Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 39

2

.. , ..

2004

1.
2.
3. ,

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

2
3
4
5
6
7
12
13
14
15
15
16
18
18
20
20
21
24
25
26

1.
2.

3.

32
34
36
37

38

31
32


.. , .. 1
,
. ,
1
. . . , ,

,
,
, .
,
.
,
,
.

60 % [1 - 3].

.
, ,
. ,
,
.

[4].

.
- , (
) .
,
.
.

. 300
, [5].

.
( ).
,
(, ),
, .

(.,
, [6-10]).
.

. . .
,
, ,

. ,
.

. ,
11-
(, , 1999 .) 186 , 12-
(,
, 2003 .) 240 .
90 % . 5-
(,
2003 .) 207 ,
.
,
, ,
.
,
.
, , .
1.
"" (1000 2000) [11, 12].
, (1000 2000)
. ,
(20
30) [10]. ,
, ~ 105.

. ( 75%)
30 S 30 N, [13].
, ,
. .

.
,
.

( ): ( ),
( ) (
4

).
[13].

.
.
R 2 ,
(8 12) [10]. ,
, , ,
20 [14].
1 [10].
: ,
() .

.
, ,
,
[10].
2.

: ).
; ).
(
) ,
; ).
. ,
.



, .
(., , [15-17]).
,
, ,
, .

, ,
, , .
[15].
.

, ,
() .

1
5

, (2 4)105 [18].
, .
,
.
,
3 / [19],

(10 30) / [20].
3. ,
,
,
.
, ,
, , ,
. ,
.
,
( ). ,

, .
,

.
.
,
( ,
..). ,
.
,
[9].

, , .. ,
.
,
,
.

,
.
5107 105 [7].

, .
,
, , , .
6

105 3,
3 [7].
, .

( , -
> 107 ) [21].
,
,

, ,
- .
.
,

,

,
.
4.
( < 3 )

222Rn 220Rn (
) [22].
.
,
, , .
.

, -
.
.
-
. ,
,
.
,

q = n2,
q - ,
, n - ,
- .
.


30 - 35
, q = n,
7

- [23 - 25]. ,
- .
n q:
n (q)0.5, n q.
q I
q = I M, -
, - .
(
) ~ 21018 2.
,
(n I),
(n (I)0.5).

n (
) .

I/I 100 % [26].
n
, .. (n/n) (I/I).
, n
2 .
(50 - 60) 1000
()
() .

.
. ( 50 )
,
.
1000 , .. ,
( ),
,

.

.
5.
,
, ,
,
.
.
.
()
.
8



. . .
.
,
,
[28].
.. [29]. ,
( )
,
.
,
.
, .
1 %

~ (103 104). ,

, ,

[29].

,

.
(1 2) [5].
.
. ,

( ,
),
.


.
,
- . ,
- ,
.


. -

.
[15].
(2 - 3) /
. ,
9

, , , ,
2 / [30]. ,
3 / [31].
.

( (23) /) .

(10 30) / [10].
, ( ,
)
(2 3)
/. .
,
[32].
,
(2 3) /
[33 - 35].
,
.
,

.
> 1014 .

(). . 1 [33].
10 .

. ,
, 105. ,
> 1015 , [36].
Xm () = 70.15 lg() 555.5.
Xm /2, [37].
.
(23) /
,
(. . 2.) ,
, .
> 1014
1010
ne 102 1
108 .
, .
r 1 ,
k 7108, n = nk1/(r2)
21012 3 [38].
10

. 1. (),
:
; L ; 1
; 2, 3
( ); 4
; 5 ; max
, ;
>1014 ;
;
;
.

,
.

