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MPLS

-
2005

621.39
004.724
32.973.202
32.81
59

. ., . .
MPLS
.: -, 2005. 304 .: .

ISBN 5-8206-0126-2
MPLS 2 (ATM, Frame Relay, Ethernet) 3 .
MPLS , MPLS ,
IP- ,

NGN. , ,
FEC, , LDP, CR-LDP, RSVP, RSVP-TE,
OSPF, BGP-4, IS-IS, -, GMPLS .
,
, ,
, .

ISBN 5-8206-0126-2

. ., . ., 2005
Alexander Goldstein, Boris Goldstein.
MPLS Technology & Protocols BHV, St.Petersburg, 2005.
The MPLS technology is a synthesis of all the best from the Layer 2 technologies
(ATM, Frame Relay, Ethernet) and Layer 3 packet routing. The study of the MPLS protocols
discussed in the book will allow the reader to evaluate whether MPLS is that very tool by
means of which the todays chaos of uncontrolled packet transmission over the IP network
may be transformed into a well-shaped and effective mechanism for the Next Generation
Network. The reader will be able to answer this question himself/herself after reading the
book, and also to get knowledge of Forwarding Equivalence Classes (FEC), labels, LDP, CRLDP, RSVP, RSVP-TE, OSPF, BGP-4, and IS-IS protocols, traffic engineering, GMPLS, etc.
The book is intended for engineers involved in the development and operation of
telecommunication networks. It will be a valuable reference source for university students
of senior years and post-graduates studying in these areas. It will be helpful for all those
who are interested in state-of-the-art infocommunication technologies.

Technical edition

Copyright A. Goldstein, B. Goldstein 2005


......................................................................... 9
1. MPLS........................................................ 13
1.1.

MPLS...................................................................... 13

1.2.

MPLS .................................................................. 15

1.3.

FEC.................................. 22

1.4.

LSP..................................... 24

1.5.

.................................................................... 28

2. MPLS ................... 30
2.1.

............................................................. 30

2.2.

....................................................................... 34

2.3.

MPLS ...................................................................... 36

2.4.

................................................................. 38

2.5.

.................................................................. 43

2.6.

JFEC .............................................................. 45

2.7.

.................................................... 48

2.8.

............................................... 52

3. LDP ....................................................... 54
3.1.

LDP ............................... 54

3.2.

LDP ............................................................. 56

3.3.

LDP ...................................... 59
3.3.1.
3.3.2.
3.3.3.
3.3.4.

3.4.

LDP............................................ 59
TypeJLengthJValue .................................................. 60
TLV................................................................. 61
LDP ................................................... 66

LDP........................................................................ 68
3.4.1.
3.4.2.
3.4.3.
3.4.4.
3.4.5.
3.4.6.

Notification Message .............. 68


Hello .................................... 69
Initialization ............................ 71
KeepAlive ....................................................... 73
Address .......................................... 73
Address Withdraw ................... 73

3.4.7.
3.4.8.
3.4.9.
3.4.10.
3.4.11.
3.4.12.

Label Mapping ....................... 74


Label Request ......................... 75
Label Abort Request .... 76
Label Withdraw .......... 77
Label Release................ 78
TLV ................................... 78

3.5.

RJLDP ..................................................................... 79

3.6.

LDP....................................................... 81
3.6.1.
3.6.2.
3.6.3.

3.7.

...................................... 81
....................................................... 82
...................................................... 82

LDP .................................................................... 83

4. RSVP MPLS ................................... 88


4.1.

MPLS .............................. 88

4.2.

RSVP ........................................................... 92

4.3.

RSVP RSVPJTE MPLS ................................................... 95

4.4.

RSVPJTE ............................................................... 98

4.5.

J ................................................ 99

4.6.

RSVPJTE .................................................................. 101


4.6.1.
4.6.2.
4.6.3.
4.6.4.
4.6.5.
4.6.6.
4.6.7.
4.6.8.
4.6.9.

LSP............................................... 101
LABEL ................................................................. 102
LABEL_REQUEST................................................. 102
EXPLICIT_ROUTE (ERO) ....................................... 104
RECORD_ROUTE (RRO) ....................................... 106
SESSION............................................................. 109
SENDER_TEMPLATE ............................................ 110
FILTER_SPEC ...................................................... 111
SESSION_ATTRIBUTE .......................................... 111

4.7.

Hello................................................. 113

4.8.

MPLS ................................................ 115

5. OSPF ..................................................116
5.1.

OSPF RIP ............................................................ 116

5.2.

OSPF ........................................................................ 119

5.3.

................................................................ 120

5.4.

OSPF ........................................................................ 122

5.5.

OSPFJ .......................................................... 125

5.6.

OSPF ................................................................. 126


5.6.1.
5.6.2.
5.6.3.
5.6.4.
5.6.5.

J ...................................................... 126
OSPF ................................ 129
......................... 130
............... 131
........... 132

5.7.

LSA ...................................................................... 132

5.8.

OSPF.................................................................. 135
5.8.1.
5.8.2.
5.8.3.

5.9.

............................................... 135
............................................. 136
................................................ 136

OSPF.......................................................... 137

5.10. SDLJ OSPF................. 139

6. ISIS....................................................144
6.1.

................... 144

6.2.

flooding ISJIS....................................... 146

6.3.

ISJIS ......................................................................... 148

6.4.

ISJIS...................................................................... 148

6.5.

ISJIS ............................................................. 149

6.6.

ISJIS ........................................................................... 153


6.6.1.
6.6.2.
6.6.3.

J Hello .............................................. 154


LSP....................................... 157
SNP ................................... 159

7. BGP.......................161
7.1.

BGP MPLS................................... 161

7.2.

J .................................................... 163

7.3.

BGP .................................... 164

7.4.

BGP ............................................................ 165

7.5.

EBGP....................................................................... 167

7.6.

IBGP........................................................................ 168

7.7.

BGP ................................................................ 169

7.8.

................................................................... 170

7.9.

............................................................... 171

7.10. .................................................. 172

7.11. BGP ..................................................................... 172


7.11.1.
7.11.2.
7.11.3.
7.11.4.
7.11.5.

........................................................... 172
OPEN .............................................. 173
UPDATE................................ 174
NOTIFICATION ........................................... 175
Keepalive................... 176

7.12. BGP ............................................................... 177


7.13. BGP ................................... 177

8. .............182
8.1.

VPN .............................................. 182

8.2.

MPLS ......................................................... 185

8.3.

MPLSJ ........................................... 190


8.3.1.
8.3.2.
8.3.3.
8.3.4.

8.4.

MPLSJVPN .................................................... 193


8.4.1.
8.4.2.

8.5.

MPLSJVPN ..................................... 190


MPLS/BGPJVPN...................................................... 192
IP/MPLS ................................. 192
MPLSJVPN ................................................. 193
PEJ ........... 193

BGP........................................................... 194

.......................... 196
8.5.1.
8.5.2.
8.5.3.
8.5.4.

VPN ..................................................... 196


VPNJ.................................................... 197
J ................................................... 197
PE ............... 197

8.6.

............................. 198

8.7.

CE PE................ 199

8.8.

MPLS ................................. 201


8.8.1.
8.8.2.

8.9.

........................................................ 201
VPN J ............................................. 201

MPLSJVPN.................................. 201

8.10. VPN MPLS ........... 202

9. .......................................210
9.1.

MPLS............................... 210

9.2.

....................................................... 214

9.3.

...................... 215
9.3.1.
9.3.2.

...................... 216
........................................... 218

9.4.

................................. 218

9.5.

TE MPLS ............................................................ 219

9.6.

CRJLDP RSVPJTE.............................. 224


9.6.1.
9.6.2.
9.6.3.
9.6.4.
9.6.5.

................... 224
........................... 225
RSVPJTE CRJLDP......................... 231
RSVPJTE CRJLDP ........ 234
........................ 237

10. GMPLS..........................................239
10.1. MPLambS GMPLS ................................................................. 239
10.2. GMPLS....................................................................... 244
10.2.1.
10.2.2.
10.2.3.
10.2.4.
10.2.5.

......................................... 244
..................................................... 247
........................................ 248
...................................................... 249
................................................................... 249

10.3. LSP ............................................................ 250


10.4. .................................. 253
10.4.1. ...................................................... 253
10.4.2. ............................................ 254
10.4.3.
PathErr .......................................................... 254
10.5. ...................................... 255
10.6. ............................................................ 256
10.7. ........................... 257
10.8. .................................. 258
10.8.1. ........................................ 258
10.8.2. ......................................................... 260
10.9. .............................................................. 262
10.10. ? ........................................................................... 263

11. ? ................................................265
11.1. MPLS............................................. 265
11.2. MIB MPLS............................................................................. 266

11.3. MPLS............................................................... 269


11.4. MPLS................................................................ 272
11.5. VoMPLS .................................................................................. 275
11.6. MPLS................................................................... 277
11.7. ................................................................... 279
11.8. DiffServJaware MPLSJTE .......................................................... 280
11.8.1. ............................................... 280
11.8.2. DiffServ MPLS............................................................... 281
11.8.3. Class of Type CT .......................................................... 284
11.8.4. ............................................................ 285
11.8.5. ...................................................... 286
11.8.6. ....................... 287
11.9. MPLS QoS ............................................................................ 290

.......................................................................293
...........................................................................298
....................................................302


 ,
,
XIV. , ,
QoS (Quality of Service) NGN (Next Generation Network) IPJ . IPJ
,
.
IPJ [20],
, , 2 ( )
3 ( ) .
2,
LAN, ,
3
.
90J
Frame Relay . DiffServ IntServ,
RSVP .
,
QoS , , , .. MPLS (MultiProtocol Label Switching).
MPLS
QoS, ,
, , ,
( QoS) IP,
ATM Frame Relay. MPLS , , ,
()
. ..,
MPLS, 2 3 OSI,
: 2 3,
IP.

10


MPLS
, MPLS, OSI , .
, , , MPLS
J , (
), .
J
MPLS ,
, .
. ,
J . X.25, ATM, Frame
Relay , , TDM
. TDM DSS1 ISDN
V5.2
,
[21]. MPLS
, .. J
. MPLS ,

. ,
. .
. , ,
, , , VPN, MPLS
.
, .
MPLS :
MPLS, ,
MPLS, ,
FEC
LSP,
,
.
, MPLS, ,
MPLS. ,
, , MPLS.

11

, MPLS,
,
, :

LDP ,
RSVP ,
OSPF ,
BGP ,
ISJIS .
,
,
. ,
, ,
, , .
:
7 [22,24], V5
[23], R1.5 [25]. , , ,
MPLS, , , ,
.
,
MPLS, MPLS
, MPLS:

MPLS,
MPLS VPN,
MPLambdaS GMPLS,
MPLS.
. MPLS
, IPJ 3 OSI.
, MPLS
, .. ,
IPJ IPJ.

ASIC,
FPGA ..
IPJ (
!) IPJ.

12

, QoS, ,
MPLS ,
TE, MPLS,
VPN, ,
.
125 . ,
MPLS,
, .

, .

. . , , ,
MPLS . , ,
, . . .

, , , , ,
J/, , , .
. . . . J . ,
.
, , ,
: , ,

IPJ , NGN.

1
MPLS
1.1. MPLS
MPLS
, 1990J .
( , )
Ipsilon IP Switching. Toshiba Cell Switching Router
(CSR),
, Tag Switching (Cisco Systems)
ARIS (IBM). .
, .. IPJ
, OSPF BGP.
.
IETF,
. ,
J , IETF (, )
: .
label switching: , (, , ) . , .
( )
.


, ,
. (label
swapping). , ,

14

, LSR (Label Switching Router),


IPJ.
(MultiJProtocol) MPLS ,
, .. MPLS ,
e
OSI, . 1.1.

MPLS

OSPF, RIP,
BGP, IS-IS
LDP, CR-LDP,
RSVP, RSVP-TE

IP-

MPLS

. 1.1.

,
,
,
FR Ethernet

MPLS

, , (physical layer)
,
( ,
) , . (data
link layer) ,
,
;
. ,
,
, .
( ) ,
, ,

MPLS

15

.
. 1.1 MPLS
, IP,
ATM Frame Relay 2J 3J OSI, . , MPLS
2.5, ,
, .

1.2. MPLS
, , , ,
, , , ,
MPLS.
1990J IP ATM. MPLS
IP ATM.
ATM
1980J . ATM IPJ ATM.
IETF,
1993/94 RFC.
, IPJJATM (IPoATM),
RFC 1483 : IPJ ( )
ATM. , RFC 1577, IPJ ATM
ATMARP. , IP ,
(.. ),
. ,

. IPJJATM , IPJ
ATM (,
ATM, )

16

, . ,
IP (LIS), IPJ, ATM
IPJ .
RFC 1577 LIS , LIS
,
LIS. ,
. , IPJ, ATM,
LIS, IPJ
VC, ATM.
.
, , ,
ATM . ,
, ATM LIS,
.
, , , ATM ,
IPJ .
, LIS, RFC 1577
IPJ, LIS,
ATMARP. ARP , IPJ
,
, , Ethernet.
, ATMARP IPJ
ATMJ . ATMARP
ARPJ LIS,
IPJ ATM LIS. IPJ LIS ARPJ
ATM IPJ.
LIS ARPJ
IPJ ATM, ATM
, ATM, .

MPLS

17

ATM IP- LIS, RFC 1577,


ROLC IETF. Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP).
NHRP IPJ IP
ATMJ IPJ,
,
(Next Hop Server)
, ATM.
MPLS : ,
,
. IPJ
J,
3 2 .
, : , J J
. ,
, J .
Toshiba, 1994
CSR (Cell
Switching Router). CSR ATMJ IP, ATM Q.2931.
, ,

ATM IP ATM.

ATM CSR; , CSR LIS,
NHRP. CSR IETF 1994 , ,
1995 , BOF IETF, .
Ipsilon ( Nokia),
IP Switching IP switch, J MPLSJ IP,
,
CSR. IP Switch ATMJ
IPJ, . IPJ ,
.
2.

18


IP Switching :
IP Switching , ATMJ,
, IP ATM ATM. 1996
RFC 1953 Ipsilon Flow Management Protocol Specification
for IPv4. Version 1.0, RFC 1987 Ipsilons
General Switch Management Protocol Specification. Version 1.1.
Ipsilon ,
,
.
IP Switching
, IPJ ,
IPJ , . ( FTP,
HTTP, Telnet .) ( DNS, SNMP
NTP). Ipsilon Flow Management Protocol
(IFMP)
,
,
ATMJ, Generic Switch Management Protocol (GSMP),
ATM
IP. IP Switching
,
, IPJ.
Cisco Systems

(Tag Switching), IP Switching CSR. ,
, ,
2, ATM. ,
Tag Switching
MPLS, IP Switching. , ,
MPLS Tag
Switching. , ..
, ,
MPLS. Tag Switching
(Tag Distribution Protocol, TDP). MPLS,
Tag Switching .
, J

MPLS

19

( , ).
, Cisco,
Tag Switching,
MPLS.
Ipsilon, Cisco Systems RFC, . , Ipsilon, Cisco
Tag Switching IETF.
J, Tag Switching,
ATM, PPP 802.3, , RSVP.
, Cisco Tag Switching IETF, IBM
J, Aggregate Routebased IP Switching
(ARIS). ARIS ATMJ
FRJ, 2 . ,
ARIS, ARIS Integrated Switch Router
(ISR). ARIS
Tag Switching, ,
, ,
ARIS
Tag Switching. , ARIS
, . ARIS
.
ARIS, . : IPv4, IPJ
, OSPF
. .
ARIS MPLS.
MPLS
IP Navigator, Cascade. Cascade
Ascend, , ,
Lucent Technologies. IP Navigator IPJ,
Toshiba, Ipsilon, Cisco IBM.

20

MPLS

IP Navigator
(Cascade / Ascend / Lucent)
Aggregate Route-Based IP
Switching (IBM)
Tag Switching
(Cisco)
IP Switching
(Ipsilon)
Cell Switching Router
(Toshiba)

. 1.2.

Tag
Switching 9J13 1996 J, , IETF
BOF, Cisco Systems, IBM Toshiba
. , ,

, . 1997
, ,
MPLS WG. Multiprotocol Label Switching
, , , ,
IP Switching Tag Switching , ,
. RFC
MPLS . 1.1.

MPLS

21

1.1.
RFC
RFC 2702

RFC 3031
RFC 3032

RFC 3033

RFC 3034

RFC 3035

RFC 3036
RFC 3037
RFC 3038

RFC 3107

RFC,
IETF MPLS

Requirements for Traffic Engineering over MPLS


MPLS
MPLS.
,
MPLS Architecture MPLS
MPLS Label Stack Encoding ,
,
LSR
PPP, , ,
The Assignment of the Information Field and Protocol Identifier in the Q.2941 Generic
Identifier and Q.2957 UserJtoJUser Signaling for the IP Q.2941 J Q.2957 IP
Use of Label Switching on Frame Relay Networks Specification MPLS Frame Relay. MPLS
LDP Frame Relay
MPLS using LDP and ATM Virtual Channel (VC) Switching
, /
ATMJLSR,
(FEC),
. MPLS,
/ ATMJLSR
LDP Specification LDP,
LSR MPLS
LDP Applicability LDP
Virtual Channel ID (VCID) Notification over ATM link for LDP VCID
ATMJLSR
Carrying Label Information in BGPJ4 ,
e FEC
BGP,
.
BGP,
MPLS,

MPLS RFC 3031


Multiprotocol Label Switching Architecture.
MPLS IETF (Routing Area
Working Group MPLS
Working Group MPLS) ATM Forum (Traffic
Management Working Group ATMJIP Collaboration Working Group
ATM IP).
.

22

1.3. FEC
, ,
MPLS: FEC Forwarding Equivalency Class ,
LSR Label Switching Router LSP Label Switched Path .
.
3,
, ,
( hopbyhop). ,

.
hop , ,
. ,
, ..
forwarding.
,
, .

. , FECs (Forwarding Equivalence Classes).
FEC ( , hopJbyJhop, FEC ,
).
,
FEC, .
, MPLS.
IPJ
,
, ,
, .
,
( ) , .

MPLS

23

MPLS FEC
, . FEC ,
, .
. ,
MPLSJ,
, , FEC,
.
, FEC
, ..
. FEC IPJ
,
, , 212.18.6. FEC J IPJ, ,
(ToS). MPLS , ,
. , LIB,
FEC. ,
LSR FECJ,
:
,
LS; ,
, ,
;
, :
, .
, ,
.
LIB
2, , ,
, .
FECJ, MPLS, , . ,
MPLS , ,
,
.

24

, LSR , LSR. , , LSR, Next


Hop Level Forwarding Entry (NHLFE),
, , ( 2) ,
. ,
LSR .
, LSR , ,
, ,
).
LSR. LSR
.
,
, , .. IP.
IP.
, LSR ,
LSR.
, LSR. ,
LSR , ,

. , .

1.4. LSP
FEC 1.3 ,
MPLS
FEC, LSR.
LSP
(LabelSwitched Path)
LSR, .
LSP (
), ( ).
LSP
LDP (Label Distribution Protocol), 3,
, , -

MPLS

25

4 RSVPJTE.
, OSPF,
ISJIS BGP, 5, 6 7, .

, ).
LSP, , FECJ LSR LSP. LSR ,
FECJ LSR. LSR JFEC LSR,
(unsolicited downstream). , , (downstream
on demand), LSR LSR. LSP . LSP. MPLS LSP:

(hopbyhop routing) LSR
FEC. , IPJ. LSR , , ,
OSPF ;
(ER)
. LSR (.. LSR, MPLS) ,
ERJLSP.
. QoS
.

, .
(, , ) MPLS, . 1.3. ,
, MPLS (MPLS edge nodes ,
, LER Label Edge Router),
. 1.3 LSR1, LSR5, LSR6, LSR7. ,
MPLS ( ,
MPLSJ)
, ( )

26

, .
, ,
, MPLS LSR. , LSR
,
MPLSJ. , , . 1.3,
LSR2, LSR3
LSR4.

LSR6

LSR3
LSR5

LSR1

LSR2
LSR4

LSR7

. 1.3.

MPLS&

, . 1.3
MPLSJ. , , ( . 1.3), , MPLSJ (
). MPLS ( LSR1),
MPLS. , ,
,
MPLS ( LSR5).
, , MPLSJ
MPLSJ LSR1 MPLSJ LSR5,
FEC
LSP,
LSR LSR.
, MPLSJ
: LSR LSR. LSR
(, Frame Relay, ATM Ethernet)
MPLSJ
LSP,
MPLSJ. ,
MPLSJ -

MPLS

27

,
,
. , LSR . ,
ATM,
.
,
MPLSJ .
, LSR
, .. IPJ. ,
MPLS LSR
, . MPLSJ
, IPJ.
IPJ MPLS
11,
MPLS.
LSR5 (. 1.3)
( LSR1, LSR6 LSR7). ,
, FEC. ,
LSP, ,
, .
,
, , , MPLSJ
, 4(41)=12 LSP. ,
LSR
LSP, , LSP, .
, ,
LSP (
hopJbyJhop), ,
, , ,
MPLSJ /
. 3,
LDP,
. . 1.3
, , , .

