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Training Module

SANJEEV KADIAN

Presents

TRAINING MODULE

INDEX

Particulars

Pages

1. Understanding Transformers

 

2. Core

 

3. Conductor

 

4. Bushings

 

5. Buchholz Relay

 

6. Hermatically Sealed T/fs

 

7. Magnetic Oil Level gauge

 

8. Silicagel Breather

 

9. Sub-Assemblies

 

10. Tap Changer

 

11. Temperature Indicator

 

12. Transformer Oil

 

13. Repairing Distribution Transformers

 

14. Sales & Marketing

 

Training Module

UNDERSTANDING TRANSFORMERS

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TRANSFORMER BASICS

INTRODUCTION

A transformer is basically an electromagnetic static equipment based on the principal of Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. A transformer essentially consists of magnetic core, build-up of insulated silicon steel laminations, upon which are wound sets of coils suitably located with respect to each other and termed as primary and secondary windings. Such a combination may be used to derive a voltage higher or lower than what is immediately available. In the former case, the transformer is termed as step-up transformer, while in the later case, it is known as step-down transformer. The primary winding is that winding to which the supply voltage is applied, irrespective of whether it is higher or lower voltage winding, the other winding to which the load is connected is termed as secondary winding.

THE WORKING PRINCIPLE

If an alternating voltage is applied to the terminals of the primary winding of a transformer, with the secondary winding open-circuited, a very small current will flow in the primary circuit only, which serves to magnetise the core and to supply the iron loss of the transformer. Thus, an alternating magnetic flux is established in the core which induces an e.m.f. in both primary and secondary windings. As primary and secondary windings are wound on the same core and as the magnetic flux is common to both windings, obviously, the voltage induced in the primary and secondary windings are, therefore, in direct proportion to the number of turns in these windings.

LAMINATED CORE

to the number of turns in these windings. LAMINATED CORE Diagram circuit transformer and TRANSFORMER LOSSES

Diagram

circuit

transformer

and

TRANSFORMER LOSSES

showing

magnetic

windings

of

a

Transformer loss mainly has two components: no-load loss & load loss.

No load loss results from steel materials, used for magnetizing core laminations. It includes hysteresis and eddy current loss, dielectric loss and copper loss due to no-load current.

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Load loss arises from the resistive components, used for building the primary and secondary windings. It comprises I 2 R loss of windings, loss due to eddy current and stray loss in the tank and core clamp.

Total
Total
No-Load Hysteresis & eddy current loss Di-electric loss as a function of primary & secondary
No-Load
Hysteresis
& eddy
current
loss
Di-electric
loss as a
function of
primary &
secondary
Load Loss due to eddy current set-up in the
Load
Loss due
to eddy
current
set-up in
the
Copper loss due to no-load current
Copper
loss due to
no-load
current
I 2 R loss for both primary & secondary windings
I 2 R loss
for both
primary &
secondary
windings
Stray loss in tank & core clamp
Stray loss
in tank &
core
clamp

Diagram showing various components of losses

EFFICIENCY No-load loss of the transformer is constant and does not change with variation of load. However, load loss changes in respect of the loading pattern. The transformer will yield maximum efficiency at a load when no-load loss and load loss are equal.

REGULATION The regulation of a transformer refers to the change of secondary terminal voltage between no load and load conditions; it is usually quoted as a per cent or per unit value for full load at given power factor.

GENERAL CONSTRUCTION

Constructional Parts

The transformer is comparatively simple structure since there are no rotating parts, or bearings. The chief elements of the construction are –

(1)

Magnetic circuits, comprising limbs, yokes and clamping structures.

(2)

Electric circuits, the primary and secondary windings, formers, insulation and bracing devices.

(3)

Terminals, tappings and tapping switches, terminal insulators and leads.

(4)

Tank, oil, cooling devices, conservators, dryers and ancillary apparatus.

1. Magnetic Circuit

The magnetic core is built up of laminations of high grade silicon sheet steel, which are insulated from each other by a special coating of varnish. The usual thickness of laminations are 0.18 mm, 0.23 mm, 0.30 mm and 0.35 mm. The two losses, due to varying flux, occur in the core: the eddy current and the

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hysteresis losses. The silicon content of the iron and the nature of annealing are very important in determining the hysteresis loss. Silicon makes the material brittle, thus making it difficult to process.

Core Construction The core built up with high-grade non-aging cold rolled grain oriented silicon steel lamination having high permeability and low hysteresis loss. A three legged, mitered and interleaved type core construction is adopted. Main limbs are bound fiberglass types and clamp plates to ensure adequate mechanical strength, and to prevent vibration during operation rigidly bolt yokes. The clamping structure and core sheet are specially connected not to make one turn circuit & connected to top of tank at one point.

Core construction of modern core type power Transformers Cold rolled grain oriented steel laminations are used for cores of all modern power Transformers. This is because it permits the use of flux densities between 1.6 to 1.8 wb/m 2 as compared with 1.3 wb/m 2 for hot rolled steel & consequently the weight of both core and windings is reduced.

Cooling of cores In transformers of medium and high capacity with diameter of circumscribing circle D>=0.35m the cores have the relatively small surface / volume ratio so that the temperature gradient in the core is excessive. In such cases the cooling must be augmented by dividing the core in to different stacks with longitudinal oil ducts (usually 6mm wide) running parallel to the lamination.

Core-Clamping All core-clamping bolts shall be effectively insulated with enamel or preferably varnish impregnated but not insulated with paper. The joints must be of inter leaved type. Liberal axial ducts must be provided so as to ensure free circulation of oil and efficient cooling of the core, so that the maximum temperature at any point will be within permissible limits.

Earthing Positive earthing of the cabinet shall be ensured for providing two separate earthing pads. The earth wire shall be terminated on to the earthing pad and secured by the use of star of self-etching washer. Using a separate earth wire shall do earthing of hinged door.

Core Earthing With the exception of individual laminations and core bolts, all internal metal parts of the transformer require earthing.

2. Electric Circuits

The windings of a transformer are made of copper or aluminium wire and / or strip. Heavy current capacity requires conductors of larger cross-section. To reduce eddy current losses within the conductors, several small wires or parallel strips are preferable than to use one large strip. This gives rise to unequal reactance components of the conductor, which can be reduced by transposing the conductors.

Two types of coil constructions are commonly used – Concentric or Pancake / interleaved. Between coils segments, spacers are provided to permit dissipation of heat from the windings either by ventilation or by a liquid cooling medium.

Double cotton, single cotton with an under layer of enamel or synthetics enamel, or double paper covering are most commonly being used for winding wires. Strips are generally covered with layers of papers known as DPC, TPC, QPC, MPC etc.

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Winding Constructions

The windings are arranged to ensure free circulation of oil and to reduce hot spots in the windings. All materials used in the assembly of windings are insoluble, non-catalytic and chemically inactive in the hot transformer oil. The windings are supported securely in axially as well as radially using radials spacers, axial spacers, press board cylinders and clamp rings, so that they will not be displaced or deformed during short circuits. The coils are clamped by adjustable pressures bolts at are top end and the face is uniformly distributed to the windings using sturdy and to rings.

A transformer generally consists of LT & HT windings. The L.T. windings shall be circular and concentric

with HT windings on the outer side the electrical and magnetic balance under all conditions of operation. The arrangement shall permit free circulation of the oil to ensure the absence of hot spots. It is essential

that the windings shall be subjected to through sinking occurring at site.