, .
(23) /
(1020) / [38].
.
,
,
.
, , ..
, ,
, , ..
. ,
,
. .. ,

.
11

_ __ __ __ __ __ __ _

+ + + + +
+6 + + + +
_ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _
_
1 _ _ _ _ 4_ 2
_ +
+
_+ _

+ + + + + +
+ + + + + +
+ + + + + +
_
+ _+ _+ _
_ +
_ _
_ _ _ _ _
_ _5 _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _ _
1_ _ _ _ _ _ 2

_+ _
+ _ +

+ +
+ 10

++ 5 + + +
+ + + + + +
+ + + + + + +
+ + + + + +
+ + + + + +
+ + + +

. 2. (), () () : 1
; 2 ; 3
; 4 5
(), 1014 1015
, ; 6 ; 7, 8
; J ,
; 9 ; 10
.

,
,
.
13 2 > 1014 1300 1 [36].

. , ,
1012 7 108 = 71020 ,
, Q 71020
1.61019 110 .
. ,
,
,

.
,
, ,

.
, ,
.
12

,
[39].

, ,
.
6.


.

,
(. . 2). ,
, .
, ,
,
. ,
, .
, J,
, 1 [11, 12]. ,
, .

.
(. . 2).


.
-
,
.

, (20 30) . ,
,
,
,

.
,
.
1015 .
,
, J ,
. 1015
, (. ),
13 2 30
/ [36].
13

, .
,
1015 .

, .
. ,

, , , ,
, ,
. , 1014
, R14 200 , ,
1015 , R15 300 ,
N 2(R15 + R14)/2R14 8 .
,
( 1015 ).
,
=1/{14[(R15 + 2R14)2 - R215]} 102 c, 14 = 100 21
, 1014 [36].
,
Q 10 .
, ,
J 0.5 , t = Q/J
20 , [21].
V = (R15 + 2R14)2 h
= 3.14(0.3 + 0.4)2 1 1.5 3. ,
, = Q/(Ve) = 10 /(1.61019
1.51015 3) 4104 3, [10].
7.

,
, .

, .

,
(. . 2).

[6]. ,
.
,
, 1015 .

,
.

14

,
.
. ,
,
, , ,
, , .
, 10 %
[21].
8. -
, - ,
. ,
, 1 [11, 12],
(108 109) ,
(100 1000) [39].
(
225 , 508 , - - 640 ) [40].

-

.


. ,
,
, .
,
. [41],

>> 100 .
~ 10 /
>> 20 / 20
, .

,
(20 30) / [18].
.
,
, - .

2 105 [18].
5 1014 . ,
, ,
30 .
21011 /. ,
15

(108 109) . ,
... 0.5 %.
9. -

, () - .
,
, .
,
.

.
.
,
, .
.
,
.

. -
. ,
, ,
, . ,
~ 20 [14].
,
,
- .
2105
, 4 , ,
107 .

41014 .
51014 ( ).
.

,
. ,
,
,
.
10.

. -,
,
16

. -,

( 1014 ),
.

,
,
.
:
-




.

.
-



.


.
-
( > 1014 ),
.
.
- , ,
,
.
11.

,
() (3 30) . , .
,
, ,
. ,
.
.
1995 . 1996 . (
)
75 N 75 S "MicroLab-1",
.
, . ,
, [13, 42].
17


, .

37 / (
60 100 /) [13]. , 75 %
30 N 30 S.
(54.4 /) (28.6
/) - . 82 %
18 % . (
, ,
).
, .
4
(14 20) .

.
"MicroLab-1" 1995 .
740 , 1997 . RI
, 350 .

.
[43].

. ,
16
(LT).
.
, , (8 9) LT,
.
5 [44].

,
. [18]
( + )
. ,
,
. 0 20
/ 50 350 . .

.
1 50 /
7 / 30 /.
1998
, TRIMM,

18

"-". ,
"-" (5 6) ,
- (9 10) [45].


.
12.
,
, [13, 43].

.
,
. -,

, -,
,
, , .

,
.
,
.
, .
, .

.

, ,
( )
. ,

.
. ,
. ,
,
.
,
. , -
,
.
13.