28

1.5.
, MPLS , , ,
,
. MPLS LSP,
3.
PLS . 1.2.
1.2.

MPLS

FEC Forwarding Equivalence , Class) - , , QoS

Label
,

FEC
Label swapping
MPLS , FEC,

LER (MPLS edge router - MPLS, MPLS)
MPLS ,
Loop detection - , ,


Loop prevention -

LSP (Label Switched Path) - LSR ,


FEC
ER LSP (explicitly routed LSP) LSP, ,
LSP
IP
LSR (Label Switching Router) - ,
MPLS
MPLS domain MPLS
MPLS, LSP
MPLS egress node MPLSJ LSP, MPLS
,
MPLSJ
MPLS ingress node MPLSJ LSP,
MPLS
MPLS

,
MPLS, , .

MPLS

29

,
, ,
, 3 OSI.
, MPLS

3 2. , MPLS,
, , .


, , . 1.1.
, ..
( , )
. , 2 OSI.
, , 2 ( ),
,
. ,
.
MPLS LSR.
( ) ,
.
, ,
MPLS,
.

MPLS
2.1.
MPLS , .
LSR LSP, MPLS.
LSP
MPLS
MPLS. , , ,
, .
MPLS LSR, LSP.
, . 1.3 .
, . . 1.3,
. 2.1. . 2.1 1, , , MLPS:
1. .
MPLS
LSR FEC
. ,
LDP,
TCP,
FEC. , MPLS.

MPLS

31

,
, ( 2 . 2.1), , MPLS

( 3). ,
, , ,
, ().
, MPLSJ , .

(3)

LSR6

LSR3
LSR5

LSR2

LSR1

LSR4

LSR7

. 2.1.

(2)

MPLS&

2. LSR.
FEC LSR
LIB.
FEC , ,
. FEC .
. , , LSP, ,
. ,
. ,
LSR , .
3. LSP. 3 . 2.1, LSP ,
LIB. LSP
1.4. , LSR . LSP

32

, ,
CRJLDP, QoS/CoS, RSVPJTE.
4. .
(LSR1 . 2.1), , FEC , LIB,
FECJ,
, 2 ,
.
5. .
LSR1
LSR5. , LSR1 .
IPJ.
LSR1 LSR2. LSR1 LSR2.
LSR1 LSR2.
LSR ( LSR3 LSR4)
, ,
. LSR5,
, MPLS,
. LSP, ,
3.
5 MPLS.
, LSR
. ,
, , ,
,
, , LSR, .
, .
, MPLS,
, ,
, .
LSR , (
),
, LSR ,
. , .

MPLS

33

, , ,
, , LSR,
, .
,
,
, , , . ATM Frame Relay,
, . , , ,
,
, .

,
. , ,
, .
5 . 2.2.
MPLS-
MPLS-
19

MPLS-

76
LSR6

LSR3
LSR5
LSR1

LSR2
LSR4

IP-
212.1.22.34

. 2.2.

IP-
212.1.22.34

LSR7
8

33

MPLS-

MPLS-

MPLS

LSR1 ,
IPJ 3 212.1.22.34
, FEC , LSP 1J2J3J4J5,
MPLSJ 19
LSR2, 19 8,
LSP , LSR3. LSR3 8, ,
76. LSR3

3.

34

LSR4,
, 76:
33
LSR5. LSR5
33 ,
212.1.22.34
, . 2.2 ( . 2.1
. 1.3) MPLS.
, MPLS. MPLS,

.
, , IPJ.
. LSR1.
MPLS , LSR
. LSR5 , ,

IPJ (. 2.1). MPLS
,
MPLS.

2.2.

, FEC.
, , FEC.
MPLS . 2.3. 32 (4 ): 12 20 . : 3J
Exp, , SJ 8J
TTL (TimeJtoJLive).
20J MPLSJ, 0 220J1, (0, 1, 2, 3 .), MPLS
IETF.

MPLS

35

31

20

EXP

Exp ()
S ( )
TTL ( )

. 2.3.

TTL

- 20
- 3
- 1
- 8

MPLS&

.
(EXP) , . ,

.
(CoS), . MPLSJ , ,
DiffServ. IPJ,
MPLSJ CoS IPJ , CoS MPLSJ 3 ,
3J IJ,
6J (Differentiated
Service Code Point DSCP) .
CoS MPLSJ, ..
20
IJ, DSCP.
S
MPLS. (..
) S=1, S=0.
.
(TTL) MPLS TTL IPJ; ,
.
TTL ,
. 2.3, 24 31.
0 255. .
, MPLS
, . hopJbyJhop,
IPJ, , -

36

, , , , ,
, .
,
,
, LSR LSP ( LSR, ).
,
.
, , ,
TTL. LSR
LSR, , , ,
. ,
, TTL ,
.
, TTL,
MPLSJ,
LSR. TTL I TTL MPLS.
traceroute
MPLS , MPLS. ,
MPLSJ TTL I TTL
MPLS, n mpls ip propagate&ttl. TTL MPLS 255, traceroute
MPLSJ, MPLS IJ.

2.3. MPLS
MPLS RFC 3032 MPLS Label Stack Encoding,
, , , ,
, 2001 .
MPLS , ,
MPLS .
,
MPLS.

MPLS

37

MPLS : , .
. (push
operation) , (pop operation) .
MPLS LSP . LSP
, MPLS. LSP. , . ,
MPLS ,
.
, MPLS , .

, MPLS . MPLS
, LIFO
, .
. 2.4.
MPLS 1 MPLS, , 2, 3
, , 4. , ,
LSP,
. S 1 0 .
,
(Label Stack).
EXP, SJ TTL.

MPLS
4
S=0

. 2.4.

MPLS
3

MPLS
2

MPLS
1

S=0

S=0

S=1

...


,
,

MPLS

38

2.4.
1
MPLS 2 3. , MPLS ,
, .
, ATM Frame Relay, MPLSJ
.
, ATM
MPLSJ VPI/VCI,
Frame Relay DLCI. , MPLS IPJ
,
MPLSJ
.

. , ,

.
. 2.5, , MPLS
2. MPLS
2, ATM FR, MPLS, Ethernet PPP.

IPJ 3.
. 2.5 MPLS shim
header (J), , 2.5
.

MPLS

39


MPLS
( 2.5)

2
PPP, Ethernet, FDDI

. 2.5.

3
IP4, IPv6, DECNet,
Apple Talk

4-7

MPLS

, MPLS ( ) , 2.
ATM, Frame Relay, PPP Ethernet, FDDI ,
MPLS.
,
(VCI/VPI ATM, DLCI Frame Relay ..)

. IETF MPLS ,
, , MPLS
. MPLS
:
ATM,
VCI
VPI, . 2.6;
AAL5 (ATM Adaptation
Layer 5) SAR (Segmentation and
Reassembly), J ,
( MPLSJ);
Frame Relay, DLCI (Data Link
Connection Identifier), . 2.7;
4J ,
(shim), , . 2.5, .
MPLS ATM
. 2.6.

40

shim

MPLS

GFC

PTI
VCI

VPI

LCP

HEC

..

ATM (5 ):
GFC (4 )
VCI (16 )
VPI (8 )
PTI (3 ):

CLP (1 ):
HEC (8 )

. 2.6.

MPLS&, VPI/VCI

MPLS ATM , ATM


IP. ATMJ,
MPLS (ATMJLSR), TCP/IP
ATM 53
. ATMJLSR MPLS
VCI/VPI ATM, MPLS
ATM.
MPLS Frame Relay . ATM,
FRJ, MPLS,
TCP/IP
FR. FR
DLCI FR.
MPLS
FR, ,
FR. MPLS FR Q.922 2 , 4 .
. 2.7.

MPLS

Q.922

DLCI

C/R

(PPP/LAN)

EA

41

DLCI

FECN

BECN

DE

EA

: DLCI 10,17 23

. 2.7.

MPLS FR

ATM Frame Relay


MPLS ,
MPLS
. ,
MPLS
, ,
DWDM (Dense Wave Division Multiplexing) , .
, . 2.5,
J (PointJtoJPoint PPP) Ethernet
( ). MPLSJ
.
PPP IETF, . PPP
, LCP NCP. MPLS PPP , MPLS
PPP. MPLSCP.
PPP ,
,
MPLSCP ( 8281). PPP
MPLS, 0281
MPLS 0283 MPLS. . 2.8.

42

PPP

PPP

Shim

LAN
MAC

. 2.8.

Shim

MPLS&
Ethernet

MPLS Ethernet,
Ethernet .

. MPLS Ethernet, ,
, MPLS. Ethernet ,
EthernetJ. EthernetJ 10 /c, EthernetJ
.
Ethertype Ethernet 8847
8848 . Ethernet,
802.3 LLC/SNAP.
, MPLSJ
1492-
. MTUJ (Maximum
Transmission Unit ) MPLSJ
TCP , MPLSJ .
, EthernetJ 1500J 1508J .
,
J J, .
,
,
2 3,
, , ,
. , , , , , .

MPLS

43

, MPLS MPLS ( ,
MPLS,
),
IP, .. IPv4. IPv6, , . IPv4, IPv6 MPLS ,
2,
, .
MPLS IPX, Apple Talk, DECNet CLNP,
. MPLS
IP.
, IP , MPLS.

2.5.
1 , MPLS LSR, LIB (Label Information Base) ,
(. 2.9). Next Hop Label Forwarding
Entry (NHLFE), RFC 3031
:
, ( , ,
);
LSP,
LSR;
;
;
, .
, LSR, , , , .
LSR ,

44

,
LSP. LIB
. 2.9.

LSR

LSR

. 2.9.

LIB

, .

, , ,
. , .. k k .
, , ,
, , ,
, ,
.
LSR , .
,
. , ,
. LSR ,
, .
,
, , QoS . . ,
(longest match) . MPLS
, ,
, , , LSR
.
, :

MPLS

45

. 2.9 , ,
, , ,
.
( ,
) MPLS.

2.6. FEC
. 2.9 , , LSR,
.
FEC. LSR .
. LSR
LSR ,
, LSR. .

, FEC. : upstream
downstream.
,
. , ..
,
. .
FEC
(downstream label binding), FEC,
, LSR, .. LSR, , LSR, .
, , , ,
FEC.
FEC
(upstream label binding), FEC, ,
LSR, ; .. ( ),
LSR, . ,

46

, ,
,
FEC.
LSR (..
). LSR , LSR
FEC. , ,
JFEC LSR.
, ; , , ,
.
, LSR , .
,
. LSR , .
LSR FEC
.
, LSR, () (, OSPF,
JOIN/PRUNE PIM, Path/Resv
RSVP), LSR.
, (datadriven).

, (controldriven). , LSR ,
.
,
,
.
.
,
, , ,
, ,
, .
, , , .. ,

MPLS

47

.
, ..
.
,
(,
, ), . ,
LSR , ,

LSR, FEC.
, , , ,
. ,
, , .
, , , , ,
. LSR
, ,
,
.
,
.
, , LSR,
. , , LSR,
. , ,
.
, ,
. , LSR ,
.
. ,
LSR,
LSR. J,
, . ,

. . , ,

48


,
.
LSR

, .. , LSR.
,
, , , .

J .

2.7.
, , , : , .
. FEC
, LSP ,
:
(.. LSP);
(.. LSP).
.
LSR , , FEC
LSR .
, IPJ,
.
LSR ,
Label Mapping LDP, , LSR
:
LSR FEC ;
LSR Label
Request FEC, ;
FEC LDPJ, ;

MPLS

49

JFEC;

,
,
,
JFEC.
.
, , ,
FEC , LSR FEC,
JFEC
.
LSR ,
Label Mapping LSR
:
LSR FEC FEC ;
LSR
Label Request FEC, , FEC,
, ;
FEC LDPJ, ;
JFEC;

,
,
,
JFEC.
. MPLS
: LSR
LSR .
LSP . LSR FEC LSR.
, LSR
LSR, .
. , MPLS

4.

50

,
MPLS.
, , LSR LSR
LSP .
, MPLS J .
MPLS :
Label Distribution Protocol (LDP),
3, RSVP, 4,
, , 7
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).
RSVP. 1990J RSVP (Resource
Reservation Protocol) QoS IPJ . RSVP
MPLS . LSR LSP
, ,
(PDU)
. PDU ,
, LSP. , LSP
LSP, ,
, ()
. , RSVP,
Path RSVP,
Resv . RSVP
MPLS ,
RSVP 1990J .
RSVP MPLS : .
4,
RSVP, , J.
BGP.
LSR, BGP, , , . FEC
Update BGP,
.
, , , .

MPLS

51

, , (IGP Interior
Gateway Protocol), (EGP Exterior Gateway Protocol)
. IGP
J ,
EGP
( , , .. ).

MPLS.
OSPF 5 .
, . RIP, ,
( 15),
CIDR (
RIPJ2), , , . RIP . OSPF
LSA (Link State Advertisements)
,
. LSA . , OSPF,
,
, SPF (Shortest Path First),
, .
ISIS
.
ISO/IEC 10589,
IP RFC 1142.
OSPF , ,
6.
. .
LSR LSR,
FEC, :
(.. FEC), .

52

MPLS :
,
.
LSR
FEC , LSR (.. ). LSR ,
.. . , LSR FEC
, JFEC . . , FEC
, ,
LSP.
,
. .

2.8.

() :
0 IPv4 Explicit NULL Label.
. , , IPv4.
1 Router Alert Label.
. , ,
.

, ,
. Router Alert Label
.
RFC 2113 Router Alert IPJ.
2 IPv6 Explicit NULL Label.
. , , IPv6.

MPLS

53

3 Implicit NULL Label. LSR , . LSR, LIB, (swap) ,


, Implicit NULL Label, , LSR (pop) .
4 15 .

. MPLS
.

3
LDP
3.1. LDP
FEC . ,
MPLS , FEC,
LSP, ,
MPLS JFEC,
, LSP
. , LSR MPLS
LDP (Label Distribution Protocol).
LDP
, FEC:
Address Prefix ,
Host Address .

, , ,
, VPN,
QoS . LDP
,
LSP.
:
(topologyJbased method)
(,
OSPF BGP, 5 7, );
(requestJbased method)
(, RSVP, . 4);
(trafficJbased method)
( 4).

LDP

55


FEC, , , . MPLS ,
, FEC,
LSR, FEC. . 1.3 1, LSP (. 3.1). LSR, , LSR5.
J LSR downstream LSR,
; LSR,
upstream LSR LSR. , ,
, . LSR
LSR , FEC .
,
LDP (Label Distribution Protocol).

LSR6
LDP- 2
LDP- 1

LSR3
LSR1

LSR2

LSR5

LSR4

LSR7

. 3.1.

MPLS&

LDP , ,
MPLS LDP.

, , , 7 BGP.
RSVP, , , . , LDP
IETF , ,
. ,
LDP

56

QoS
LDP
CRLDP (ConstraintBased LDP). , LDP LSR TCP, ,
LSR LDPJ,
TCP .
:
LDP IPJ ,
RSVP CRJLDP
,
BGP VPN.
,
LDP.
,
LDP, RFC 3036 LDP Specification. . , . , . , .
. 2001 . ,
RFC 3037 LDP Applicability, . . , LDP MPLS.
RFC 3037 LDP, MPLS.
, 3.5 .
RFC 3035 MPLS Using LDP and ATM VC Switching ATMJ
MPLS ( ATMJLSR).
MPLS
LDP:
LDP State Machine ( LDP), Definitions of Managed Objects for the Multiprotocol Label
Switching LDP SNMP ( LDP
SNMP), Fault Tolerance for LDP and CRJLDP ( LDP), LDP Extensions for Optical User Network Interface
(OJUNS) Signaling ( LDP J OJUNI).
, , .

3.2. LDP
LDP MPLS IETF
MPLS.
, LDP -

LDP

57

IGP, . LDP
,
LSR , FEC LSR,
LSP. , . 3.1,
LSR,
LDP. LDP,
LSR
FEC LSR. LSP , .
, LDP LSR,
, LSP. LSR,
LSR, LSR, LSR
LSR.
, ,
. LDP
LSR, LDP LDPJ. . 3.1 LSR1 LSR2
LDP,
LDPJ 1, LSR2 LSR3 LDP, LDPJ 2.
LSR ,
JFEC, LDP:
(discovery messages),
, LSR ;
(session messages),
, LDPJ LSR;
J (advertisement messages), , FEC;
(notification messages),
.
LSR, ; LSR, LSR
; downstream ondemand.
, LSR
(unsolicited downstream), , .

58

. LSR LSR
FEC , LSR.

.
, LSR
LSR, . LSR,
,
,
, , LSR.

J JFEC,
LSR, . LSR
FEC , LSR. LSR
.

, LSR,
, . ,
FEC
, LSR, , , .
, LSR
FEC.
, ,
FEC , ,
FEC
, (upstream LSR), , (downstream LSR).
FEC
, FEC , ,
, ,
. ,
MPLSJ FEC,
.

LDP

59

LDP . Label Request Label mapping ( 3.4), Path Vector Hop Count.
Path Vector LSR ( 4 LDPJ), LSR,
. LSR
Path Vector
LSRJ, , . LDP Path Length,
.
J Hop Count, LSR,
LSR. LSR . , ,
,
, .

3.3. LDP
3.3.1. LDP
LDP PDU
(Protocol Data Unit) TCPJ LDPJ. PDU LDP,
PDU . LDP, LDP PDU, . 3.2.

LDP

LDP
1

LDP
n
LDP PDU

. 3.2.

LDP

60

LDP PDU LDP,


LDP. : ,
.
Version LDP.
PDU Length , PDU ( LDPJ).
PDU
LDPJ. 4096 .
LDP Identifier ,
PDU. LSR,
IPJ LSR.
LSR, . LSR , .
LDPJ .
LDP : U, ,
, , .
3.3.2. Type&Length&Value
, LDPJ,
 (TLV), . 3.3. ,
TLV
LDP.
TLV , : , . ,
, . ,

JJ, ,
.
0 1 2
U F

31

16
(Type)

(Length)
(Value)

. 3.3.

TLV

LDP

61

U (Unknown) F (Forward) LSR , Type. U=0, ,


, ,
. U=1,
TLV ,
. F ,
U=1. F=0, TLV , F=1, ,
TLV.
(Type) 15 (
), Value.
(Value) , LSR Type. ,
Value
TLV.

J . , ..
,
. , .
3.3.3. TLV
, LDP . FEC TLV, . 3.4.
0 1 2
0 0

16
FEC (00100)

0 0

FEC (0x0100)

31
Length

FEC Element 1

FEC Element n

. 3.4.

FEC TLV

FEC FECJ. FEC


element FECJ,
, . , , :

62

FECJ
Wildcard
Prefix
Host Address

1J
00000001
00000010
00000011

LSR FECJ,
, FEC TLV
,
Unknown FEC .
Wildcard Label Withdraw
( ) Label Release ( )
, FEC, , Label TLV.
FECJ Prefix . 3.5
.

8
Prefix (2)

24
Address family

31
PreLen

Prefix

. 3.5.

FEC& Prefix

Address Family ,
IANA (Internet Assigned Number
Authority). FEC TLV LSR FECJ Address Family,
, LSR
Unsupported
Address Family.
PreLen , ( )
, .
PreLen , .
Prefix .
, , Prefix ,
Address Field
PreLen.
FECJ Host Address FECJ Prefix, ,
Host Addr,
(. 3.6).

LDP

63

8
Host Addr (3)

24

31

Address family

Host Addr Len

Host Addr

. 3.6.

FEC& Host Address

Label TLV. , Label TLV , , ,


. Label TLV.
Generic Label TLV
, , PPP Ethernet (. 3.7).

Label, 20 .

0 1 2
0 0

31

16
Generic Label (0x0100)

Length
Label

. 3.7.

Generic Label TLV

ATM Label TLV, ,


ATM (. 3.8).

0 1 2
0 0
Res

16
ATM Label (0x0201)

VPI

. 3.8.

31
Length
VCI

ATM Label TLV

Res ,
.
V ,
( ). V:
00 VPI VCI ,
01 VPI,
10 VCI.
VPI (Virtual Path Identifier) 12J . VPI 12 ,
.

64

VCI (Virtual Channel Identifier) 2J . , VCI 16 ,


.
Frame Relay Label TLV
FR (. 3.9).

0 1
0

16

31

Frame Relay Label


(0x0202)
Reserved

. 3.9.

