopap man. H nnmt nonyunn npnanxy,
on ntmen na cneny.
B pyrom npnmepe xonyxrop npn noxynxe nnera ne nonnocrtm anan
cauy. Tora naccaxnp cran oranart emy xynmpy n 10 mane rontxo nocne
roro, xax nonyuan 9 mane caun.
B pyrom npnmepe ]opmynnponxa crpararemt ncnontsyercx nx
oosnauennx cnryann noment snaunmoro nesnaunmtm: ynneuenne
pexnccepa cnennuecxnmn +]]exramn n ymep coepxannm ntect, nnn
noesox unnonnnxon na conemannx n raxne mecra, re +xcxypcnn oronnramr
na sann nnan camy paory.
B pyrom npnmepe no npemena xpecrtxncxoro noccrannx n rnenn
nnacrnn nonxonoen V Cyntry na cenepe ycnemno cepxnnaer mantuxypon.
On xouer noannrt xpecrtxncxoe noccranne n crart nmneparopom. nx +roro V
Cyntry ncrynaer n neperonopt c mantuxypamn n onn c nnm nmecre, xxot
nomorax emy sanxrt rpon, ncrynamr n Hexnn. 3arem mantuxypt
oocnontnamrcx n Hexnne n yrnepxamr cnom nnncxym nnacrnm (V
Cyntry cran nnncxnm noenauantnnxom).
B pyrom npnmepe no npemena, xora xenmnne ne paspemanoct
npnnnxartcx x nesnaxomomy myxunne n ncrynart c nnm n omenne, enymxa
nnnr, uro rocnonn, c xoroptm e tno nyxno nosnaxomnrtcx, npnxastnaer
sanecrn n xomnary rxxent xament. Ona cama epercx sa +ro, saxartnaer

71
r. 2, c. 644
72
r. 2, c. 646
xament n canrcx n xomnare myxunnt. Hocne uero yxe ero camoro npnrnamaer
co cnonamn: saxonre n canrect, ocrournmt rocrt.

Pesmue: Bpar n repo nsanmoecrnymr pyr c pyrom (naxoxrcx n
ome cnryannn). Ho npar xosxnn cnryannn, a nx repox ona uyxax. Iepo
nepexnartnaer ynpannenne n naunnaer nontsonartcx ncemn npanamn n naramn
xosxnna, a sarem noexaer npara.

qopuyna cumcnm
]ant oparnrt; npenparnrt; samennrt; nomennrt; nepenepnyrt;
ntrecnnrt;
x+ rocrt; uyxax; npnmenen; norepnenmn; naccnnnt; ne
nmemmn;
n+ n; nmecro;
uxy xosxnn; nnaenen, pacnopxxammncx; noenrent; axrnnnt;
pemammn (nonpoc); rnannt;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; npar; ynpannenuecxax nosnnnx npara;
samemenne.

Hpnnnnn: n crparareme ecrt ne mera-xoncrpyxnnn: no-nepntx,
crpararema ocymecrnnxercx n necxontxo npemenntx maron (xax mnnnmym, n
na mara). Ho+romy n cxeme onxno trt pasenenne na npocrpancrna
npomnoro n yymero. Bo-nroptx, n crparareme repo cosaer cno ]oxyc
ynpannennx na oexrom, panee naxoxmnmcx no ynpannennem npara. nx
+roro ncnontsyem cxemarnsm, ananornunt cxeme crpararemt 23 pyxnrt c
antnnm, noenart c nnxnnm.
Eypyee Rpounoe
Cxera 30.0

Onncanne cxeum: repo nxonr n cnryannm, xoropo ynpannxer npar.
3arem on naunnaer ocymecrnnxrt ynpannxmmee nosecrnne na oexr
crponr cno cocrnennt ]oxyc ynpannennx na oexrom. 3arem repo
nanocnr yap npary (tnmemy ynpannxmmemy).

Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Cxera 30.1
Eypyee Rpounoe


C1pa1areua N 31.

m+ x+nt nsn
xpacnnt uenonex crpararema

Crpararema xpacannnt. Crpararema xpacnnoro uenonexa
73
.
|Crpararema uenoneuecxo xpacort].