The general design and construction of the transformers and bracing’s of the windings shall be such that no mechanical movements of the coils will be possible with dead short on either side of the transformer. The short circuit ratings of the transformers shall be as per IS 2026 of latest issue. All clearance of windings and other live parts shall be adequate for the maximum voltage operation plus 10 percent. There should be sufficient clearance between H.V. and L.V. windings yoke and the coils and between coil in HT windings to have free oil circulation. Current density in the high voltage and low voltage windings together with the section of wire that will be used therein shall be clearly stated in the tender.

High Voltage Conductor For distribution transformers of medium capacity, the conductors being chosen for primary winding are mostly round in shape.

low Voltage Conductor In case of low voltage conductors, since the current is generally high, a rectangular conductor is commonly used. Multiple strips in parallel are also selected for a higher rating transformer.

Insulation The insulation material to be used for the windings shall be suitable for satisfactory service in tropical climates in this country and full load operation as per ISS. DFC insulation shall be provided for high voltage as well as low voltage windings.

The insulation between the H.V. and L.V. windings and core, comprises Bakelite – paper cylinder or elephantine wrap that is typical. The insulation of conductors may be of paper, cotton or glass tape, glass tape being used for air – insulated transformers.

Paper insulation usually necessitates the use of round coils, while the cross – over of the several strands

in a conductor must be properly shaped, and not merely twisted. The high voltage winding is separated

from the low – voltage winding by a series of ducts and Bakelite cylinders or barrels.

3 . Lead and Terminals

The connections to the windings are copper rods or bars, insulated wholly or in part, and taken to the bus

– bars directly in the case of air – cooled transformers, or to the insulator bushings on the tank top in the case of oil – cooled transformers.

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Terminal Arrangement

a) Bushing terminals shall be provided with suitable terminal connectors of approved type & size for cable/overhead conductors’ termination of HV side & cable termination on LT side.

b) The neutral terminals of 433V winding shall be brought out on a bushing along with the 433V volt phase terminals to form 4 wires system for the 433V. Additional neutral bushing shall be provided for earthing.

4. Transformer Tank

All the tanks are of double welded construction and are reinforced by stiffener of structural steel. All bottled connection to the tank is filled with the compressible oil tight gasket. The tank is provided with two earthing terminals for the purpose of the grounding. The tank and accessories of the transformer can be withstanding full vacuum of 0.1 Tore. And a maximum positive pressure of 1kg / sq.cm. In order to relive the excessive gaseous pressure which may build up by a fault or an arcing inside the tank, it is equipped with a pressure relief device / explosion vent which is designed to operate when the maximum gaseous pressure in the tank exceeds 0.5 kg / 5q. cm.

Tank bodies for most of the transformer are made from rolled steel plates, which are fabricated to from the container. While designing tanks for transformer, a large number of factors include keeping the weight, stray load losses and cost a minimum.

The tanks should be strong enough to withstand stresses produced by jacking and lifting. The size of the tank must be large enough to accommodate cores, windings, internal connections and also must give the require clearance between the windings and the walls.

The fittings include thermometer pockets, drain cock, rollers or wheels for moving the transformer in to position, eye – bolts, for lifting, conservators and breaths. Cooling tubes are welded in, but separate radiators are individually welded and afterwards bolted on.

Radiators

During service, the tank body can dissipate a total loss equivalent to 500 W/Sq m (maximum) of the tank surface area. In case the total loss, i.e. (no-load + load loss) is more than the loss dissipated by tank surface, the loss in excess is required to be dissipated with the help of additional cooling surface which is commonly called radiator.

Classification of radiators

Radiators commonly being used are of three different types:

1. Elliptical tube radiator

2. Pressed steel radiator

3. Corrugated wall panel

Elliptical tube radiators and pressed steel radiators operate on then convection process of cooling, whereas a corrugated wall panel performs cooling by radiation only.

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Corrugated wall panel radiators are commonly being used for sealed type transformers and also on such places where there are restrictions on overall dimensions. The radiators are widely used for transformers built for export, as corrugated wall panel transformers occupy less space and can accommodate more transformers in one container during transport.

Cooling Methods

A

 

Simple cooling

1

AN

Natural cooling by atmospheric circulation, without any special devices. The transformer cores and coils are open all round to the air. This method is confined to very small units of a few KV, at low voltages.

2

AB

In this case the cooling is improved by an air blast, directed by suitable trunking and produced by a fan.

3

ON

The great majority of transformers are oil – immersed with natural cooling, i.e. the heat developed in the cores and coils is passed to the oil and thence to the tank walls, from which it is dissipated. The advantages over air cooling include freedom from the possibility of dust clogging the cooling ducts, or of moisture affecting the insulation, and the design for higher voltages is greatly improved.

4

OB

In this method the cooling of an ON – type transformers is improved by air blast over the outside of the tank.

5

OFN

The oil is circulated by pump to natural air – cooler.

6

OFB

For large transformer artificial cooling may be used. The refrigerator, where it is cooled by air – blast.

7

OW

An oil – immersed transformer of this type is cooled by the circulation of water in cooling tubes is situated at the top of the tank but below oil – level.

8

OFW

Similar, to OFB, except that the refrigerator employs water instead of air blast for cooling the oil, which is circulated by pump from the transformer to the cooler.

b.

Mixed cooling

 

ON/OFN, ON/OFB, ON/OFW, ON/OB/OFB, ON/OW/OFW, ONAN, ONAF, OFAF

Cooling ducts In large transformers, the cooling surface of the cores must be augmented otherwise temperature rise will be excessive owing to small surface/volume ratio of the cores. Cooling ducts provides the additional surface. The cooling may be (I) horizontal or (ii) vertical. The vertical cooling ducts are along the direction of laminations and hence can be easily provided. The horizontal ducts are across the laminations and therefore require special punching of core. The oil following through these ducts takes away the heat.

Paintings

Tanks should be sand blasted or cleaned by chemical process before painting. In general a primary coat

of suitable anticorrosive paints followed by two coats of standard grey is applied on the tanks and radiators.

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SCHEDULE OF TESTS

ROUTINE TESTS

Following tests are conducted on each and every transformer.

Measurement of Insulation Resistance

Measurement of Voltage Ratio

Separate Source Voltage Withstand Test

Induced Over-voltage Withstand Test

Measurement of No Load Loss and Current

Measurement of Impedance Voltage/Short Circuit Impedance and Load Loss

Measurement of Winding Resistance

Unbalance Current

TYPE TESTS

Following tests are conducted on only one transformer of each rating for a particular design, subject to client’s requirement.

Impulse Test -- (Conducted by recognized govt. testing laboratory)

Short Circuit -- (Conducted by recognized govt. Testing Laboratory)

Check of Voltage Vector Relationship

Temperature Rise Test

Oil Dielectric Test

Air Pressure Test

Vacuum Test

Oil Leakage Test.

FINAL TEST

Following tests are carried out on the Transformer as per sequence.

Measurement of Insulation Resistance

Measurement of Voltage Ratio and Check of Voltage Vector Relationship

Separate Source Voltage Withstand Test

Induced Over-voltage Withstand Test

Measurement of No Load Loss and Current

Measurement of Impedance Voltage/Short Circuit Impedance and Load Loss

Measurement of Winding Resistance

Unbalance Current

Oil Dielectric Test

Temperature Rise Test

Air Pressure Test

Vacuum Test

Oil Leakage Test.