Length

Len

DLCI

FR Label TLV

Res , .
Len DLCI:

00 10J DLCI,
01 ,
10 23J DLCI,
11 .
DLCI (Data Link Connection Identifier) .
Address List TLV . 3.10. Address Address Withdraw.
0 1 2
0 0

31

16
Length

Address List (0x0101)


Address Family
Addresses

. 3.10.

Address List TLV

Address Family , , IANA.


Addresses , . LDP :
IP 4 4J ,
IP 6 16J .
Hop Count TLV . 3.11. TLV
,
LSP. LSR LSP
.

LDP

65

0 1 2
0 0

16
Hop Count (0x0103)

31
Length

HC Value

. 3.11.

Hop Count TLV

HC Value , LSR LSP.


Path Vector TLV . 3.12. Hop Count TLV Label Request Label
Mapping , .
LSR Id x LSR,
.
0 1 2
0 0

16
Path Vector (0x0104)

31
Length

LSR Id 1

LSR Id n

. 3.12.

Path Vector TLV

Status TLV . 3.13. TLV


, , .
0 1 2
Status (0x0300)

14

U F

16

31
Length

Status Code

Message ID

Message Type

. 3.13.

Status TLV

U 0, Status TLV , 1 .
F , F Status
Code.
Status Code , .
. 3.14.
5.

66

31

0 1 2
Status Data

E F

. 3.14.

Status Code

E (Fatal Error). 1
.
F (Forward). 1,
LSR
, , Status Code.
Status Data 30J ,
.
Message ID 32 , , Status TLV. , Status TLV J .
Message Type , ,
Status TLV. , Status
TLV J .
3.3.4. LDP
. 3.2 . LDP
. 3.15.
0 1
U

16

31
Message Length

Message Type
Message ID

Mandatory Parameters

Optional Parameters

. 3.15.

LDP

U . 0,
,
, U 1,
.
Message Type . . 3.1

LDP . . 3.1
.

LDP

67

3.1.
LDP

LDP
Message
Type

Notification ()
0001
Hello
()

0100

Initialization ()

0200

KeepAlive ()
Address ()
Address Withdraw (
)
Label Mapping (
)
Label Request
( )
Label Withdraw (
)
Label Release ( )
Label Abort Request ( )
VendorJprivate ( )
Experimental ()

0201
0300
0301
0400
0401
0402
0403
0404
3E00J
3EFF
3F00J
3FFF


LDP


LDPJ
LDPJ

LDPJ ()

,

LSR
LSR

LSR ,
FECJ
()

,

Message Length
, Message ID .
Message ID 32 ,

LDP.
Mandatory Parameters .
.
, ,
.
Optional Parameters .
, , .

68

3.4. LDP

LDP CRJLDP TLV
. ,
. 3.3.3.
3.4.1. Notification Message
, ,
. :
, , ,
;
,
.
:
) PDU , . LDP (LDP PDU),
TCPJ LDPJ, ,
LDP PDU ,
, LDP, LDPJ;
LDP ,
, ,
;
PDU (< 14)
(> PDU). LDP , ,
, (.. PDU)
.
) TLV, LDP, .
TLV, LDP,
TCPJ LDP, , TLV , .. TLV , TLV, TLV ,
.. TLV.
) KeepALive.

LDP

69

) .
) , Initialization, .. .
) , ,
, LDPJ Notification.
) .
Notification Message
. 3.16.
0 1
0

16
Notification (0x0001)

31
Message Length

Message ID
Status (TLV)

Optional Parameters

. 3.16.

Notification Message

( ):
Extended Status (00301) 4J , , Notification Status Code.
Returned PDU (00302) ,
LSR, PDU . PDU, PDU.
Returned Message (00303) , LSR, .
, .
3.4.2. Hello
Hello . 3.17. MPLS,
LSR , LSR
LSP LDP. Hello ( UDP)
. LSR
, LDP,
LDP. LDP ( ).

70

0 1

16

31

Hello (0x0001)

Message Length
Message ID
Common Hello Parameters TLV

Optional Parameters

. 3.17.

Hello

Common Hello Parameters TLV (. 3.18).

0
0 0

1 2

31

16
Common Hello Parameters
(0x0400)
Hold Time

. 3.18.

Length
T R

Reserved

Common Hello Parameters

Hold Time ,
. LSR Hello. , 15
Link Hello 45 Targeted Hello. , , .
, Hello .
T 1, , (Targeted Hello).
0 , .
R, 1,
Hello
Hello. R, 0,
.
Reserved
.
Optional Parameters
TLV.
:

IPv4

IPv6

(T)
00401
00402
00403

(L)
4
4
16

(V)
*
**
***

LDP

71

(*) IPv4,
LSR TCPJ LDPJ.
TLV , IPv4 UDP,
Hello.
(**) 4J LSR. LSR
LSR.
(***) IPv6,
LSR TCPJ LDPJ.
TLV , IPv6 UDP,
Hello.
3.4.3. Initialization
Initialization LDP, TCPJ
LDP. LDP
Initialization,
KeepAlive ( ), Address ()
Address Withdraw ( ). Initialization ,
LDPJ. . 3.19.

0 1

16
Initialilization (0x0400)

31
Message Length

Message ID
Common Session Parameters TLV
Optional Parameters

. 3.19.

Initialization

Common Session Parameters .


TLV LSR ,
LDPJ. Common Session Parameters TLV
. 3.20.

72

0 1
0 0

Length

Common Sess Parameters (0x0400)


Protocol Version

A D

31

16

Reserved

Keep Alive Time


PVLim

Max PDU Length

Receiver LDP Identifier

. 3.20.

Common Session Parameters TLV

Protocol Version .
KeepAlive Time , LSR KeepAlive.
A . 0 Downstream Unsolicited. 1
Downstream On Demand.
D . ,
.
0 , ,
1 , .
PVLim . .
, 0.
, , LSR
.
Reserved ,
.
Max PDU Length PDU .
4096 .
Receiver LDP Identifier LDPJ . .
Optional Parameters . , 0 .
:
, ATM (00501), , Frame Relay (00502).

LDP

73

3.4.4. KeepAlive
Keep Alive LDPJ. KeepAlive , TCPJ
LDP PDU.
, KeepAlive
, , .
. 3.21. J .
0 1
0

31

16
Message Length

KeepAlive (0x0201)
Message ID
Optional Parameters

. 3.21.

KeepAlive

3.4.5. Address
Address LSR , . . 3.22. Address
J . LSR,
Address, ,
LDPJ .
0 1
0

16
Address
(0x0300)

31
Message Length

Message ID
Address List TLV
Optional Parameters

. 3.22.

Address

3.4.6. Address Withdraw


,
(. 3.23). .

74

0 1
0

16

31

Address Withdraw (0x0301)

Message Length
Message ID
Address List TLV
Optional Parameters

. 3.23.

Address Withdraw

3.4.7. Label Mapping



LDPJ, . : Label Mapping ( ), Label Request
( ), Label Abort Request ( ), Label
Withdraw ( ) Label Release (
).
LSR Label Mapping
LDPJ ( ),
JFEC. LSR ,

. . 3.24.
0 1
0

16

31

Label Mapping (0x0400)

Message Length
Message ID
FEC TLV
Label TLV
Optional Parameters

. 3.24.

Label Mapping

TLV
TLV (Hop Count)
LV (Path Vector)

(L)
4
1
T J

(V)
*
. 3.3.3
. 3.3.3

(*) (Label Request


Message ID) , Label Mapping
Label Request. -

LDP

75

Label Request,
Label Mapping.

,
.
3.4.8. Label Request
LSR Label Request
LDPJ,
FEC (. 3.25). LSR LSR, FEC, ,
LSR. LSR Label Request :
LSR FEC ,

LDPJ, LSR FEC
;
FEC,
LSR FEC
;
LSR FEC , FEC
LDPJ, LSR
FEC .
LSR, , Label
Request Label Mapping, , Notification ,
.
LDP Notification ( ),
:
No Route ( ). FEC, ,
,
.
No Label Resources ( ). LSR J .
, LSR , ,
Notification Resources Available ( ). LSR, Label Request
Notification
, Label Request
, Notification .

76

Loop Detected ( ). LSR


Label Request .
0 1
0

31

16
Label Mapping (0x0400)

Message Length
Message ID
FEC TLV
Label TLV
Optional Parameters

. 3.25.

Label Request

, :

TLV
TLV

(L)
1

(V)
c. 3.3.3
. 3.3.3

3.4.9. Label Abort Request


Label Abort Request Label
Request. LSR (LSRu) Label Abort
Request Label Request,
LSR (LSRd),
:
LSRd LSRu
FEC LSR,
LSR LSR, FEC
FEC
LSRy;
LSR LSR,
FEC
FEC LSRy, LSRy
LSR, FEC.
, LSR ,
LSP.
LSR Label Abort Request Label Mapping Notification
J Label Request,
, , -

LDP

77

Notification Label Request Aborted (


). TLV Label Request,
.
LSR Label Abort Request ,
Label Mapping Notification Label Request, , . Label
Abort Request . 3.26.
0 1
0

16

31
Message Length

Label Abort Req (0x0404)


Message ID
FEC TLV
Label Request Message ID TLV
Optional Parameters

. 3.26.

Label Abort Request

Label Request Message ID TLV . Label Request,


.
Label Abort Request .
3.4.10. Label Withdraw
Label Withdraw LSR
, FEC. LSR Label
Withdraw, FEC, ,
FEC. FEC TLV FEC, . FEC
TLV Label TLV, ,
FEC; Label TLV ,
. LSR, Label Withdraw,
Label Release.
Label Withdraw . 3.27.

78

0 1

16

31
Message Length

Label Withdraw (0x0402)

Message ID
FEC TLV
Label TLV (Optional)
Optional Parameters

. 3.27.

Label Withdraw

Label TLV

(L)

(V)
. 3.3.3

3.4.11. Label Release


LSR Label Release
LDPJ : LSR,
Label Mapping, FEC,
, LSR Label Mapping
,
, LSR Label
Withdraw. Label Release . 3.28.
0 1
0

16
Label Release (0x0403)

31
Message Length

Message ID
FEC TLV
Label TLV (ptional)
Optional Parameters

. 3.28.

Label Release

3.4.12. TLV
, . 3.1 LDP
: LDP Vendorprivate
Messages Experimental Messages, .. LDP,
.
,
TLV, .

LDP

79

3.5. RLDP
LDP
IP. , LDP, CRJLDP.
CRJLDP LDP, LSP . CRJLSP ,
. CRJLDP MPLS, TE QoS, . ,
.. ,
, .
CRJLDP ,
.
CRJLDP
,
OSPF ISJIS, LSA. , CRJLDP
. ,
OSPF ISJIS,
.
, .
CRJLDP LSP.
, . .
CRJLDP , LDP :

, . ,
,
;
(, , );

80

(route pinning), , LSP ,


, ,
;
LSP
.
LSP ( ) LSP ( ) , , LSP LSP. 0 ( ) 7 ( );
LSR, . 3.2;
LSPID CRJLSP ;
() , .
3.2.

LSR CR&LDP

C (Status Code)
Bad Explicit Routing TLV Error
Bad Strict Node Error
Bad Loose Node Error
Bad Initial ERJHop Error
Resource Unavailable
Traffic Parameters Unavailable
LSP Preempted
Modify Request Not Supported

(Type)
004000001
004000002
004000003
004000004
004000005
004000006
004000007
004000008

CRJLDP , (,
Label Request, Label Mapping),
(Label Release , Label Withdraw, Label Abort Request).
TLV,

:
TLV (Explicit route TLV) LSP,
Explicit route hop TLV.
TLV (Explicit route hop TLV) ,
().
TLV (Traffic parameters TLV)
.
TLV (Preemption TLV) .

LDP

81

LSPID TLV LSP, LSR ( IPJ) LSP LSR.


() (Resource class (color) TLV) , LSP. 32J .
TLV (Route pinning TLV)
.
CRJLDP
(TE Traffic Engineering) MPLS
,
,
CRJLDP IETF RSVPJTE.
CRJLDP , RSVP 4.

3.6. LDP
CRJLDP
,
LDP.
3.6.1.
LDP,
.
, UDP. LSR, ,
Hello. Hello Hello ,
LSR, , / ,
Hello,

. LSR, ,
LDPJ Hello (Extended Hello). LSR
Hello
,
, .
LSR.
, TCP. LDP
TCP Message Digest 5 (MD5). 6.

82

TCP LDPJ.
TCP MD5 LDP
BGP ( 7), RFC 2385
Protection of BGP Sessions via the TCP MD5 Signature Option.
MD5 RFC 1321 The MD5 MessageJDigest
Algorithm. LDP , TCPJ. ,
, , MD5,
LDP .
3.6.2.
LDP ,
, , LDP, ,
.
, .
, , . ,
FEC.
,
LSR,
,
.
3.6.3.
LDP ,
.
(wellknown) UDPJ .
LSR
Hello, , , LSR ,
.
MPLS, ,
, LSR .
TCPJ LDPJ. ,
TCP, LDP
, , SYNJ.

LDP

83

LDP ,
, TCP. MPLS ( ) ,
Hello,
MPLS J .

3.7. LDP
, ,
LDP.
, LSR
,
. LSR LDP , ,
.. Label Mapping LSR
Label Mapping LSR.
LSR
LSR , FECJ ,
MPLS.
JJ
,
. LSR Label Request LSR,
LSR. LSR
LSR Label Mapping.
LSR FECJ
, FECJ
LSR
Label Mapping. ,
LSR Label Mapping .
. 3.29.

84

LSR1

LSR2

LSR 3

LSR 4

LSR5

Label Mapping
ID 1
FEC
Label Request
ID 2
FEC
Label Request
ID 3
FEC
Label Request
ID 4
FEC

Label Mapping
FEC
ID 10
4
ID
1

. 3.29.

Label Mapping
ID 9
FEC
3
ID
2

Label Mapping
ID 8
FEC
2
ID
3

Label Mapping
ID 7
FEC
1
ID
4

LSP

. 3.29 , LDP ,

LSR, ,
UDP, TCP (. 3.30). , UDP LSR
, LSR , LSR

LDP, TCP
, , Session, Advertisement
Notification, , TCP.

LDP

85

LDP


()

TCP

UDP

IP

. 3.30.

LDP

LDP [14] . 3.30. UDPJ Hello


LDP 646. TCPJ
LDP 646.
. 3.31
.
, LDP
LSR, LDPJ.
LDP : . LSR Hello UDPJ 646
IPJ (224.0.0.2). LSR, ( )
. Hello
IPJ LSR.
Hello LDPJ , LSR, ,

TCP, .
LSR, Hello,
, .
, LSR
Notification Message, ,
Hello.

86

Hello, TCPJ 646. TCPJ


LSR, ( ) . LSR,
TCPJ, (master)
.

Hello

Hello
LSR2

LSR1

UDP- 646
" "
IP-,


( )

LSR5

UDP- 646
" "
IP-,

Hello

Hello

UDP- 646
" "
IP-

UDP- 646
" "
IP-

TCP-SYN ( IP A>IP B)

TCP-SYN ( IP C>IP B)

(
)

- 646
TCP-SYN ACK

Intialization
{ ,
, }
Label Request
{FEC [ ] [ }

:
LDP KeepAlive
-+

- 646
TCP-SYN ACK

Intialization
{ ,
, }

Label Request
{FEC [ [ }

Notification

()
Notification

Label Mapping
{ [ ] [ }

()

;

{ B [ ] [ }

LSP
{ , , }
{ , , }

. 3.31.

LDP

TCPJ , LSR, ,
Initialization.
LDP, , ATM (VPI/VCI) Frame
Relay (DLCI), KeepAlive, TLV.

LSR KeepAlive. ,
TCPJ LDPJ. , LSR
, LDPJ ( -

LDP

87


). LSR ,
15 , ,

, 2 .
LDPJ, LSR
LDP . ,
KeepAlive,
, LSR LDPJ, Shutdown. ,
, KeepAlive ;
, ,
. , KeepAlive.
, LDPJ , LSR
, Label Request.
. Label Request FEC TLV, , FEC .
Label Request
(Path Vector), , .
J ,
, ..,
, ,
, ,
.
. Label Request,
, ( ),
Label Mapping, ,
.
FEC, , Label Mapping,
,
LSP .

4
RSVP
MPLS
4.1. MPLS
RSVP (Resource reSerVation Protocol) Xerox
J, , ,
. RSVP
ISI (Information Science Institute) ,
IntServ
IETF RFC 2205 1997 .
RSVP , (QoS)
IPJ . QoS RSVP
DiffServ.
MPLS, ,
DiffServ, RSVP , .
RSVP, DiffServ, ,
MPLS, , CRJLDP, .
DiffServ ,
RSVP
RSVPJTE.
, RSVP
MPLS, (
LDP). ,
RSVP QoS MPLS. , -

RSVP MPLS

89

, LSR
QoS FEC.
QoS, , FEC,
, , QoS.
MPLS ,
, LSP.
LDP ,
RSVP,
BGP,
7. . 4.1 RSVP.

LSR2

LSR1

LSR3

Path
<
Path RSVP >
[EXPLICIT_ROUTE { IP-}]
[SESSION_ATTRIBUTE

{ } { } { SE}]
<LABEL_REQUEST>
[RECORD_ROUTE
(
IP-) ]
<SENDER_TSPEC>
[ADSPEC]

Path
Path RSVP
[EXPLICIT_ROUTE { IP-}]
[SESSION_ATTRIBUTE
{ } { } { SE}]
<LABEL_REQUEST>
[RECORD_ROUTE
(
IP-) ]
<SENDER_TSPEC>
[ADSPEC]

Resv
Resv RSVP
<LABEL_ >
{RECORD_ROUTE
(
IP-) }
<FLOWSPEC>

PathErr
Resv RSVP
<LABEL_ B>
{RECORD_ROUTE
(
IP-) }
<FLOWSPEC>

PathErr

LSP

< >
[ ]
{ }

. 4.1.

RSVP

90

LDP, LSP
. LSR , FEC: LSR, .
FEC LSR,

LSR. ,
LSR. () LSR ,
,
FEC
.
.
,
RSVP, LDP.
RSVP ,
(Reservations),
(Sender Selection),
(flows). ,
.
RSVP :
, Fixed Filter (FF),
Shared Explicit (SE),
, Wildcard
Filter (WF).
, , . 4.1.
4.1.

(explicit)
(wildcard)

FF

SE
WF

. 4.1 WF (WildcardFilter)
(shared)
(wildcard) . WF , . , ,
, . ,
LSP .
WF

RSVP MPLS

91

WF(*{Q}),

, Q flowspec.
FF (FixedFilter) (distinct)
(explicit) . , FF
, ,

.
, IPJ LSPJID. /
LSP J. FF :
FF(S{Q}),
S . RSVP
FF .
:
FF(S1{Q1}, S2{Q2}, ...).
SE (Shared Explicit)
(shared) (explicit) .
, SE ,
.
WF, SE
, Resv,
,
LSP. Path ERO
,
LSP J.
SE :
SE((S1,S2,...){Q} ).
WF SE
, . .
WF SE
, , . ,
FF,
, .
, MPLS,
SE FF, .

92

FF
.

, ,
. FF
, .
SE , , .
,

LSP.
,
RSVP.

4.2. RSVP
, RSVP , . c
, , ,
,
, . ,

, , , .
, RSVP ,
,

IPJ. RSVP , , , , . , , ,
.

RSVP (. 4.2).
( ) Path, ,
: -

RSVP MPLS

93

, .
Path
, (
RSVPJTE).

LSR6

Path

LSR3
Path

RESV

LSR5

RESV
Path

LSR1

RESV

RESV

LSR2
Pa

th

LSR4

RE

SV

Path

Path

RESV

LSR7

. 4.2.

RSVP

, RSVP, Path, ,
.

RSVP.
Path
(Sender Template), .
, ,

. , Path Tspec, . Tspec
.
, , Resv. ,
IPJ ( ) UDP/TCP
, .
Path, , ,
Resv (Reservation Request).
Tspec, Resv Rspec,

, filterspec, ,
.

94

Rspec filterspec ,
.
Resv, RSVP , ,
. (Admission Control) , ,
,
(Policy Control) . ,
.
, Resv ,
, . Resv,
,
flowspec, QoS
:
Rspec, QoS,
Tspec, .
QoS
, Tspec Rspec ,
RFC 2210 The Use of RSVP with IETF Integrated
Services. QoS
RSVP .
Resv
, J (
,
).

,
.
: . RSVP.
, .. .

RSVP MPLS

95


RSVP,
, ,
, , , . , RSVPJTE ,
. ,
, MPLS.

