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-
2008

.. , 2008

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,
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1) ;
2) ;
3) , ;
4) .

..-.. .. , ...
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, .

.. , 2008

1.

.......................................................................................................................................4
1.1.
.................................................................................................................................................4
1.2.
.............................................................................................................................4
1.3.
? .................................................................................................7
2. ..........................................................................................................................10
2.1.
? ...................................................................................................10
2.2.
...........................................................................................................................10
2.3.
? .......................................................................................................................11
2.4.
..............................................................................................................12
2.5.
.....................................................................................................................13
2.6.
...........................................................................................................................................17
3. .....................................................................................................................20
3.1.
...........................................................................................................20
3.2.
..................................................................................................21
3.3.
............................................................................................................................22
3.4.
( ) .............................................................................24
3.5.
.......................................................................................................................25
3.6.
....................................................................................................................26
3.7.
.......................................................................29
3.8.
............................................................................................................31
3.9.
..............................................................................32
4. ................................................................................................................34
4.1.
............................................................................................................................................34
4.2.
..........................................................................................................................34
4.3.
...........................................................................................................................36
4.4.
.........................................................................................................................38
4.5.
................................................................................................................39
4.6.
.......................................................................................................................................40
4.7.
.............................................................................................................................41
4.8.
...................................................................................................................42
5. ....................................................................................................................................43
5.1.
........................................................................................................................43
5.2.
.....................................................................................................................44
5.3.
......................................................................................................45
6. ......................................................................................................................47
6.1.
....................................................................................................................47
6.2.
...............................................................................................................................47
6.3.
..............................................................................................................................................48
6.4.
.....................................................................................................................................50
6.5.
....................................................................................................................57
6.6.
............................................................................................................................62
6.7.
.............................................................................................................63
6.8.
.................................................................................................................65
6.9.
.......................................................................................................................................66
7. ....................................................................................................................................69
7.1.
.............................................................................................................................69
7.2.
- .................................................................................................................................70
7.3.
..............................................................................................................71
7.4.
..............................................................................................................................72
7.5.
.............................................................................................................75
7.6.
.................................................................................................................................75
7.7.
...................................................................................76
..........................................................................................................................................................79
..........................................................................................................80

.. , 2008

1.
1.1.
,
. (, ), (), ( ).
, , , . ,
, , , . , .
?. XIX
,
(, ).
.
, , , (, ). .
,
, , , .
. , ,
. , , ().
. ,
control theory.

1.2.
1.2.1. ?
. , . ,
(, ); , ; .
.


( ).
, -
.
, .

,
( ), ( )

.
, . 4

.. , 2008
. ,
.
, (), , ,
,
, .
, , .
,
. , ,
.

1.2.2.
, , , . , . ,
. , ( ), (
), .
, ( )
, .
,
, . , .
, , , . , .
, :

,
, ; , ;
;
,
;
, ;
,
;
.
:
, ;
. ,
, . ,
.
5

.. , 2008

1.2.3. ?
(, , )
( )
. , . , , . :

()


( ). , ,
, , . , , . ( ).
, ? .
, - , . ,
, , . ( ) , (
) . ,
30 35 , .
, ,
.
, . ? , . , , , .
, , .

1.2.4.
, ? , .
,
, . ,
( ). , .
, , .

. .
.
, . ,
6

.. , 2008
( ) ,
.
, . ,
. ,
.
, .

1.3. ?
, . , ( ) , -, . .

1.3.1.
:
, , ( , );
( , );
.
, , ( ), . , , .
,
, , .

1.3.2.

, ( );
, ./ (
).
, ,
. , ,
( ) ().
, . ,
. ,
. , . ,
, , ..,
. , .
. , .

1.3.3.

, ,
;
, ( ), ;
7

.. , 2008
-, , .
( ) . , (, ).
, . , . ( ) ( -). .
- , , (, ,
.). , . , - .

1.3.4.
,
. , , , .
.
. ,
. , . , ,
. ( ), .

1.3.5.
, () ,
, . ,
.
, . ,
. ,
, . . ? . , .
, , , , .
, .
, , (). . , , 2 ,
( 99% , 99 100).

1.3.6.
. , -
. , ,
. , , .
8

.. , 2008

1.3.7.
( ), , .
( )
.
.
, ,
- , ( , ).
(, ) , . : , .
. (
) , .

.. , 2008

2.
2.1. ?
(
). : , , ? , , : , , , , , .
, ().
- , , , ( ) . , . ,
(), , .

2.2.
.
, , . , ,
, .
, .
( ) ,
, :
x

, , x y. . y = U [x] , y
U x.
, . .
. ( ), ( ). , 1 1 /, 2 2 /, 1. ,

U [ x] = x .
,
( t = 0 ).
x t
t , y (t ) = x t ( y (t ) t ). , U ? , ,
. x(t ) ( !),

, .

10

.. , 2008
t

U [ x] = x(t ) dt .
0

, , . , , .
S ( 2) , h
q ( 3/), S:
t
1
h(t ) = q (t ) dt ,
S0
:
dx(t )
U [ x(t )] = x& (t ) =
.
dt
, .
p. y (t ) = p x(t )
p x(t ) ,
, :
dx(t )
.
(1)
p x(t ) =
dt
? . , , i ( ), , u ( ) :
i
du (t )
i (t ) = C
= C p u (t )
dt
u
C ( ). , u
i :
i
di (t )
u (t ) = L
= L p i (t )
dt
u
L ( ).
( ) ,
. , ( ) ,
.

2.3. ?
-, ( , , ).
, , .
RLC-, R ( ), L C.
:

R
u (t )

L
i (t )

u (t ) = uc (t ) + L
C

uc (t )

i (t ) = C

di (t )
+ R i (t )
dt

duc (t )
dt

, RLC-
. R i (t ) -

11

.. , 2008
, , . .
u (t ) ,
uc (t ) .
( ).
, , . ,
, , .
: ( ,
) , .
, ,
, ( , ..), ( ) .
. .
, ( ) . , .
, . ,
.
, , , . , .
, ( ).
. ,
, . () ( ),
.
. (
), , .
.

2.4.
, . (, .) ,
().
. 2:
: U [ x] = U [ x] , ( ,
);
: , :
U [ x1 + x2 ] = U [ x1 ] + U [ x2 ].
, , .
, .
2

12

.. , 2008
, . ,

( ). ,
.
, , .
?
(), . , . , .
, , . , .
, , .
, 1.3
, , .
, .

2.5.
,
. . , , .

2.5.1.
.
, . S
S, S0.
, h (
) q ( 3/).
h
,
S0 q
2
v
gh=
.
2
( /3), g 9,81 /2 , v ( /). v = 2 gh . , q = S 0 v ,

q = h,

(2)

= S 0 2 g . ,
, . ( ),
.

13

.. , 2008
, (2) , h . (2) q = k h , k . ? .
, 0 1 . ,
q = h . = 1 ,
k = 1 .
, , 0,1 0,6. , k (, 1,2), - ,
- , .
q
q
1

k = 1,2

k = 0,707

k =1

h
0

0.5

,
h = 0,5 . . ,

q = h (0,5;

2
) , 2

k=

dq
1
=
dh h=0,5 2 h

=
h =0 , 5

2
0,707 .
2

k, (0,5;
q = kh + b . b

2
) ,
2

2
2
2
= kh + b =
0,5 + b
b=
0,354 ,
2
2
4

2
2
q=
h+
.
(3)
2
4
, (3) , ,
, . , U [2 h] 2 U [h] :
2
2
,
2 U [ h] = 2 h +
U [ 2 h] .
2
4
.
, (3) , (h0 ; q0 ) , . (3) ,
U [ 2 h] = 2h +

14

.. , 2008
2
2
(h0 + h) +
.
(4)
2
4
(3) (h0 ; q0 ) ,
q0 + q =

q0 =

2
2
h0 +
. (4)
2
4

2
(5)
h .
2
, () (h0 ; q0 ) . (5)
, .
.
, ( ).
q =

2.5.2.
, (2) , , (
). 2.3, .
, , ,
. ,
.
, ( ) ,
.
.
, , ,
, . ,
, ,
, Q . Q,
h.
, t Q q . , , Q t , q t . , S, :
(Q q)
h =
t . t 0 ,
S
dh(t ) 1
= [Q(t ) q(t )] .
dt
S
, . ,
q (t ) h(t ) q (t ) = h(t ) .

dh(t ) 1
= Q(t )
h(t ) .
dt
S
S

(6)

15

.. , 2008
: Q(t ) ( ) h(t ) ().
.
() , , dh(t )
. ,
= 0 (6),
dt
Q2
(7)
0 = Q h h = 2 .