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe, n xoropom, nepoxrno, nnepnte ynomxnyra
]opmynnponxa crpararemt, n pomane Tpoeapcmeue mart napx sanpemaer
ctny ncnontsonart cnom cecrpy n xauecrne npnmanxn nx nenoxopnoro xnxsx
xnxst tn npnrnamen n cronnny, urot xxot xennrtcx na cecrpe napx, no na
camom ene napt xoren saxnarnrt ero n nnen.
B pyrom npnmepe coepxarenn npnronon c asaprntmn nrpamn
sastnamr x cee monoext c nomomtm npocrnryrox.
B pyrom npnmepe noennt rpaxrar Lecmi uacmae.euu coneryer
nornopcrnonart npaxecxomy npenonrenm n esyepxnom crpemnennn x
nacnaxennxm, nx uero cpen npouero apnrt emy xpacnntx xenmnn.
B pyrom npnmepe n rpaxrare Tpuoami uecmi cmpamaee+ ronopnrcx:
Hentsx npornnocroxrt orxptro moryuemy nocxy n mypomy noenauantnnxy.
Hyxno npnnnmart ocroxrentcrna n cneonart nm. Orart npornnnnxy cnon
semnn osnauaer nnmt ynennunnart ero morymecrno 3annarnrt npornnnnxy
sonortmn cnnrxamn nnn xycxamn menxa osnauaer nnmt ynennunnart ero
orarcrna Enncrnennoe nonomenne, xoroptm cneyer saapnnart
npornnnnxa +ro xpacnnte ent, no raxo ap ocnanr ero nonm, nanpenr
ero sopontm n noponr ponor cpen ero nounnenntx
74
.
B pyrom npnmepe onnctnaercx, xax xnxst namen n cnoem napcrne
xpacnntx enymex, rpn roa nx oyuann nnxcxam, nennm, ymennm cex necrn
n ymennm yroxart myxunne. 3arem onn tnn ornpannent n ap pyromy
napm, or xoroporo xnxst n cnoe npemx norepnen nopaxenne n napcrno xoroporo
xoren saxnarnrt. Tor npnnxn noapox n nacrontxo ynnexcx ono ns xpacannn,
uro sanycrnn nce ena. Knxst nanan n saxnarnn napcrno.
B pyrom npnmepe napenopen noctnaer xpacannn, urot samannrt
pocrnennnxon cnoero nonnrnuecxoro npornnnnxa n nonymxy.
B pyrom npnmepe nmneparopcxym nanoxnnny ntann samyx sa noxx
xynnon. Taxxe n pyrnm noenauantnnxam xynnon noctnann n xent
opasonanntx xnraxnox. Taxax nonnrnxa oecneunna nmnepnn 70 ner es
naeron.
B pyrom npnmepe xenmnn ncnontsymr nx pexnamt ronapon.

Pesmue: repo apnr npary xenmnn +ro raxo noapox, xoropt npary
npannrcx, no ocnanxer npara. Hnn +ror noapox nosnonxer repom onrtcx
xenaemoro pesyntrara.

73
r. 2, c. 662
74
r. 2, c. 672
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )

qopuyna cumcnm
m+ xpacnnt; xenannt; or xoroporo nenosmoxno orxasartcx;
x+nt uenonex; noapox; npnmanxa;
nsn crpararema; xnrpocrt; nonymxa; onacnocrt; nopaxenne; ymep;
ytrox;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; npar; noapox; ynpannenuecxax nosnnnx;
nosecrnne noapxa.

Hpnnnnn: n +ro crparareme nao cxemarnsnponart cnenn]nxy
xpacnnoro uenonexa n xauecrne noapxa. Pasnpax cmtcnt, croxmne sa
xpacannne, moxno ormernrt, uro, no-nepntx, +ror noapox xenanen, r.e. on
coornercrnyer npecrannennm o noapxe. Bo-nroptx, on ne xnnxercx
pecypcom, r.e. ero nentsx, n ornnune or sonora nnn semnn, ncnontsonart nx
ycnnennx nosnnnn n rom enncrnennom cmtcne, xoropt nmeer snauenne nx
repox nx ynennuennx nnacrn. Haoopor, on ocnanxer nosnnnm npara. 3ror
noapox ocnanxer nosnnnm rem, uro nepexnmuaer nnnmanne nnaentna or
nnacrn na cex (na xpacannny). Bnnmanne nnacrnrenx, n xonrexcre optt sa
nnacrt, roxe pecypc. Taxnm opasom, +ror npemer, nepeannt npary,
cranonnrcx oexrom ero npannenuecxoro nosecrnnx nmecro pyrnx
oexron, xoropte cranonxrcx ocrynnt nx araxn repox.
Koncrpyxnnn, na ocnone xoroptx crponrcx cxema crpararemt, raxne xe,
xax n crparareme 30 Oparnrt rocrx n xosxnna - pasenenne npocrpancrna na
npomnoe n yymee (npemx apennx noapxa n npemx nocnecrnn
noapxa) n xoncrpyxnnx oprannsannonno-ynpannenuecxoro nosecrnnx na
oexr.

Onncanne cxeum: repo nnocnr n ynpannenuecxym nosnnnm npara
npemer. 3ror npemer ee paspymaer noxnpyer nmemmeecx ynpannenuecxoe
ecrnne n cosaer nonoe nanpannennoe na cex.
Cxera 31

C1pa1areua N 32.