4.3. RSVP RSVPTE MPLS


MPLS RSVP , LSR, , , IPJ,
, ,
. ,
FEC , RSVP.
,
RSVP, , FEC.
RSVP
, , . , RFC 3209 Extensions to RSVP for LSP Tunnels RSVPJTE, LABEL,
Resv. , RSVP
MPLS. LSR Resv , ,
LFIB, ,
Resv, LABEL. , Resv
,
.
Resv LABEL,
, LSR
LSR,
Resv. ,
, Resv,
LSR. , Resv LSP

96

. , Resv ,
LSR LSP ,
QoS.
RSVP, LABEL,
MPLS ( LSP) , IP.
,
RSVP , Path,
, LSP. , Path, ,
, ,
ISJIS, OSPF, RIP BGP,
, IPJ. Path,
, .
, RSVP
Explicit Route Object (ERO).
Path ,
. ,
IP , ERO.
( ) LSP ,
.
, 9,
Traffic Engineering.
ERO (), .
(abstract node),
,
, .
,
. , . strict/loose,

(strict) (loose) .
, ,
, ,

RSVP MPLS

97


.
, , ,
OSPF ISJIS.
, ERO
3.3.2 TLV (, , ), . ,
RSVP MPLS,
, . 4.2.
, LSR1 MPLS (LSR7,
LSR4, LSR5). , LSR1
ERO,
LSR7, LSR4 LSR5. IP 32 ( ,
IPJ). ,
LSR, LSR. LSR1 Path ERO, LSP_TUNNEL, ,
LABEL_REQUEST, , ,
. , LSR1
, ERO
(.. LSR7), , LSR1 LSR7, Path . LSR7
Path, , ,
ERO. LSR7 LSR4 ,
. LSR7 ERO,
, LSR7, LSR4 Path, ERO
LABEL_REQUEST. Path LSR4
LSR7. ERO Path, LSR4 LSR5,
LSR5. Path LSR5, , ERO . LSR5
,
,
. LSP ,
LABEL, Resv, LSR4.
LSR4 , ,
LABEL, .

7.

98

LSR4 Resv LSR7. LABEL.


LSR7 LSR4. , LSR7 Resv LSR1.
LSR1, , LSP
. , LSR,
, LABEL_REQUEST.
, downstream
on demand.

4.4. RSVPTE
, LSP, ,
, IP LSP ,
IPJ.
(..
LSP) RSVPJTE  SESSION, SENDER_TEMPLATE FILTER_SPEC. LSP_TUNNEL_IPv4 LSP_TUNNEL_IPv6.

, ,
LSP_TUNNEL_IP.
, , ,
,
,
LSP.
Traffic Engineered Tunnels TE.
, , .
J 2 .
(tunnel ID) SESSION TEJ. SENDER_TEMPLATE FILTER_SPEC (LSP_ID) , SESSION,
LSP.
,
RSVPJTE.
,
LSP, Path
RECORD_ROUTE.
,

RSVP MPLS

99

LSP. RECORD_ROUTE
(Path Vector) .
Path SESSION_ATTRIBUTE, ,
LSP
, , , .
,
.

4.5. 
(Traffic
Engineering) , .. TEJ , .

TEJ.
makebeforebreak ( ),
.. , , ,
, LSR, , .

CRJLDP ( modify Label Request,
3), RSVP ( SharedJExplicit, ).
,
LSP ,
LSP.
TEJ.
, .
RSVPJTE . LSP_TUNNEL SESSION SE .

100

, LSP
, . LSP_TUNNEL SESSION
, RSVPJ TEJ, IPJ
, Tunnel ID IPJ ,
.
RSVPJ
,
LSP (LSP ID), SENDER_
TEMPLATE FILTER_SPEC.
, LSP ID SENDER_TEMPLATE.
ERO, , Path, SESSION, Extended_Tunnel_ID IPJ,
SENDER_TEMPLATE ERO.
LSP Path. , LSP , SE, ,
Path
LSP. Resv LSP,
LSP, PathTear.

Path LSP ID, LSP ID, ,
.
RSVP IntServ, RFC 2210, The Use of RSVP
with IETF Integrated Services RSVP MTU (Maximum Transfer Unit) MTU
. MTU LSP, RSVPJTE. Path MTU Integrated Services,
Null Service. Integrated Services,
Path MTU , RFC 2210.
Path MTU Null Service
RFC 1191 Path MTU Discovery. , LSRJ
MTU, IPJ
, , ( ) ( ), ICMP.

RSVP MPLS

101

4.6. RSVPTE
4.6.1. LSP
RSVPJTE : LABEL_REQUEST, LABEL, EXPLICIT_ROUTE, RECORD ROUTE, SESSION
ATTRIBUTE. CJ SESSION,
SENDER_TEMPLATE FILTER_SPEC. RSVP, LABEL_REQUEST LABEL
RSVPJTE.
Path Resv
.
Path
<Path Message> ::=

<Common Header> [ <INTEGRITY> ]


<SESSION> <RSVP_HOP>
<TIME_VALUES>
[ <EXPLICIT_ROUTE> ]
<LABEL_REQUEST>
[ <SESSION_ATTRIBUTE> ]
[ <POLICY_DATA> ... ]
<sender descriptor>

sender descriptor ( ):
<sender descriptor> ::= <SENDER_TEMPLATE> <SENDER_TSPEC>
[ <ADSPEC> ]
[ <RECORD_ROUTE> ]

Resv
<Resv Message> ::=

<Common Header> [ <INTEGRITY> ]


<SESSION> <RSVP_HOP>
<TIME_VALUES>
[ <RESV_CONFIRM> ] [ <SCOPE> ]
[ <POLICY_DATA> ... ]
<STYLE> <flow descriptor list>

flow descriptor list:


<flow descriptor list> ::= <FF flow descriptor list>
| <SE flow descriptor>

FF flow descriptor list:


<FF flow descriptor list> ::= <FLOWSPEC> <FILTER_SPEC>
<LABEL> [ <RECORD_ROUTE> ]
| <FF flow descriptor list>
<FF flow descriptor>

FF flow descriptor:
<FF flow descriptor> ::= [ <FLOWSPEC> ] <FILTER_SPEC> <LABEL>
[ <RECORD_ROUTE> ]

SE flow descriptor:
<SE flow descriptor> ::= <FLOWSPEC> <SE filter spec list>

SE filter spec list:


<SE filter spec list> ::= <SE filter spec>
| <SE filter spec list> <SE filter spec>

SE filter spec:
<SE filter spec> ::=

<FILTER_SPEC> <LABEL> [ <RECORD_ROUTE> ]

102

4.6.2. LABEL
LABEL Resv FILTER_SPEC . LABEL = 16, J = 1.
LSR, , . , PathErr, ,
.
Resv,
,
,
, . ATM ,
ATMJ ,
LABEL_REQUEST J 2, MJ 0.
0

31

(Top Label)
. 4.3.

LABEL

LSR
:
ATMJ, , LSR
.
(Implicit NULL label),
.
, .
LSR
PathErr , .
4.6.3. LABEL_REQUEST
LABEL_REQUEST = 19.
CJ:
1 ,
2 ATM,
3 Frame Relay.

RSVP MPLS

103

. 4.4 CJ = 1.
0 , .
0

31

16

Reserved
. 4.4.

L3PID
LABEL REQUEST

L3PID , . EtherType.
. 4.5 , CJ = 2.
0

Reserved
M

31

16

Res
Res

. 4.5.

L3PID
Minimum VPI

Minimum VCI

Maximum VPI

Maximum VCI

LABEL REQUEST , ATM

M , ,
, .
Minimum VPI 12J ,
VPI, J.
Minimum VCI 16J ,
VCI, J.
Maximum VPI 12J ,
VPI, J.
Maximum VCI 16J ,
VCI, J.
, VPI 12 VCI 16 , , .
. 4.6 , CJ = 3.

104

16

Reserved
Reserved
Reserved

. 4.6.

DLI

31

L3PID
Minimum DLCI
Maximum DLCI

LABEL REQUEST FR

DLI DLCI Length Indicator. DLCI. : DLI, 00, DLCI 10, DLI,
10, DLCI 23.
Minimum DLCI 23J ,
DLCI, .
Maximum DLCI 23J ,
DLCI, .
LABEL_REQUEST Path .
, JIP LSP.
, J.
,
L3PID, PathErr L3PID.
LABEL_REQUEST
CJ, PathErr

J, . , RSVP, PathErr , MPLS
, RSVP.
4.6.4. EXPLICIT_ROUTE (ERO)
=20 , ,
CJ = 1 (. 4.7). EXPLICIT_ROUTE , LSP.
,
ERO . , ERO ,
.

RSVP MPLS

105

(Subobjects)

. 4.7.

ERO

Subobjects , ERO (. 4.8). Path, Subobjects, ,


.
0

16

Type

31

Length

Subobjects contents

. 4.8.

Subobject

L 1, Subobject (loose) ,
, Subobject
(strict).
, , , ,
,
.
Length Subobject ,
. 4, .
Type Subobject. :

Type
0000001
0000010
0100000

Subobject
IPv4 (1)
IPv6 (2)
(32)

Subobject IPv4 Prefix . 4.9. , Subobject, ,


IPJ .

106

Type

16

Length

IPv4 address (continued)

. 4.9.

31

IPv4 address (4 bytes)

Prefix Length

Flags

Subobject IPv4 Prefix

IPv4 address IPv4J,


, Prefix Length. ,
, ,
0.
Prefix Length IPv4 .
Padding . .
Subobject IPv6 Prefix
(. 4.10). IPv6 Prefix, IPv4 Prefix, , IPv6 .
0

Type

16

Length

31

IPv6 address (16


bytes)

IPv6 address (continued)


IPv6 address (continued)
IPv6 address (continued)
IPv6 address (continued)

. 4.10.

Prefix Length

Reserved

Subobject IPv6 Prefix

, , Subobject Autonomous System Number.


2J AS.
Subobject , S.
4.6.5. RECORD_ROUTE (RRO)
= 21,
CJ = 1. RRO
Path Resv. Path RRO,
,
.
, ERO . 4.7, RRO Subobjects. , 4 , -

RSVP MPLS

107

= 4. Subobjects LIFO
(lastJinJfirstJout). 3 Subobjects.

Type
00000001
00000010
00000011

Subobject
IPv4
IPv6

Subobject IPv4 address . 4.11.


8

Type

16

Length

IPv4 address (continued)

. 4.11.

31

IPv4 address (4 bytes)

Prefix Length

Flags

Subobject IPv4 address

Length 8.
IPv4 address 32J IPJ.
Prefix Length 32.
Flags , :
Flags
00000001

00000010


,
(
, SESSION_ATTRIBUTE
Path )
, ()

Subobject IPv6 address .4.12. Subobject IPv4 address


, Length = 20, Prefix Length = 128.
8

Type

16

Length

31

IPv6 address (16 bytes)

IPv6 address (continued)


IPv6 address (continued)
IPv6 address (continued)
IPv6 address (continued)

. 4.12.

Prefix Length

Subobject IPv6 address

Flags

108

Subobject Label . 4.13.


8

Type

16

Length

24

Flags

31

C-Type

Contents of Label Object

. 4.13.

Subobject Label

Length Subobject .
Flags 00000001 = Global Label; ,
.
Type LABEL.
Contents of Label Object LABEL.
RECORD_ROUTE.
J, RRO . J,
RSVPJ
,
. , RRO , , , EXPLICIT_ROUTE. ,
RRO Resv ERO, Path,
.
, RRO,

RRO Subobject, IPJ. SESSION_ATTRIBUTE Label_Recording (
), Subobject Label.
Subobject RRO
Path ( Resv), RRO . ()
PathErr (ResvErr) , RRO .

Subobjects RRO, ,
, .
.
,
. -

RSVP MPLS

109

,
J .

, RRO, . Path,
PathErr, ,
Path.
Resv,
, Resv ,
Path.
RRO Subobjects.
Subobject ,
.
4.6.6. SESSION
SESSION, SENDER_TEMPLATE
FILTER_SPEC RSVP; RSVPJTE CJ.
LSP_TUNNEL_IPv4 SESSION CJ = 7 . 4.14.
31

IPv4 tunnel end point address


0

Tunnel ID
Extended Tunnel ID

. 4.14.

LSP_TUNNEL_IPv4 SESSION

IPv4 tunnel end point address IPv4 .


Tunnel ID 16J ,
SESSION .
Extended Tunnel ID 32J ,
SESSION . . , SESSION
J, IPv4 ,
.
LSP_TUNNEL_IPv6 SESSION J = 8 . 4.15.
LSP_TUNNEL_IPv4 SESSION, IPv6J.

110

31

IPv6 tunnel end point address (16 )

Tunnel ID

Extended Tunnel ID (16 )

. 4.15.

LSP_TUNNEL_IPv6 SESSION

4.6.7. SENDER_TEMPLATE
LSP_TUNNEL_IPv4 SENDER_TEMPLATE CJ = 7
. 4.16.
0

31

IPv4 tunnel sender address


0

. 4.16.

LSP ID

LSP_TUNNEL_IPv4 SENDER_TEMPLATE

IPv4 tunnel sender address IPv4J .


LSP ID 16J ,
SENDER_TEMPLATE FILTER_SPEC, ,
.
LSP_TUNNEL_IPv6 SENDER_TEMPLATE J = 8.
, LSP_
TUNNEL_IPv4 SENDER_TEMPLATE, , IPv6J
. 4.17.

RSVP MPLS

111

31

IPv6 tunnel sender address


(16 bytes)

LSP ID

. 4.17.

LSP_TUNNEL_IPv6 SENDER_TEMPLATE

4.6.8. FILTER_SPEC
LSP_TUNNEL_IPv4 FILTER_SPEC LSP_TUNNEL_IPv6 FILTER_SPEC LSP_TUNNEL_
IPv4 SENDER_TEMPLATE LSP_TUNNEL_IPv6 SENDER_TEMPLATE,
.
4.6.9. SESSION_ATTRIBUTE
SESSION_ATTRIBUTE = 207, LSP_TUNNEL CJ = 7,
. 4.18.
0

Holding Priority

Setup Priority

16

24

Flags

31

Name Length

Session Name (NULL pudded display string)

. 4.18.

SESSION_ATTRIBUTE LSP_TUNNEL

Setup Priority . 0 7, .
, ,
.
Holding Priority . 0 7 ,
, .
Flags .

112

Flags

00000001

00000010

00000100


. ,
, ERO.
,
.
. , RRO.
SE.
. ,
Resv
SE.

Name Length , .
Session Name , 4 . = 8 .
SESSION_ATTRIBUTE: = 207, LSP_TUNNEL_RA (resource affinities) CJ = 1, . 4.19.
8

31

24

16

Exclude-any

Include-any

Include-all

Setup Priority

Holding Priority

Flags

Name Length

Session Name (NULL pudded display string)

. 4.19.

SESSION_ATTRIBUTE LSP_TUNNEL_RA

Excludeany 32J ,
; .
Includeany 32J ,
; .
Includeall 32J , ;
, .

RSVP MPLS

113

(setup/holding)
.
, ;
.
, .
(preemption) (defending), RFC 2751 Signaled
Preemption Priority Policy Element.
, ,
,
PathErr policy control failure.

ERO , .
.
: ExcludeJany ,
, IncludeJany
, , IncludeJall ,
.
Path SESSION_ATTRIBUTE,
,
.

4.7. Hello
Hello RSVP , , .. .
, 2. ,
2 , , 2 .
, , J
.
Hello HELLO REQUEST HELLO ACK. Hello
.
HELLO REQUEST,
.

8.

114

. ,

, .
Hello RSVP.
IP TTL Hello 1.
(Msg Type) 20.
:
<Hello Message> ::= <Common Header> [ <INTEGRITY> ]
<HELLO>

HELLO = 22. CJ:


J = 1, HELLO REQUEST, CJ = 2, HELLO ACK.
, . 4.20.
0

31

Src_Instance
Dst_Instance

. 4.20.

HELLO

Src_Instance 32J ,
. , . .
Dst_Instance 32 Src_Instance. 0,
Src_Instance.
Hello , .
HELLO REQUEST.

, 5 . HELLO REQUEST, Src_Instance
Dst_Instance . , HELLO REQUEST . ,
J, HELLO ACK.
, , Hello, Src_Instance, . ,

RSVP MPLS

115

,
.

4.8. MPLS
MPLS , . MPLS
, , ,
LSP .
, , , ..
,
.
IETF, , MPLS,
. :
RSVPJTE, , CRJLDP,
3. RSVP
MPLS , IP, , QoS, . .
, 3.5,
MPLS
LDP , QoS, .
proposed standard.
TE (Traffic Engineering) MPLS 9,
MPLS, ,
DiffServ, CRJLDP
RSVPJTE. , .

5
OSPF
5.1. OSPF RIP
MPLS LSR
, MPLS.

.
BGP4 ISJIS, OSPF (Open Shortest
Path First ). OSPF
, MPLS .
Open ,
( ,
, EIGRP).
. 5.1 RFC,
OSPF. IETF OSPF, , , RFC 1131 RFC 2328. ,
.
OSPF IPJ, , , , MPLS
. RFC 1254 Protocol Analysis RFC 1246 Experience
with the OSPF Protocol,
, RFC 1247 OSPF Version 2, 1991 . RFC
MIB (Management Information Base). RFC 1248,
1991 RFC 1252,
RFC 1253; RFC 1850.

OSPF

117

RFC 1364 BGP OSPF Interaction,


ASBR,
BGP, RFC 1403. 7, BGP.
RFC 1370 Applicability Statement for OSPF
OSPF,
: RFC 1584,
, RFC 1586, OSPF Frame Relay, RFC 3101
RFC 1587,

NSSA, RFC 1745 ASBR, BGP4/IDRP, RFC 1765, OSPF, RFC 1793 OSPF
, RFC 2370,
Opaque LSA, RFC 2676,
QoS, RFC 2740,
OSPF IPv6, RFC 2844,
OSPF ATM ProxyJRAR.
OSPF RFC 2328.
RFC
2328
OSPF v.2
2178
RFC
2178
OSPF v.2
1247

MIPOSPF

OSPF BGP
RFC
1247
OSPF v.2
RFC
t131
OSPF v.1
SPF

ARMAC

1956

Ph.D.
.

1959

. 5.1.

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

1998

OSPF

OSPF IGP
(Interior Gateway Protocol).
,
AS (Autonomous System). -

118

IGRP, RIP,
, OSPF, ,
ISJIS, .
EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol)
, ,
7, BGP.
OSPF RIP (Routing Information
Protocol) , . RIP XNS (Xerox Network Systems). RIP ,
1982 Berkeley
UNIX, TCP/IP,
(route d).
UNIX . d
Daemon .
1 RIP, RFC 1058,

. 15, , ,
15, . RIP
 , (Distance Vector). RIP (hops).
N , , N+1.
J, 7.
,
.
. , RIP MPLS
.
, RIP , J Honeywell 516,
8J Intel 8080
Zilog Z80,
. ,
,
, OSPF.

OSPF

119

5.2. OSPF
OSPF
(linkstate protocol), : , . (hops),
RIP.
.
, , , , CISCO, , 100 . OSPF :
= 108/ .
, , :
100 / 1.
Ethernet/802.3 10.
1 2.048 / 48.
T1 1.544 / 65.
64 / 1562.
56 / 1785.
19.2 / 5208.
9.6 / 10416.
, OSPF
ToS (Type
of Service). OSPF
. OSPF .
, ,
,
. ,
,
.

,
, , . OSPF
,
. , ,
, .
.

120

,
ISJIS
, 0 1023.
ISJIS
10. OSPF 0
65385.
, OSPF , , . LSR
MPLS,
() (), ,
. , .. , LSR1 LSR2, , LSR2 LSR1,
, ,
.
, OSPF,
:
,
OSPFJ LSA,
, ,
SPF
(Shortest Path First),
.

5.3.
SPF

1956 ARMAC. , , , . , ,
, OSPF ISJIS,
.
MPLS OSPF,
, LSR .
,
MPLS , .

OSPF

121

. . 5.2 MPLS, 7 LSR,


7 ,
. , ,
LSR4. , LSR4. , , ,
LSR2, LSR4 . LSR4
LSR5. (
) LSR4 LSR5 , LSR , LSR4 LSR2,
LSR2 LSR3, LSR3 LSR5.
LSR4, ,
LSR4 LSR,
.

LSR6

LSR3
LSR1

LSR5

LSR2
LSR4

LSR7
. 5.2.

. , .. ,
LSR4 ; N
(.. ); L .
1. ={LSR4} N={ ,
LSR4}. L ( ) , LSR4, .
2. L L , N
.
3. l L. l L.
LSR* l. LSR* , 2;
l LSR4 LSR*; LSR*
N .

122

4. , , l LSR*
N. l ,
LSR*. L,
.
2.
LSR4 LSR5:
LSR4 LSR2, LSR2 LSR3, LSR3
LSR5. ,
, OSPF
, . ,
LSR4 LSR5 4,
LSR4 LSR2, LSR2 LSR3, LSR3 LSR5 8,
, .