Q h . Q
h.
, , , Q = Q0
h = h0 (7), .
Q = Q0 + Q h = h0 + h ,
Q h .
. f ( x, y ) ( x0 , y0 ) :
f ( x0 , y0 )
f ( x0 , y0 )
f ( x, y ) = f ( x0 , y0 ) +
y + F ( x, y ) ,
x +
y
x
f ( x0 , y0 )
f ( x0 , y0 )

f ( x, y ) x y ( x0 , y0 ) ,

y
x
F ( x, y ) (, ..). x y , F ( x, y ) , ,
f ( x0 , y0 )
f ( x0 , y0 )
f ( x, y ) f ( x0 , y0 ) +
x +
y .
(8)
x
y
(8) (6), x Q, y h. ,
1
1

.
Q
h = ,
Q
h =

Q S
S
S
2S h
S h S

(8)
1
1
1

Q
h Q0
h0 + Q
h .
S
S
S
S
S
2S h0
Q = Q0 + Q h = h0 + h (6) ,

d (h0 + h) dh
.
=
dt
dt

dh 1
Q0
h0 + Q
h .
dt
S
S
S
2S h0

, Q0 h0 ,
:
dh
+ kh h kQ Q ,
dt

1
Q0
h0 = 0 , S
S
(9)

16

.. , 2008
k h =

kQ =

1
. , k h h0 , S

2S h0
. .
( )
. ,
dh(t )
+ k h h(t ) = kQ Q(t ) .
(10)
dt
, , (Q0 , h0 ) . k h .

2.6.
, . , q ( ).
, , , .
, , . , h0
( ).
Q
, , -
. h Q ( 3/). , h , Q .
, h .
h
, q
. q ( 3/) , 1 .
h Q q S .
Q(t ) q (t )
t .
t , h(t ) =
S
:
t
1
h(t ) = (Q(t ) q (t )) dt .
S0
t = 0 , ( Q(0) = q(0) = q0 ), .
( ). , ,

Q(t ) = q0 + Q(t ), q(t ) = q0 + q (t ) ,
Q(t ) q(t ) . ,
,
t
1
h(t ) = (Q(t ) q (t )) dt .
S0

17

.. , 2008
h(t ) , Q(t ) q (t ) . , ( ):
dh(t ) 1
= [Q(t ) q(t )] .
dt
S
2
S = 1 .
.
:
e(t ) = h0 (t ) h(t ) .
K ( , -),
q (t ) = K e(t ) = K [h0 (t ) h(t )].
.
, . . - , ( ). ,
, m(t ) , .
q

h0 +
e
h
Q

m
K.
, , . ,
q ( ).
(. ) K = 1 , K = 5 .
h

K =5

K =1

:
( , q ) -
( h = 0 );
, h ;
, K ;
, .
, K, .
, , ( ).

18

.. , 2008
h

0
K =5

K =5

K =1

0
t
K =1
, (, ), K . q ( ).
K ( ) , . , . K .
: .
, , K, ,
K, .
, (-). :
-?
K ( )?
?
, ?
( q ) ?
, ?
, , .

19

.. , 2008

3.
3.1.

R
,
.
,
u
e
, -
. u (t ) (
), (t ) ( ).
i

. , .
, (t ) ( )
, (t ) .
, . ( , , ),
, (). , .
. d (t )
(t ) (t ) , (t ) =
. dt
, (t ) .
d (t )
J
= M (t ) M H (t ) ,
dt
M (t) ( H), MH (t) (,
H). J ( 2).
, (
, ).
. M (t)
,
M (t ) = CM i (t ) ,
C M , , ( ); i (t ) ( ),
u (t ) = e(t ) + R i (t ) ,
e(t ) () ( ) R (
). , :
e(t ) = C (t ) ,
C . k1 = CM k 2 = C ,
d (t )
d (t )
J
= k1 i (t ) M H (t ) , e(t ) = k 2 , (t ) =
, u (t ) = e(t ) + R i (t ) .
(11)
dt
dt
(11) , .
,
(). , -

20

.. , 2008
. (11)
, i (t ) . (t ) , :
d 2 (t ) k1
d (t )
= u (t ) k2
M H (t )
2
dt
R
dt
, , (t ) ,
J

d 2 (t ) k1k 2 d (t )
+

= k 2 u (t ) M H (t ) .
(12)
dt 2
R
dt
, u (t ) M H (t )
(t ) . (11), ( e(t )
i (t ) ) . (12) .
.
.
,
. ,
.
, , - (, ).
J

3.2.
, , , . ,
.
, , M H (t ) = 0 ( ). , (t ) = &(t ) , (12)
&(t ) = (t )
k1k 2
k
(t ) + 1 u (t )
JR
JR
:
1 (t ) 0
&(t ) 0
k
k

=
(13)

0 1k 2
+ 1 u (t )
t

(
)
&

(
t
)


J R
J R
(t ) (t ) t . ,
t0 u (t ) t t0
. (t ) , (t ) u (t ) ( t < t0 ) . (t ) (t ) -

& (t ) =

, (t ) .
(t )

x(t ) , ( ) u (t ) . (13)
x& (t ) = A x(t ) + B u (t )
(14)
1
0
0
(t )
k1k 2 B = k1 . (14) u (t )
x(t ) =
,
A
=

0 J R
J R
(t )

x(t ) , -.
21

.. , 2008
, , y (t ) :
x& (t ) = A x(t ) + B u (t )
(15)
y (t ) = C x(t ) + D u (t )
--.
:
(t )
y (t ) = (t ) = [1 0]
= [1 0] x(t ) ,
(t )
C = [1 0] D = 0 . , C = [0 1] .
(15), C D , .
, .
J , R k1 k 2 , A , B , C D (15) .
, ,
.
(15) , .
, (15)
. , , x(0)
t = 0 . , x(0) u (t ) t > 0 .
(15) , , x(t ) . , 0 t t , t , .
t = t
x(t ) x(0) + x& (0) t = x(0) + [ A x(0) + B u (0)] t ,
, . x(t ) u (t ) ,

y (t ) C x(t ) + D u (t ) .
,
x(2 t ) x(t ) + x& (t ) t = x(t ) + [ A x(t ) + B u (t )] t ,
y (2 t ) C x(2 t ) + D u (2 t ) .
, () t > 0 . , , t , .
. A , B , C D ,
( , )
(15).

3.3.
-
.
( ),
0 1 t = 0 . :
0, t < 0
1(t ) =
1, t 0
22

.. , 2008
h(t):
h(t)

1(t)
1

1(t)

h(t)
U

t
0
t
0
, ,
, . ,
.
,
. , , .
:
dy (t )
T
+ y (t ) = k x(t ) ,
(16)
dt
k , T ,
( ). . (16) x(t ) = 1 ( t > 0 ),
t
y (t ) = k + C1 exp ,
T
C1 . , , y (0) = 0 ,
C1 = k

t
h(t ) = y (t ) = k 1 exp .
(17)
T

(17) T,
:
y

T = 0,5 c

T =1c

, T y , k , (16). ,
, .
, , .