xyn u+n nsn
nycro/orxptrt ropo/ropocxne nopora crpararema

Crpararema orxptrtx ropocxnx nopor. Crpararema nycroro ropoa
75
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe, or xoroporo tna cenana ]opmynnponxa
crpararemt, orpomnoe npaxecxoe nocxo neoxnanno noxonr x ropoy, n
xoropom naxonrcx xannnep nennxn crpararemmnx uxyr+ Hxn c ropcrxo
conar. Kannnep npnxastnaer mnpoxo pacnaxnyrt ropocxne nopora, a ncem
conaram cnpxrartcx n monuart. Cam xe nonnmaercx na creny n nrpaer na
nmrne. Bpaxecxn nonxonoen, xopomo snammn ocropoxnocrt n
nerenapnym xnrpocrt uxyr+ Hxna, pemnn, uro ror npnroronnn emy sananm n
nocnemno orcrynnn or ropoa.
B pyrom npnmepe conpemennt noxnonnnx uxyr+ Hxna xouer notnart
na npecrannennn onept o nem n, urot n ero orcyrcrnne om ne ooxpann,
npneraer x crparareme uxyr+ Hxna crparareme orxptrtx nopor. On
ocrannxer nepn orxptrtmn nacrext n nemaer na neptmn cnernntnnx. Hoxa
on tn na onepe, n om nnxro ne nponnx. Onaxo, xora on uepes nexoropoe
npemx, yxox na ouepenoe npecrannenne, nropo pas npner x +ro xe
crparareme, ero om nonnocrtm ooxpann.
B pyrom npnmepe xnracxn orpx, cnyuano anexo oropnanmncx or
ocnonntx cnn, neoxnanno ncrpeuaer orpomnoe napnapcxoe nocxo. Orpx
cran necrn cex, xax npnmanxa nonnt ocranonnnnct, paccenann xone n
ncxuecxn npononnponann npara na nanaenne. Bapnapt pemnnn, uro +ro
nonymxa, a ocnonnte cnnt xnranen re-ro pxom n ceuac raxom nx
oxpyxamr n yexann.
B pyrom npnmepe n nonnn nonxonoen Tax+a Cnnr+n, cneymn n
crpararemax, no rnane cnntno apmnn npecneonan pyroro nonxonona, raxxe
xopomero crparera, Toxyrana H+xcy, y xoroporo npaxrnuecxn ne tno nocx.
Toxyrana orcrynnn n xpenocrt n pacnaxnyn nopora. Tax+a pemnn, uro
npornnnnx npner x crparareme nycroro ropoa n cnepna xoren araxonart. Ho
npyr on noyman, uro Toxyrana (snarox noennoro ncxyccrna) nanepnxxa
npennen, uro on (roxe cnntnt noennt reopernx) pasraaer +ry ynonxy. Ho
nouemy xe rora Toxyrana nce-raxn x ne npner? Tax+a ns ocropoxnocrn ne
nanaan, a rem npemenem x Toxyrane noomnn noxpennennx.
B pyrom npnmepe nonxonoen, nororonnn sacay orcrynammemy npary
na ono ns nyx opor, saxer na +ro opore nnaunte xocrpt. Hpornnnnx
pemnn, uro ero ntramrcx omanyrt (n coornercrnnn c xanonamn noennoro
ncxyccrna), n cran orcrynart nmenno no +ro opore. H nonan n sacay.
B pyrom npnmepe romnntanoncxn noenauantnnx xouer nanacrt na
ropo, n xoropom y xommynncron yxe ne ocranoct nocx. Tora re nynnxymr

75
r. 2, c. 693
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
n mecrno rasere coomenne o nnanax +roro nanaennx c xommenrapnxmn, uro
+rn nnant opeuent na neyauy. Iomnntanonnt nepxr, uro y xommynncron n
ropoe ocranact apmnx, n ne nanaamr.
B pyrom npnmepe oxpannnxn marasnna saxnrann na nepnom +raxe cner
n ornpannxnnct cnart na nropo +rax. Hpecrynnnxn npocnennn sa marasnnom
n nonxnn, uro oxpannnxn npneramr x crparareme nycroro ropoa. H ooxpann
marasnn.
B pyrom npnmepe ncnontsymr ntpaxenne nert crpararemy nycroro
ropoa nx xapaxrepncrnxn omana, noxasyxn. Homr (nnn nsopaxamr)
crpararemy nycroro ropoa - r.e. ronopxr o nannunn uero-ro, uero na camom
ene ner. Hanpnmep, n rot xyntrypno penonmnnn npemtep-mnnncrp nen
nepe mexynapontm coomecrnom crpararemy nycroro ropoa, ronopx o
Knrae xax o cnntno n xpenxo epxane, xorx na camom ene n ne napnno
sanycrenne n ecnopxox. Hnn xonrpont xauecrna na sanoe noer crpararemy
nycroro ropoa - snaunr, xonrponx xauecrna na sanoe ner, xorx nauantcrno
enaer nn, uro ecrt.

Pesmue: Iepo essamnren (y nero nycro ropo) n ne moxer
npornnocroxrt npary. Tora on enaer nn, uro cnpxran cnom cnny n
samannnaer npara (rontxo n xer, urot npar nanan). Bpar nepnr, uro y repox
ecrt cnnt n ne nanaaer.
Hntmn cnonamn: repo neer cex rax, xax yro npnmenxer crpararemy.
Bpar nepnr cunraer, uro repo npnmenxer crpararemy, n ecrnyer n
coornercrnnn c npenonaraemo crpararemo, a ne n coornercrnnn c
peantnocrtm, ne nepx peantnocrn (cunrax, uro peantnocrt +nemenr
crpararemnoro omana).

qopuyna cumcnm
xyn nycro; orxptrt; nesamnmennt; cnat; orcyrcrnymmn;
u+n ropo; nopora; cnna; nocxo; ro, uro onxno tno t trt;
nsn crpararema; nnan omana; npoymannax xnrpocrt; cnennantnoe
napymenne xanona; neoxnannt, no sapanee npoymannt
xo; reopnx noennoro ncxyccrna;

3neuen1m cxeum:; repo; npar; cnryannx; ecrnnx; npocrpancrno
reopernuecxnx xoncrpyxnn.

Hpnnnnn: +ra crpararema nenosmoxna es npecrannennx o crpararemax
y ncex yuacrnnxon. B cxeme, xax n n cxeme x crparareme 7 ns nep netrnx
nsnneut neuro, onxno trt na npocrpancrna npocrpancrno peantntx
ecrnn n npocrpancrno crpararem, nnanon, samtcnon, reopnn. ecrnnx
nosnnn n cxeme onpeenxmrcx ne xapaxrepncrnxamn nosnnn n nx
cnryannxmn, a reopernuecxnmn npecrannennxmn.
Koncrpyxnnx, noxastnammax +ror mera-cmtcn:
Cxera 32.0
N
Hopru. Rpueuku,
Cfepeofunu,
Cfpafareru
Rpocfpaucfeo
pecfeun


Onncanne cxeum: Peantnax exrentnocrnax cnryannx repox n npara
nmeer cnon xpxo ntpaxennte xapaxrepncrnxn. Onaxo repo ecrnyer
nonpexn cnryannn n, rem camtm, saaer reopernuecxym xoncrpyxnnm opas
cnryannn, n coornercrnnn c xoroptm on xxot ecrnyer. Tora npar nepnr
emy +ror opas npnnnmaer sa nacroxmym cnryannm n ecrnyer n
coornercrnnn c nnm, a ne no peantno cnryannn.