Magnetic balance test

Measurement of zero sequence impedance

Measurement of noise level

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TESTING PROCEDURE

INSULATION RESISTANCE:

The Oil/Air Temperature is measured and recorded immediately prior to the test. The insulation resistance of each windings corresponding to other windings and to earth is measured and recorded. I.R Value between :

HV & E : Connect Positive terminal of Insulation Tester to HV Bushing and Negative Terminal to the Earth.

LV & E : Connect Positive terminal of Insulation Tester to LV Bushing and Negative Terminal to the Earth.

HV & LV:

Connect Positive terminal of Insulation Tester to HV Bushing and Negative to

LVBushing.

VOLTAGE RATIO & VOLTAGE VECTOR RELATIONSHIP:

(A) Measurement of voltage Ratio – To check the voltage ratio of Transformer Ratio Meter is used;

V1

N1

Voltage Ratio = ------ = --------

V2

N2

where,

N1 = Primary Turn N2 = Secondary Turn

(B) Voltage Vector Relationship(Dyn-11)

Transformer’s A-phase of primary side and A-phase of secondary side are shorted, and in primary side 3- Phase supply (About balance voltage 400 Volts) applied at rated frequency. Voltage is , then, measured on following points :- IV-2V = IV-2w = 1W-2W and !W-2V In this test IV-2W and IV-2V may be same and 1W-2V may be more than 1W-2W

SEPARATE SOURCE VOLTAGE WITHSTAND TEST:

In this test the full test voltage given below applied for 60 seconds between the winding under test and all terminals of remaining windings, core, frame and tank of the transformer connected together to earth.

TESTS :

(A) High Voltage Test - In this test secondary side of the transformer and tank are earthed and from primary side full test Single Phase voltage applied for 60 seconds at rated (50 Hz) frequency.

(B) Low Voltage Test - In this test primary side of the transformer and tank are earthed and from secondary side full test, Single phase voltage applied for 60 seconds at rated (50 Hz) frequency.

INDUCED OVER VOLTAGE WITHSTAND TEST:

The transformer can be tested on either LV or HV side. Double the rated voltage at double the frequency is applied at the testing side. The other side is open circuited. Duration of Test : 60 seconds

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NO LOAD LOSS AND CURRENT:

The test is conducted by a Three Wattmeter Method. The No Load Loss and the no load current are measured at rated frequency at a rated voltage while the other winding is to be left open circuited. In this way after applying rated 3 Phase voltage at rated frequency from LV side, the current is measured in Ammeter. This current will be no load current or magnetizing current, and the total reading of the watt meters will be the Total No Load Loss of the tested transformer.

To measure the No Load Loss and No Load current of Power Transformer one CT-PT set is connected to an Auto Transformer.

IMPEDANCE VOLTAGE/SHORT CIRCUIT IMPEDANCE & LOAD LOSS:

The Impedance voltage/short circuit impedance and load loss are measured at rated frequency by applying an approximately full load current to one winding with the other winding short circuited. The measurements may be made at any current between 25 percent and 100 percent, but preferably not less than 50 percent of the rated current (principal tapping) or tapping current to the test current.

The measured value of Load Loss may be corrected by the following formula :

Total Loss =

Rated Current -------------------- Test Current
Rated Current
--------------------
Test Current

2

The measured value of the impedance voltage may be corrected by the following formula :

Rated Current Total Impedance voltage = -------------------- Test Current
Rated Current
Total Impedance voltage =
--------------------
Test Current

MEASUREMENT OF WINDING RESISTANCE:

To measure the resistance of LV and HV Winding , Kelvin and Wheatstone Bridge are respectively used. The resistance and temperature of each winding are recorded.

UNBALANCE CURRENT:

In this test of the Transformer, all three phases of secondary (Star Connected) are shorted and shorted point linked to the neutral point of transformer with an Ammeter.Then, full load current at rated frequency is applied to primary (Delta Connected) of the transformer. The current measured between the shorted secondary and the neutral point is the unbalance current. Circuit diagram is respectively same as load loss test :-

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TEMPERATURE RISE TEST:

In this test LV winding of the transformer is shorted and from HV winding full losses (Load loss at 75 Deg. Cent. + No Load Loss) is fed. One thermometer is placed in oil filled thermometer pocket of transformer for oil temp. and other 3 Nos. thermometers in different directions of the transformer for ambient temp. After feeding the total loss at transformer, the voltage current, top oil temp. and ambient temp. is measured. These all readings are taken one by one after every hour. This process is continued till oil temperature rise of transformer remains constant. Keeping oil temp. rise constant, load is reduced at full rated current for one hour, after one hour supply shut-off. After shutting off the supply hot resistances of winding are immediately measured. Thus, after plotting the graph between time and hot resistance, we can find out the highest actual hot resistance at the zero time. In this way the maximum winding temperature rise can be calculated by the following formula :

 

(a)

Hot Resistance x (225+RT)-225

For Aluminium

.

Cold Resistance

 

(b)

Hot Resistance x (235+RT)-235 Cold Resistance

For Copper

where, RT = Ambient Temp. at the time of cold resistance :

OIL DIELECTRIC STRENGTH TEST:

To test the Dielectric strength of oil, a motorised oil testing set is used . Before using this instrument, the oil pot of this instrument washed with the same oil, which to be tested. After washing the pot, the gap between the electrodes is set at 2.5 mm and the oil is filled in it. Wait for about 10 minutes, so that the air bubbles disappear. After this, the instrument is switched ‘ON’ and the flash point (in KV) is noted. This process is repeated for six times and the average of the six values is the Dielectric Strength of the oil.

AIR PRESSURE TEST:

This is a type test which is conducted on the transformer tank. The tank may be fixed with a dummy cover with all fittings including bushings in position and subjected to a pressure of

0.35 Kg/Cm 2 (Hg) upto 1000 KVA Transformer Tank

0.80 Kg/Cm 2 (Hg) above 1000 KVA Transformer Tank

created inside the tank and maintained for one hour. The permanent deflection of flat plate, after pressure has been released should not exceed the values given below:

Horizontal length of flat plate (in mm)

Permanent Deflection (in mm)

Upto and including 750

5

751 - 1250

6.5

1251

- 1750

8

1751

- 2000

9.5

2001

- 2250

11

2251

- 2500

12.5

2501

- 3000

16

Above 3000

19

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VACUUM TEST:

This is a type test , which is conducted on transformer tank. The transformer tank may be completed with all fittings including bushings in position and shall be subjected to full vacuum corresponding to (-) 0.7 Kg/Cm.sq.(Hg) created inside the tank for one hour. The permanent deflection of flat plates after the vacuum has been released shall not exceed the value specified below without affecting the performance of the transformer.

Horizontal length of flat plate (in mm)

Permanent Deflection (in mm)

Upto and including 750

5

751 - 1250

6.5

1251

- 1750

8

1751

- 2000

9.5

2001

- 2250

11

2251

- 2500

12.5

2501

- 3000

16

Above 3000

19

OIL LEAKAGE TEST:

This is a type test, which is conducted on fully completed transformer. The transformer shall be oil filled and complete with all fittings. Then following air pressure is applied:

1) 0.35 Kg/Cm 2 (Hg) pressure – For transformers upto 1000 KVA for one hour 2) 0.80 Kg/Cm 2 (Hg) pressure – For transformers above 1000 KVA for 12 hours

During this period no leakage should occur.

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RAW MATERIAL & ACCESSORIES

The following is the list of the major raw-material required for the manufacture and repair of transformers.