23

.. , 2008

3.4. ( )
, , . ,
. ,
. )-) , . , .
)

)
1

(t )

t
0
0
t
t
t
0
0
, , ? , ( ) . ,
- (t ) . ( )
, , t = 0 , , ( ) :

, t = 0
(t ) =
,
(t ) dt = 1.
0, t 0

, , (. ).
- 1(t ) . , t , ,
.
(-) w(t):
w(t)

(t)
(t)

w(t)
U

, , , , , .
- , .
, 1 / .

1
x(t ) = [1(t ) 1(t )] ,

1(t ) , t = , ,
(. ).

24

.. , 2008

x(t )
1

1(t )

1(t )

t
0
t
0
,
1(t ) 1(t ) , 1 / . , 1(t ) h(t ) ,
1
y (t ) = [h(t ) h(t )] .

0 , ,
h(t ) h(t ) dh(t )
w(t ) = lim
=
,
0

dt
, . ,
0 t:
t

h(t ) = w( ) d .
0

(17) , :
d
t
t k
w(t ) = k 1 exp = exp .
dt
T
T T
.
, x(t ) y (t )

y (t ) =

x( ) w(t ) d = x(t ) w( ) d .

w(t ) x(t ) .
, ,
.
, , ,
, .

3.5.
, . .
,
x(t ) y (t ) :
d 2 y (t )
dy (t )
dx(t )
b2
+ b1
+ b0 y (t ) = a1
+ a0 x(t )
2
dt
dt
dt
ai (i = 0,1) bi (i = 0,1,2) .

(18)

25

.. , 2008
p =

d
, x(t ) dt

dx(t )
. , p x(t )
dt
p x(t ) , , x(t ) .
x(t ) y (t )

p x(t ) =

dx(t )
dy (t )
d 2 y (t )
= py (t ), &y&(t ) =
= p 2 y (t ), x& (t ) =
= px(t ) .
2
dt
dt
dt
(18),
(19)
b2 p 2 y (t ) + b1 py (t ) + b0 y (t ) = a1 px(t ) + a0 x(t ) .
y (t ) (19) x(t ) :
(b2 p 2 + b1 p + b0 ) y (t ) = (a1 p + a0 ) x(t ) .
(20)
y& (t ) =

(20) , b2 p 2 + b1 p + b0 y (t ) , a1 p + a0 x(t ) . (, ) (20)


b2 p 2 + b1 p + b0 ,
a1 p + a0
y (t ) =
x(t ) = W ( p) x(t ) ,
(21)
b2 p 2 + b1 p + b0
W ( p ) x(t ) ,
a1 p + a0
W ( p) =
.
(22)
b2 p 2 + b1 p + b0
x(t ) . , y (t ) = W ( p) x(t ) ,
(18), .
W ( p) ,
(18). , .
W ( ) , (22) p . () .
W ( ) ,
, ; ,
; , , . 1

,
;
,
+1
+1
2 + + 1
( ),
+1
.
,
1
. , W ( ) = 2
= 1
+ 3 + 2
= 1 = 2 .

3.6.
3.6.1. ?
, . , 26

.. , 2008
. , , , , () .
f (t ) , L{ f (t )} :

F ( s ) = L{ f (t )} = f (t ) e st dt .

(23)

F ( s) f (t ) (). s , , (23) 3.
L -1 {F ( s)} f (t )
F ( s) :

f (t ) = L {F ( s)} =
-1

+ j

F ( s) e
2 j

st

ds ,

(24)

j = 1 , , 4.
(24) ,
. , -, e at ,
1
1
L{ (t )} = 1 , L{1(t )} = , L{e at } =
.
(25)
s+a
s

3.6.2.
. -,
(23) (24), , ,
:
L{ f1 (t ) + f 2 (t )} = L{ f1 (t )} + L{ f 2 (t )} ,
(26)
-1
-1
-1
L {F1 ( s ) + F2 ( s)} = L {F1 ( s)} + L {F2 ( s)} .
(27)
-, f (t )
df (t )
L
= s F ( s) f (0) ,
dt
F ( s ) f (t ) , f (0) 5 t = 0 .
, s . i - s i ( ).
, - ( t = 0 t ), :
f (0) = lim s F ( s ) ,
f () = lim s F ( s ) .
(28)
s

s 0

, f (t ) < Me , M
,

f (t ) . s, -

( Re s > ) f (t )e st t (23) .
4
, - f (t ) . , (24) .
5
t = 0 , , t .

27

.. , 2008

3.6.3.
(18):
d 2 y (t )
dy (t )
dx(t )
b2
+ b1
+ b0 y (t ) = a1
+ a0 x(t )
(29)
2
dt
dt
dt
, ,
. ,
X (s ) Y (s ) :
b2 s 2Y ( s ) + b1 sY ( s ) + b0 Y ( s ) = a1 sX ( s ) + a0 X ( s )
Y ( s) X ( s ) :
(b2 s 2 + b1s + b0 ) Y ( s ) = (a1s + a0 ) X ( s ) .
b2 s 2 + b1s + b0 ,
a1s + a0
a1s + a0
Y (s) =
X ( s ) = W ( s ) X ( s ) , W ( s ) =
.
(30)
2
b2 s + b1s + b0
b2 s 2 + b1s + b0
(22) (30) , W ( s) ,
s , p ,
(22).
, .
(30) : .

3.6.4.
. (16):
dy (t )
T
+ y (t ) = k x(t )
(31)
dt
x(t ) = 1(t ) . y (t ) , .
. (30), X (s ) W (s ) .
(. (25)), (31), :
1
k
X ( s) = , W ( s) =
.
s
Ts + 1

1
k
k
kT
.
Y (s) =
=
s Ts + 1 s Ts + 1
:
k
k
Y (s) =
.
s s + 1/ T
(27), :
1
1
y (t ) = k L 1 k L 1
.
s
s + 1/ T
(25):
28

.. , 2008
t
y (t ) = k k exp t > 0 ,
T
(17). .
(28) y (t ) :
y (0) = lim s Y ( s ) , y () = lim s Y ( s ) .
s

s 0

s
y () = W (0) .

X ( s ) =
y (0) = limW ( s ) ,
s

,
k
= 0 , y () = W (0) = k .
y (0) = lim
s Ts + 1
W (0) , , .

3.7.
,

x& (t ) = A x(t ) + B u (t )
y (t ) = C x(t ) + D u (t )
, u (t ) , y (t ) x(t ) , . ( ),
s X ( s) = A X ( s) + B U ( s)
(32)
Y ( s) = C X ( s) + D U ( s)
, X ( s ) , :
( s I A) X ( s ) = B U ( s) ,
I , , . ( s I A) 1 ,
X ( s ) :
X ( s ) = ( s I A) 1 B U ( s )
(32)
Y ( s ) = C ( s I A) 1 B U ( s ) + D U ( s ) = C ( s I A) 1 B + D U ( s ) .
, :
Y (s)
W ( s) =
= C ( s I A) 1 B + D .
(33)
U (s)
, ,
. , .
.
a s 2 + a s + a0
W (s) = d + 3 2 2 1
,
s + b2 s + b1 s + b0
d, ai (i = 0,1,2) bi (i = 0,1,2) ,

29

.. , 2008
1
0
0
0

(34)
A= 0
0
1 , B = 0, C = [a0 a1 a2 ], D = d .
b0 b1 b2
1
( ), . A
, , . B
, . , .
, , (
) .
,
3 0,5
1
A=
, B = , C = [1 0,25] , D = 0 .

0
4
0
(33),
1

s 0 3 0,5 1
s +1
= 2

.
W ( s ) = C ( sI A) B + D = [1 0,25]

0 0 s + 3s + 2
0 s 4
. (34)
1
~ 0
~ 0 ~
~
A=
, B = , C = [1 1] , D = 0 .