Cxera 32.1
Hopru. Rpueuku,
Cfepeofunu,
Cfpafareru
Rpocfpaucfeo
pecfeun

Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
C1pa1areua N 33.

]ant nsxnt nsn
nepenopaunnart mnnon/pasop crpararema
cexpernt arenr
cexrt pasop

Crpararema opamennx npaxecxoro mnnona n cocrnennoro mnnona.
Crpararema cexpernoro arenra. Crpararema pacxona (sapaxennx)
76
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe ronopnrcx, uro nentsx trt nannntm
nmoe yrnepxenne rpeyer nornepxennx. Btcxastnannxm, nnmenntm
oocnonannx, nentsx onepxrt. Hnaue moxno crart xeprno crpararemt
sapaxennx.
B pyrom npnmepe onncana cneymmax ncropnx. A n B npaxonann. B
xoren norynrt A. A o +rom ysnan n nopyunn cnoemy uenonexy C nocrynnrt
na cnyxy x B. C nocrynnn n om x B n nomen n ontmoe onepne. C coomnn
B, uro nenannnr A n xouer ero norynrt. B opaonancx, an C entrn n
nopyunn npoymart nnan rnenn A n ocymecrnnrt ero. Tora C na entrn B
nororonnn nonymxy nx camoro xe B, n xoropym ror n nonancx.
B pyrom npnmepe x monoomy xnxsm, rontxo uro ncrynnnmemy na
npecron, tn noocnan cexpernt arenr ns xnxxecrna, npornn xoroporo
nenact ouent ycnemnax nona. Bpaxecxn arenr, ncnontsyx nenmont
monooro xnxsx x nonxonony, naronapnnaer, uro noenauantnnx, xoropt
neer ycnemnym nony, xouer saxnarnrt uyxoe xnxxecrno nx cex n
orennrtcx or cnoero rocnonna. Knxst nonepnn n cmecrnn noenauantnnxa.
Hont nonxonoen nponrpan nony.
B pyrom npnmepe na pyra noenauantnnxa epxann n crpaxe ncm
cronnny. Tora onn ns mnnncrpon pacnycrnn cnyx, uro nepnt ns
nonxononen sanen nnrpnxxy c xeno pyroro. Pennnnax xena nepnoro
nonxonona nx paccopnna n n nrore onn norynnn pyr pyra.
B pyrom npnmepe xnxst Hao Hao noctnaer x npaxecxomy nonxonony
uxoy Rm nasyrunxa (ero tnmero pyra-onoxamnnxa). uxoy R enaer
nn, uro nepnr, uro pyr xnnncx x nemy npocro rax ntnnrt, noonrart o
monotx roax n ycrpannaer n ero uecrt nnp. 3arem on xxot cnyuano
nopactnaer tnmemy pyry noxnym nn]opmannm o rom, uro nonxonont
Hao Hao ero npeann n samtcnnnn ncxope ynrt. Kora nasyrunx
nosnpamaercx n coomaer o +rom Hao Hao, ror cropxua xasnnr cnnx
nonxononen.
B pyrom npnmepe mantuxypt, npounran poman Tpoeapcmeue, re
onnctnanoct, xax uxoy R omanyn Hao Hao, raxxe nopocnnn xnracxomy
nmneparopy noxnte cneennx o nsmene ero nennxoro noenauantnnxa.

76
r. 2, c. 724
Hmneparop nonepnn, pasrnenancx n xasnnn cnoero noenauantnnxa. Hocne +roro
mantuxypt nonenn ycnemnoe nacrynnenne.
B pyrom npnmepe npaxecxn nasyrunx coomaer monoomy xnxsm, uro
npaxecxn xnxst (c xoroptm mna nona) onacaercx, xax t no rnane nocxa
nmecro noxnnoro ontrnoro noenauantnnxa ne cran monoo crparer-reopernx
uxao Ko. Knxst nepnr n, necmorpx na conert ncex oxpyxammnx (n rom uncne n
marepn camoro uxao Ko) menxer noenauantnnxon. Hocne +roro ero nocxo
pasrpomnnn.

Pesmue: Inannoe coepxanne crpararemt esnn]opmannx npara o ero
cocrnennom oxpyxennn. Taxnm opasom, nanonee rouno ]opmynnponxo
crpararemt xnnxercx ]opmynnponxa crpararema cexnnx pasopa, a pyrne
nasnannx rontxo nastnamr napnanrt npnmenennx. Iepo n npar ncrynamr n
xommynnxannm, n repo nepeaer npary raxym nn]opmannm (noxnym) npo ero
nme, uro npar nepecraer nm onepxrt n rnner.

qopuyna cumcnm
]ant nepenopaunnart; opamart; ntstnart; nepenepontnart;
npononnponart;
nsxnt nosnpamaemt mnnon; cexpernt arenr; pasop; noccopnrt;
nasyrunx; esnn]opmannx; nepeammn noxt;
nsn crpararema; xnrpocrt; ynonxa; oman; noxt; nonymxa;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; npar; esnn]opmannx; ecrnnx; paspymenne.