CORE

CORK SHEET

COPPER

GASKET WASHER

OIL

BUSHING CLAMP

STEEL (TANKS)

CLAMPING MEMBER

RADIATORS / WALL PANELS

ARCING HORNS

TAP CHANGER OFF LOAD, ON LOAD

BIMETALLIC CONNECTOR

BUSHINGS & FITTINGS

EARTHING LUGS

COPPER SHEET & FLAT

SRBP TUBE

OIL CONSERVATOR

COTTON TAPE

BREATHER

EMPIRE SLEEVING

DIAL TYPE THERMOMETER

PRESS BOARD

OIL LEVEL GAUGE

INSULATING KRAFT PAPER

PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICE

INLINE CONNECTOR

BUCHHOLZ RELAY

BAKELITE SHEET

OIL & WINDING TEMP. INDICATOR

CI PLUG

RATING & DIAGRAM PLATE

BRIGHT ROD

BI-DIRECTIONAL ROLLERS

BOLTS, NUTS, WASHER

CABLE BOX

PRIMER & FINISH PAINT

LIFTING LUGS

INSLULATING VARNISH

TERMINAL MARKING PLATE

SOLDER WIRE

AIR RELEASE PLUG

LUGS

VALVES

GROUNDING TERMINALS

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CORE

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CORE

The need for electrical steel sheets of highest quality has increased in recent years due to rapid development of electrical machinery industry in many countries. Grain Oriented steel sheets namely ORIENTCORE, ORIENTCORE H1-B & ORIENTCORE HI-B.LS are some of the finest quality of core.

ORENTCORE.HI-B is a breakthrough in that it offers higher magnetic flux density, lower core loss and lower magnetostriction than any conventional grain-oriented electrical steel sheet.

ORIENT.HI-B.LS is a novel type with marked lower core losses, produced by laser irradiation of the surface of ORIENTCORE.HI-B sheets.

Quality

Stable product quality

Core loss are extremely low in rolling direction

Permeability is extremely high in rolling direction

Lamination factor is higher

Excellent Insulation coatings

Standard Sizes

   

ORIENT.HI-B

ORIENT.HI-B.LS

Coils

Thickness

0.23mm & 0.27mm 0.30mm & 0.35mm

0.23mm,0.27mm

Standard Width

914

mm & 950 mm

 

Available Width

From 50mm to 1000 mm

From 50mm to 950 mm

Cut length

Thichness

Same as for coils

 

Length

Lengths upto 3100 mm are available in 840 mm and

914

mm widths

Core cut in customer specified sizes can also be provided

Annealing of stacked electrical sheets

Though ORIENTCORE and ORIENTCORE.HI-B are grain orient steel sheets with excellent magnetic properties, mechanical stress during such operations as cutting, punching and bending affect their magnetic properties adversely. When these stress are excessive, stress relief annealing is necessary.

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Following method is observed for stress relief annealing

1. Stacked electrical steel sheets are heated thoroughly in the edge-to-edge direction rather than in the face-to-face direction, because heat transfer is far faster in side heating.

2. A cover is put over sheets stacked on a flat plate. Because ORIENTCORE and ORIENTCORE.HI-B have extremely low carbon content and very easily decarburized at annealing temperatures, the base, cover and other accessories used are of very low carbon content .

3. To prevent oxidation so as to protect the coating on the sheets, a nonoxidizing atmosphere free from carbon sources is used having less than 2%hydrogen or high-purity nitrogen gas. Due point of the atmosphere is maintained at 0ºC or less.

4. Care is taken to the flatness of annealing base, because an uneven base distorts cores, leading to possible distortion during assembly.

5. Annealing temperature ranging from 780ºC to 820ºC is maintained for more than 2 hours or more. Cooling is done upto 350ºC in about 15 hours or more.

Available Grades

ORIENTCORE

o M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 & M6

ORIENTCORE.HI-B

o

23ZH90, 23ZH95, 27ZH95,27ZH100,30ZH100

o

M-0H,M-1H,M-2H,M-3H

ORIENTCORE.HI-B.LS

o 23ZDKH90,27ZDKH95

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Conductor

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CONDUCTOR

Conductors are one of the principal materials used in manufacturing of transformers. Best quality of copper rods are procured from indigenous as well as foreign sources. Normally 8 mm & 11 mm rods are procured. For each supply of input, test certificate from suppliers is obtained and at times, such input is got tested from reputed test labs.

Various sizes as specified by customers can be drawn. At each stage of drawing of copper wires & strips, the dimension is measured all around and in case found oversize particular die is replaced forthwith. During final stage of drawing smoothness and brightness is strictly observed. Elongation, Springiness & Tensil strength are thoroughly tested. While drawing, care is taken that the physical properties of the conductors are maintained.

After the wires & strips are drawn as per clients requirements they are moved on to paper covering process. To prevent the inclusion of copper dust or other extraneous matter under paper covering the conductor is fully cleaned by felt pads or other suitable means before entering the paper covering machine. As per the customers requirements DPC, TPC & MPC conductors are produced. It is ensured that each layer of paper is continuous, firmly applied and substantially free from creases. No bonding or adhesive material is used except to anchor the ends of paper. Any such bonding materials used to anchor the ends do not have deleterious effect on transformer oil, insulating paper or the electric strength of the covering. It is ensured that the overlapping percentage is not less than 25% of the paper width.

Arrangement of layers According to the number of layers used the paper is applied as follows.

Two layers:- Where there are two layers both of them are wound in opposite directions.

More than two layers Where there are more than two layers all the layers are applied in the same direction, all, except the outermost layer is butt wound, and the outermost layer is overlap wound. Within each group of papers the position of the butt joints of any layer relative to the layer below is progressively displaced by approximately 30 percent of the paper width.

Note: Overlapping can also be done as per customer requirements.

Grade of paper The paper, before application, is ensured to be free from metallic and other injurious inclusions and have no deleterious effect on insulating oil. The thickness of paper used is between 0.025 mm to 0.075 mm.

Enameled Conductor Apart from paper covered conductors, we have all the facilities of producing enameled conductors as per customer specified requirements.

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BUSHINGS

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BUSHINGS

Insulators and Bushings are built with the best quality Porcelain shells manufactured by wet process. The materials that go into the manufacture of these insulators offer best quality mechanical and electrical characteristics. The standard colour of the glaze is brown, but white glazed insulators can also be made available on request.

Manufacturing process

For manufacture of electro porcelain, high quality indigenous raw materials viz, China Clay, Ball Clay, Quartz and Feldspar is used. The raw materials in lots undergo thorough test in quality control laboratory before being user for manufacture.

Quartz and feldspar are ground to required finesses and then intimately mixed with ball and china clay in high speed blungers. They are then passed through electromagnetic separators, which remove iron and other magnetic impurities. The slip produced is passed to a filter press where extra water is removed under pressure and the resulting clay cakes are aged over a period. The aged cakes are extruded to required form viz., cylinders, on high vacuum de-airing pug mill. The extruded blanks or cylinders are given shapes of Insulators / Bushings which are conditioned and are shaped on copying lathes as the case may be.

These shaped insulators / bushings are then dried under controlled conditioned and then they are glazed, Trade mark, month, year and country of manufacture are marked before firing. The glazed shells are fired in fuel efficient kilns having temperature controls to ensure uniformity of firing high strength in porcelain shells. Metal parts used in the assembly of Insulators, are of blackheart and malleable cast iron and are hot dip galvanized to conform to international standards.