2 3
1
, ,
(33), . ,
.
A, B, C D,
~
~
~
~
A = PAP 1 , B = PB , C = CP 1 , D = D ,
P ( ).
( !).
x' (t ) , x' (t ) = P x(t ) .
,
0 0.25
P=
.
0
1
W (s ) , , s + 1 , . ,
1
W ( s) =
.
s+2
:
A = 2, B = 1, C = 1, D = 0 .
(35)
( , ) . ? , , . .
( )
, . , .
(. . 6.4).

30

.. , 2008

3.8.
(, ), :
(36)
x(t ) = sin t ,
( ). , ( t ) 6,
A :
x
y (t ) = A( ) sin(t + ( )) .
- 1
.
, t

t
(, t ). t ,
y

( ).
t =

> 0 (
A
), , , .
W (s ) ,
t

ImW ( j )
.
A( ) = W ( j ) , ( ) = arg W ( j ) = arctg
Re W ( j )
W ( j ) , W (s )
s = j , j = 1 . W ( j ) = P + jQ Q
, W ( j ) = P 2 + Q 2 arg W ( j ) = arctg .
P
W ( j ) , . P( ) Q( )
( W ( j ) ) .
A( ) ( ) ( ) (
).
. - A( ) > 1 , ,
A( ) < 1 , .
:
1)
, ;
2) ,
;
3) 1 2 ;
4)
1 2 , .
:

, , , , ,
( ).

31

.. , 2008

A( )

A( )

A( )

A( )

, , 1 / 2 .
. , (36) y (t )
. , .
y
x

,
.
. - ,
. r (t ) x(t ) y (t ) ,
A( ) ( x(t ) y (t ) )
( ) .
r
y
x

3.9.
. 60- , , , , .
.
A( )
(): , ( lg ), Lm ( ) = 20 lg A( ) ,
(). ()
lg .
,
10 ( ).
-
() .
:
32

.. , 2008
1) W1 ( s ) W2 ( s )
:
20 lg A( ) = 20 lg A1 ( ) + 20 lg A2 ( ) ;
(37)
( ) = 11 ( ) + 2 ( ) ;
(38)
2) ,
20 / ( ), 40 / ..

, . C
, .

Lm()

0
-20
-40 -1
10

10

10

10

10

()

-45

-90 -1
10

( ) (
)
1
T = 1 .
W ( s) =
Ts + 1
, , , , ,
W (0) = 1 0 .
W (0) = 0 , s k ( k > 0 ), k .
k 20 /.
W (0) = , ,
s k . k 20 /.
. m , n ,
20 (m n) /. m n = 0 1 = 1 .
, ,
20 /, , 20 ( !).

33

.. , 2008

4.
, ( ).
, .
,

W ( s ) = W1 ( s ) W2 ( s )... WN ( s )
, ,
.

4.1.
, ,
W (0) = k 0 , . , ( ).
() . W ( s ) = k . , , , .
1(t) ( - (t ) )
, k ,
h(t ) = k (t > 0)

w(t ) = k (t ) .
, k
,
:
A( ) = k ,
( ) = 0 .

4.2.
,

dy (t )
+ y (t ) = k x(t )
(39)
T
dt
k
. k , T > 0
W ( s ) =
Ts + 1
, .
, ,
.
. 3.3 3.4

k
t
t
h(t ) = k 1 exp , w(t ) = exp .
T
T
T

34

.. , 2008

h(t )

w(t )
k

0
t
t
T
, k , t = 0 t = T .
( 5%)
3T . , .

k
k (1 Tj )
k
jkT
= 2 2
.
= 2 2
2 2
W ( j ) =
Tj + 1 T + 1 T + 1 T + 1
W ( j ) .
0 , (
). , (0,5k ; 0) 0,5k . ( )
(k ; 0) ( ).
0

20 lg k
k
0

Re

20 /

Lm()

Im

=0

c =

()

1
T

-45

-90

,
1
c = . (
T
), Lm 20 lg k .
20 /, .
0 90 , c 45 .
, , .
,

35

.. , 2008

dy (t )
y (t ) = k x(t )
(40)
dt
, (39) h(t )
( ). :
t
k
t
h(t ) = k exp 1 , w(t ) = exp .
T
T
T
, T > 0 , t .
:
,
0
t
.


.
, 20 lg k
20 /
, .
,
1
c =
, T
-90
. ,
-.
- -135
, -180
, , . -
( ). ,
T1 , T2 T3
T1s + 1
W ( s) =
(T2 s + 1)(T3 s + 1)
-,
T1s + 1
T1s 1
T1s + 1
, W1 ( s ) =
, W3 ( s ) =
W1 ( s ) =
(T2 s + 1)(T3 s 1)
(T2 s + 1)(T3 s + 1)
(T2 s 1)(T3 s 1)
-.
()

Lm()

4.3.

k
,
W (s) =
2
b2 s + b1s + 1
- ( , b12 4b2 < 0 ). , (, ), .

36

.. , 2008

k
(41)
T s + 2Ts + 1
k , T ( ),
( 0 < < 1 ). , , . , .
= 0 (41) ,
. 1 , (41) ,
.
,
W (0) = k .
,
.
= 0,5 , = 0,25 .
h(t )
= 0,25
w(t )
= 0,25
W (s) =

2 2

= 0,5

= 0,5
0

()

Lm()

t
,
1
c = . (
T
), Lm 20 lg k .

40 /, - 20 lg k
40 /

.
0 180 , c 90 .
1
c =
T
< 0,5
0

,
-90
. , , c ,
-180
, .
= 0 ( ) (
) c ,
.

37

.. , 2008

4.4.
, .
, .
, () .

dy (t )
= k x(t ) ,
(42)
dt
k
W ( s ) = . (42)
s
t

y (t ) = y (0) + k x( ) d .
0

( x(t ) = 1 t 0 ) ( y (0) = 0 ), :
h(t ) = k t .
, , , , t = 0 , 1. w(t ) = k ( t 0 ).
h(t )
w(t )
k

tg = k
0

Lm()

k
k
= j . , W ( j ) =

j
20 /. ,
= 0 . , , .
20 /

20 lg k

=1

=k

()

-90

-180

= 1 20 lg k , = k , W ( j ) = 1 . ( ) = 90
.
38

.. , 2008

4.5.

Lm()

.
dx(t )
, y (t ) = k p x(t ) ,
y (t ) = k
dt
W ( s ) = k s .
, 1(t ) t = 0
- (t ) .
d (t )
h(t ) = k (t ) , w(t ) = k
.
dt
, - ,
, . .

1
20 /, Lm ( ) = 0 = .
k
= 1 Lm (1) = 20 lg k . ( ) ,
.

20 /

20 lg k

= 1/ k

=1

()

180

90

,
90 . , x(t ) = sin t
y (t ) = cos t = sin(t + 90) .
, , . , , .
.
. ,
.
dx(t )
dy (t )
+ y (t ) = k
T
dt
dt
ks
W ( s ) =
.
Ts + 1
.
:
, .
o

39

.. , 2008

Lm()

, ( c = 1 / T ) ,
. , 90 .

20 /

= 1/ T

()

90

45

4.6.
, .
, .

L
, - x
, = L / v , L
( ), v
( /). , ( ).
. ,

y
.

, .
y (t ) = x(t ) .
:

Y ( s ) = L{ y (t )} = x(t ) e st dt = e s x(t ) e st dt =e s X ( s ) ,

W ( s ) = e s .
40

.. , 2008
, ,
.
W ( j ) = e j . :
A( j ) = W ( j ) = 1 , ( j ) = arg W ( j ) = .

, , , .