Hpnnnnn: sect, xax n n npetyme crparareme, ecrnnx npara
perynnpymrcx noxntm npecrannennem, saanntm nx nero repoem, a ne
peantntm nonoxennem en. Onaxo repo saaer +ror noxnt opas ne cnonm
ecrnnem, a rontxo cnonamn, nn]opmanne. no, c pyro cropont, +rn cnona
onxnt trt ocronepnt, r.e. onnpartcx na cymecrnymmne nopmt n
npecrannennx. Taxnm opasom, n +ro crparareme rpn npocrpancrna: nomnmo
npocrpancrna ecrnn ecrt npocrpancrno xommynnxannn n npocrpancrno
reopernuecxnx npecrannenn.
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Cxera 33.0
Hopru. Rpueuku,
Cfepeofunu,
Cfpafareru
Rpocfpaucfeo
korryuukauuu
Rpocfpaucfeo
pecfeun


Onncanne cxeum: repo n nponecce xommynnxannn npecrannxer npary
noxnt opas mecra (uacrn mecra) npara. Bpar, ecrnyx n coornercrnnn c
+rnm noxntm opasom, paspymaer cnom peantnym nosnnnm (mecro). Hpn +rom
xommynnxarnnnym nosnnnm npara nentsx paccmarpnnart xax nosnnnm c
pe]nexcne npar ne nnnr n ne nonnmaer peantnoro nonoxennx en.
Cxera 33.1
Hopru. Rpueuku,
Cfepeofunu,
Cfpafareru
Rpocfpaucfeo
korryuukauuu
Rpocfpaucfeo
pecfeun




C1pa1areua N 34.

xy xoy nsn
crpaart nnort/uacrt rena crpararema

Crpararema crpaamme nnorn
77
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe nonxonoen co cnonm o]nnepom
samtcnnnn, urot o]nnep pastrpan ns cex npearenx n nepemen x npary. nx
+roro o]nnep no npemx conera cran cnopnrt c noenauantnnxom. Tor ero
xecroxo naxasan o]nnepa nsnnn nanxamn o nonycmeprn. Hocne +roro npar
nonepnn n npearentcrno.
B pyrom npnmepe pacxaxnmerocx pasonnxa ecrnnrentno
naxastnamr nanxamn. Onaxo nocne +roro nanpannxmr x tnmnm
noentnnxam xax nasyrunxa mpamt or yapon onxnt yenrt nx, uro on
ecrnnrentno nepnyncx na nx cropony, rax xax tn necnpanennno naxasan.
B pyrom npnmepe nanoxnnna nmneparopa yymnna cocrnennym out,
urot onnnnrt n +rom xeny nmneparopa.
B pyrom npnmepe na nocroxnom nope cnonx nanocnr nennuxe noon
sa norepm yxpamennx c nentm ntsnart y nocroxntnen couyncrnne n
sacrannrt nx pacxomennrtcx.
B pyrom npnmepe norepnenmn ynnsnrentnoe nopaxenne xnxst
nocroxnno oannxer n ey n nnrte xenut, urot ncera nomnnrt o cnoem
nosope.
B pyrom npnmepe onn ns rpex pyse pasonnxon nonaaer n nnen x
crapocre epennn. na pyrnx esopyxntmn npnxoxr x crapocre n npocxr
nsxrt nx raxxe n nnen n xasnnrt ncex rponx nmecre pan nx pyxt. Crapocra,
rponyrt nx naropocrnom, ncex ornycxaer.
B pyrom npnmepe xnoncxn nsnecmen, na xoroporo anxr noxynarenn,
rpeyx cnnsnrt neny na oopyonanne, enaer nn, uro saonen or
paccrpocrna n or yrpost ynontnennx (ecnn cenxa ne yer saxnmuena).
Hoxynarenn nponnxamrcx couyncrnnem n cornamamrcx na ero ycnonnx.
B pyrom npnmepe npnnonrcx noronopxa: nrt cex no mexam o
onyxannx, urot xasartcx roncrtm - n xauecrne rnynoro noneennx,
neyaunoro npnmenennx crpararemt.

Pesmue: Iepo nanocnr cee ymep nx roro, urot npar emy nonepnn
n cenan ro, uro nyxno repom. Hpn +rom repo xeprnyer npemeramn onoro
rnna, a npnoperaer npenmymecrno n pecypcax pyroro rnna. Hanpnmep,
xeprnyer ]nsnuecxnm renom, npnoperaer onepne.


77
r. 2, c. 759
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
qopuyna cumcnm
xy crpaart; xeprnonart; ynnuroxart; repxrt; nnmartcx; oranart;
xoy uacrt rena; nmymecrno; ro, uro oporo; soponte; ponte;
pecypc; nemn;
nsn crpararema; xnrpocrt; ynonxa; oman; noxt; nonymxa;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; cnryannx; mecro repox; paspymenne; oman;

Hpnnnnn: sect, raxxe xax n n crpararemax 32 n 33, peut ner o
omane c nomomtm npncymnx nmxm crepeornnon. Hanecenne camomy cee
npea cunraercx nenosmoxntm, no+romy paspymenne repoem cnoe nosnnnn
(crpaammee reno) paccmarpnnaercx xax nornepxammn aprymenr, n npar
ecrnyer ne n coornercrnnn c peantno cnryanne, a n coornercrnnn c ee
noxntm, no reopernuecxn oocnonanntm npecrannennem.
3ra cxema xax t oparna x cxeme crpararemt 32 (crpararema
orxptrtx nopor). Tam neotunte ecrnnx repox ntstnann nenpannntnte
ecrnnx npara (on rem camtm cam cee nanocnn npe). 3ect repo nanocnr
cee npe n, rem camtm, ntstnamr ecrnnx npara, na xoropte on nnxora t
ne nomen, ecnn t npannntno nonnman nponcxoxmee.