, .

.

, .
.

,
,
.

5.4. OSPF
, OSPF. MPLS, 1 . 1.3,

OSPF. , .
, / , , ,
OSPF, MPLS

OSPF

123

100 , OSPF
J 30
50 . , , OSPF
MPLS, ,
( J). ,
.
AS (Autonomous System)
, .
OSPF (OSPF area)
, OSPF
. OSPF
. ,
.
OSPF ,
,
. ,
OSPF
. OSPF ,
.
, OSPF,
.
, .
, ..
,
.
32J area ID, ( )
IPJ. ;
(backbone) 0.0.0.0.
.
0.0.0.0,
. , 1
1.1.1.1 0.0.0.1.

124

,
, ,
. 32J
. IPJ
.
OSPF ,
OSPF, ,
. ,
OSPF, MPLS,
MPLS OSPF (
, ),
. , LSR OSPF
.
, , ,
OSPF, :
IR (Internal Router),
OSPF;
BR (Backbone Router), 0;
ABR (Area Border Router),
OSPF;
ASBR
(Autonomous System Boundary Router),
, OSPF.
, DR (Designated Router) BDR (Backup Designated Router),

.
DR DR ,
.
,
.

OSPF

125

5.5. OSPF
RIP
UDP, IP,
, OSPF IP.
OSPF J
IPJ IPJ 224.0.0.5. ,
, IPJ , .
OSPFJ 24J
(. 5.3) :
(Version Number). OSPF, ,
. OSPF 2.
(Packet ). , .
(Packet Length). OSPFJ ,
.
(Router ID).
. 32J , OSPF
DR BDR.
, .
(Area ID). , OSPFJ. Area 0
0.0.0.0.
(Checksum).
OSPF.
IP OSPFJ, 64J
, 16J
.
(AuType). , .
: , , . ,
, . 16 .
. 64J ,
.

126

31

16

24

. 5.3.

OSPF&

5.6. OSPF
OSPFJ, .
OSPF 5 :
1. (Hello).
2. DD (Database Description).
3. (Link State
Request).
4. (Link State
Update).
5.
(Link State Acknowledgement).
OSPF
, .
OSPF.
5.6.1. &
J 1 (Hello) .
OSPF.

. , J .
. 5.4 .

OSPF

127

31

16

8
= 1

OSPF

Rtr Pri ID


IP-

IP-

IP- 1-
IP- 2-

IP- N-

. 5.4.

(Network Mask).
, . ,
, .
Hello (Hello Interval) , J. ,
J .
2 ,
OSPF. Hello 10 . 30
.
(Options). OSPF, .
.
,
, . :

128

Jbit. ,
OSPF ToS . ,
ToS,
T 1. T=0, ,
ToS. ,
ToS,
, .

, ,
.
EJbit. , , ,
OSPF.
. ASBR bit.
(Router Priority
ID) DR BDR
. , ID
, DR.
, 1. 0,
BDR DR.
(Router
Dead Interval). ,
J,
. , , ..
, Hello Interval, 2 , OSPF. ,
10 ,
40 ,
30
,
, , 120 .
(Designated Router).
IPJ DR, , . ,
0.0.0.0.

OSPF

129

(Backup Designated
Router). IPJ BDR,
, .
, 0.0.0.0.
(Neighbor). , , , J.
5.6.2. OSPF
( 2) ,
. . 5.5,
, . .
0

16

31

= 2

OSPF

MTU

0 0 0 0 0 I M MS

IP-

. 5.5.

9.

130

(Options). OSPF, , .
OSPFJ ,
. :
I (Init). I=1 ,
.
(More). =1 ,
. 0,
.
MS (/) , (DR) .
MS=1 , MS=0
.
(Sequence Number).

, .
DDJ
(InitBit = 1); .
5.6.3.
OSPF ( 3)

. . 5.6
.
8

31

16
= 3

OSPF

IP-

. 5.6.

OSPF

131

(Link State Type).


LSA.
(Link State ID)
, .
(Advertising Router) , .
5.6.4.
OSPF 4
, .
. . 5.7 .
0

31

16
=4

OSPF

. 5.7.

(Number of Advertisement). , .
(Link State Advertisements).
. LSA. LSA , LSA.

132

5.6.5.
( 5)

. ,
, . . 5.8.
0

31

16
=5

OSPF

LSA

. 5.8.

5.7. LSA
OSPF (
) LSA (Link State Advertisement). LSA
(intraarea) , (interarea) (external) . . 5.1
LSA.
(intraarea) OSPF. . 5.1
1 (router link), , 2 (network link),
. 1
224.0.0.6 (
DR BDR), , ,

OSPF

133

, .
DR
LSA 2 (network link) 224.0.0.5 ( ).
5.1.

LSA
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
9
10
11

LSA

(router link advertisement)


(network link advertisement)
ABR
ASBR
AS
LSA
NSSA (NotJSoJStubby Area)
(Opaque LSA: LinkJlocal scope)
(Opaque LSA: AreaJlocal scope)
(Opaque LSA: AS scope)

(ABRJArea Border Router) ,


, ABR (backbone 0) .

OSPF, ABR , ABR,
.
: 3 4.
3 ,
Area 0. , ABR
,
.
ABR LSA 4

(ASBR Autonomous System Boundary Router), ,
AS OSPF.
OSPF (
OSPF). ASBR, , , ,
OSPF RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, ..
LSA : 5 7. LSA 5 -

134

OSPF. LSA 7
ASBR, NSSA (Not So Stubby Area).
, ,
OSPF RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, .. ASBR , , OSPF,
OSPF NSSA LSA 7,
.
LSA 9J11 RFC 2370.
,
MPLS,
. LSA
OSPF , .
LSA 9
. LSA 10 OSPF, LSA
11 AS.
, OSPF LSA . LSA
. 20 .
LSA OSPF . 5.9.

LSA
20

16

31
LSA


IP-
LSA
LSA
. 5.9.

LSA

LSA 8 :
LSA (LS Age) , ,
LSA .
(Options) ,
J.
LSA (LS Type) LSA:
(1 2), (3 4), (5 7) (9J11).

OSPF

135

(Link State ID) , (LSA type 1 4), (LSA type 2, 3, 5 7).


(Advertising Router) , .
LSA (LS Sequence Number)
DDJ , 5.5.2, , .
LSA , , .
DDJ.
(LS Checksum) OSPF
DDJ . J
LS Checksum.
. , ,
,
. , ,
, .
(Length) OSPFJ
.
Link State ID Opaque type (8 ) Opaque ID ( 24
). Opaque ID Link State ID, Opaque
type Opaque LSA ( , LSA), 0J127
IETF, 128J255 .
Opaque: 1 , 2 Sycamore
Optical Topology Descriptions 3 Grace LSA.

5.8. OSPF
OSPF : (Adjacency),
(Link State) (Forwarding).
5.8.1.
Adjacency, , , LSR
LSR .

136

LSR ( , ,
..) J 224.0.0.5, ( OSPF),
, ,

J, .
OSPF .
. , , . ( , )
,
, .
, ,
J . .
5.8.2.
, , , , OSPF, .

(neighbor discovery), .. OSPF ,
OSPF.
,
. , ,
, .
5.8.3.
, , ,
,
, ,
OSPF.
.

OSPF

137

, , ( ).
,
.
. ,
, , ,
,
. , ,
, . , , ,
.
OSPF, , OSPF, 5.4.

5.9. OSPF
,
OSPFJ, SPF, OSPFJ,
LSAJ, OSPF, .
,
. OSPFJ
LSA, HELLO , ,
.
, LSR ,
.

, .
, ,
HELLO.
, ,
, .

138

, OSPF
,
, ,
. ,
.
RIP, , ,
, , RIPJ,
.
,
.
,
. OSPF
,
( ).
, ,
.
, . . 5.8.3
.

, . ,
. OSPF, .
OSPFJ
Llog2L,
L (). J J RIP, NL, N
.
OSPF . OSPFJ .
, ,
J ,

OSPF

139

, .
, , . ,
RIP. ,
. J , , ,
LinkJState Request OSPF, LinkJState Update
, ,
5.5.

5.10. SDL OSPF


, , SDLJ OSPFJ,
(. 5.10). , SDL, 2 .
, , , :
(Down)
(Init)
(TwoJWay)
DR BDR (Exstart)
(Exchange)
(Loading)
(Full)
0 (Down)
. ,
OSPF, 1 (Init),
OSPF .

140

OSPF

(Down)

ID Prior

ID

(Init)

DR

BDR

LSA
224.0.0.5

(Exchange)

(2 way)
LSA

Area ID

DR

BDR DR

Hello/Dead
Timer

DR

OSPF
Passw

Link State
Request

5
Stub Area
Flag ID

(Loading)

3
DR
BDR

ID Prior

. 5.10.

LSA

(Full)

OSPF

(Exchange)

SDL& OSPF

OSPF

141

1 , 224.0.0.5 J,
.
. ,
DR BDR,
,
OSPFJ .
, , .
, 2 (TwoWay),
.
J:
ID (OSPF Area ID).

(Hello/Dead timers).
(OSPF Password).
ID (Stub Area Flag ID).
,
J (
10 ) .
J
, ( dead)
.

(DR Designated Router)
(BDR Backup
Designated Router). 3
DR BDR. / DR BDR
. DR BDR
,
DR DR .
. DR BDR ,
J: ID (

142

) / ID (
).
DR, BDR.
, DR
,
ID BDR.
DR BDR ,
, , (Link State
database), .
, DR BDR
.
DR BDR

1, . DR ; 224.0.0.5. BDR , DR
. BDR DR. DR
, BDR.
DR
,
, OSPFJ,
.
DR BDR, 4 (Exchange).
DR BDR. ,
224.0.0.6. DR, BDR ,
, , DR
. ,
OSPF, 5.8.
DR ,
,
,

OSPF

143

, (Link State Request), 5 (Loading)


DR . ,
.
,

.
,
( ) 6 (Full).
OSPF
, OSPF . , ,
, OSPF ( 4 )
.
DR ,
.
OSPF .
ISJIS BGP,
, MPLS OSPF.

6
ISIS
6.1.
OSI ISIS (Integrated
Intermediate SystemtoIntermediate System)
, OSPF. OSPF IETF,
ISJIS ISO (International Standard Organization)
DECNet Phase V CLNP (Connectionless Network Protocol),
3 ISO CLNS
(Connectionless Network Service).
ISO (intermediate system, IS), (end system, ES).
ESJIS, , . ESJIS HelloJ ESH,
, HelloJ ISH,
(
Ethernet).
ISJIS ISO ,
, , ,
OSI Digital Equipment DECNet
DNA (Digital Network Architecture),
.
ISJIS DECNet DRP
(DECNet Routing Protocol),
DECNet Phase IV.
, ISJIS
, 500 .

IS-IS

145

OSPF, ISJIS ,
, ,
.
, , ISJIS
IETF RFC 1142 OSI ISJIS IntraJdomain Routing Protocol ( ) RFC 1195 Use of OSI ISJIS for routing in TCP/IP and dual
environments (
TCP/IP ).
MPLS ISJIS
, 5 OSPF.
IGP
, LDP.
,
.
. ,
,
, , ,
.
LSR
LSR
.
, ( ) .
,
,
, ,
OSPF ISJIS
RIP.
. , ..

.
,
ISJIS .

(flooding),

10.

146

( , , , ). Flooding
, .. , ,

, .

6.2. flooding ISIS


ISJIS OSPF Hello,
(flooding). OSPFJ LSU (Link State Update)
ISJIS LSP (Link State
Packet).
, LSP , ISJIS. , 6.
LSJ
ISJIS.
, ,
,
, .
,
, , ,
.
, , ,
, , , .
LSJ ISJIS .

(Split Horizon).
, LSJ
, .
.

MPLS, . 6.1.

IS-IS

147

LSR6
LSP 3

LSR3
LSR5
LSR1

LSR2
LSR4
LSR7

LSP 4

LSP 2

. 6.1.

MPLS&

LSR2 LSP, LSR1,


LSR3.
LSPJ LSR2 LSR1, .. LSR1 , ,
, .
LSR3 LSR2. LSR4,
LSR3,
LSR3.
,
, .
, . 6.1 LSR4

: LSR2 LSR3. , ,
.
(, LSR2 LSR4)
LSPJ LSR4 LSR3.

LSPJ ,
. LSPJ:
(Life Remaining) (Sequence). , LSPJ
J LSPJ LSR -

148

.
LSPJ
, .

6.3. ISIS
, ISJIS, ,
1024 64 .

. .
, : (delay), ,
(expense), , (error),
.
ISJIS QoS CLNP ,
. ISJISJ
, ISJISJ
Cisco, 10. IPJ 0 ,
, 10
. IPJ ,
ISJISJ passiveJinterface ISJIS .
, router(configJif)#isis
metric M [levelJ1 | levelJ2], M 0 63.
1, 2.
J , . , passiveJinterface, ISJIS ,
isis metric. passiveJinterface
ISJIS .

6.4. ISIS
, OSIJ NSAPJ (Network Service
Access Point).
,
. ISJIS , OSI,

IS-IS

149

NSAPJ. , , ISJIS
NSAPJ ,
OSIJ.
, NSAPJ . , NSAPJ
. , IDP (Initial Domain Part), , ,
. : AFI IDI.
, AFT (Authority
and Format Identifier), , , , IDI (Initial
Domain Identifier), .
, NSAP DSP (Domain Specific Part), , .
, IDP,
, J. , ,
.
, , .

6.5. ISIS
ISJIS
OSPF.
ISJIS CSNP (Complete Sequence Number Packet)
PSNP (Partial Sequence Number Packet),
DD (Database Description) LSR
(Link State Request) OSPF. ISJIS
(
0),
OSPF.
ISJISJ
.
1, (backbone) 2. OSPF,
ISJISJ (
, ).
NSAPJ .
. ,

150

, , (L1J2).
(attached bit), LSP,
.
(L1Jdatabase) , , .
,
.
2J , . ..,
ISJIS OSPF.
.
, , . . 2J
(
). ,
2J
. 2J
(L2 database).
2J
, . , ,
,
,
.
, L1. , L1J2.
, , ,
(Designated Router), DR, OSPF. .
LSPJ,
.
.
IS LSP- , LSP- 1J 2J

IS-IS

151

, .
IS .
IS , .
, IS,
J.
J.
, , LSPJ
, .
IS , , IS .
, ,
.
,

.

, ,
.
0 127.
,
IS J, .
ISJIS J
.
IS, -,
LSP- . ,
, IS .
LSPJ , J .
. 6.1 ,
,
.
J .
( , OSPF)
.
J, ,

152

J,
.

, .
IS ,
. , IS, J, , .
EthernetJ,
.
. ,
. . 6.1 ISJIS .
6.1.

Ethernet IS&IS

01802000014 1J
01802000015 2J
.
09002000005
J
09002000004

IS , .
J, .
ISJIS
, , .
1J , 2J
, ,
, .
1J .
,
. , 1J ,
(
). , , , ..
. 1J
,
, .. J,

IS-IS

153

. ,
,
. 1J , ,
.
, , , ,
.
2J
. , . , , ,
2J , , ,
. 2J ,
1J . 1J ,
.
2J
, .
,
1J .

6.6. ISIS
ISJIS :
 ISIS (ISIS Hello packets),
LSP (Link state packets),
SNP (Sequence numbers packets).
, . ,
.
, ISJIS , ISJISJ.
ISJIS
. 8J ,
. ,
, , .
, , ,

154

. ,
EthernetJ.
.
,
.
ISJIS RFC
1142, , IP MPLS/IP ,
RFC 1195. .
6.6.1. & Hello
J Hello (. 6.2.) ISJIS
.
. OSPF.
, , .
0

16

RR R

24

31

User ECO


RRRRRR


PDU

LAN

. 6.2.

& IS&IS

(Protocol Identifier), ISJIS.


131 (
83), ISJIS ISO.

IS-IS

155

(Length).
, 1 8 (),
ID NSAP (Network
Service Access Point). ,
ID 6 . ,
ID 0.
(Version), (, ISJIS ).
.
(Reserved) , .
, (Three
Reserved fields), .
(Packet Type) ISJIS (Hello, LSP SNP).
ECO User ECO .
ISJISJ.
, ,
.
, J, (Circuit
type), ,
. 1J 01,
2J 10, 1J2 11.
(Source ID), .
(Holding Time) , . , , , , .
PDU PDUJ .
(Priority) . , OSPF,
(Designated Router). 1J 2J .
. , OSPF,

(Backup Designated Router).
, . ,
J ,
.

156

(LAN ID Circuit
ID)
;
1J,
2J .
(Variable length fields)
, ..
ISJIS IP MPLS/IP ,
, :
Protocols Supported NLPID (Network Layer Protocol Identifiers),
IS. NLPID
ISO/TR 9577.
IP Interface Address IPJ , SNPA (Subnetwork Point of Attachment),
PDU.
Autentification Information PDU.
, IS
J . , J
,
, . ,
, OSPF.

.
IS J,
J.
, ,
, .
,
.
ISJIS
OSPF.
.
, 1J ,
2J .

IS-IS

157

6.6.2. LSP
, .
.
, .

LSPJ, IS
. LSPJ
.
1J 2J .
LSPJ ,
,
IS .
, 8J ,
J, .
PDU (PDU Length) PDUJ
.
(Remaining lifetime) , ,
PDUJ.
(LSP ID) J
LSPJ.
(Sequence Number)
.
(Checksum)
.
(Partition P) ,
1J, 2J ,
2J . 1,
,
. , .
(ATT Attachments) IS,
J ,
.

158

: , , . .
.
. , , 1 64, .
.
(OL Overload)
. 1 J
.
J, OL 1,
.
(IS Type) 1J 2J .
(Variable length fields)
IS,
(CLNP IP, ), ,
.. ,
LSPJ, , .
IPJ ,
. LSPJ
.
IS , , 1J, 2J
, .
,
IP MPLS/IP , ,
J, IP Internal Reachability
Information, IPJ ,
IS.
2 IP external
Reachablity Information, IPJ , IS,
InterDomain Routing Protocol Information ,
,
.

IS-IS

159

LSPJ, IS ,
, ,
.
6.6.3. SNP
(. 6.3.)
IS LSPJ. SNPJ
. CSNP (Complete Sequence Number
Packet) LSPJ, . PSNP
(Partial SNP) LSPJ.
CSNPJ
. , OSPF,
, ISJIS
. , PSNPJ , , J
(pointJtoJpoint) (..
) LSPJ,
. 1J 2J
, CSNPJ PSNPJ
.
8

16

RR R

31

24

User ECO

PDU
(7 )

LSP (8 )

LSP (8 )

. 6.3.

IS&IS SNP

160

. 6.3 SNP 8J .
PDU (PDU Length),
PDUJ .
(Source ID),

J
7 .
LSP (Start LSP ID),
8 CSNPJ, LSPJ,
.
LSP (End LSP ID),
8 CSNPJa,
LSP-, .
(Variable length fields), LSPJ ,
LSP, . 6.2.
IS .
6.2.
LSPJ

SP
SP

LSP .

, IS ,


LSPJ

, LSPJ
RFC 1195, Authentication
Information.

BGP
7.1. BGP MPLS
MPLS (OSPF, ISJIS, BGPJ4) Border Gateway Protocol
(BGP). BGPJ1 1989 , BGPJ4 1993 .
BGPJ4 ( ) . .
RFC1771, .
, , MPLS.
,
BGPJ4, ,
MPLSJVPN.
1
MPLS ,
. 1.1 .
OSPF, ISJIS,
BGPJ4 .
,
, , .
, , ,
.

OSPF ISJIS
AS, , , 11.

162

, J

MPLS, BGPJ4 . ,
BGPJ BGPJ
,
,
MPLS/IPJ , .
MPLS/IPJ : ,
.
,
5060,
1015 . , ,
,
, ,
, .. , .
, ,
MPLS/IP J
BGP .
BGP ,
BGPJ,
.
BGPJ BGP
TCPJ.
BGPJ, , , ,
, ,
,
. .
4 BGP BGP
: EBGP External Border Gateway Protocol, ,
IBGP Internal Border Gateway Protocol,
.

BGP

163

BGP OSPF
ISJIS , ,
 ( RIP, 5).
, . ,
, .
(hops) ,
. .
, , , 5 , ,
J BGP ,  (pathvector routing). , , J
.

7.2. 
 J
,
. .


. ,
. LSRJ,
LSRJA
. LSRJA , LSRJ ,
, ,
, LSRJA
LSRJ, LSRJ
.
, J,
(, , ..)

164

.
,
. {R, D}, R ,
, D , .. R D .
G
(
AS), IBGP,
,
AS,
EBGP.
BGP J
J ,
. , AS ,

BGPJ.
J
. , .