(. . 2) ,

,
19

, .

.
. ,
, .
,

20 [46].

,

,
.
( )
,
h h2,
h3.
,
50 .
22.5, 45 90 (
) ,
9, 2.2 0.55 /, , 20, 10
5 , .

.
, ()
. ,

,
.

. , ,
[47].
-.

()

.

-
.

(

). ,
[48].
20

14.
( ) .
( )
.
,
,
.
.
(- 600 000) . ,
-130 / [21].
,
, .

.
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
,

. ,
, (1000 2000) .

(15 16) [44]. ,
,
.
, ..
. ,
, ~ 19
, ,
[44].
15.
, ,
, .
- .
, ,
.
, , ,

, .
21

,
, .
r =
(1 2) ,
() .
(108 107)
. ,
,
.


.
.
,
105 3, ,
104 3 [21].
-
35 5.61018 . ,
,
(109 1010) [49].
,
.
, ..

.

, .
,
. .. ,

.
.
, ,
(
).
,
, .
.
16.
,

, , ,
.
: ,
;
22

,
; ,
, ,
; , ,

.
,
.
,
, .

( 50-60 ),
() () (
(50 60) ~ 1000 ).
( )
( ~1000 ~ 100000 )
.
,
,
.
.
,

,
[39, 50], (
11- 22- ), -
. ,
,
.
,
.

(, ) ,

11- , ..
[51].

, .
. 3
-,
[52]
q
2 10 [25]. q

, . .. .
r (m, q) = + 0.85
0.09. .. 2000-2003 .
23

, 1999 ., q ,
, m
.

11
25

q
10

20

15

10

q , 106 /(2)

m , 106 /

30

1988

1992

1996

2000

. 3. m
[52] q
h = (2 10) .


.
, [24].
, J

N .
. 4.
2

1.5

2.5

2.0

0.5
1965

N , 1/(c2)

J , 10 -12 A/ 2

3.0

1.5
1970

1975

1980

1985

. 4. J ( ) [53]
N h 22 ( ) [54].

. 4 , N J
. r (N, J)
= + 0.66 0.14.
24

,
, [55].

. [56] ,
20 -
.
.
17.
, ,
. ,

. -
-
.
,
. ,
.

,
.
.
.
, ,
~ 108 1020 .
, [34].
.

,
,
[57]. ,

, .
,
, .
.
.
,
,

, . ..,

[58]. , , ,
,
,
, .
,
25

, .. ()
.

- , , -
[59, 60].
.


( ).
.

.

.
, .
.

, . ,
,
.
,
5105 300 3/
[61, 62], 10 [63].
,
, 100 [63].
,
-
.
[59, 60].

. ,
[64, 65].

,
.

() [65].

.

.
,
, .

26

,
,
.
.
:
-

;
-

,
,
;
-
(),
( > 1014 );
-
, ,

;
-
, ,
, .
,

q = n,
q = n2, .

.
.