Testing, Assembly & packing

All insulators & bushings undergo routine electrical and mechanical tests. The tests before and after assembly are carried out according to IS Specifications, to ensure their suitability for actual conditions of use. Porosity tests are also carried out regularly on samples from every batch, to ensure that the insulators are completely vitrified. These insulators are then visually checked and sorted, before they are packed in sea worthy packing, to withstand transit conditions.

Types of Insulators & Bushings

Bushing Insulators

o

Hollow Porcelain Bushings upto 33 KV

o

Application : Transformers, Capacitors, Circuit Breakers etc.

Pin Insulators

o Pin Insulators conforming to ISS, B.S., IEC and other international standards upto 33 KV

Training Module

Post type Insulators

o Post type insulators, complete with metal fittings, generally IS Specifications and other International Standards upto 33 KV

Solid Core Insulators

o

Line Post

o

Long Rod

o

Support

Special Type Insulators

o

C.T. upto 66 KV

o

P.T. toto 33 KV

o

Weather Casing

L.T. Insulators

o

Shackel Type

o

Spool Type

o

Pin Type

o

Guy strain

Training Module

Product Specification

1.

H.V. Bushings (IS:3347)

1.

12-17.5 KV / 250 amps

   

2.

12-17.5 KV / 630 amps

   

3.

12-17.5 KV / 1000 amps

   

4.

12-17.5 KV / 2000-3150 amps

   

5.

24

KV / 250 amps

   

6.

24

KV / 630 amps

   

7.

24

KV / 1000 amps

   

8.

24

KV / 2000 – 3150 amps

   

9.

36

KV / 250 amps

   

10.

36

KV / 630 amps

   

11.

36

KV / 1000 amps

   

12.

36

KV / 2000-3150 amps

2.

L.V. Bushings (IS:3347)

1.

1 KV / 250 amps

   

2.

1 KV / 630 amps

   

3.

1 KV / 1000 amps

   

4.

1 KV / 2000 amps

   

5.

1 KV / 3150 amps

3.

H.V. Bushings (IS:8603)

1.

12

KV / 250 amps

   

2.

12

KV / 630 amps

   

3.

12

KV / 1000 amps

   

4.

12

KV / 2000-3150 amps

   

5.

36

KV / 250 amps

   

6.

36

KV / 630 amps

   

7.

36

KV / 1000 amps

   

8.

36

KV / 2000-3150 amps

4.

C.T. Bushings (IS:5612)

1.

12

KV

   

2.

24

KV

   

3.

36

KV

Training Module

EPOXY BUSHINGS

All Epoxy Resin Cast Components are made from hot setting reins cured with anhydrides; hence these provide class-F Insulation to the system. In an oxidizing atmosphere, certain amine cured Epoxy Resins can start to degrade at 150ºC whereas the anhydride cured systems are stable at 200ºC therefore our epoxy components are cured with anhydrides which gives them a longer life.

Electrical & Mechanical Properties

Compressive Strength

1500-2000 Kg/cm 2

Tensil Strength

650-850 Kg/cm 2

Di-electric Strength

18-22 KV/mm

Range of products available in the market

1. All designs of bushings for sealed type distribution transformers

2. All designs of Spouts, Trolley bushings etc for 1.1 KV oil circuit breakers

3. Resin cast CT’s & PT’s for 1.1 KV Instrument panels

4. Any design of Bus Bar supports for control panels

Training Module

Buchholz Relay

Training Module

BUCHHOLZ RELAY

Power transformers are considered to be highly reliable type equipment, yet, in order to ensure the continuity of service that modern conditions demand, protective devices are required. The purpose of such devices is to disconnect faulty apparatus before large scale damage caused by a fault to the apparatus or to other connected apparatus. Such devices generally respond to a change in the current or pressure arising from the faults and are used for either signaling or tripping the circuits.

Protective devices in the ideal case must be sensitive to all faults, simple in operation, robust for services and economically feasible. Considering liquid immersed transformer, a near ideal protective device is available in the form of gas and oil operated relay described here. The relay operates on the well known fact that almost every type of electric fault in a liquid immersed transformer gives rise to a gas. This gas is collected in the body of the relay and is used in some way or the other to cause the alarm or the tripping circuit to operate.

The principle of the gas and oil relay was first successfully demonstrated and utilized by “Buchholz” many years back.

Applications

Double element relays can be used in detecting minor and major faults in a transformer. The alarm element will operate, after a specified volume of gas has collected to give an alarm indication. Examples of incipient faults are.

1)

Broken down core bolt insulation

2)

Shorted lamination

3)

Bad contacts

4)

Overheating of parts of windings

The alarm element will also operate in the event of oil leakage, or if air gets into the oil system. The trip element will be operated by an oil surge in the event of more serious faults such as

1)

Earth faults

2)

Winding short circuit

3)

Puncture of bushings

4)

Short circuit between phases

The trip element will also be operated if a rapid loss of oil occurs.

Available range

Relays for users outside India

Type

SRIE

GORIE

GOR2E

GOR3E

No.

of

Switching

1

2

2

2

System

Training Module

Pipe bore in mm

25

25

50

80

Transformer rating In MVA

≤ 1.6

≤ 5.0

> 5.0

> 10.0

≤ 10.0

Relays for users in India

Type

GOR1

GOR2

GOR3

SRI

SRI/V

No.

of

Switching

2

2

2

1

1

System

Pipe bore in mm

25

50

80

25

25

Transformer rating In MVA

< 1.0

> 1.0

> 10.0

For

< 1.0

≤ 10.0

OLTC

Training Module

Hermatically Sealed T/fs

Training Module

HERMETICALLY SEALED TRANSFORMERS

Training Module HERMETICALLY SEALED TRANSFORMERS Sealed from environment by a) Welded Lid b) Bolted Lid For
Sealed from environment by

Sealed from environment by

a) Welded Lid

b) Bolted Lid

Sealed from environment by a) Welded Lid b) Bolted Lid For fin type radiators Nitrogen gas

For fin type radiators

Nitrogen gas cushion located above the liquid level

For corrugated tanks

Transformer is totally filled with fluid and level being indicated on the liquid level indicator positioned at the highest point on the lid

A pressure relief device may be fitted to regulate the inernal pressure

Training Module

Magnetic Oil Level Gauge

Training Module

MAGNETIC OIL LEVEL INDICATOR

Magnetic oil level indicators are used for varied purposes. In Transformer they are mounted on the conservator to read oil level and to set off an alarm when the oil level falls below a predetermined level.

It consists of following parts.

a. Gear assembly

b. Magnetic couple

c. Float with arm

d. Cam assembly with mercury switch

e. Dial and pointer.

The float is hinged and swings up or down when oil level rises or falls. This rise or fall rotates the bevel gear and thus the pinion of the gear assembly. The pinion on turn rotates the driving magnet inside the conservator. The follower magnet positioned outside carries a pointer and a cam. The pointer reads oil level and the cam is set to operate the mercury switch at a predetermined low level.

One normally open mercury switch is provided to actuate low level alarm. The switch is adjustable to compensate error in orientation of pad. Leads of this switch are connected to the terminals.

Specifications

1.

Operating Liquids

Transformer oil to IS:335 & other oils

2.

Working temperatures

0

to 100ºC of oil

3.

Working pressure

0

to 4 Kg/Sq.cm.

4.

Environment

Suitable for indoor & outdoor use

5.

