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Long Definitions for Photosynthesis:

Autotroph: An organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer. Autotrophs capture sunlight to make inorganic compounds that they can use for energy. Basically make their own food, meaning they dont depend on anything for food and energy. Autotrophs are important because all heterotrophs ultimately get their food to make energy from them. During photosynthesis, most autotrophs are involved in the process. Heterotrophs: An organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumer. Other animals and organisms are called heterotrophs. Heterotrophs get their energy from food they eat in contrast to autotrophs. Heterotrophs get their energy from eating things that lead back from the autotroph. Photosynthesis: A process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches. Chloroplast: An organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy. Each chloroplast is surrounded by a pair of membranes. These membranes are called thylakoids. Chlorophyll: green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis. It allows plants to absorb energy from the light. Light Reactions: The steps in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and that convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, evolving oxygen in the process. Calvin Cycle: The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate. The Calvin Cycle involves three carbon sugars you get carbon dioxide out of it along with water. NADP+: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, an acceptor that temporarily stores energized electrons produced during the light reactions. Used during photosynthesis during the light reactions. Carbon Fixation: The incorporation of carbon from carbon dioxide into an organic compound by an autotrophic organism. It goes from inorganic carbon into organic compound by living organisms. Wavelength: The distance between crests of waves, such as those of the electromagnetic spectrum. Electromagnetic Spectrum: The entire frequency range of electromagnetic waves. This is the distance moved by a photon. Visible Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum detected as various colors by the human eye, ranging in wavelength from about 380 nm to about 750 nm.

Photons: A quantum, or discrete amount, of light energy. It provides the energy needed to form chemical bonds of carbohydrates. The energy comes only from photons. Spectrometer: Instrument that measures index of light reflection. Chlorophyll a: A blue-black plant pigment having a blue-green alcohol solution. Chlorophyll a is directly involved in light reactions. It also absorbs more red light then and less blue light. Chlorophyll b: A dark-green plant pigment having a brilliant green alcohol solution. Chlorophyll b absorbs more blue/green pigments and assists also with light reactions. Its known as accessory pigments. The accessory pigments enable plants to capture more of the energy in light, by absorbing pigments that chlorophyll a cannot. Carotenoid: Yellow and orange plant pigments that aid in photosynthesis. Carentoids are the yellow orange and brown pigments and are found in the thylakoid membrane. Primary Electron Acceptor: A specialized molecule sharing the reaction center with the pair of reactioncenter chlorophyll a molecules; it accepts an electron from one of these two chlorophylls Photosystem: a cluster of chlorophyll and other molecules in a thylakoid that help to harvest light energy during photosynthesis Photosystem I: The photosystem that makes use of light to transfer electron 2articularly from plastocyanin to ferredoxin, and whose reaction center chlorophyll is P700. Photosystem II : The photosystem that absorbs light for use to drive the oxidation of water and the reduction of plastoquinone, and whose reaction center chlorophyll is P680. Thylakoid: A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy. Within the actual membrane of the chloroplast. Grana: A stack of thylakoids inside the chloroplast. Chloroplasts have 10-100 grana. This is also where the Light Reactions take place. Stroma: The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water. They surround the grana and is the space/liquid in the chloroplast. This is where the Calvin Cycle takes place. Pigment: a colored chemical compound that absorbs light, producing color. They reflect a certain color or wavelength. The pigments absorbed are not reflected, but the pigments not absorbed are reflected. Electron Transport Chain: A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP. Chemiosmosis: in chloroplasts and mitochondria, a process in which the movement of protons down their concentration gradient across a selectively permeable membrane.

Biochemical Pathway: a series of chemical reactions in which the product of one reaction is consumed in the next reaction. Photosynthesis is a series of actions which is biochemical pathways. Phototropism: Is the plants response to light. This is a survival mechanism for plant to get the sunlight they need. Plants will grow toward the sunlight and go the direction of light to get the energy needed. Thigmotropism: Plants response to touch.This happens in plants, such as climbing vines when the tendrils curl around objects as they climb. An example is when you see a whole bunch of vines growing up a wall.

Elaborated Definitions for Photosynthesis:


Autotrophs: An organism that uses light to makes its own food Ex: Plant Heterotroph: An organism gets its energy from the food it eats. Ex: Animal eating plants Photosynthesis: The process by converting light energy to chemical energy (Produces oxygen). Chloroplast: An organelle found in Plant cells. Thylakoid: Flattened membrane sac in the chlorplast. Light Reactions: Require light to occur, occurs in the thylakoid membrane, produces oxygen in the process. Chlorophyll: Green pigment found in plants. Calvin Cycle: The second part of photosynthesis; carbon dioxide is fixed and a six-carbon sugar is formed. NADP+: Stores energized electrons during the Light Reactions. Carbon Fission: The incorporation of carbon from carbon dioxide into an organic compound by an autotrophic organism. Wavelength: The distance between crests of waves Electromagnetic Spectrum: The entire occurrence range of electromagnetic waves. Visible Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that the human eye can see. Photons: A significant, or discrete amount, of light energy. Spectrometer: Instrument that measures index of light reflection. Chlorophyll a: A blue-black plant pigment Chlorophyll b: A dark-green plant pigment Carotenoid: Yellow and orange plant pigments (the orange-ish colors, orange-reds, yellows) Primary Electron Acceptor: A specialized molecule sharing the reaction center with the pair of reactioncenter chlorophyll a molecules; it accepts an electron from one of these two chlorophylls. Photosystem: A cluster of chlorophyll pigments that are clustered into the thylakoid membrane. Photosystem I: The photosystem that makes use of light Photosystem: The photosystem that absorbs light.

Thylakoid: A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast Grana: Stacked thylakoids. Stroma: The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane Pigment: a colored chemical compound that absorbs light Electron Transport Chain: A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons to the next destination, as this is occurring, the electron level goes down.

Works Cited "Chlorophyll." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 28 Nov. 2013. Web. 03 Dec. 2013. "Photosynthesis." Photosynthesis. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Dec. 2013. "Quizlet." Photosynthesis (Vocabulary) Flashcards. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2013. PHOTOSYNTHESIS -PART I: THE SUN AND LIGHT." Biology4Kids.com: Plants: Photosynthesis. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2013

"Describe the Three Tropisms, Phototropism, Gravitropism, Thigmotropism - Ask Community." Describe the Three Tropisms, Phototropism, Gravitropism, Thigmotropism - Ask Community. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2013.

Calvin Cycle