27

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

. . . .. , .. ,
.. , .. , .. , .. ,
.. , .. . : , 1991, 509 .
. . . .. ,
.. . : , 1989, 647 .
.., .. .
: , 1980, 70 .
.., ..
. : , 1984, 240 .
..
. : , 1972, 323 .
Mason B.J. The Physics of Clouds, Clarendon Press, 1957, 427 p.
.. . : , 1962, 700 .
Pruppacher H.R., Klett J.D. Microphysics of clouds and precipitation.
Dordrecht: Reidel Publ. Company, 1978, 714 p.
.. . . .:
, 1984, 751 .
.., .., .., ..
. .: , 1986, 512 .
Gish O.H. and Wait G.R. Thunderstorms and Earth's General
Electrification. //Journal of Geophysical Research, 1950, v. 55, 4,
473-484.
Stergis C.G., Rein G.C. and Kangas T. Electric field measurements above
thunderstorms. //Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, 1957,
v. 11, 83-90.
Christian H.J., Blakeslee R.J., Bossippio D.J. et al. Global frequency and
distribution of lightning as observed by the optical transient detector (OTD)
// Proceedings of 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity,
USA, Alabama, 1999, 726-729.
. , : , 1972, 327 .
. : , 1969, 362 .
Baker M.B., Dash J.G. Mechanism of charge transfer between colliding ice
particles in thunderstorms. //Journal of Geophysical Research, 1994, v. 99,
10621 - 10626.
Prevenslik T.V. A theory for thundercloud electrification and the reduction
in intensity of hurricanes and tornadoes by the superession of lightning. // J.
Meteorol., 2001, v. 26, 258, 121-124.
Schroeder V., Baker M.B. Inferring selected cloud properties from satellite
lightning data. // Proceedings of 11th International Conference on
Atmospheric Electricity, USA, Alabama, 1999, 276-279.
Gann R. Electric field intensity inside of natural clouds. // J. Appl. Phys, 19,
No. 5, 1948, 481-484.
Meek J.M. and Creggs J. Electrical Breakdown of Gases, Oxford,
Clarendon Press, 1953, 606.
.. . : ,
1974, 421.
28

22. Martell E.A. Enhanced ion production in convective storms by transpired


radon isotopes and decay products. // Journal of Geophysical Research,
1985, v. 90, No. D4, 5909-5916.
23. Ermakov V.I., Stozkov Y.I., Basilevskaya G.A., Pokrevsky P.E., Kokin
G.A. On ion production in the atmosphere. // Proceedings of 10th
International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, Japan, Osaka, 1996,
92-95.
24. Ermakov V.I., Basilevskaya G.A., Pokrevsky P.E., Stozkov Y.I. Ion balance
equation in the atmosphere. // Journal of Geophysical Research, 1997, v.
102, No. D19, 23,413 - 23,419.
25. Ermakov V.I., Basilevskaya G.A., Pokrevsky P.E., Stozkov Y.I. Cosmic
rays and ion production in the atmosphere. // Proceedings of 25th
International Cosmic Ray Conference, South Africa, Durban, 1997,
317-320.
26. Bazilevskaya G.A., Krainev M.B., Stozhkov Yu.I., Svirzhevskaya A.K.,
Svirzhevsky N.S. Long-term Soviet program for the measurement of
ionizing radiation in the atmosphere. // Journal of Geomagnetism and
Geoelectricity, 1991, v. 43, Suppl., 893-900.
27. .. . : , 1977, 446 .
28. ., (+ -), , ,
, . ., -: , 1939, 311 .
29. .. . //
, 1978, . 238, 4, 831-834.
30. Marshal T. et al. Electric field magnitudes and lightning initiation in
thunderstorms. // Journal of Geophysical Research, 1995, v. 100, No. D4,
7095-7103.
31. Gann R. Electric field intensity inside of natural clouds. // J. Appl. Phys.,
1948, v. 19, 5.
32. .. . // .
, . .. , - . , , 1963,
529-552.
33. Ermakov V.I. Lightning initiation by galaxy cosmic rays. // Proceedings of
9th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, St-Petersburg,
1992, 485-488.
34. .., ..
. // , , 2003, 9, 43-50.
35. Ermakov V.I., Stozhkov Y.I. New mechanism of thundercloud and
lightning production. // Proceedings of 11th International Conference on
Atmospheric Electricity, Alabama, USA, 1999, 242-245.
36. .. , : , 1988,
319 .
37. Stozhkov Y.I. The particle number maximum position in air showers as a
function of particle energy. // Proceedings of 27th International Cosmic Ray
Conference, Germany, Hamburg, 2001, HE, 487- 489.
38. .. , : , 1987, 591 .
39. Reiter R. Phenomena in atmospheric and environmental electricity.
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1992, 541 p.
29

40. . : , 1980, 116 c.