Onncanne cxeum: repo ynnuroxaer uacrt cnoe nosnnnn (cnoero
mecra) n, rem camtm, cosaer n npocrpancrne crepeornnon noxnt opas
cnryannn. Bpar ecrnyer n coornercrnnn c noxntm npecrannennem o
cnryannn.
Cxera 34
Hopru. Rpueuku,
Cfepeofunu,
Cfpafareru
Rpocfpaucfeo
pecfeun

C1pa1areua N 35.

xant xyant nsn
cnxstnart/cnennxrt sneno nenn crpararema

Crpararema counenennx snenten nenn
78
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe crpararemo nenn nastnaercx xnrpocrt,
npnymannax mypenom cnxsart xopann nentm, urot nonnt, ne
npnntxmne x npetnannm na noe, ne crpaann or xauxn. (Hocne +roro xnxst,
noocnanmn mypena x npornnnnxy, nanaaer n ycnemno cxnraer cnxsannte
xopann.)
B pyrom npnmepe xnracxne ]noronont cxontnamr ]nor nenxmn n
uertpe nnnnte nenouxn xopane n oxpyxamr nm npaxecxn ]nor.
B pyrom npnmepe napenopen crponr nenouxy ns necxontxnx crpararem,
urot ycrpannrt cnoero npornnnnxa.
B pyrom npnmepe xnxst ocymecrnnxer necxontxo cneymmnx ona sa
pyro crpararem n saxnartnaer cocenee xnxxecrno.
B pyrom npnmepe n rpaxrare 36 cmpamaee+ o rpnnart nxro
crparareme ronopnrtcx cneymmee: ecnn nocxo npornnnnxa cnnmxom
mnorouncnenno n npornnocroxrt emy orxptro ner nosmoxnocrn, nyxno
sacrannrt ero cnxsart camoro cex n rax norynrt cnon cnnt. Hanpnmep, n
xonne nx cpaxennx npaxecxax xonnnna tna samanena na none, re sapanee
tnn pacctnant napente ot. Iononte noman crann ecrt, ne cnymaxct
ncannxon, n xonnnny pasrpomnnn.
B pyrom npnmepe monoo yuent xpnrnxonan nncrnryrcxoe
nauantcrno. Hauantnnx npenoxnn emy sanxrtcx nnrencnnno nayuno
paoro, ycrponn copennonanne c onee crapmnmn cnennanncramn. Camo
nauantcrno npn +rom crano n nosnnnn apnrpa n, rem camtm, yxpennno cnon
nosnnnn.
B pyrom npnmepe ronopnrcx, uro ecnn npnnxsart nepenxy x capanue, ona
ynernr c nepenxo. Ecnn xe cnxsart nepenxo ne capanun, onn yyr pnartcx n
pasnte cropont n ne cmoryr ynerert.
B pyrom npnmepe n rmarentno nororonnennom pasronope necxontxo
uenonex pastrptnamr pasnte ponn. B nrore nm cornaconanntmn
ntcxastnannxmn yaercx nepeyenrt ynpxmoro repox.

Pesmue: n +ro crparareme ouent xopomo npoxnnxercx
nncrpymenrantnt xapaxrep crpararem. Henn counenennx snenten moryr trt
npxmo npornnononoxnt n onom cnyuae repo ntcrpannaer nenouxy cnonx
ecrnn, npnnoxmnx x noee, n pyrom cnyuae enaer rax, uro npar
cnxstnaer cnon uacrn n nponrptnaer. Hanonee xpxo +ro nnno n nyx nepntx
npnmepax o cnxsanntx xopanxx. Crpararemt noxastnamr nam mero anannsa

78
r. 2, c. 806
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
n paccyxennx, a xax n c xaxnm pesyntrarom mt npnmennm +ror mero yxe
sa pamxamn +ro crpararemt.
B crparareme ronopnrcx o rom, uro pasnte +nemenrt moxno ynxstnart
ono c pyrnm, n rora onn npnoperamr nonoe xauecrno, r.e. cncrema
xnnxercx uem-ro ontmnm, uem cymma cnonx uacre.

qopuyna cumcnm
xant cnxstnart; cnennxrt; cxpennxrt; cornacontnart; ynxstnart
(pasnte ocroxrentcrna); oennxrt n cncremy;
xyant sneno nenn; pasnte +nemenrt; ocroxrentcrna; crpararemt;
ecrnnx; nmn;
nsn crpararema; xnrpocrt; ynonxa; oman; nnan;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; cnryannx; +nemenrt; nnan; nonax cnryannx;
cncrema.

Onncanne cxeum: nepe repoem mnoxecrno +nemenron, n rom uncne n
neme, n ecrnn. Iepo, nmex nnan ecrnn, cnxstnaer +ro mnoxecrno n
ennym cncremy n cnom cnryannm.

Cxera 35
Hoean cufyauun
Hopru. nnauu,
feopuu,
cfpafareru

C1pa1areua N 36.

nsoy n+ man
exart trt nnepxy/nepx/nyumn/nyume ncero

Fercrno nyume ncero. Fercrno nyumax ns 36 crpararem
79
.