7.3. BGP
,
BGP. .
, ,
J PNNI, (PeerGroups) ISJIS .., .
AS , J ,
. BGP
,
IP PoP (Point of Presence),
, ,
.
ASN (Autonomous System Number)
AS
, -

BGP

165

BGP. ASN
IPJ , AS ,
.
AS J RFC
1930. ASN 1
65535.
ASN: 1 64511,
J , AS, ,
IBGPJ ,
BGP. ASN 6451265535
.
AS:
(multihomed),
, (single-homed),
(multihomed transit).
(multihomed) ,
. (multihomed nontransit).
,
.
(stub) (singlehomed)
. ,
BGPJ ,
.
.
AS , AS.

7.4. BGP
BGP: ,
BGP.
BGP (BGP speakers)
BGP. -

166

AS, .
IPJ BGP ASN, . ,
BGP, IPJ
, , ,
.
BGP,
, (Border Gateways).
, AS MPLS/IP
EBGP. :
. ,
AS BGP.
( )
BGP, .
,
BGP
. (BGP peer) .
BGP
;
G , .
BGP , , EBGP
(EBGP multihop peering). EBGP, BGP
, .
BGP
TCP, TCPJ 179.
BGP
, .
, .
BGP (
) . BGP

BGP

167

, ,

,
.
/
,
.

BGP
.
,

.
BGP ,
,
, . , , ,
BGPJ .
, BGP, ,
, IPJ ,
,
.
, , ,
, .
,
, IPJ.

7.5. EBGP
EBGP (Exterior Border Gateway Protocol) BGP
,
J PP,
.
,
, BGP
. ,
AS, AS ,
.
BGP
, .. ,

168

AS. BGP ,
, xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx.
IPJ ( ,
J) ,
. ,
. BGP
, , AS
.
, BGP ( ),
. ,
, ,

, BGP
, . ,
BGP, .
,
. BGP ( BGP).
, BGP .

7.6. IBGP
, BGPJ, AS,
. AS
.
BGP,
IBGP (Internal BGP).
IBGP EBGP ,
, AS,
AS_Path
(AS_Path
,
). , AS -

BGP

169

,
( AS), AS
AS_Path , .
,
IBGP ,
, BGPJ AS.

IBGPJ
, ..
IBGP.
,
: AS
(), .
( OSPF), BGPJ,

. BGPJ ; .
, , BGPJ AS,
BGPJ ,
BGPJ AS. ,
, , , , BGP,
.
, BGPJ BGPJ, BGPJ.

7.7. BGP
, BGPJ
, ..
N
N(NJ1)/2. , BGP
BGP (BGP
Confederations). AS AS, ASN.
AS, ,
, .

170

AS,
, IBGP
, AS, IBGP,
. IG, EBGP.
EBGP IBGP,
, IBGPJ.

7.8.
BGP
BGP ,
.
, .
, . ,

, .
, , , , ,
. J
.
MPLS , ,
.

BGP, (Local Preference).

BGP J ,
, , (flapping) .

. , , ,
, , .
,
(flap dampening), , ,

BGP

171

, .
.

7.9.
, BGP
. BGP.
ASPath ,
,
.
NextHop
,
.
Origin ,
, (IBGP) (EBGP). Origin
:
IGP, NLRI ,
. Origin IGP,
, RIP, OSPF IBGP, G
, AS.
EGP, NLRI
EGP.
Origin EGP,
,
BGP EBGP.
INCOMPLETE, NLRI .
Origin INCOMPLETE ,
,
.
.
IBGP, EBGP IGP, EGP. IBGP
EBGP BGP, IGP
EGP Interior Gateway Protocol (
) Exterior Gateway Protocol ( ).

172

Local_Preference
AS
( ).
Local Preference , . Local_Pref ,
. Local_Pref , 100.
Aggregator , AS, , BGPJ, .

,
.

7.10.
RIB (Routing Information Base)
BGPJ : AdjRIBsIn, , , LocRIB, , AdjJRIBsJIn
BGPJ, AdjRIBsOut,
, BGPJ .
BGPJ
.

7.11. BGP
7.11.1.
BGP ,
, .
, BGP,
, .
. 7.1 BGP.
(Marker), 16 BGP. BGP ,
.
,
.

BGP

173

16

24

31

(16 )

. 7.1.

BGP

:
(Length), 2 ,
BGP .
(Type) , .
,
.
BGP 4096 . BGP
,
.
7.11.2. OPEN
C BGP OPEN
1. , G.
, KEEPALIVE. . 7.2
OPEN.
0

15

AS

31

BGP

. .

. 7.2.

OPEN

OPEN .
(Version), 1 ,
BGP, -

174

,
. , ,
, , ,
.
(AS), 2 , AS, J.
(holdtime), 2J,
KEEPALIVE UPDATE. , . , ,
, , , .
G, 4 , J
ASN.
, 1 ,
,
, 0.
(Optional
Parameter) , J
. BGP
OPEN , .
7.11.3. UPDATE
BGP. UPDATE BGP .
. 7.3 ,
:
(NLRI Network Layer Reachability Information),
.

(. 7.3).
. , 2 , (withdrawn) .
, 0. ,
, IPJ, .

BGP

175

15

31


( )


( )

NLRI
( )

. 7.3.

BGP

2J , . , ,
BGP . , ,
NLRI IPJ ,
.
7.11.4. NOTIFICATION
J BGPJ . , NOTIFICATION,
3 , . ,
.
24

16

. 7.4

NOTIFICATION

31

176

,
.
,
J ,
.
7.1.

4
5
6

.
1

2

3

.
1

2
AS
3
BGPJ

4

OPEN
5

6

.
1

2

3

4

5


6
Origin
UPDATE
7
AS
8
Next_Hop
9

10

11
AS_PATH


,

7.11.5. Keepalive
KEEPALIVE ,
OPEN,
AS, ,
BGP, , ,
. KEEPALIVE
.

BGP

177

7.12. BGP
, BGP . ,
IGP
, BGP, , OSPF, ISJIS J .
. OSPF BGP, , ,
,
. BGP, BGP
, IGP.

7.13. BGP
BGPJ4 IPv4.
MPJBGP (MultiProtocol BGP) BGPJ4+ Multicast BGP. BGPJ4 ,
, IPv6, IPX, , MPLS,
VPNJIPv4.
, ,
, ,
BGPJ4 IPv4:
NEXT_HOP ( IPv4),
AGGREGATOR ( IPv4),
NLRI ( IPv4).
BGPJ4 ,
(next hop)
NLRI.
( NEXT_HOP)
,
( ) NEXT_HOP . ,
12.

178

,
.
, RFC 2858
NLRI,
(MP_REACH_NLRI), NLRI, , (MP_UNREACH_NLRI).
, MP_REACH_NLRI,

,
.
, MP_UNREACH_NLRI,
. .
BGPJ, , ,
, BGPJ.
8

16

Address family ID

31

24
SubAFID

NA N21

SNPA
SNPA
SNPA

SNPA

SNPA

. 7.5.

SNPA

SNPA

MP_REACH_NLRI

Multiprotocol Reachable NLRI MP_REACH_NLRI (


14) :

BGP

179

,
, ,
Network Layer Reachability Information MP_NLRI,

Subnetwork Points of Attachment (SNPAs), .
Address Family Identifier (AFID) , . ,
, RFC 3232.
Subsequent Address Family Identifie (SubAFID) NLRI, . . 7.2.
7.2. SubAFID

1
2
3


NLRI,
NLRI,
NLRI, ,

Length of Next Hop Network Address , 1 , Network Address of Next Hop,


.
Network Address of Next Hop ,
.
Number of SNPAs , 1 , SNPA, . 0 ,
, SNPA .
Length of Nth SNPA , 1 ,
Nth SNPA of Next Hop, .
Nth SNPA of Next Hop ,
SNPA ,
Network Address of Next Hop. , ,
SNPA, ; SNPA
, ,
.

180

Network Layer Reachability Information


NLRI , .
UPDATE, MP_REACH_
NLRI, ORIGIN AS_PATH
EBGP, IBGP. , IBGP
LOCAL_PREF.
,
, AS AS_PATH
,
. , NOTIFICATION Error Code UPDATE
Message Error Error Subcode, Malformed () AS_PATH.
UPDATE, NLRI, MP_REACH_NLRI, NEXT_HOP. NEXT_HOP,
BGPJ
.
Multiprotocol Unreachable NLRI MP_UNREACH_NLRI (Type
Code 15) ,
.
8

24

16

Address Family Identifier

31

SubAFID

Withdrawn Routes
. 7.6.

MP_UNREACH_NLRI

Withdrawn
Routes , NLRI
, . UPDATE, MP_UNREACH_NLRI, .
NLRI . Network Layer Reachability
<, >, .
(Length) .
,
( ) (
, ).
(Prefix)
, , . , .

BGP

181

31

. 7.7.

()
<&>

BGP Capability Advertisement. BGPJ,


, BGP Capability Advertisement , , . Capability Code
1, Multiprotocol Extensions capabilities.
Capability Length 4. Capability
Value , :
0

8
AFI

. 7.8.

16

31

24

SAFI

Capability Value

AFI Address Family Identifier (16 ), ,


Multiprotocol Extensions.
Res. (8 ) .
0, .
SAFI (Subsequent Address Family Identifier) 8 , Multiprotocol Extensions.
<AFI, SAFI> BGP-, (
Capability Advertisement)
<AFI, SAFI>.
, , . BGPJ UPDATE, MP_
REACH_NLRI MP_UNREACH_NLRI, ,
, BGP,
AFI, SAFI,
MP_REACH_NLRI
MP_UNREACH_NLRI. BGP,
UPDATE,
AFI, SAFI. ,
BGP,
UPDATE. / BGP ( NOTIFICATION),
Update Message Error/Optional Attribute Error
/ .



8.1. VPN
, VPN (Virtual
Private Network) . MPLS,

7.
VPN .
.
,
, , .
,
, , . , ,
, ..
. ,
, ,
, ,
.
, , . , , , , ,
, . J

183


. , . ,
.
VPN : (
),
( J ).
, IP, , J
J .
, . , , .
,
, . ,
. VPN .
VPN, , . , VPNJ
.
VPN
(IP, IPX, Apple Talk ..) PPP

.
IP , , ATM Frame Relay.
, .

, .
,

. ,
.

. J,

184


J . , , .

MPPE (Microsoft PointtoPoint Encryption) IPSec.

. J,
, VPN, .
:
VPN (Remote Access VPN),
VPN (Intranet VPN)
VPN (Extranet VPN).
VPN :

(PoP), , , , . .

.
Intranet VPN VPN:
, ,
.
Extranet VPN ,
,
, . Extranet VPN, ,
,
,
.
,
,
.
. -

185


(Firewalls). ,
, , .
, VPN, OSI,
.
VPN 2 VPN 3,
, URL https:// VPN 4. MPLSJVPN
VPN 2.5, 1.
VPN MPLS,
, ( Intronetics, ) ,
VPN MPLS, . ,
MPLS
VPN IPJ.
, , QoS
VPN
.
MPLSJVPN ,
MPLSJ.

8.2. MPLS


, , , , .
hopJbyJhop, .
MPLS
LSP, , . LSPJ
,

, .
LSPJ, , , (,

186

LSPJ

).
LSPJ LSP, . 8.1.
/ , ,
/ LSP, LSP, . , . 8.1. LSP, LSR1,
LSR2, LSR3, LSR4, LSR5, LSR6 LSR7, LSP LSPJ ,
LSR2 , LSR5 .

L2 L3


L3 L4

L1 L5

LSR3

LSR1

LSR4

LSR2

LSR5

LSR6

LSR7

LSP-
LSP

IP

LSP

MPLS
L5


L1

MPLS L2, L3, L4


L2 ,
L2-

LSP
MPLS
L5


L4 ()

IP


L5 ()

LSP -
LSP

. 8.1.

LSP& LSR2 LSR 5

LSP
LSPJ /
. ,
LSPJ LSPJ .
, ,
,
MPLS . , 2
. , , MPLS J, . , 2

187

MPLS LIFO (lastJin, firstJout),


, , ,
. , , ..
,
, .
2.1, ,
1, S .
,
.
, , LSRi, FECj,
, FECk
Ll LSRn,
FECj ( ).
LSRi Ll, ,
FECj.
, MPLSJ
LSP,
LSR, , LSPJ. LSPJ
,
.
, , . LSP (
FEC ), LSP
, , ,
FEC,
, . , J LSR,
,
, .
LSP m LSP, <LSR, LSR2, ... , LSRn1, LSR>
:
LSR ,
m;
i (1<i<n) , LSRi,
m;
LSR LSRn1
m;
i (1<i<n) LSRi LSRi+1 MPLS.
, LSP m
, LSR, m, -

188

LSR,
m, LSR,

m k, k>0, (JMPLS) . , LSRn1 LSRn
(mJ1),
m LSR .
LSR
LSR,
.
LSP m
LSPJ m. , , LSR
LSP, LSPJ, LSPJ
LSP, , . LSPJ
LSP, MPLS , .. MPLS LSPJ .

MPLS , . , ,
, . 8.2.

LSR1

LSR5

LSR6

LSR7

LSR2

LSP2 LSR5, LSR6 LSR7


LSP1 LSR1, LSR2, LSR3 LSR4
LSP3 LSR8, LSR9 LSR10

LSR4

LSR10

LSR9

LSP

. 8.2.

MPLS

LSR8

LSR3

189

(LSR1, LSR2, LSR3


LSR4) 7 BGP (
BGP VPN MPLS)
LSP1. LSR1 ,
LSR2. , LSR2 ,
LSR3, LSR3 , LSR4.
LSR LDP LSR4 LSR1.
, LSR1 LSR2,

LSR ( . 8.2 : LSR5, LSR6
LSR7). LSR1 LSR2 LSP2
LSPJ, LSR
LSR5, LSR6 LSR7. LSPJ , LSR LSP1. LSR3 LSR4, ..
LSP3,
LSPJ.
LSR1 LSR4
.
LSP1, LSP2 LSP3, . ,
, : LSP1
LSPJ LSP2, LSP1
LSPJ LSP3 .. LSR4,
, .
MPLS.
MPLS
(IP, IPX, Frame
Relay, ATM .),
,
. MPLS, IPSec, , IP, 2J PPTP L2TP, IETF
Microsoft Cisco ,
IP, IPX NetBEUI.
MPLS
,
, ,
VPNJIP. /
, , IPSec. IP Security
IPJ, ,
,

190

IPSec . 2 L2TP
(Layer 2 Tunnelling Protocol) ,  PPTP
(PointtoPoint Tunneling Protocol), ,
. MPLS , MPLS
, .
MPLS , . ,
, QoS LSPJ
LSR,
. ,
, , , LSP.
,
QoS, L2TP. VPN IPSec
QoS ,
PPTP .

8.3. MPLS
8.3.1. MPLS&VPN
VPN
: , , .
VPN ,
. VPN ,

J .
.
, P (private) VPN

.
VPN IP,

191

, IPJ.
LSPJ
MPLSJVPN, .. MPLS
LSPJ. ,
VPNJ ATM FR.
MPLSJVPN :
BGP/MPLSVPN VPN (VR)
IP.
MPLSJVPN, . 8.3.

CE

. 8.3.

PE

PE

CE

MPLS&VPN

MPLS, P, VPN ,

CE (Customer Edge router) PE (Provider Edge router). CE PE . CE PE
, , ATM, FR, Ethernet,
PPP, , IPSec, L2TP GRE (Generic Route Encapsulation).
VPN
MPLSJVPN .
MPLS BGP
, VR
VPN MPLSJ.
,
VPN ,
. IETF, ProviderProvisioned VPNs
(PPVPNs),
VPN .

192

8.3.2. MPLS/BGP&VPN
MPLS/BGPJVPN
7 BGP, BGP
.

PE VPN. PE MPLS/BGPJVPN
VRF (VPN Routing and Forwarding table). VRF
VPN,
. IPJ.
MPLSJVPN
VPN.
, ,
EXTRANET, J, VPN, MPLSJ
VPN .
VPN
, ,
VPN. MPLS/BGPJVPN RFC 2547 BGP/MPLS VPNs,
.
8.3.3. IP/MPLS
MPLSJVPN VR. VR

() . VR
VPN .

VR BGP .
VR , . VR , ,
VR VPN VR, VPN. VPN
, VPN
.
VPN ,
VR ;
-

193

: MPLSJVPN
,
MPLS.
8.3.4. MPLS&VPN

IPJ, , ,
, .
.
IPJ .
. 8.3,

CE, PE PPP, ATM, Ethernet,
Frame Relay ..
CEJ
. , VPN,
, .. .
IPJ VPNJIPJ
MPJBGP.
PEJ
,
,
. , J VPN, PEJ,
VPN. ,
, . ,
CEJ ,
VPN. PEJ
CEJ, VPN.

8.4. MPLSVPN
8.4.1. PE&
, PEJ
. ,
13.

194

PEJ PE1, PE2 PE3.


CEJ CE1, CE2 CE3, . CE1, CE2 CE3 ,
VPN. PE1 MPJBGP, PE2 PE3 , CE1.
, PE2 PE3
, ,
CE2 CE3. VPN,
PE VPN.
PEJ , ,
, ,
Internet VPN,
Internet.
VPN , ,
, MPLS (Backbone Router),
, ,
, , MPLS, ,
, IPJ.
PE
, ,
PE, , ,
, , .

, , VLAN.
VPN, PE

, RFC 2917.
8.4.2. BGP
PEJ BGP
. BGPJ , VPN , VPN.
,
VPNIPv4 Address Family.

195

VPNJIPv4 12 , ,
RD (Route Distinguisher), 4 IPv4
(.8.4). VPN IPv4J,
PEJ VPNJIPv4.

, IPJ, VPN.
RD

IPv4. VPNJIPv4,
IPv4J.

12

16

(2 )

31

IP v 4
(4 )
. 8.4.

Route Distinguisher

RD ,

, RD, . RD 2J ,
(Administrator)
(Assigned Number).
, .
BGP, .
. ,
, IPv4J.

IPv4J
VPNJIPv4. VPNJIPv4, IPv4J.
PEJ ,
CE, RD. PE
, , CE, RD RD.

196

8.5.
8.5.1. VPN
PE-
VPN (Target VPN). PEJ
VPNJIPv4, Target
VPN, BGP . , Target VPN ,
PEJ,
, Target VPN .
PEJ,
, Target VPN T.
Target VPN, PE- , S. Target VPN,
PEJ ,
, PE,
,
S. .
, Target VPN, BGP Communities Attribute,
16J .
BGPJ
VPNJIPv4,
BGP.
, RD, Target VPN.
, BGP ,
.
Target VPN, ,
.
PE Target VPN,
. PE ,
, ,
Target VPN, , , , Target VPN,
Target VPN. ,
CEJ,
PEJ, Target VPN. -

197

VPN.
PEJ Target
VPN, , Target VPN, PE .
8.5.2. VPN&
VPNJIPv4
VPN (VPN of Origin). ,
,
.
, , , Intranet, .
, , VPN.
8.5.3. &
Site of Origin
, PEJ . ,
, ,
PE PE.
Site of Origin.
8.5.4. PE
AS,
PEJ IBGP ,
, . IBGP
IBGP, ..
, AS.
AS (,
), PEJ IBGP
ASBR , ASBR. ASBR
EBGP ASBR,
AS. ,
,
,
.

198

PEJ
BGP, BGP_Next_
Hop .
MPLS. PE VPNJIPv4, VPNJIPv4,
IETF, MPLS
BGPJ4, draft. PE , ,
, .
, CEJ, .
.
, PEJ,
CE, PEJ .
,
, PEJ . ,
MPLSJVPN ,
, PEJ , VPN,
PJ, .. MPLSJ,
VPNJIPv4 , MPLSJVPN .

8.6.
VPN, MPLS
. PEJ ( ASBR,
VPNJIPv4) IGP .
MPLS
PE.
CE, PEJ
. CEJ, PE, .
BGP_Next_Hop,
. PE IGPJ BGP_Next_Hop , IGP.
, IGP ( , IGP BGP

199

, ).
MPLSJ, PEJ
CEJ,
IPJ.
, ,
CE, PEJ.

8.7.
CE PE
PEJ, VPN,
, VPN .
CEJ (host)
(switch), PEJ. CEJ , PEJ .
PE VPNJIPv4, RD. PE VPNJIPv4 BGP.
PE CE , CE VPN .
VPN VPN, ,
,
VPN, PEJ,
PEJ. VPN
(stub VPN). VPN, ,
.
. , .. , , VPN.
PE CE RIP. CE PE . , PEJ CEJ
OSPF.
, OSPF, CE ABR
, PE ABR . VPN.
PEJ CEJ
BGP, CE BGP ( , EBGP),

200

PE .
, VPN, ,
, , .., IGP , PE
CE.
, .. BGP , . BGP
CE PE.
, BGP CE, , ,
VPN J.
VPN,
ASN,
ASN.
Site of Origin,
. VPN,
BGP ,
VPN , VPN. VPN
BGPJ ,
BGPJ ,
.
,
.
VPNJIPv4, , PE Site of Origin, VPN of Origin Target VPN,
.