4.7.
1

W (s)
W ( s) ( ). ,
.
.
W ( j ) = P( ) + jQ( ) , P( ) Q( ) .
Q( )
A( ) = P 2 ( ) + Q 2 ( ) , ( ) = arctg
.
P( )

1
1
P( ) jQ( )
~
W ( j ) =
=
= 2
,
W ( j ) P ( ) + jQ ( ) P ( ) + Q 2 ( )

~
~
Q( )
1
1
A( ) =
=
, ( ) = arctg
= ( ) .
2
2
P( )
P ( ) + Q ( ) A( )
~
W ( s ) =

,
~
~
1
20 lg A( ) = 20 lg
= 20 lg A( ) , ( ) = ( ) .
A( )
, .
, , W ( s ) = Ts + 1 . , ,
.
Lm()

20 /
0

c =

()

90

1
T

45


~
W ( s ) = e s , 1 , ( ) = . , 41

.. , 2008
, . .
, ,
. ,
. , ,
( !), .

4.8.

Lm()


. ,
.
.

a1s + a0
k (T2 s 1)
=
W ( s) =
.
2
b2 s + b1s + b0 (T1s + 1)(T3 s + 1)
Ti (i = 1,...3) .
T1 > T2 > T3 .

1
1
W (s) = k
.
(43)
(T2 s 1)
T1s + 1
T3s + 1
, ,
(
T2 s 1 ).
(37)
(38), W ( s) (43)
20 lg k
20 /
.
20 /
, 1
c1 = ,
T1
,
20 lg k .
1
c1 =

1
1
1
T1
c1 =
c 2 =
c 3 =
T1
T2
T3
20 /,
1
1
c 2 =
T2 s 1 . c 3 =
T2
T3
() ,
20 / .
. , :
, .

42

.. , 2008

5.
5.1.
, (, ,
, ). , , . ,
. .

x(t )

W ( p)

y (t )

X (s)

W ( s)

Y ( s)

, :
,
p , ;
, s, .
. , , , (t s),
s, .
,
. , , . , .
x2
x1

x1 + x2 + x3

x1

x1 x2

x
x3
x2
.
x , y . e , u ,
( ). g ( ),
m .

x +
y
u
e
R0(s)
C(s)
P(s)

H(s)

( )
( R0 ( s )
).
43

.. , 2008

5.2.
()
. , .
.
, :
y1
W1(s)
y
x
y
x
W1(s)+W2(s)
W2(s)
y2
x

W1(s)

y1

W1(s)

W1(s)W2(s)

,
Y ( s ) = Y1 ( s ) + Y2 ( s ) = W1 ( s ) X ( s ) + W2 ( s ) X ( s ) = [W1 ( s ) + W2 ( s )]X ( s ) ,

Y ( s ) = W2 ( s ) Y1 ( s ) = W1 ( s ) W2 ( s ) X ( s ) .

e
y
x
y
W1(s)
W1 ( s )
x
1 + W1 ( s ) W2 ( s )
f
W2(s)
, Y ( s ) = W1 ( s ) E ( s ) ,
E ( s ) = X ( s ) F ( s ) = X ( s ) W2 ( s ) Y ( s ) .

Y ( s ) = W1 ( s )[ X ( s ) W2 ( s )Y ( s )] .
X ( s ) ,
W1 ( s )
Y ( s )[1 + W1 ( s ) W2 ( s )] = W1 ( s ) X ( s )
X ( s) .
Y (s) =
1 + W1 ( s ) W2 ( s )
( x f ), :
W1 ( s )
W (s) =
.
1 W1 ( s ) W2 ( s )
, . , :
f

W ( s)

f
x

y
W ( s)

W ( s)

, . :

44

.. , 2008

1/W(s)

W ( s)

W ( s)

, :
y1
x
y1
x
W ( s)
W ( s)
y2
W ( s)
y2
:
y1
y1
x
x
W ( s)
W ( s)
y2
y2
1/W(s)

5.3.
. (x, g m),
y, u e. , 9 , -.

x +

C(s)

R0(s)

P(s)

H(s)
m
( ), :
R0 ( s )
.
R( s) =
1 + R0 ( s )
:
g

x +

C(s)

R ( s)

P(s)

H(s)
m
x . . ,
C ( s ) , R( s ) P( s ) :

45

.. , 2008

x +

C(s)R(s)P(s)
H(s)

:
C ( s) R( s) P( s)
.
W ( s) =
1 + H ( s )C ( s ) R ( s ) P( s )
u e, :

x +

C(s)
H(s)R(s)P(s)

x +

H(s)C(s)R(s)P(s)

Wu ( s ) , We ( s ) ( , ,
).
, :
C ( s)
1
We ( s ) =
,
.
Wu ( s ) =
1 + H ( s )C ( s ) R( s ) P( s )
1 + H ( s )C ( s ) R( s ) P ( s )
, . .

46

.. , 2008

6.
6.1.
? , , .
. ().
:

, ( )
;
, ( );
;

, , .

6.2.
,
W ( s) , X ( s ) .
Y ( s ) = W ( s ) X ( s ) . , W ( s ) X ( s ) ,
n ( s)
n ( s)
.
, X (s) = X
W (s) = W
( s)
d X ( s)
, ( s ) d X (s )
,
( s ) = ( s 1 )( s 2 )...( s N ) , d X ( s ) = ( s 1 )( s 2 )...( s M ) ,
7. i (i = 1,...N ) j ( j = 1,...M )
W ( s) X ( s ) .
Y ( s ) = W ( s ) X ( s)
a1
a
aN
b
b
b
+ 2 + ... +
+ 1 + 2 + ... + M .
Y (s) =
s 1 s 2
s N s 1 s 2
s M
ai (i = 1,...N ) b j ( j = 1,...M ) ,
:
ai = W ( s ) X ( s )( s i ) s= ,
i

b j = W ( s ) X ( s )( s j )

s= j

, W ( s ) X ( s ) . ai
b j .
y (t ) , Y (s ) .
(., , (25))
7

(- ) .

47

.. , 2008
y (t ) = a1e1t + a2e 2t + ... + aN e N t + b1e 1t + b2e 2t + ... + bM e Mt .

(44)

, e t , < 0 ;
( 1) = 0 > 0 . (44)
:
,
;
, ( y (t ) ),
i (i = 1,...N ) i (i = 1,...M ) (
);
W (s ) X (s ) , y (t ) () ;
W (s ) X (s ) ( ), .
, W ( s ) X ( s ) , ai / b j
(44). , , , W ( s) X ( s ) (
W ( s) X ( s ) ).
(44), ( i (i = 1,...N ) ) ( s) . , , W ( s) X ( s ) . , , . ( s) , ( ) ( . . 6.4).

6.3.
.
, ,
0, t < 0
1
, X ( s) =
x(t ) = 1(t ) =
s
1, t 0

0, t < 0
1
x(t ) =
, X ( s) = 2
s
t, t 0
:

x(t ) = sin t ,

X ( s) =

.
s +2
2

e(t )
E ( s) . We (s ) , :
E ( s ) = We ( s ) X ( s ) .
, :

48

.. , 2008

x +

C(s)

P(s)

C (s ) P(s ) , X (s )
n (s)
n ( s)
n( s )
C ( s) = C
, X (s) = X
, P(s) =
.
d (s)
dC ( s)
d X ( s)

1
d (s) d (s)
We ( s ) =
= C
,
1 + C ( s) P( s)
( s)
( s ) = dC ( s ) d ( s ) + nC ( s ) n( s ) .
,
X ( s ) = 1 / s . . 6.2, We (s ) ( ( s) )
X ( s ) . We (s )
, ( . . 6.4). We (s ) .
b
1
1
We ( s ) X ( s ) =
= Y0 ( s ) + .
s
1 + C ( s) P( s) s
Y0 ( s ) , b :
1
d (0) d (0)
b=
= C
.
1 + C (0) P(0)
(0)
. 6.2, lim e(t ) = b .
t

, , , d C (0) = 0 ( ) d (0) = 0 (
).
, ( s = 0 s = j ). , t ,
d ( s) d ( s) nX ( s)
We ( s ) X ( s ) = C

.
d X (s)
( s)
, , ,
d C ( s ) d ( s ) , , .
.
, , ( 1 / s ).
d C ( s ) d ( s ) s , X (s ) s = 0
We ( s ) X ( s ) . , C ( s ) P( s ) s ,
( ). .
49

.. , 2008
( X ( s ) s = 0 ). . ,
1
C ( s) P( s) = G ( s) ,
s
> 0 G (s ) s = 0 , - .

x(t ) = x0 + x1t + x2t 2 + ... + x 1t 1
xi (i = 0,... 1) .
, , . , , ( )
. , , . ,
- (
-). , , e(t )

e(t ) dt = 0 .
0

? : ,
, .
( , ).
, , .
.