Electric Switch

One SPST Mercury Switch

6.

Contact rating

5

Amps 240 V A.C. 0.5 Amp 240 V.D.C.

7.

Switch Operation

Normally open, closes when oil level drops to near empty condition, recovers automatically on rising of oil level.

Model

SO-4

SO-6

Dial Size

100

150

Weight

2.2

2.9

Training Module

Silica gel Breather

Training Module

SILICAGEL BREATHERS

Breathing Process

Breathing is the process wherein Transformer sucks the air inside or pushes the air outside its body. When Transformer is loaded or unloaded, the oil temperature inside the transformer tank rises or falls. Accordingly, the air volume inside the tank changes by either sucking in or pushing out the air. This phenomenon is called “Breathing” of the transformer.

Now, the air which is being sucked in contains either foreign impurities and / or humidity which changes dielectric strength of oil. For proper working of Transformer, it

is absolutely necessary that dielectric strength of transformer oil remains unimpaired.

Hence, it is necessary that air entering into the transformer is free from moisture & foreign impurities.

Window Type Silicagel Breathers

The breather is made out from Aluminium (Gravity) die cast in two parts i.e. Top shell & bottom shell and a gel compartment is made out from Tin plate which is known as removable inner container. The inner gel container can be withdrawn by unscrewing the wing-nuts removing the top shell or bottom shell portion of the breather in case of two piece model.

A sight windows have been provided

Oil level.

to observe / inspect the condition of Slicagel &

An oil seal made out of aluminium sheet is fitted in the base of the breather to prevent diffusion of moisture into silicagel when no breathing is taking place.

Clear view type Silicagel Breather

Is based on DIN standard 42567. Visibility is excellent, because the entire compartment is transparent. The change in colour of gel in any part of the mass is clearly visible, even from a distance as against very poor visibility in window type design.

The entire oil cup is also transparent. Hence, change in the level of oil as well as any sedimentation in oil is clearly visible as against invisibility in window type

Available range

From 0.125 Kg to 15 Kg capacity

Sn

Silicagel Content

Transformer rating

Suitable for transformer

Training Module

 

(in Kgs)

(in KVA)

holding oil

(in litres)

1

0.125

200

300

2

0.250

300

450

3

0.500

500

750

4

1.000

2000

1400

5

1.500

5000

3000

6

3.000

7000

7500

7

4.000

10000

15000

8

6.000

15000

21000

9

8.000

20000

27000

10

10.000

25000

32000

11

15.000

30000

47000

Above table is just a guide line. The gel content or the size of the breather is determined by the volume of air passing through the breather, the oil contents of the transformer and the atmospheric conditions at the place of installation. Hence the ultimate user should decide the size and gel content of the breather that would suit to him.

Training Module

Sub-Assemblies

Training Module

SUB ASSEMBLIES

Sub Assemblies are categorized as under:-

HV & LV Coils

Core Assembly

Core-Coil Assembly

Pressed Steel Radiators & Panels

MS Tanks Corrugated & Radiator type

Training Module

COILS

Coils are of two type

a) High Voltage Coils

b) Low Voltage Coils.

1.

HIGH VOLTAGE COILS. H.V. Coils are one of the components of finished transformers. High voltage coils are made on automatic layer setting winding machines. A solid cylindrical former of predetermined diameter and length is being used as base over which the coil is made. Generally round insulated wire of either copper or aluminium is used as basic raw-material. The coils are made in no. of layers. The starting and finishing leads of each coils are terminated on either side of the coil. These leads are properly sleeved and locked at no.of points.

2

LOW VOLTAGE COILS:

L.V. Coils are also one the components of transformer. The procedure of making low voltage coil is generally same as described above, except that the shape of the basic raw-material is rectangular.

Disc Winding in process

Finished Disc winded coil

Disc Winding in process Finished Disc winded coil
Disc Winding in process Finished Disc winded coil

CORE ASSEMBLY

1.

is

done manually.

Core

one

of the components of

finished

transformer.

Core assembly is

Training Module

2. The basic raw-material is Cold Rolled Grain Oriented Silicon Steel and is in the form of thin sheets, cut to size as per design. Generally three different shapes of core laminations are used in one assembly. Notching is performed to increase the magnetic path. The laminations are put through annealing process.

3. These laminations are assembled in such a manner that there is no air gap between the joints of two consecutive sheets.

4. The entire assembly is done on a frame commonly known as core channel These frames are used as a clamping support of the core assembly. Hooks are provided on the core frame for easy movement of core assembly. The entire assembly is tightened by corebolt.

Core Assembly of Distribution Transformer Core Assembly in process of Power Transformer
Core Assembly of
Distribution Transformer
Core Assembly in process of
Power Transformer

CORE - COIL ASSEMBLY:

The components produced in the coil winding and core assembly stage are taken into Core-Coil assembly Stage.

1. The Core assembly is vertically placed with the foot plate touching the ground. The top yoke of the core is removed and is kept in a safe place. The limbs of the core are tightly wrapped with cotton tape and then varnished.

2. Cylinder made out of insulating press board / pressphan paper is wrapped on

insulated core limbs.

all the three limbs. Low voltage coil is placed on the

Training Module

Insulating block of specified thickness and number are placed both at the top and bottom of L.V. Coil.

3. Cylinder made out of corrugated paper or plain cylinder with oil ducts are provided over LV Coil. HV Coils are placed over the cylinder. Gap between each section of HV coils including top and bottom clearances is maintained with the help of oil ducts; as per the design/drawings.

4. The Top Yoke is refilled. Top core frame including core bolts and tie rods are fixed in position.

5. Primary and secondary windings are connected as per the requirements. Phase barrier between HV Phases are placed as per requirement. Connections to the tapping Switch (if required) are made. Finally, the entire component is placed in the Oven for removal of moisture content. After drying the component is ready for tanking.

Distribution Transformer Core Coil Assembly Power Transformer Core Coil Assembly
Distribution Transformer
Core Coil Assembly
Power Transformer
Core Coil Assembly

TANKS

Best quality MS Sheets, Press Steel Radiators and Corrugated Panels are procured from indigenous and foreign sources. These radiators and panels are welded with the tanks fabricated in-house. In case of Power Transformers Radiators provided are of detachable form due to large in size and ease of shipment.

Training Module

Tank Fabrication in process Corrugated Tank
Tank Fabrication in process
Corrugated Tank

Training Module

Tap Changer

Training Module

OLTC

On Load tapchangers marketed by us are tested as per IS 8468-1977 Amendment 1-1980. On Load Tapchanger (OLTC) are also suitable for off circuit furnace duty application. It comprising of driving mechanism and high speed selector switch. Optional equipments include Remote Tapchanger Control Cubicle (RTCC) with indicating apparatus, fitted with devices to prevent malfunctioning. Designed for unidirectional power flow but can be used for bidirectional power flow under certain combinations of current rating and step voltage.

The tap changer is designed for operation at current upto 300 amperes. The Selector Switch which is capable of making and breaking load current in addition to selecting tapping, is housed in an oil filled container and separated from the transformer oil by an oil-tight cast epoxy resin Terminal Board.

At one end of the container a separate chamber houses the motor and driving mechanism. A weather proof door provides access to the operating mechanism and a suitably positioned window allows easy reading of the tap position indicator.

Available Range

Sn

Rated

Max.

Max.

Max.