41. .., ..
. // ,
, 2003, 1, 23-35.
42. Christian H.J. Optical detection of lightning from space. // Proceedings of
11th ICAE, USA, Alabama, 1999, 715-718.
43. Boccippio D.J., Koshak W.J., Christian H.J., Goodmen S.J. Land-ocean
differences in LIS and OTD tropical lightning observations. // Proceedings
of 11th ICAE, USA, Alabama, 1999, 734-737.
44. Blakeslee R.J., Driscoll K.D., Buecher D.E. et al. Diurnal lightning
distribution as observed by the optical transient detector (OTD). //
Proceedings of 11th ICAE, USA, Alabama, 1999, 742-745.
45. Ushio T.U., Heckman S., Boccippio D., Koshak W.J. Christian H.J. Initial
comparison of the lightning imaging sensor (LIS) with lightning detection
and ranging (LDAR). // Proceedings of 11th ICAE, USA, Alabama, 1999,
738-741.
46. Beasley W., Uman M.A., Rusten P.L. Jr. Electric field, preceding cloud-toground lightning flashes. // Journal of Geophysical Research, 1982, 87,
No. C7, 4883-4902.
47. Rodger C.J. Red sprites, upward lightning, and VLF perturbations. // Rev.
Geophysics, 1999, v. 37, No. 3, 317-336.
48. Sentman D.D., Wescott E.M. Red sprites and blue jets: high-altitude optical
emissions linked to lightning. // EOS, 1982, v. 77, No. 1, 1-2,4.
49. ..
. // , 2000, . 40, 1,
129-132.
50. .., ..
. //
, , 2003, 3, 9-25.
51. .., .. . :
- , 2004, 104 .
52. Orville, R.E., Huffines G.R. Lightning ground flash measurements over
contiguous United States: a ten-year summary 1989-1998. // Proc. 11th
Intern. Conf. Atmospher. Electr., Alabama, USA, 1999, 412-415.
53. Roble R.G. On solar-terrestrial relationships in the atmospheric
electricity. // J. Geophys. Res., 1985, v. 90, D4, 6000-6008.
54. Stozhkov Y.I. The role of cosmic ray in the atmospheric processes. //
Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 2003, v. 29, No. 5,
913-923.
55. Stozhkov Y.I., Pokrevsky P.E., Okhlopkov V.P. Long-term negative trend
in cosmic ray flux. // Journal Geophysical Research, 2000, v. 105, No. A1,
9-17.
56. Harrison G. Twentieth century secular decrease in the atmospheric
potential gradient. // Geophysical Res. Letters, 2002, v. 29, No. 14,
5-1 5-4.
57. Proctor D.E. Regions where lightning flashes began. // Journal of
Geophysical Research, 1991, v. 96, No. D3, 5099-5112.
30

58. .., .., ..


. // , 1977, 8, 19-23.
59. Uman M.A. Natural and artificially lightning and test standards. //
Proceedings of the IEEE, 1988, v. 76, No. 12, 5-26.
60. .., .., .., .. //

. : , 1989, 157 .
61. .. .. .., .., ..
.
: . // . ,
: , 1988, 257-260.
62. .. .
, . //
, 1974, 628.
63. Wahlin L. Atmospheric Electrostatics. Letchworth, Herdfordshire, England,
1986, 120 p.
64. ..
" - "
. // 1- -
" ,
". -, , 1996, 21.
65. ..
. // , o.
15. 02. 94, . 3.

31


.. , .. 1
,
. ,
1
. . . , ,

,

,
.
3 /

. ,
,
.
- ,

.


, .
.

().
(3 4) 40
, 40 .
() .
. ,
, , ,
,
[1, 2].
3 / [3],
( 30
/). 30 / .

.

(
)

[4 - 6]. ,
. .
32

1.

(
). (
85 %) 107
1020 . 1 /(2),
1010 .
, .. .