6.4.
6.4.1. ?
. ,
, , .
, . . , , 1986 .
, , , , . ,
, - . , .

50

.. , 2008
, , , .
, , .
. , , .
, - . ,
, ;
, , ;
( ) ( ).

6.4.2.
, . ,
-.
, ,
( ). , ( ) . , , .
( ),
( ). , , , ( ) .
,
, .
, .

6.4.3. -
,
, ,
. , , -
( ). , ,
, .
, . . ( !)
( ),
-.

6.4.4.
-,
, .
, ,
, y (t ) , .
.
( t ) ,
. ( ),
, .

51

.. , 2008
, , , , .
, , ( ).

6.4.5.
, , ,
. x(t ) ,
dx(t )
= f ( x, t )
(45)
dt
, t x(t ) , . x(t )
, x1 (t ) x2 (t ) , (45)
dx1 (t )
dt = f1 ( x, t )

dx2 (t ) = f ( x, t )
2
dt
f1 ( x, t ) f 2 ( x, t ) .
. , , . ,
f ( x* , t ) = 0 , x* 8.
, x0 = x(0) ( ), .
( x(t ) ) (45)
.
, , x(t ) ,
x* , t x* .
, , ,
, , x(t ) x* t . .
) , - )
)
. . , , , ,
, ,
.
, , ,
( ),
. , .
) , :
.

, x = 0 . ,
*

x(t ) ~
x (t ) = x(t ) x* ,

~
x (t ) .

52

.. , 2008

.. 9, .
, x(t ) .
x* ,
x* , ,
x* , , ( ) :

x0 x* <

x(t ) x* < t > 0 .

, , .
, ,
x(t ) x* 0 t ,
(46)
x* . ,
(46) .
, ,
.
, .
, , , ( , ).
,
. , > 0 , x(t ) x(t ) x* < x0 x* . , , x(t ) .
,
( x(t ) ).

xe

,
x0 x* x(t ) x* ( ). ,
x(t ) xe = ( x1 (t ) x1* ) 2 + ( x1 (t ) x2* ) 2 ,

x1* x2* x* .
, x1 (t ) , x2 (t ) . , .
, , x1 = x2 = 0 .

.. (1857-1918) .

53

.. , 2008
)

x1

x2

x1

x2

x1

x2

6.4.6.
,
:
( )
( ) ( );
, :
( ), ;
, , ;
-,
( , ) .
, , , . W ( s) .
, ( ) i (i = 1,..., N ) ( ):
n (s)
nW ( s)
W (s) = W
=
,
( s ) ( s 1 )( s 2 )...( s N )
nw (s) ( s) . ,
:
(47)
y (t ) = a1e1t + a2 e 2t + ... + a N e N t ,
ai (i = 1,..., N ) , . ,
y (t ) ,
i (i = 1,..., N ) . .
Im

( s)
W ( s) , .
Re

10
( )
,
( ),
. ,
10

(s) , , ,
+ j j .

j = 1 .
54

.. , 2008
.
, (s) (, 1 = 0 ), , , . , . , e1t = e0 = 1 t ,
y (t ) = a1 + a2e 2t + ... + a N e N t .
, , ,
a1 . , , .
, :
1 = j 2 = j . , . (47) a1e jt a2e jt , ( )
a1e jt = a1 (cos t + j sin t ) , a2e jt = a2 (cos t j sin t ) .
( ,
), ( ). , a1 a2 -, , a1 = b + jc ,
a2 = b jc .
a1e jt + a2e jt = 2b cos t 2c sin t
.

6.4.7.
,
, .
, ,
, . ,
-:
x& (t ) = Ax(t ) + Bu (t ) ,
x(t ) , u (t ) , A B .
( ),
(48)
x& (t ) = Ax(t ) .
, A .
0

, A A = 1
.
0 2
(48) ( ):
x&1 (t ) = 1 x(t )
x&2 (t ) = 2 x(t )

1 2 . ,
. , ( ),
.
A ,
, det(I A) = 0 , I ,
det . det(I A)
. ,
A
1 0 1 0
0
1
= det

det(I A) = det
= ( 1 )( 2 )

2
0
0 1 0 2

55

.. , 2008
, 1 2 .
( , ), .
( ), . , 11.
, , ,
. , ,
1 0
1
x(t ) =
x(t ) + u (t )

0 1
0
y (t ) = [0 1] x(t )

1 0
A =
1 1 , 0 1
, .
(. 3.7):
1

1 0 1 0 0
1
=
.
W ( s ) = [0 1] s

0 1 0 1 1 s + 1
( ) ( s ) = s + 1 , 1 , ! , 2, 1.
, ,
.
,
. , , ,
.

6.4.8.
. ,
( s)
:
1) ,
;
2) ,
;
3) ,
,
.
,
.

11

( )
, .

56

.. , 2008

6.5.
, . ( , ), ,
. ,
( ) .
. , ,
( ) , , .

6.5.1.
,
( s ) = a0 s n + a1s n1 + ... + an1s + an ,
. , ai (i = 0,..., n) , , . . n > 2 , - .
() .
H n n n , (s ) :
a1 , a3 , a5 ,... ( ), ;
a0 , a2 , a4 ,... ( );
1 , ..
, ( n = 5 )
a1 a3 a5 0 0
a a a
0 0
2
4
0
H 5 = 0 a1 a3 a5 0 ( a0 > 0 )

0 a0 a2 a4 0
0 0 a1 a3 a5

. ( s) , n H n ( ) .
, , . n 1 . , n = 5
a1 a3 a5 0
a1 a3 a5
a a2 a4 0
a a3
D1 = a1 > 0 , D2 = 1
> 0 , D3 = a0 a2 a4 > 0 , D4 = 0
> 0.
a0 a2
0 a1 a3 a5
0 a1 a3
0 a0 a2 a4

57

.. , 2008
H 5 , D5 = det H 5 = a5 D4 .
a5 > 0 , D4 > 0 D5 > 0 .
, .
. , n = 2
. n = 3 ( s ) = a0 s 3 + a1s 2 + a2 s + a3 ,

a1 a3 0
H 3 = a0 a2 0 ( a0 > 0 ).
0 a1 a3
,
a a3
(49)
D2 = 1
= a1a2 a0 a3 > 0 .
a0 a2
, :
1
K
P( s) =
, C ( s) = .
(T1s + 1)(T2 s + 1)
s

x +

C(s)

P(s)

, K (
) .
C ( s) P( s)
K
W (s) =
=
,
1 + C ( s) P( s) ( s)

( s ) = (T1s + 1)(T2 s + 1) s + K = T1T2 s 3 + (T1 + T2 ) s 2 + s + K .
K > 0 .
(49),
1 1
T1 + T2 > KT1T2 K < + .
T1 T2
1 1
, 0 < K < + .
T1 T2
, :
x& (t ) = A x(t ) + B u (t )
y (t ) = C x(t ) + D u (t )
? 3.7,

W ( s ) = C ( sI A) 1 B + D .
( W (s ) ),
( s ) = det( sI A) ,
det . , , .