Oil

Tappings

Flange

SC withstand

Voltage

Steps

Step

Rated

Content

Dimension

Voltage

Current

 

KV

Nos.

Volts

Amps

Ltrs

 

mm

K Amps for 2 Sec.

1

11

8

600

300

440

Linear

840

x 832

3.5

2

11

4

220

100

300

Linear

1035x990

2.0

3

33

8

1200/750

125/300

440

Linear

840

x 832

3.5

4

33

16

1200/750

100/300

780

Linear

1043x1035

3.5

5

33

20

1200/750

125/300

780

Linear

1043x1035

3.5

6

33

16

1200/850

100/300

380

Coarse/

1066x830

3.5

fine plus-

minus

7

33

9

1200/850

100/300

380

Linear

1066x830

3.5

8

33

16

1000/750

300/500

1200

Linear

1499x1207

5.0

9

66

16

1200/750

125/300

1200

Linear

1499x1207

3.5

10

66

16

1200/750

125/300

850

Linear

1072x1110

3.5

11

66

20

1200/750

125/300

850

Linear

1072x1110

3.5

OFF CIRCUIT TAP CHANGER

Off Circuit Tap changers are used for adjusting the voltage of oil immersed transformers under de-energised condition by adding or cutting out turns of primary or secondary windings.

Construction

Training Module

Tap changing is done by rotating an insulating driving shaft. Bridgings are made between two terminal stud contacts either by snap action of self centering spring loaded ring or by sliding palm fixed with centre drive shaft. The centre shaft is operated by means of an externally mounted hand wheel on a double sealed stuffing box having spring loaded positioner with tap position indicator. Indicator mechanically shows the tap number of which the tap changer is operating. Provision is made for pad locking in any tap position. Between first and last position stoppers are provided to avoid bridiging across range.

Material of construction

Sn.

Parts

Material

Specification

1.

Centre driving shaft

FRP pultruded rod

 

Epoxy based

2.

Phase Board

Phenolic laminated paper base sheet

Gr. P3 of IS:2036

3.

Terminal Stud

High

conductivity

Hard

IS:613

Copper

OR

Free

IS:319

machining Brass

4.

Bridiging Ring

Hard Copper (Medium) Oxygen free OR Free machining Brass Tube

Conductivity to BS 1977 C 103 IS:319

5.

Tie rod insulating tube & spacers

Phenolic laminated paper tube & FRP tube

Gr. P3 Epoxy Based

6.

Spring

Spring Steel

IS:4454 Part I Gr. II

7.

Stuffing Box

CI or CS

 

8.

Handle

CS or Aluminium

   

9.

Supporting Structure

CS

Gr. Fe 540 W-HT

IS:961

Available Range

KV

AMPS

POSITION

TYPE

HANDLE

11

30

5

SB

T

 

30

7

SB

T

 

30

9

TR

T

 

30

11

TR

W

 

60

5

SB

T

 

60

7

SB

T

 

60

9

SB

T

 

60

5

TR

W

 

60

7

TR

W

 

60

9

TR

W

 

60

11

TR

W

 

100

5

SB

W

 

100

7

SB

W

 

100

5

TR

W

Training Module

KV

AMPS

POSITION

TYPE

HANDLE

 

100

7

TR

W

 

100

9

TR

W

 

100

11

TR

W

 

150

5

TR

W

 

150

9

TR

W

 

250

5

TR

W

 

250

7

TR

W

 

250

9

TR

W

 

500

5

TR

W

 

500

9

TR

W

22

30

5

SB

T

 

30

7

SB

T

 

30

5

TR

T

 

30

7

TR

T

 

30

9

TR

T

 

60

5

SB

T

 

60

7

SB

T

 

60

5

TR

W

 

60

7

TR

W

 

60

9

TR

W

 

100

5

TR

W

 

100

7

TR

W

 

100

9

TR

W

 

150

5

TR

W

 

150

7

TR

W

 

150

9

TR

W

 

250

5

TR

W

 

250

7

TR

W

 

250

9

TR

W

22/11

30

5

SB

T

 

30

7

SB

T

 

30

5

TR

W

 

30

7

TR

W

 

30

9

TR

W

 

60

5

SB

T

 

60

7

SB

T

 

60

7

TR

W

 

60

7

TR

W

 

60

9

TR

W

 

100

5

TR

W

 

100

7

TR

W

33/11

30

7

TR

W

33

30

5

TR

T

 

30

7

TR

T

 

30

9

TR

T

 

60

5

TR

W

 

60

7

TR

W

 

60

9

TR

W

 

60

11

TR

W

 

100

5

TR

W

Training Module

KV

AMPS

POSITION

TYPE

HANDLE

 

100

7

TR

W

 

100

9

TR

W

 

150

5

TR

W

 

150

7

TR

W

 

150

9

TR

W

 

400

5

TR

W

SB

: Side Base Construction : Tie Rod Construction

T

: ‘T’ handle : Wheel Handle

TR

W

Training Module

Temperature Indicator

Training Module

TEMPERATURE INDICATOR (Dial Type)

Measuring System When heated, volumetric expansion of liquid will be proportional to the rise in temperature. A sensing bulb, a measuring bellows and a small bore capillary tube connecting the two from the measuring system which is filled with liquid. When the bulb is exposed to a rise in temperature, the liquid inside the measuring system expand proportionately causing corresponding volumetric changes in the bellows. Since one end of the bellows is anchored it will move linearly in proportion to the measured temperature.

World Class Product

Ergonomically designed 270º part circular scale

Complete temperature and head compensation for bellows & capillary line

No periodic site adjustment

Upto four electrically isolated heavy duty control switches

Winding temperature indication by thermal image device

Remote transmission for electrical repeater

Switch & circuit testing facility from outside the case.

All circuits to ground tested at 2500 volts A.C. 50 Hz for 60s

Maximum temperature indicating pointer

Ventilated weather proof case (Protective class IP 55 of IEC 529)

Training Module

SPECIFICATIONS

1.

Dial

140 mm diameter with 270º part circular scale marked boldly for rapid reading.

2.

Standard Ranges

0-120ºC, 20-240ºC, 30-150ºC, 0-150ºC

3.

Accuracy of indication

±1.0% f.s.d

4.

Control Switches

Upto 4 numbers, electrically isolated normally open S.P.S.T. dry electrode mercury and glass switches.

5.

Switch Rating

5 Amps continuous at 250 Volts A.C. or D.C. overload rating of 10 Amps in A.C. circuit only

for

short duration such as motor starting.

Switches are independently adjustable for making and breaking contacts at pre-set

temperatures.

6.

Capillary

Standard Lengths 5m, 6m, 10m and 12m stainless steel armour sheathed

7.

Bulb

Type F or Type M

8.

Case Finish

Stove enameled hammerstone deep blue outside and all white inside.

9.

Case Mounting

Projection mounting with back straps. Weather proof case (protective class IP 55 of IEC 529) is suitable for outdoor service. However a canopy type weather shield will improve visibility under tropical conditions.

10.

Capillary Entry

Bottom or Top of case – vertical

11.

Electrical Entry

Bottom of case – vertical through 2 holes (19

mm

or 26 mm)

12.

Maximum Pointer

Resettable from outside by means of a screwdriver is fitted to the instrument window. A special damping device ensures accuracy of readings even under vibration conditions.

13.

Switch Testing

A switch testing knob is fitted on the instrument lid to facilitate checking of the switch settings from outside, without removing the instrument lid.

14.