Hpnuepm: B onom npnmepe, re +ra crpararema ynomnnaercx,
nepoxrno, nnepnte, onnctnaercx, xax n xonne V nexa, xora nmneparop rxxeno
saonen, onn ns nonxononen nonxn mxrex. Hacnennx, ne ycnenax
oprannsonart conpornnnenne, nocnemno exan. Honxonoen, saxnarnnmn
nopen, npoxommenrnponan, uro ns 36 ynonox rocnonna Tanx ercrno
nyumax crpararema (Tant nsnecrnt nonxonoen nepno nononnnt V nexa,
npnmenxmmn mnorouncnennte xnrpocrn, n rom uncne cymenmn n rxxeno
cnryannn orcrynnrt, coxpannnmn nocxo).
B pyrom npnmepe apmnx xommynncron no narncxom romnntanoncxnx
nocx, onaammnx 10-rn xparntm npenmymecrnom, ocrannna ntant
nepnym cronnny xommynncrnuecxoro Knrax, re 10 ner pasmemancx HK KHK,
n xoropt cunrancx onnm ns cnxrtx mecr penonmnnn.
B pyrom npnmepe mypt conernnx nomoraer cnoemy rocnonny-
napenopny osanecrnct necxontxnmn mecramn, re on mor t yxptrtcx, ecnn
cyta (nnn napt) craner x nemy nenarocxnonnt.
B pyrom npnmepe nocxnanxercx ntcmax mypocrt, nosnonxmmax trt
esyuacrntm x mnpcxnm norpxcennxm n eam. Tem camtm uenonex cnooen
or nosecrnnx mnpa n emy nnxora ne npnercx yerart.
B pyrom npnmepe nocernrent uano, satnmn nsxrt c coo entrn,
yeraer, ne pacnnarnnmnct.
B pyrom npnmepe nepexo xomnannn na nonte ptnxn nnn nont nn
ronapa paccmarpnnaercx xax crpararema ercrna.
B pyrom npnmepe xommenrarop yxastnaer, uro +ro crpararema
pacmnpnrentnoro ronxonannx - ona coepxnr rontxo npnstn x ercrny, no
es xonxperntx yxasann.
B pyrom npnmepe pasxcnxercx, uro nyume ncero yxonrt ns axrnnno
exrentnocrn n sennre xaptept, nenoexenntm.
B pyrom npnmepe ronopnrcx: ne norepnert nn onoro nopaxennx yxe
osnauaer noey.

Pesmue: repo onennnaer cnryannm, nepenpaer nce 36 crpararem n
exnr.


79
r. 2, c. 907
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
qopuyna cumcnm
nsoy exart; noxnart; ycrynart; oranart; nepexonrt;
n+ trt; cymecrnonart; coornercrnonart; ntnpart;
camoonpeenxrtcx;
man nepx; nyumn; nyume ncero; nspannt; ocosnannt;

3neuen1m cxeum: repo; cnryannx; reopernuecxne xoncrpyxnnn;
ntop; nepexo.

Onncanne cxeum: n onacno cnryannn repo paccmarpnnaer
cymecrnymmne crpararemnte cnocot ecrnnx n ntnpaer yxo ns
onacno cnryannn.

Cxera 36
Hopru. nnauu,
feopuu,
cfpafareru



Oosuaueuun u npuuuunm cxeua1usauuu.

B nponecce cxemarnsannn mt nexnno npnepxnnannct nexoroptx
npnnnnnon n oosnauenn, napaoranntx n Mocxoncxom Meroonornuecxom
Kpyxxe (1951-1981 rr., anee MMK) n, sarem, n paorax nexoroptx
meroonoron, paorammnx n rpannnn MMK. Onaxo nnxaxnx omnx
oronopennocre no nonoy snauxon nnn npannn, uro xax nsopaxart, ne
cymecrnyer. Ho+romy x npocro crapancx na nporxxennn nce paort ono n
roxe nsopaxart onnaxono.
Hepeuncnnm npnnnnnt n oosnauennx, xoroptx ncnontsonannct n +ro
paore.

3nauxn Oosnauaeuoe
Hosnnnx. Taxnm snauxom oosnauaercx axrnnnoe,
ecrnymmee nnno, or nmenn xoroporo crponrcx cxema. B
name repmnnonornn repo, ror, xro peannsyer
crpararemy.







nonax nsornyrax nnnnx ncnontsyercx nx oosnauennx
cnryannn, r.e. conoxynnocrn nnemnnx ycnonn, n xoroptx
moryr naxonrtcx ona nnn necxontxo nosnnn. B cnryannn n
nexnnom nne coepxarcx npemert, nmn, ecrnnx.
Cnryanne co crpenouxo mt oosnauaem cnryannm,
nsanmoecrnymmym c nosnnne.
Mecro. Btenennt yuacrox npocrpancrna n cxeme, xoropoe, c
ono cropont, moxer ntcrynart xax npemer, no
ornomennm x xoropomy ecrnyer nosnnnx, no, c pyro
cropont, ecnn +ro mecro sannmaer axrnnnoe ecrnymmee
nnno, moxer c nnm nmecre paccmarpnnartcx xax ennax
nosnnnx. Btenenntm mecrom c nosnnne nnyrpn mt
oosnauaem npara, nx optt c xoroptm crponrcx
crpararema. Mecro n nexnnom nne (+ro ne pncyercx nx
xparxocrn cxemt) coepxnr ro, uro moxno nasnart
+nemenramn, npnnanexamnmn x mecry cnyxenoe
nonoxenne, npemert, pyrne nmn, pecypct n r.. Mecro
moxno paccmarpnnart xax noxantnym, nnn cnepnyrym
cnryannm.

Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )







Mecro, nonnocrtm oxnartnammee pyroe mecro, nouepxnnaer
nonnt xonrpont nce +nemenrt nnyrpenne cnryannn
nxoxr cocranntmn uacrxmn no nnemnmm, oxnartnammym
cnryannm. Hpemer na rpannne mecra (n pasptne rpannnt)
osnauaer, uro on npnnanexnr xax nnyrpenne cnryannn, rax n
nnemne.


Hepememenne nosnnnn nnn npemera, nnn cnnxxa cnryannn
ocrpax crpenxa.




Cnxst (nsanmoecrnne) mexy nymx mecramn na cxeme,
sannmaemtmn ono nosnnne ononpemenno nonax
ocrpax crpenxa.



Hpemert, nemn, naccnnnte +nemenrt cxemt, ncnontsyemte
repoem nnn nparom (axrnnntmn nosnnnxmn n cxeme).



Toncrax npxmax crpenxa ecrnne, ocymecrnnxemoe
axrnnntm +nemenrom.



Bsanmnte ecrnnx pyr npornn pyra (mexy nosnnnxmn nnn
mexy nosnnne n cnryanne, nexnno nxnmuamme n cex
pyrne nosnnnn)


3nauox, oosnauammn ynpannxmmee, oprannsymmee
ecrnne.



yrono crpenxo c rpeyrontntm naxoneunnxom mt
oosnauaem onepannn c npemeramn, nx nnecenne (ncranxy) n
cnryannm, nnn nsnneuenne (nsxrne), nx cosanne.



Crpenxa c xpyxxom na xonne ecrnnx, perynnpymmne
pyrne ecrnnx


Hynxrnpnax nonnncrax crpenxa cnyuanoe, nenenenoe
ecrnne

Hecxontxo onnaxontx crpenouex nopx perynxpnoe,
rnnonoe ecrnne



Bnpoxax crpenxa npnunnno-cnecrnennax cnxst





3nesouxa nomerxa oxono snauxa nosnnnn nnn mecra,
osnauammee, uro +ro pe]nexcnnnax no ornomennm x pyrnm
npocrpancrnam nosnnnx. Hntmn cnonamn, ns mecra,
sannmaemoro +ro pe]nexcnnno nosnnne, moxno
anannsnponart n onennnart nponcxoxmee n nnxnem
npocrpancrne, n ecrnonart c yuerom +roro.









Kommynnxannx, ocymecrnnxemax nosnnne. 3ro moxer trt
rexcr, nnn nnte snaxonte ]opmt, nnn ecrnnx, no naxno,
uro +ro nocnpnnnmaercx yuacrnnxamn cxemt nmenno xax
coomenne o uem-nno. Taxne xe rpn nnnnn es
nanpannennocrn moryr osnauart npocro rexcr.
Hpocro npxmo nnnne (nnn yro) mt oosnauaem
pasenenne na pasnte npocrpancrna. Kax npannno,
pe]nexcnnnoe npocrpancrno nnn npocrpancrno c nenentmn
ecrnnxmn mt oosnauaem ntme, npocrpancrno c
ecrecrnenno nponcxoxmnmn nponeccamn nnxe.
Mexy npemeramn n pasntx npocrpancrnax moxer trt
npnunnno-cnecrnennax nnn nnax cnxst. B rom uncne
nosnnnonep moxer naxonrcx ononpemenno n pasntx
npocrpancrnax rora snauxn nosnnn cnxstnamrcx nono
ocrpo crpenxo.



nono xnpno uepro mt oosnauaem npenxrcrnne nx
ecrnnx.



Hynxrnpom mt oosnauaem yymee cocroxnne +nemenra
cxemt, nonyuennoe n pesyntrare cnnxxn nnn nepememennx.



Taxxe nynxrnpom mt oosnauaem ncxyccrnennte +nemenrt,
xoropt pyrne nosnnnn cxemt npnnnmamr sa ecrecrnennt,
nacroxmn. Hnaue ronopx noxnte, ]antmnnte +nemenrt.


Hepeuncnm raxxe nexoropte npnnnnnt nocrpoennx cxem, xoroptx x
crapancx npnepxnnartcx n nponecce paort na cxemarnsanne crpararem:


Hpnnnnn ananca. 3amxnyroe npocrpancrno paseneno na na
onnaxontx mecra, xaxoe ns xoroptx ecrnyer pyr npornn
pyra onnaxono n ononpemenno.
Hpnnnnn pasenennx npocrpancrna cxemt no npemenn:
npomnoe cnena, yymee cnpana.



Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Hpnnnnn ]opmnponannx yymero npocrpancrno ennrtcx na
rpn npomnoe, yymee n npocrpancrno ecrnn repox.
Haxoxct nne npemenn (n nacroxmem) repo ocymecrnnxer
ecrnnx c oexramn, nsmenxmmnmncx no npemenn.


Koncrpyxnnx nx oprannsannonno-ynpannenuecxo nosnnnn.
B nepxnem ]oxyce +roro +nnncona, ntpesammero xycox n
nnocxocrn mecro nx nosnnnn, xoropax xonrponnpyer n
oprannsyer exrentnocrt n nnxnem npocrpancrne.


Mecro c nono rpannne. Taxo xoncrpyxnne mt
nouepxnnaem, uro ecrnnx no nnyrpennem npocrpancrne n no
nnemnem ocymecrnnxmrcx no pasntm npannnam. H,
cocrnenno, pyr na pyra ne nnnxmr.