58

.. , 2008

6.5.2.
,
. L(s ) , L( j ) .

x +

L(s)

, , L(0) = K , K .
L( j ) , . 0 , (K ; 0) ( L(s ) ,
). , , L( j ) (1; 0) .
( ), ( ).
Im
Im

Re

Re

, (1; 0) .
A( ) = 1 ( ) = 180 . ,
, (),
.
Im
A( ) = 1

( ) = 180
K

Re

c , A(c ) = 1 , .
, 180 ;
(1; 0) .

59

.. , 2008
Im

Re

c
L(s ) s = 0 ( ), . , . , . L(s ) k s = 0 ,
k 90 .
, L( s) 1 2 s = 0 . (1; 0) .
Im
Im

1
1

Re

Re

, ( ). ,
.
Im
1

K Re

, . , ( (1; 0) ). ,
- . ,
, .
L(s ) (
), , (1; 0) .
, - .

60

.. , 2008
, , , l / 2 , l
L(s ) . (1; 0) .
l = 1.
Im
Im
1
1

+
2
+1
2
Re
Re
1
1

(1; 0) . ( )
(1; 0) , 1 / 2 = l / 2 .
(
), ( ). 1 / 2 = l / 2 .

6.5.3.
.
, . , c , A(c ) = 1 Lm (c ) = 20 lg A(c ) = 0 .
, 180 . . 1
, (
), 2 , 3 c .
Lm

90

180
3

,
( ) = 180 . , . ( ) = 180 ( ), .
l / 2 , l L(s ) .
61

.. , 2008

6.6.

,
(). (
).
y
y
ymax
2
2
y

0
t
t
t
t
, ( t ). , 2 y . , t > t , .
, 2% 5%. , T t = 3T ( 5%).
, ymax 12 y :
y y
= max 100% .
y
( ,
). , .
, W ( s) , , .
as + 1 a( s + 1 / a)
W ( s) =
=
,
( s + 1) 2
( s + 1) 2
a , y
a=5
.
s = 1 / a . , a=2
( a > 0 )
( ), (
a < 0 ) . , a = 0
a=0
- 0
t
. a . a = 2
, a
a = 5
W (0) = 1 .
12

, , , , ,
.

62

.. , 2008
, a .
a > 0 ( ) , ,
a. a . ,
, .

6.7.
( ), ( ). . , , , , , .
, , , , .
. g m , , . .
Im
Ag
1

K Re

m
c
g m = 20 lg

1
, Ag < 1
Ag

g , 180 . 6 .
m (
), ,
. c , A(c ) = 1 .
30 .
Im
,
Re

1
K
,
. ( , ) . ,
. ,
.

63

.. , 2008
:
Lm

gm

90

180

, , 180 .
, (
) ,
. (1; 0) .
Im

K Re

M.

:
A( )
Amax
A0

M =

Amax
A0

M ,
,
M
. R = 2
,
M 1

M2
2 ; 0 . M 1
M.

64

.. , 2008
M = 1,0

M = 1,1

Im

M = 1,5

K Re

M =3

M = 1 ( )
(0,5; 0) . M .

6.8.
, (s ) . , (s )
, .

( - ).
.
( 1 4) (2 3). 1,
.
Im
2

Re

1
3

,
3
, t = .

2, 3 4 .
, , ,
, .
, , . - j ( ):

, , , 1 .
, . (
65

.. , 2008
min ) max .
.
Im

max = tg

Re

min

6.9.
6.9.1. ?
()
( ) . .
,
. ().

.
, :
;
;

(,
).
, , -
(). .

6.9.2.
, ,
, :
k0 + 1
P( s) =
,
(T0 + 2 ) s + 1
k0 T0 , 1 2
.
, -
C ( s) = K .
( s ) = (T0 + 2 ) s + 1 + K (k0 + 1 ) .

1 2 . , ,
T0 + 2 1 + K (k0 + 1 ) , ( ).
, k0 > 0 T0 > 0 , 1 2 k0 T0 -

66

.. , 2008
. , T0 + 2 > 0 2 . ,

1
1 + K (k0 + 1 ) > 0 K >
.
k0 + 1
1 ,
1
.
K > K min =
k0 + 1 max
, -, K > K min , ,
1 2 .
,
( s ) = a0 + a1s + K + an s n1 + an s n ,
a0 , a1 ,K, an ,
l i < ai < ui (i = 1,K, n) .
, (s )
, :
1 ( s ) = l 0 + l 1s + u2 s 2 + u3 s 3 + l 4 s 4 + l 5 s 5 + K
2 ( s ) = u0 + u1s + l 2 s 2 + l 3 s 3 + u4 s 4 + u5 s 5 + K
3 ( s ) = l 0 + u1s + u2 s 2 + l 3 s 3 + l 4 s 4 + u5 s 5 + K
4 ( s ) = u0 + l 1s + l 2 s 2 + u3 s 3 + u4 s 4 + l 5 s 5 + K
,
.

6.9.3.
,
. P0 ( j ) ( ) a ( j ) :
P ( j ) = P0 ( j ) + a ( j )
( ) m ( j ) :
P ( j ) = [1 + m ( j )] P0 ( j ) .

: C (s ) P0 ( s ) ,
W0 ( j ) m ( j ) < 1 ,
(50)
W0 ( s ) :
C ( s ) P0 ( s )
W0 ( s ) =
.
1 + C ( s ) P0 ( s )
. , , P( s) P0 ( s ) , , .

67

.. , 2008
(50) , , ,
.
,
, m ( j ) . , (50), ,
W0 ( j ) , .

68

.. , 2008

7.
7.1.
, :

x +

C(s)

R (s)

P(s)

, g . ,
. ,
( Wg (s ) , g y ) ( W (s ) , x y )
P( s)
C ( s) R( s) P( s)
Wg ( s ) =
, W ( s) =
.
1 + C ( s) R( s) P( s)
1 + C ( s) R( s) P( s)
C (s ) , .
,
Wg ( s ) = [1 W ( s )] P( s ) .
, , .
, .
, , ,
. ( x(t )
e(t ) )
1
We ( s ) =
.
1 + C ( s) R( s) P( s)
, , ,
. , , . C (s ) ( ), C (s ) . ,
. .
. -, . -,
,
, . .
. , x(t ) , W ( j ) 1 ( y (t ) x(t ) ). ,
W ( j ) 0 , . , , , Wg ( j ) 0 .
69

.. , 2008
, :
1) W ( j ) 1 ,
; Wg ( j ) 0 , ,
;
2) W ( j ) 0 , ; Wg ( j ) P( j ) , , .

7.2. -
,
. , .
-
C ( s ) = K . e(t ) , K . - , .
, K I ,
t

KI
,
u (t ) = Ke(t ) + K I e(t ) dt .
s
0
- -. , , .