Electrical Connection

Are made to the terminal blocks inside the instrument case. Approved insulating materials

are

used and all circuits to ground tested at

2500 Volts A.C. 50 Hz for 60 seconds. A wiring

diagram is fixed inside the instrument case.

Temperature Indicators with dials of 60º segmental scale & 240º part circular scale is also available.

Training Module

Transformer Oil

Training Module

TRANSFORMER OIL

Transformer oil is a petroleum base mineral oil used extensively in power and distribution electrical equipments such as transformers, switchgears, capacitors and allied equipments. It provides insulation between windings, winding to core, winding to tank and acts as a coolant to take away the heat generated by power losses and also acts as an arc quenching medium.

Quality

Quality of transformer oil marketed by us has to undergo tests and checks conforming to IS-335 of BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) and also international standards:

Oxidation stability, gas absorption, chemical deterioration, break down voltage, resistivity, dielectric dissipation factor etc. Physical characteristics tests are also conducted in a routine manner. We offer following distinct advantages:-

1. High Volume Resistivity at 27ºC & 90ºC High insulation resistance between transformer windings or higher megger value.

2. Very low dielectric dissipation factor Reduces temperature rise during service, because of lower electrical losses.

3. Highly refined oil Reduces aromatic content and sulphur content.

4. Low Viscosity Improves cooling

5. Higher initial interfacial tension Smoother functioning of oil with lesser maintenance due to low deterioration.

6. Low S.K. value Optimum Refining

Training Module

Technical Characteristics

1

Appearance

:

Clear, transparent and free from suspended matter or sediment.

2.

Density at 29.5ºC (Max)

:

0.89

g/cm 3

3.

Kinematic Viscosity at 27ºC (Max)

:

27

cst

4.

Interfacial tension at (Closed) (Min)

:

0.04

N/m

5.

Flash point Pensky-Marten (Closed) (Min)

:

140ºC

6.

Pour Point (Max)

:

-6ºC

7.

Neutralisation Value (Total Acidity) (Max)

:

0.03

mg KOH/gm

8.

Corrosive Suplhus (in terms of Classification of copper strip)

:

Non-Corrosive

9.

Electric Strength (Min)

   
 

a) New untreated oil

:

30

KV

 

b) After treatment

:

60

KV

10.

Dielectric Dissipation factor (tan delta) at 90ºC (Max)

:

0.002

11.

Specific Resistance (Resistivity)

   
 

a) at 90ºC (Min)

:

35

x 10 12 ohm cm

 

b) at 27ºC (Min)

:

1500 x 10 12 ohm cm

12.

Oxidation Stability

   
 

a) Neutralisation value after Oxidation (Max)

:

0.40

mg KOH/gm

 

b) Total Sludge after oxidation (Max)

:

0.10

by weight

13.

Presence of Oxidation inhibitor

:

Absent

14.

Water Content (Max)

:

50

PPM

15.

Tests on Sample aged for 96 hours as per ASTM Open Beaker method with Copper catalyst

   
 

A) Dielectric dissipation factor at 90ºC (Max)

:

0.2

 

B) Specific Resistance (Resistivity) Ohm-cm (Min)

   
 

a. at 90ºC

:

0.20

x 10 12

 

a. at 27ºC

:

2.5 x 10 12

 

C) Neutralisation Value mg KOH/gm (Max)

:

0.05

 

D) Sludge by n-heptane (Max)

:

0.05

16.

S.K. Value % (Typical)

:

8

Training Module

Repairing Distribution Transformers

Training Module

PROCEDURE FOR REPAIRING DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS

The procedure for repairing transformers is divided into three main

stages. These are (1) pre-repair stage (2) repair stage & (3) post repair stage. All these stages are detailed below:

I. Pre-repair Stage The pre-repair stage is further broken down into sub stages, each sub stage being enumerated as follows:

1. Preliminary Inspection (Site / Depot)

If required by the client then the damaged transformer is examined at the

installation site or at the client's depot by the firm's representative in presence of the client's representative (normally the substation in-charge or the Depot manager).

All observations are recorded on a pre-formatted table in the preliminary inspection report (format enclosed). Photographs of the transformer in a)

installed i.e., undisturbed state, b) opened state i.e., after de-tanking the transformer must be snapped. Care should be taken to snap all necessary views

of the transformer in both the states.

The transformer is checked for the following:

i) State of the main tank

ii) State of the conservator vessel

iii) State of the Radiators

iv) State of Bushings and Fittings (viz. Arcing Horn etc.)

v) State of the Dehydrating Breather

vi) State of Windings

vii) State of the Core

viii) State of the Transformer Oil

ix) State of the Valves (viz. PRV, Drain Valves etc.)

x) Missing parts, if any.

A site / preliminary inspection report is prepared and signed by the firm's

representative and counter signed by the client's representative.

If undertaking the repair of the transformer is expected by both the concerned parties to be economical then suitable transportation of the same to the repair works is arranged.

Training Module

Note : At the time of receiving the damaged transformer the repair firm's representative must ensure that the state of transformer is clearly indicated on the receipt slip i.e., all the missing and damaged items must be clearly mentioned.

2. Lifting:

The damaged transformers are lifted from the client's depot and brought to our works.

3. Unloading:

The transformer are unloaded at the unloading bay by the loading / unloading personnel.

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4. Offer for Joint Inspection:

The client is intimated of the transformer arrival. Date and time of joint inspection is finalised.

5. Joint inspection:

All observations made must be recorded on a pre-formatted table in the inspection report. (format enclosed)

i) On the arrival of the Inspector/s deputed by the client the transformer /s is / are brought inside the shed to the ear marked inspection area.

ii) If sealed, the seals are broken in the presence of the inspector.

Transformer Tank & Conservator Vessel

iii) If present, drain oil from the transformer tank and conservator vessel into a separate marked drum. Visually inspect the conservator vessel for cracks / damages. Remove the vessel.

iv) Check transformer tank for leakages / damages, especially the radiator fins / tubes. Check if there are any parts missing. Also check the pressure relief valve.

v) Transformer Oil Check the dielectric strength of the oil drained from the transformer tank. Make note of its colour and any adour arising from it. Also check for any foreign material.

Bushing & Accessories

Training Module

vi) Check the condition of bushings i.e., whether cracked or broken. Remove them. Note their specification.

vii) Check the condition of terminal rods whether it is "pitted" or damaged. Remove them. Note down their specifications.

viii) Dehydrating Breather

Check the silica gel in breather assembly. Note its colour and quantity. Also check oil in the oil cup. Note its colour and quantity.

ix) Opening the transformer Open the transformer lid and raise the transformer core-coil assembly. Wait for some time to allow excess oil to drip into the tank. Now place the assembly on to a oil tray.

x) Metallic Pieces Check if there are any metallic pieces on the yoke or else where.

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xi) Tap Changer Check the condition of the tap changer contacts and connections. Check whether its functioning is proper or not. In most cases the tap changer is found damaged beyond salvage and has to be replaced.

The connections & windigns

xii) Check whether the terminal leads and lugs are broken or burnt.

xiii) Check if the inter coil connections, delta connections and its neutral connections are loose, broken or burnt. Check whether the windings appear burnt.

Subsequent to visual examination of the core-coil assembly continuity and ratio tests should be performed on all windings to locate the fault and its nature. (if necessary the inter coil connection may be cut)

xiv) Remove the yoke. Take out the windings and if necessary re-perform the continuity test to positively identify the fault. (If in the windings)

xv)