PE CE. , CEJ
. , PE
, ,
, CE.
: , Site
of Origin, CEJ, , . PE CE ,
CE PE.
, ,
PE CE ( CE PE)
.

201

8.8. MPLS
CE MPLS
, VPN, PE
. CE
, PE , BGP,
BGP (BGP Next Hop).
8.8.1.
CE PE
BGP, MPLS, . CE

, , CE PE
,
CE .
,
PE . , CE , , PE ,
,
.
8.8.2. VPN &
VPN J,
CEJ MPLS, VPN
(stub), .
CE PE ,
VPN, PE
CE . ,
VPN, BGP.

8.9. MPLSVPN
VPN
RFC 2547, .
RFC 2917 A Core MPLS IP VPN Architecture,
VPN, . BGP .
, RFC 2917
, .

202

8.10. VPN MPLS


,
,
MPLSJVPN. . 8.5 , MPLS
.
VPN . . 8.5 VPN: , ,
,
.
208.22.14.8

1 VPN B
CE3

If1

P
213.10.2.11

2
P
P
1
CE1

If2

P
P
P
PE3

1 VPN A

2 VPN B

4
P

2 VPN A
P
P

CE6
PE6

3 VPN B

P
5

C5

. 8.5.

MPLS

MPLSJVPN : , VPN
, LSP,
, .. .
, . PE CE
PE
. ,
LSP PE.

203

, VPN MPJBGP (MultiProtocol Border


Gateway Protocol). MPJBGP PE VRF. 7 BGP
, , IGP, ,
.
.. VPN
RD, J
,
, RD. RD
, IPJ, VPN. ,
, , .
, ,
, PE, VRF
, VPN
MPJBGP.
, , Site
of Origin, VPN of Origin Target VPN. ,
, , , , : ,
Site of Origin,
J, , .
LSP.
MPLS LSP PE.
LSP PE P, LSP. J . J
.
,
LIB,
.
, , .

204

LSP :
LDP,

RSVPJ CRJLDP. LSP
LDP, best effort.
LSP
, RSVP,

.
, PE
LDP. , LSP
, LSP,
LDP. , .

:
J
,
,
MPLS,
.
. , ,
CE. ,
J.
. , VRF. ,
, .
VRF LIB, .
MPLS, J
J,
IPJ.
.
VPN.

205

MPLS:
,
, ,
, .
J
.
. , , , .
J .
. 8.5
VPN

.
. 8.6.
P1

P2

C2

C1

IGP
(OSPF IS-IS)
Net = 213.10.2.14;
Next Hop =CE2

. 8.6.

MP-BGP
VPN-IP =
208.22.14.8:1:213.10.2.14;
Next Hop = 208.22.14.8;
Lvpn=2;
RT=A

EBGP

2 OSPF ISJIS 2 .
IPJ VPNJA 2 (if1): Net = 213.10.2.11; Next Hop = CE2.
2
,
, VRF.
, MPJBGP ,

206

J
. 1, 2 VPNJI,
RD, Next Hop,
, VPN,
VPNJ
2, , , ,
RT, Site_of_Origin, VPN_of_Origin. MPJBGP : VPNIP =
208.22.14.8:1:213.10.2.11; Next Hop = 208.22.14.8; Lvpn=2; RT=A.
1 VPNJIPv4, R ,
( VRF1A VRF1B). routeJtarget
, (
RD) VRF2A,
. VRF2B ,
,
routeJtarget .
1 1 AS,
EBGP.
LSP . 8.5
. LSPJ MPLS
LDP, , LSP (. 8.7).

, , QoS, LSPJ.
, ,

, LSP , QoS,
, Path ERO,
. ERO
3, 2, 1, 1.

, (. 8.8) . Path
Label Request, Session, Sender Template, Time Values,
Sender Tspec.

P1

207

P1

P2

P3

PE2

Label Request
Label Mapping
LMPLS=1

Label Request
Label Mapping
LMPLS=2

Label Request

LSP
Label Mapping
LMPLS=3

Label Request

LSP

Label Mapping
LMPLS=4

LSP

LSP

. 8.7.

P3

P2

P2

P1

P1

Path
Label Request, ERO
(P3,P2,P1,PE1),
Session,
Sender Template,
Time Values=80,
Sender Tspec

Path
Label Request,
ERO (P2,P1,PE1),
Session,
Sender Template,
Time Values=80,
Sender Tspec

Path
Label Request,
ERO (P1,PE1),
Session,
Sender Template,
Time Values=80,
Sender Tspec

Path
Label Request,
ERO (PE1),
Session,
Sender Template,
Sender Tspec
Resv

Resv
Resv
Resv
Label=4, Session,
Filter Spec,
Time Values=80.
Style, Flowspec

Label=3, Session,
Filter Spec,
Time Values=80.
Style, Flowspec

Label=2, Session,
Filter Spec,
Time Values=80.
Style, Flowspec

LSP-

. 8.8.

LSP&

Label=1, Session,
Filter Spec,
Time Values=80.
Style, Flowspec

208

, Path,
ERO , .
3, 2, 1, Path 1. , ,
.
, , 1
, Resv 1. Resv,
Label, Session, Filter Spec, Time Values, Style,
Flowspec, , Path, .. 1, 2,
3 2, .
, LSPJ, , , .
, , (. 8.9) ,
. 8.5 VPN,
. MPLSJTE , ,
VPN A.
213.10.2.11

208.22.14.8
C2

P2

P3

P1

P2

PE1

CE1

FW

IP-
IP-
LSP-
LMPLS
Lvpn=4

LMPLS
Lvpn=3

LMPLS
Lvpn=2

LMPLS
Lvpn=1

IP-
IP-
IP-
IP-

. 8.9.

213.10.2.11 IPJ. , AS, 2.


, -

209

CE2
2.
IPJ 2 VRFJ Lvpn. LIB, , QoS
LSPJ.
,
Lvpn. ,
P , Lvpn .
LSPJ ( PE1) Lvpn .
LMPLS.

PE1: 1
VRF VPNJA, ,
.
1 IP. IPJ
1, ,
FW. , . 208.22.14.8.
, VPN .
,
IPJ,
,
VPN
MPLS. MPLS VPN NGN.

14.

9.1. MPLS
, ,
. ,
,
, ,
, ,
. , ..

(QoS) , Traffic
Engineering (TE). ,
: .
,
, , , MPLS . ,
IGP,
J (RIP),
(OSPF ISJIS).
, . RIP
(hops) .
-

211

OSPF ISJIS :
,
.. ,
.
EGP, ,
7 BGPJ4. , BGPJ4 , ,
IGP EGP,
,
,
.
,
, LSP . , OSPF
, ,
, ,
.
, SPF (ortest Path First),
, J . . 9.1
MPLSJ 7 LSR1 LSR7,
. 1.3 . LSR2 LSR5,
OSPF LSR6.
, LSR2JLSR6JLSR5 , LSR2JLSR3JLSR4JLSR5 .

LSR6

LSR1

LSR2

LSR5

LSR7
LSR3

. 9.1.

LSR4

, LSR1 LSR5, . 9.2.

212

LSR6

LSR1

LSR2

LSR5

LSR7
LSR3

. 9.2.

LSR4

. 9.1 9.2 ,

.
,
,
. ,
,
QoS, ,
/ /,
QoS . ,
.
,
, , , LSR1 LSP
FEC LSP, LSR7. , FEC
, IPJ
,
.
, , , .
TE QoS
, TE
.
. TE - (Traffic Engineer) . ,
. J
, ,

213

, ,
, . , , ,
,
.
:
,
, ,
, .
J (
), .

, , .
,
MPLS . , , . ,
, ,
. .

. , (
), , , , . 9.3.
MPLS , .
, . ,
,

.
. , , .

214

. 9.3.

. 9.3,
MPLS.

RFC 2702: , ,

.

9.2.
MPLS,
( ) .
, MPLS
. MPLS ,
, ,

215

LSP . MPLS , ..
, , .. ,
.
IETF, MPLS, . ,
RSVPJTE CRJLDP, 3 4.
RSVP MPLS ,
IP, , QoS, .
.

MPLS LDP
QoS. ,
,
proposed standard.
,
IETF MPLS
, .

,
, .
, MPLS,
,
, ,
.
, , .
,
. ,
.
,
.

9.3.
, LSP ,
MPLSJ , FEC.

216

LSR .
, < LSRi LSRi+1
LSRnJ1 lSRn>,
FEC (.. , LSP),
, .
MPLS traffic trunk,
,
LSP. , traffic trunk
, FEC.
MPLS
MPLS. LSR,
, , , LSP , .
MPLS
:
,
;
, ;
LSP
;
,

.
, ,
, , ,

(J) . ,
.
.
9.3.1.
.
, FEC
MPLS. , IETF:

(, , FEC), -

217

LSP. LSP.

LSP, ,
. :
, .
, .

LSP.
Resource Class Affinity , LSP
. ,
LSP.
, , : .
(). ,
( ) , ,
,
() ().
. , ,
LSP, , .
Preemption , ,
:

preemptor enabled ,
nonJpreemptor ,
preemptable ,
nonJpreemptable .
, , , Preemption preemptor enabled.

218

(Resilience)
() . Resilience ,
() .
Resilience .
Policing , , / , ..
J .
Policing , / ,
J .
9.3.2.

,
, .
Maximum Allocation Multiplier (MAM)
, , (). , ,
. LSR.
Resource Class . , ,
.

.

9.4.
(constraintbased routing)
, , ,
, ,
,
.
IGPJ ,
hopbyhop.
,

, .
, ,

219

. ,
.
,
,

.
,
.
. ,
.
.
. , , ..
FEC, ,
.
:

( ,
, );
;

IGP;
, ;
, .

9.5. TE MPLS

TE, , MPLS , MPLSJ LSP
LSPJ.
MPLS, , , , . :
,
TE;
IGPJ,
;

220

,
MPLS ,
IGPJ;
LSP (
LSPJ), LSP (LSPJ) ;
,
MPLS.
, TE ,
, , SPF. LSRJ
MPLS . 9.4.

IGP

LSP
LSP

LSD

TED

IS - IS / OSPF


. 9.4.

LSR

LSR :
LinkState Database (LSD), Traffic Engineering Database (TED), . MPLS
TE .
, LSP,
LSR
. , . 9.5 9.6.

221

1 /

1 /

LSR6

LSR2

. 9.5.

LSR5

(. 9.5),
, LSR2 LSR6, LSR5.
LSP,
. 9.6, , , LSP LSR2
LSR6 300/, LSP LSR2 LSR5
LSR6 700 / LSP LSR6 LSR5 300 /.

LSR6

30
LSR2

/
LSR5

700 /
1 /

. 9.6.

30

1 /

LSP

,
, , ,

. , ,
,
.
.
MPLS
IGPJ, OSPFJTE ISJISJTE,
:
,
, ,
,
,
.

222


, ,
OSPF ISJIS ,
, .
, (CSPF ), ,
, TED.
.

, , ,
, IGPJ,
TEJ.
online offline
. onlineJ
J ( J)
MPLSJ ,
, .
offlineJ online- ,
,
. , offlineJ
,
,
(J).
onlineJ , ,
: LSP offlineJ,
onlineJ ,
LSP
, . , offlineJ onlineJ
, , , ,
.
LSP MPLSJ .
. 9.4 .

.
LSP ,

. LSP, .

223

LSP , TE
,
. ,
FRR (Fast ReRoute).
MPLS, ,
, ,
J, (, TE) , J, FRR.
,
. , , LSP (LSPJ)
, J , , . FRR
, , LSP,
. ,
. ,
LSP.
. 9.7 , FRR , LSR1
LSR4 LSR2JLSR3. LSP LSR1 LSR4
LSR2 LSR3 25 9.
LSR2JLSR3 LSR2 LSR3, LSR5 LSR6. 38 15. LSR2 ,
LSR3 , , LSR3, .
38
Label Swapping ( 25 9).
25
9
38

LSR2

LSR1

6
9 38

LSR5
38 15

. 9.7.

LSR4

LSR3

25

LSR6
9 15

15

FRR

224

, FRR , , LSP, ,
, ,
LSP.
,
FRR,
draft IETF,
FRR .

9.6. CRLDP RSVPTE


9.6.1.
,
RFC 2702 MPLS.
CRJLDP RSVPJTE ,
.
.
QoS
RSVPJTE , . CRJLDP
(edge rules) (per hop
behaviors), ,
, .
RSVPJTE
, . CRJLDP

TCP.
RSVPJTE
makebeforebrake, LSP,
, . CRJLDP , LSP.

RSVPJTE RRO. CRJLDP LDP Path_Vector_TLV.
, LSP.

225


LSP LSP ID.
RSVPJTE (Tunnel ID),
LSP .
.

.
,
,
.
9.6.2.
CRJLDP RSVP ,
. .
CRJLDP RSVPJ, . 9.1.
9.1

CR&LDP RSVP&



LSP

LSP

LSP

LSP
LSP
LSP





3

15.

CR&LDP

RSVP&

TCP

IP

,
,
,

226

CRJLDP RSVP,
9.1, , . RSVP IP, .
CRJLDP UDP,
MPLS;
TCPJ. RSVP ,
IP, RSVP,
IPJ , .
IP.
CRJLDP
TCP. J, TCP

. J, LSR
TCPJ, TCP FIFO ,

, . , J , ,
, , .
CRJLDP , TCP. , TCP
, , TCPJ
, CRJLDP.
Path RSVP LSR,
LSR. , IPSec ( IETF
IP )
, LSR ,
Path. RSVP ,

. CRJLDP,
TCPJ
, .. TCP
J .
IPJ CRJLDP RSVPJTE. RSVP

227

IP, .

, 28
2004 MPLS IETF draft
, , , RSVPJTE
. RSVPJTE .
RSVP
J
.
, RSVP
, .. , , , , . ,
IPJ, ,
.
RSVP. RSVP ,
RSVP , , RSVPJTE
LSP, .
,
LSP, LSP, , ,
.
, LSR,
. RSVPJTE ,
LSR. ,
.
500 LSP.
CRJLDP , LSR ,
.
, CRJLDP, 500
. LSR
200
LSP, .. LSP

228

. , ,
QoS LSP, ,
, . , RSVP CRJLDP
MPLS, LSP,
.
, .. 99,999%.

J (, ,
) .
LSP
, MPLS.
, RSVP , ,
.
, , RSVPJTE .
, CRJLDP
. ,
TCP ,
TCP TCPJ.
CRJLDP LSP, LSR.
, RSVP
MPLS .
CRJLDP RFC 3479, .
CRJLDP RSVP.

. LSR
, , ATM, LSP , , LSP. , ATM
, CRJLDP, RSVP
-

229

LSP. LSR
, , Ethernet,
,
WAN,
.
LSP , . CRJLDP Hello Keepalive , ,
LSR . ,
TCP , , , ,
LSP MPLS, .
RSVP
Path Resv ,
, . ,
,
.
RSVPJTE
LSR
Hello. ,
.
 , MPLS
. , LSP
. , ,
LSP. ,
LSP,
J .
IETF MPLS RFC, RSVPJTE,
CRJLDP, - GMPLS, .
, CRJLDP RSVPJTE LSP.
CRJLDP
Label Request.
MPLS LSP.
LSP,

230

Label Mapping,
LSR .
LSP ,
.
RSVPJTE Path
Tspec. , LSP. LSR .
, Path
LSR, Tspec
Flowspec, Resv ,
LSP. , , Resv ,
,
LSP J .
RSVPJTE Adspec,
Path. LSR ,
, , ,
Flowspec, Resv. , , LSR ,
, ,
Path, , Resv, LSP.
LSR, RSVP, :
Path. ,
Tspec,
Flowspec, , , .
CRJLDP
, ,
.
RSVPJTE Path
Resv .
.
RSVPJTE, , ,
, RFC 2749, COPS (Common Open Policy
Service).

231

, CRJLDP

.
3. LSP ,
,
MPLS 3.
LSR (,
J ), 3 ,
.
, LSR, ,
, 3 .
3 .
RSVPJTE LSP, CRJLDP
. RSVP ,
LSP .
LSP,
,
MIB
MPLS. MIB ,
draft. CRJLDP ,
, RSVPJTE,
MIB, CRJLDP.
9.6.3. RSVP&TE CR&LDP
,
. RSVP
. , LSP , .
RSVP
IPJ, ,
, ,
. LSP , .
, ().

232

Path RSVP 128 , 16 , . Resv


100 . 10 000 LSP
30
600 / . ,
.
CRJLDP LSR
LSP . ,

CRJLDP TCP. CRJLDP
Label Request Label Mapping. TCP
, 20 . CRJLDP Hello, ,
, Keeplive
TCPJ. ,
LSP, ,
. , CRJLDP, , , RSVP. IETF
RFC 2961, , RSVP.
, MPLS RSVP IETF.

,
RSVP . RSVP, MESSAGE_ID MESSAGE_ID_ACK.
. ,
LSR1 RSVP,
, , PATH,
LSR2. LSR1 , MESSAGE_ID RSVP, .
, LSR2 ,

233

LSR1 , MESSAGE_ID_ACK
. LSR2 J , LSR1,
MESSAGE_ID_ACK ;
ACK.
,
. , RSVP,
, .
, , . ,
.
, . ,
,
. , , .. ,
, .
,
(summary refresh). ,
RSVP, ,
. . , ,
RSVP
. ,
, ,
,
.

RSVP SREFRESH.
. , , ,
, ,
MESSAGE_ID, .

234


MESSAGE_ID, . ,
,
.
, ,
MESSAGE_ID_NAK.
, , RSVP,
MESSAGE_ID.
, RSVP MPLS.
LSP .
RSVPJTE ,
RSVPJTE
. , RSVP , , RSVPJTE CRJLDP
.
9.6.4. RSVP&TE CR&LDP
LSP .
()
LSP LSP . LSP
LSR .
, LSP LSR,
LSP. LSP
LSP,
, ,
( ), ,
LSP LSP ( ). ,
Fast ReRoute.
, ,
CRJLDP, RSVPJTE, , .
LSR, RSVPJTE,
, /

235

,
LSP, .
,
. , LSP.
, PathTear ResvTear.
(makebeforebreak),
.. , ( ) , ,
LSR, , .
CRJLDP ( modify
Label Request), RSVPJTE ( SharedJExplicit).
, LSP LSR ,
.
,
.
CRJLDP .
, ,
, ,
.
RSVP .
. LSR , Path Resv
Record Route (RRO). LSR Path,
.
RSVPJTE, CRJLDP LSP LSP
. CRJLDP
, , RSVPJTE .
CRJLDP, TCP LDPJ.
CRJLDP -

236

LSR. LDPJ,
TCP. RSVPJTE, .
, RSVP ,
, .
.
LSP, , LSP, , ,
LSP . , RSVPJTE CRJLDP
, modify
Label Request ( ,
LSP ).
LSP
LSP
. , , LSP ,

LSP ( ,
50 ).
LSP.
LSP
LSR LSP
. , , J
,
(
, , ). IPJ
.
LSP , LSR 2.
LSP
. , 2 ,
LSP .
,
LSR.

237

9.6.5.
,
RSVPJTE, CRJLDP,
.
IETF CRJLDP, RSVPJTE, ..
CRJLDP, ,
.
, RSVP

, ,
RSVP , , RSVPJTE
.
CRJLDP , , IETF
. , ,
RSVPJTE, , Nortel
Networks Nokia
CRJLDP, Cisco Systems Juniper Networks
RSVPJTE.
J
, ,
. ,

.
, . Nortel Networks, CRJLDP,
WebJ
CRJLDP. , , MPLSJ ,
CRJLDP, RSVPJTE. , , , RSVPJTE,
.
, , , .

238

:
. RSVPJTE
, CRJLDP, ,
, , RSVPJTE
. ,
, , , ,
11.
MPLS.
MPLSJTE MPLS ,
LDP, . , CRJLDP LDP, CRJLDP
LDP. , RSVPJTE
, RSVPJTE
LSP ,
LDP . , , : .
, IP, ICMP ARP , IPJ ,
, IPJ ,
J .
, RSVPJTE
CRJLDP .

MPLSJTE
.
.
. IETF
MPLS CRJLDP,

RSVPJTE. , RSVPJTE RFC, IETF,
.

10
GMPLS
10.1. MPLambS GMPLS
MPLS,
9 , ( , , ),
MPLS
.
Generalized MPLS 2003 ,
. ,
GMPLS

.
GMPLS, MPLambdaS (.. ) , MPS,.
(lambdas) , , , ,
,
. MPLambdaS
, ,
MPLS DWDM ATM SDH.