-.
K D :
C ( s) = K +

K
de(t )
C ( s) = K + I + K D s ,
.
u (t ) = Ke(t ) + K I e(t ) dt + K D
s
dt
0
-
(-

). . , - (), .
. . , ,
. , , . , , :
K
K s
C ( s) = K + I + D ,
s TD s + 1
TD . TD , , .
, . , , - -.
70

.. , 2008
( ),
-:
a2 s 2 + a1s + a0
K
K s
C ( s) =
C (s) = K + I + D .
s (b1s + b0 )
s TD s + 1

7.3.
, , , (. . 6.8). ,
.
.

n( s )
n s + n0
= 2 1
P( s) =
.
d ( s ) s + d1s + n0

n ( s ) a1s + a0
=
,
C ( s) = C
d C ( s ) b1s + b0
a0 , a1 , b0 b1 , .
( s ) = n( s ) nC ( s ) + d ( s ) d C ( s ) = (n1s + n0 )(a1s + a0 ) + ( s 2 + d1s + d 0 )(b1s + b0 )
.
= b1s 3 + (n1a1 + d1b1 + b0 ) s 2 + (n0 a1 + n1a0 + d 0b1 + d1b0 ) s + n0 a0 + d 0b0
, , ( s)
,
( s ) = s 3 + 2 s 2 + 1s + 0 ,
i (i = 0,...,2) . s
,
s 3 : b1 = 1
s 2 : n1a1 + d1b1 + b0 = 2
s1 : n0 a1 + n1a0 + d 0b1 + d1b0 = 1
s 0 : n0 a0 + d 0b0 = 0

0
n
1
n0

d1

n1
n0

d0
0

0 a1 1
1 a0 2
.

=
d1 b1 1

d 0 b0 0

a1 0 0 1 0 1
a n 0 d
1 2
1
0 = 1

.
b1 n0 n1 d 0 d1 1


b0 0 n0 0 d 0 0
, ( )
. , ,
n(s ) d (s ) ,

71

.. , 2008

P( s) .
( s) .
, ,
, , N 1 , N
:
N = max{deg n( s ), deg d ( s )} ,
deg .
(s ) .
, , .

7.4.

,
(). :
1) (, )
;
2) ( ),
;
.
G ( s) = P( s) R( s) ,
, ( , ). L0 ( ) = 20 lg G ( j ) .
- L ( ) , :
LC ( ) = L ( ) L0 ( ) .
(51)
, :
1) L ( j ) ,
?
2) C ( s) (51)?
, :
;
;
( ) ;
;
( ).
.
(), . - , G ( s ) C ( s ) (
).
, , .
. , () , ():
72

.. , 2008

1
Ts + 1

1
Ts

,
20 /,
c = 1 / T . . ,
:
3T. , . ,
. :
(, ) , Lm = 0 ; ;
,
20 /;
3
t , c = .
t
. , . ,
. ,
.
. L
m

, 20 /

.
(
)
. 20 /
20 /, c

12-16
, 0
12-16
.



(,

)
()
20 /. ( M < 1,2 )
12-16 (. ).
. 1
, T0 = 5 .
G ( s ) =
T0 s + 1
( , C0 ( s ) = 1 ) :
1
0,5
W ( s) =
=
.
T0 s + 2 0,5T0 s + 1
, W (0) = 0,5 ( 1), . t = 3 0,5 T0 = 7,5 c .
: C (s ) ,
;
1,5 ;
73

.. , 2008

40 / .

. - Lm
, 20 /
L
G ( s ) .
c
L0
( )
0
1
20 / , T0 20 /
. c
L

: m
LC
c = 3 / t = 2 /. ,
L ( ) = 20 lg

c
( ).

15

20 -40 / 1 ,
Lm ( ) = 15 .
20 lg

c
= 15
1

c
= 1015 / 20
1

1 = 103 / 4 c = 5,62 2 = 11,24 /.

, ,
. ( , ), , .
.
( < 1 / T0 ) 20 / (c ;0) ,
C ( s) =

C1 ( s ) ,
s
C1 ( s ) , 1 / T0 .
0 = 1 / T0 20 / , T0 s + 1 :
(T s + 1)
C ( s) = c 0
C2 ( s ) .
s
C2 ( s ) , , 1 . ,
1 20 /. ,
, T1 ,
1
T1 =
= 0,09 c . ,
y
1
(T s + 1)
C ( s) = c 0
.
1
s (T1s + 1)


( ) 0,5
C (s )
( ). ,

0
5
10
15 t
( 74

.. , 2008
1).
, ,
- .

7.5.
,
C2 ( s ) :
g

x
y
u
e
+
R (s)
C2(s)
C(s)
P(s)

C2 ( s )C ( s ) R( s ) P( s )
.
1 + C ( s) R( s) P( s)
C2 ( s ) ( ,
, ),
. , , C (s ) ,
, W (s )
C2 ( s ) .
, ( ).
, x(t ) y (t ) ,
, W ( s) 1 . ,
1 + C ( s) R( s) P( s)
1
C2 ( s ) =
=
,
(52)
C ( s) R( s) P( s)
W1 ( s )
C ( s) R( s) P( s)
W1 ( s ) =
1 + C ( s) R( s) P( s)
.
(52) , C2 ( s ) ()
W1 ( s ) . W1 ( j ) , , C2 ( s ) 1
C2 ( s ) = Ts + 1 , . , W1 ( s ) =
Ts + 1
. , (52)
.
(52) , .
, , , , .
W (s) =

7.6.
g - ,
( ):

75

.. , 2008
g
C3(s)

C2(s)

u3
C(s)

u1

R (s)

P(s)


[1 C3 ( s) R( s)] P( s) .
Wg ( s ) =
1 + C ( s) R( s) P( s)

g ,
1
C3 ( s ) =
,
(53)
R( s)
Wg ( s ) = 0 . (), g . ,
( ), (52).
, ,
C3 ( s ) , , .
, C3 ( s ) (53)
, . ,
, . C3 ( s ) , , (53)
.

7.7.
, .
, . . , ,
, , .
:

x +
y
u
e
C(s)
P(s)


C ( s) P( s)
.
(54)
1 + C ( s) P( s)
, . ,
C ( s)
W ( s) = Q( s ) P( s) , Q( s ) =
(55)
1 + C ( s) P( s)
W (s) =

76

.. , 2008
(55)
P( s) Q( s) , Q( s) .
: Q( s) , , (55):
Q( s)
C ( s) =
.
(56)
1 Q( s) P( s)
, Q( s) ,
W ( s) (55) . , P( s) ,
, (56), . , (56) . (56) , (D.C. Youla).
(56) Q( s) , . (56) . , C ( s) ( ). Q( s) .
Q( s) = 1 / P( s) ,
W ( s) = 1 , . ,
( ),
Q( s) . ,
.
,
Q( s) - . (56).
, ,
1
. Q( s) = 1 , (56)
P ( s ) =
s 1
s 1
C ( s) =
.
s2
s 1 1
C ( s ) P( s ) =

s 2 s 1
() .
( s ) = s 1 + ( s 2)( s 1) = ( s 1) 2
, . , (56)
.
, .
n( s )
P(s) =
, n( s ) d ( s) . f ( s) ,
d (s)
n( s ) d ( s) . P( s)
U ( s)
n( s )
d (s)
P( s) =
, U ( s ) =
V ( s) =
.
V ( s)
f (s)
f ( s)
, X ( s ) Y ( s) ,
U ( s ) X ( s) + V ( s)Y ( s ) = 1 .
(57)

77

.. , 2008
X ( s ) + V ( s )Q( s )
,
(58)
Y ( s ) U ( s )Q( s )
Q( s) . (58) ( ) , . (58) (54), , (57),
W ( s ) = [X ( s ) + V ( s )Q( s )] U ( s ) .
Q(s ) , ( , , )
, , (58).

1
,
P( s) =
s 1
1
s 1
U ( s)
, V (s) =
.
P( s) =
, U ( s ) =
V ( s)
s +1
s +1
(57) , ,
4
s+3
, Y ( s) =
X ( s) =
.
s +1
s +1
Q( s ) = 1 (58)
s+3
C ( s) =
.
s+2
C ( s ) P( s ) , .
C ( s) =

78

.. , 2008

,
. , , ,
. , ,
, (. ),
.
,
. ,
, , -.
,
. , .
, .
,
.

79

.. , 2008


( )
1. .. . .:
, 1989.
2. .. . . .: ,
2005.
3. .. .: , 1986.
4. .., .. 4- . .:
, 2003.
5. ., . .: ,
, 2004.
6. .., .., .. . .: , , 2004.

80