( ),
.
, .
,
.
( 1012 )
().
1015 , .
.
L (10 20) , R 100 .
1 .
, , ,
Xm () = 70.15lg() 555.5 /2,
[7]. ,
, 1015 ,
5 . ,
1012 , 10
. 10 (30 50)
. ,
, [8].
2.
,
,
, .

, .
.
100
2103 [9].
> 1 (
- , )
.
1.8 2/ [8].
1.29 /3, 1
2.3 . -
33

35 [8],
66 /.
-
,
2.
2

+ 2 +

2 + , (dne/dt) = km ne NO2 Nm ,

2, N2
H2O. km
: kO2 = 2.51030 6 1, kN2 = 0.161030 6 1,
kH2O = 141030 6 1 [10].
a
= 1/a
P = 1013 T = 273 :
a = kO2 (NO2)2 + kN2 NO2 NN2 + kH2O NO2 NH2O =1.1108 1.
NN2 = 2.11019 3, N2 = 5.671018 3, N2 = 11017 3.
a
= 1/a = 0.9108 .


. a
= (a / vg), 1, ( vg ), ,
1 .



.
= - . , > ,
, < - .

.

,
:
() d (18 20), Ne 108,
d , Ne -
.
34

,
20 1. ,
,
.
= - = 20 1 = 66 1 ,
= 46 1. = a/vg a = 1.1 108 1 ,
vg 1.1 108 / 46 = 2.4 106 /.

3 / [10]. ,
3 /

.
, .
, ,
3.2 / [3].

,
L = / (2.3 1), 1 , ,
L = / (2 1). - .
, 1 1, 10 40
5, 50 200 .

. ,
.
,
.
, 1 .
3.

,
.
.
,
( 50 ),
- .

. ,
,
-
( << 1 ).

.
( ) (
) .
- , ,
35

. ,
-
3 /.
. ,
.
,
. ,
,
, 3 /.

V, V
3 / 104 c 30 .
,
, .
d 100
V/2 15 .
, 5 ,
( ),
()
.
,
50 .

.
~ 0.1 / (2).
50
1/ (0.150106) 2 = 2105 2. ,
50
(2105 2) 0.5 5 .
,
,
, V/2.


.
, , ,
.
. ,
.
.

20 /,
[10].
, .
,
.
36


.

, .. .
. (
) .
1 [1].
107 / [10].
5 50 .

.
, .


.
, 5 107 / [1].

. .
100
, ,
.
,
.
,
,
, .
" - "
( ) " - ".

( ,
).
" - ".

,
[1, 2] [8], ,
.

3 /,
( 30 /), (
)
.
,
. ,
, ,
, .
37

, "-" (~ 5 ),
,
1015 .
.
(~ 10 ) ,
1012 .
,

.
( )
( 1 26) , ,
.
[11].
,
.
,
,
.

.

1. . . : , 1972, 327 .
2. . . , : ,
1974, 420 .
3. Gunn R. Electric field intensity inside of natural clouds. // J. Appl. Phys.,
1948, v. 19, 5.
4. Ermakov V.I. Lightning initiation by galaxy cosmic rays. // Proceedings of
9th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, St-Petersburg, 1992,
485 - 488.
5. .. -
. // , 1993, 7, 92 - 98.
6. .., ..
. // . ,
2003, 1, 23-35.
7. Stozhkov Y.I. The particle number maximum position in air showers as a
function of particle energy. // Proceedings of 27th International Cosmic Ray
Conference, Germany, Hamburg, 2001, HE, 487- 489.
8. .. . : , 1988,
319 .
9. . . - :
, 1950, 672 .
10. .. . : , 1987, 591 .
11. .., ..
. // . , 2003, 9, 43-50.
38

:


141700, . . o. . , . 3
e-mail: @mecom.ru
: (095) 576-33-27

. .. ,
199991, , , . 53
e-mail: stozhkov@fian.fiandns.mipt.ru
: (095) 408-61-02.

39

Оценить