, . OXC (Optical CrossConnect) ,
MPLS LSR, .
OXC IP. LSP, J
,

240

10

FEC, .
, MPLS,
3 4 CRJLDR RSVPJTE, .
, CRJLDP RSVP , IETF
RSVPJTE CRJLDP.
GMPLS. , 2002 IETF
RFC 3468, MPLS, , QoS.
: LDP,
QoS, RSVP,
QoS, , ,
. 2002 GMPLS, , 22 21
RSVPJTE
CRJLDP.
, CRJLDP proposed standard,
, RSVPJTE.
MPLS , .
GMPLS, Generalized ,
RSVPJTE.
5 6 IGP- OSPF ISIS , . LSP OXC LSR
OXC LSR
OXC LSR ,
.
GMPLS MPLambdaS
MPLS,
,
( ), .
(,
, SDH, ), ( OXC,
)

GMPLS

241

( ,

, ).
, MPLS GMPLS TDM,
FDM SDM. ,
2, ..
,
GMPLS:
J MPLS, ,
TDM ,
FDM ( ) ,
SDM , , .
GMPLS RFC 3471,
, RFC 3472, CRJLDP, RFC 3473,
RSVPJTE. , RFC
3471 ,
.
Generalized
. , GMPLS
, MPLSJ.
, LSR,
,
, ,
. ,
LSR :
PacketJSwitch Capable (PSC), ..
LSR,
,
, , MPLSJLSR
ATMJ;
TimeJDivision Multiplex Capable (TDM),
,
, SDH ;

16.

242

10

Lambda Switch Capable (LSC), , .. J;


FiberJSwitch Capable (FSC), , , ,
.
PSCJ , MPLSJ,
PSC PSC,
GMPLS.
, , . 10.1. FSCJ, LSC, TDM , , PSC.
, LSP, PSCJ,
( LSP) LSP,
TDMJ. LSP TDM
LSP,
.

PSC-LSP1
PSC-LSP3
PSC-LSPi

TDM-LSP

PSC-LSP1
PSC-LSP3
PSC-LSP0

TDM-LSP

LSC

.
.
.
PSC-LSP1
PSC-LSP3
PSC-LSPi

TDM-LSP

PSC-LSP1
PSC-LSP3
PSC-LSP0

TDM-LSP

- 48
. 10.1.

()
FSC


PSC
TDM

- 192

LSP GMPLS

MPLS ,
LSP, ,
LSP, LSP.
TEJ MPLS, LSP,
. , , LSP,
,
ATMJ ATMJ. GMPLS -

GMPLS

243

,
MPLS,
, .
, MPLSJTE , LSP
, GMPLS
, LSP
LSR.
LSP LSP GMPLS
( PSCJ) , . , JPSC ,
PSC.
GMPLS LSR
, , MPLS,
LSR ,
LSP, .
GMPLS
, LSR: LSR
J
LSP. J
,
, ,
.
J GMPLS , PSC, LSP. ,
, LSP ; JPSC . ,
LSP
.
GMPLS , ,
. GMPLS
.
GMPLS , MPLS ,
, ,
IP, LMP (LinkManagement Protocol).

,
.

244

10

.
, IPJ.

. /
. LMP ,
.
LMP ,
, .

.

10.2. GMPLS
TDM

, (generalized
label). .
10.2.2,
GMPLS.
10.2.1.
(. 10.2) , LSP.
LSP .
LSP Encoding Type LSP ( SDH, Gigabit
Ethernet ..). LSP, ,
.
,
, ,
. ;
LSP.
0

16
Length

LSP Enc. Type

. 10.2.

Switching Type

24

Class-Num (19)

C-Type (4)

G-PID

32

GMPLS

245

. 10.2
.
LSP Encoding Type 8J ,
LSP . LSP Encoding Type
10.1.
Switching Type 8J , . , . LSP
Switching Type . 10.2.
Generalized PID (GPID) 16J ,
, LSP. ,
. GJPID
LSP LSP.
Ethernet LSP
Ethertype. . 10.3.
10.1. LSP Encoding Type
LSP


Encoding Type

00000001
1

00000010
2
Ethernet
00000011
3
ANSI/ETSI PDH
00000100
4

00000101
5
SDH ITUJT G.707 SONET ANSI T1.105
00000110
6

00000111
7
Digital Wrapper
00001000
8
J
00001001
9
()
00001010
10

00001011
11

10.2. LSP Switching Type

Switching Type
00000001
00000010
00000011
00000100
00110011
01100100
10010110
11001000

1
2
3
4
51
100
150
200


PacketJSwitch CapableJ1 (PSCJ1)
PacketJSwitch CapableJ2 (PSCJ2)
PacketJSwitch CapableJ3 (PSCJ3)
PacketJSwitch CapableJ4 (PSCJ4)
LayerJ2 Switch Capable (L2SC) 2J
TimeJDivisionJMultiplex Capable (TDM)
LambdaJSwitch Capable (LSC) J
FiberJSwitch Capable (FSC)

246

10

10.3. G&PID
GJPID

0000000000000000

0000000000000001

0000000000000010

0000000000000011

0000000000000100

0000000000000101

Asynchronous mapping of E4

SDH

0000000000000110

Asynchronous mapping of DS3/T3

SDH

0000000000000111

Asynchronous mapping of E3

SDH

0000000000001000

Bit synchronous mapping of E3

SDH

0000000000001001

Byte synchronous mapping of E3

SDH

0000000000001010

10

Asynchronous mapping of DS2/T2

SDH

0000000000001011

11

Bit synchronous mapping of DS2/T2

SDH

0000000000001100

12

SDH

0000000000001101

13

Asynchronous mapping of E1

SDH

0000000000001110

14

Byte synchronous mapping of E1

SDH

0000000000001111

15

Byte synchronous mapping of 31 * DS0

SDH

0000000000010000

16

Asynchronous mapping of DS1/T1

SDH

0000000000010001

17

Bit synchronous mapping of DS1/T1

SDH

0000000000010010

18

Byte synchronous mapping of DS1/T1

SDH

0000000000010011

19

VCJ11 VCJ12

SDH

0000000000010100

20

0000000000010101

21

0000000000010110

22

DS1 SF Asynchronous

SONET

0000000000010111

23

DS1 ESF Asynchronous

SONET

0000000000011000

24

DS3 M23 Asynchronous

SONET

0000000000011001

25

DS3 CJBit Parity Asynchronous

SONET

0000000000011010

26

VT/LOVC

SDH

0000000000011011

27

STS SPE/HOVC

SDH

0000000000011100

28

POS , 16 CRC

SDH

0000000000011101

29

POS , 32 CRC

SDH

0000000000011110

30

POS , 16 CRC

SDH

0000000000011111

31

POS , 32 CRC

SDH

0000000000100000

32

ATM mapping

SDH

0000000000100001

33

Ethernet

SDH, Lambda,

0000000000100010

34

SONET/SDH

Lambda,

0000000000100011

35

Lambda,

0000000000100100

36

Digital Wrapper

Lambda,

0000000000100101

37

Lambda

0000000000100110

38

ANSI/ETSI PDH

SDH

0000000000100111

39

SDH

0000000000101000

40

LAP SDH (LAPS X.85 X.86)

SDH

0000000000101001

41

FDDI

SDH, Lambda,

0000000000101010

42

DQDB (ETSI ETS 300 216)

SDH

0000000000101011

43

0000000000101100

44

HDLC

SDH

0000000000101101

45

Ethernet V2/DIX

SDH, Lambda,

0000000000101110

46

Ethernet 802.3

SDH, Lambda,

GMPLS

247

32J
IEEE SENDER_TSPEC
FLOWSPEC. LSP
. . 10.4.
10.4.

DS0
DS1
E1
DS2
E2
Ethernet
E3
DS3
STSJ1
Fast Ethernet
E4
FCJ0 133M
OCJ3/STMJ1
FCJ0 266M
FCJ0 531M
OCJ12/STMJ4
Gigabit Ethernet
FCJ0 1062M
OCJ48/STMJ16
OCJ192/STMJ64
10GigEJLAN
OCJ768/STMJ256

(/)
0.064
1.544
2.048
6.312
8.448
10.00
34.368
44.736
51.84
100.00
139.264
155.264

622.08
1000.00
2488.32
9953.28
10000.00
39813.12


IEEE Floating point
0x45FA0000
0x483C7A00
0x487A0000
0x4940A080
0x4980E800
0x49989680
0x4A831A80
0x4AAAA780
0x4AC5C100
0x4B3EBC20
0x4B84D000
0x4B7DAD68
0x4B9450C0
0x4BFDAD68
0x4C7D3356
0x4C9450C0
0x4CEE6B28
0x4CFD3356
0x4D9450C0
0x4E9450C0
0x4E9502F9
0x4F9450C0

10.2.2.
, , , , , , ,
,
( MPS), ,
.
MPLS, Frame Relay ATM,
,
, ..
.
. 10.3.

248

10

: , LSP . , Label
32J .
.
0

16
Length

24

32
C-Type (2)

Class-Num (16)
Label

...

. 10.3.

10.2.3.
, .. J. , ,
.
. (waveband label)
.
, ,
.
. 10.4.
0

16
Length

Class-Num (16)

24

32

C-Type (3)

Waveband Id
Start Label
End Label

. 10.4.

Waveband Id .
, .
Start Label
TLV.
End Label
. ,
.

GMPLS

249

10.2.4.
LSR, LSR , Path.
.
, .
,
LSP .
, ,
, ,
LSR
. , LSR ,
.
ClassJNum = 129.
10.2.5.
(Label Set) , LSR
LSP.
. IETF Label Set
:

,
,
, ,

,

.
Label Set .
, , , ,
LSR.
Label_Set_TLV,
. , , ,
. 10.5.

250

10

16
Length
Action

Class-Num (16)
Reserved

24

32

C-Type (3)
Label Type

Subchannel 1
...
.. ..

Subchannel N
...

. 10.5.

Label Set

Action 8J , TLV, . 10.5.


Reserved 10J ,
.
Label Type . 14J ,
, TLV.
. RSVPJTE
CJ RSVP_
LABEL, 8 .
Subchannel , ( ,
), . .
10.5. Action
Action
00000000
00000001

00000010

00000011

Inclusive List TLV , Label Set


Exclusive List TLV , Label Set
Inclusive Range TLV ,
Label Set. 2 , , .
,

Exclusive Range TLV , Label Set. 2 ,


, . ,

10.3. LSP
LSP
LSR, GMPLS
: , LSP, ,
LSP . LSP
.

GMPLS

251

LSP
LSP:
, ,
,
,
SDH, hopJbyJhop,

LSP.
, ,
. LSP . ,
LSP Path Upstream
Label TLV, , ClassJNum = 35.
,
Upstream Label, ,
,
, , Downstream Label.
LSP
. ,
,
, ..
LSP, ,
.

LSR 1

LSR 2
SL1, UL2
UL1, SL2

SL -
UL - ""

. 10.6

252

10

LSP
, ,
.
, , , LSP , ,
.
LSR 1

LSR 2
UL2
UL1
L1
L2

UL - ""
L -
. 10.7.

( )

, (node
ID),
PathErr/NOTIFICATION, / .
. , .
LSR 2

LSR 1
UL2
L2

L1
UL1

UL - ""
L -

. 10.8

( )

, , , ID , ID.

GMPLS

253


GMPLS, , . MPLS,

, GMPLS Acceptable Label Set ,
, Label Set, ClassJNum = 130.
PathErr ResvErr.
RSVPJTE .
J, node ID IPJ, RSVP_HOP. J, Path node ID
, , .

10.4.
10.4.1.
GMPLS ,
.
Notify Request.
Path Resv ClassJNum = 195
CJ, IP. Notify Request , LSP. IPv4 Notify
Request, J = 1 . 10.9, IPv6
Notify Request, J = 2 . 10.10.
16

0
Length

24

32

C-Type (1)

Class-Num
IPv4 Notify Node Address

. 10.9.

IPv4 Notify Request Object

IPv4 Notify Node Address 32J IPv4 ,


.
16

0
Length

24

Class-Num
IPv6 Notify Node Address

. 10.10.

IPv6 Notify Request Object

C-Type (2)

32

254

10

IPv6 Notify Node Address 128J IPv6 , .


Notify_Request,
, .
10.4.2.
,
LSP .
(PathErr, ResvErr) , , .
, ,
, . , ,

ERROR_SPEC, . 10.11. ERROR_SPEC
IPJ , ,
.
, ,
.
Message Type = 21.
::= <Common Header> [<INTEGRITY>]

<Notify message>

[ [<MESSAGE_ID_ACK> | <MESSAGE_ID_NACK>] ... ]


[ <MESSAGE_ID> ]
<ERROR_SPEC> <notifv session list>
<notify session list>

::= [ <notify session list> ]


<upstream notify session>
<downstream notify session>

<upstream notify session>

::= <SESSION> [ <ADMIN_STATUS> ]


[<POLICY_DATA>...]
<sender descriptor>

<downstream notify session>

::= <SESSION> [<POLICY_DATA>...]


<flow descriptor list>

. 10.11.

10.4.3. PathErr
MPLS PathErr
Path. , PathErr,

GMPLS

255

, .
,
IGP, ,
. , RSVP :
J .
, J PathErr PathTear,
. , ,
, .
GMPLS . ERROR_SPEC,
RSVP (, ERROR_SPEC
IPv4 IPv6). (0x01 InPlace
0x02 NotGuilty), Flags, 0x04 Path_State_Removed. , , ,
PathErr .
Path_State_Removed , , .
, ,
. , PathTear. , PathErr ERROR_SPEC
Path_State_Removed,
.

10.5.
MPLS
,
LSP. ERO RSVPJTE
ERJHop CRJLDP. ,
, , , LSP.
, , , ERO, ERJHop
, . GMPLS ,
, :

256

10

L , 0,
U ,
Downstream Label,
LSP Upstream Label,
Label , .
RSVP Label ERO, ,
. 10.12.
0
L

16

8
Type

Length

32

24

Reserved

C-Type

Label
...

. 10.12.

Label ERO

, Label ERO .
Type=3 .
Length ,
4.
Type CJ, LABEL.

10.6.
, , 8, MPLSJ.
GMPLS.
GMPLS
Protection (. 10.13). LSP .
LSP.
, 1+1 1:N, LSP ,
.

LSP.
, LSP . LSP
, LSP , LSP.

GMPLS

257

16
Length

Class-Num (37)
Reserved

. 10.13.

24

32

C-Type (1)
Link Flags

Protection

Secondary (S) , , , LSP .


Reserved 25J , .
Link Flags 6 ,
; . 10.6.
10.6.


Link Flags
000000 ,
Extra Traffic LSP ,
( ).
000001
.
000010 Unprotected
000100 Shared
001000 Dedicated 1:1 1:1
001010 Dedicated N+1 N+1
010100

Enchased , , N+1

10.7.
(Administrative Status
Information) GMPLS Admin_Status (. 10.14). .
J, LSP, ,
, , () LSP. , ,
,
.
J,
LSP.
.
, LSP .

17.

258

10

16
Length

Class-Num (196)

24
C-Type (1)

Reserved

R
. 10.14.

32

T A D

Admin_Status

Reflect (R) 1,
. R
0.
Reserved 28 ;
.
Testing (T) LSP,
1.
Administratively down (A) LSP
, 1.
Deletion in progress (D) 1,
LSP.

10.8.
, GMPLS, , . , GMPLS
,
( , , ),
, .

.
:
, , , , .
10.8.1.
MPLS, ,
GMPLS , , , , .

GMPLS

259

GMPLS ,
,
IPv4 IPv6,
, .
. ,
.
Path.
(Interface_ID)
TLV (. 10.15).
0

16

32
Length

Type
Value

. 10.15.

TLV& Interface_ID

Length 16J , TLV , 4;


Value .
Type 16J , .
10.7. , IETF

Type
1
2
3

8
20
12

IPv4
IPv6
..

12

..

12

..

IPv4
IPv6
(IF_INDEX)
()
(COMPONENT_IF_DOWNSTREAM)
()
(COMPONENT_IF_UPSTREAM)

3, 4 5 Value:
32

0
ID Address
Interface ID

. 10.16.

Value 3, 4 5

260

10

IP Address IPJ ,
IPJ , TLV.
Interface ID 3 . 4 5 Interface ID .
0xFFFFFFFF ,
.

RSVP_HOP,
IP.
IPv4 IF_ID RSVP_HOP . 10.17:
16

0
Length

24

Class-Num (3)

32

C-Type (3)

IPv4 Next/Previous Hop Address


Logical Interface Handle
TLVs

. 10.17.

IPv4 IF_ID RSVP_HOP Object

IPv6 IF_ID RSVP_HOP . 10.18.


0

16
Length

Class-Num (3)

24

32
C-Type (4)

IPv6 Next/Previous Hop Address

Logical Interface Handle


TLVs

. 10.18.

IPv6 IF_ID RSVP_HOP Object

, PathErr
ResvErr , ,
IF_ID ERROR_SPEC,
IP.
10.8.2.
GMPLS , .
,
-

GMPLS

261

. ,
.
, .
.
( ). (
, ) .
, ,
,
.
.
. RSVP Restart_Cap (. 10.19),
Hello.
16

0
Length

Class-Num (131)

24

32
C-Type (1)

Restart Time
Recovery Time

. 10.19.

Restart_Cap Object

Restart Time (32 ) ,


Restart_Cap RSVPJTE , RSVP. 0xffffffff ,
,
.
Recovery Time (32 ) ,
MPLS
RSVP . ,
.
, B,
Recovery Time, B.

Recovery Label,
, ClassJNum = 34 CJ . RFC 3473.

262

10

10.9.
,
RSVP,
GMPLS . ,
LSP
, LSP.
Path:
<Path Message> ::=

<Common Header> [ <INTEGRITY> ]


[ [<MESSAGE_ID_ACK> | <MESSAGE_ID_NACK>] ... ]
[ <MESSAGE_ID> ]
<SESSION> <RSVP_HOP>
<TIME_VALUES>
[ <EXPLICIT_ROUTE> ]
<LABEL_REQUEST>
[ <PROTECTION> ]
[ <LABEL_SET> ... ]
[ <SESSION_ATTRIBUTE> ]
[ <NOTIFY_REQUEST> ]
[ <ADMIN_STATUS> ]
[ <POLICY_DATA> ... ]
<sender descriptor>

<sender descriptor> LSP:


<sender descriptor> ::= <SENDER_TEMPLATE> <SENDER_TSPEC>
[ <ADSPEC> ]
[ <RECORD_ROUTE> ]
[ <SUGGESTED_LABEL> ]
[ <RECOVERY_LABEL> ]

<sender descriptor> LSP:


<sender descriptor> ::= <SENDER_TEMPLATE> <SENDER_TSPEC>
[ <ADSPEC> ]
[ <RECORD_ROUTE> ]
[ <SUGGESTED_LABEL> ]
[ <RECOVERY_LABEL> ]
<UPSTREAM_LABEL>

PathErr:
<PathErr Message> ::=

<Common Header> [ <INTEGRITY> ]


[ [<MESSAGE_ID_ACK> | <MESSAGE_ID_NACK>] ... ]
[ <MESSAGE_ID> ]
<SESSION> <ERROR_SPEC>
[ <ACCEPTABLE_LABEL_SET> ... ]
[ <POLICY_DATA> ... ]
<sender descriptor>

GMPLS

263

Resv:
<Resv Message> ::=

<Common Header> [ <INTEGRITY> ]


[ [<MESSAGE_ID_ACK> | <MESSAGE_ID_NACK>] ... ]
[ <MESSAGE_ID> ]
<SESSION> <RSVP_HOP>
<TIME_VALUES>
[ <RESV_CONFIRM> ] [ <SCOPE> ]
[ <NOTIFY_REQUEST> ]
[ <ADMIN_STATUS> ]
[ <POLICY_DATA> ... ]
<STYLE> <flow descriptor list>

ResvErr:
<ResvErr Message> ::=

<Common Header> [ <INTEGRITY> ]


[ [<MESSAGE_ID_ACK> | <MESSAGE_ID_NACK>] ... ]
[ <MESSAGE_ID> ]
<SESSION> <RSVP_HOP>
<ERROR_SPEC> [ <SCOPE> ]
[ <ACCEPTABLE_LABEL_SET> ... ]
[ <POLICY_DATA> ... ]
<STYLE> <error flow descriptor>

Hello:
<Hello Message> ::= <Common Header> [ <INTEGRITY> ] <HELLO>
[ <RESTART_CAP> ]

10.10. ?
Generalized MPLS
. GMPLS

.
GMPLS.
IETF MPLS . ,
MPLS,
,
OIF
ODSI.
OIF
, OJUNI
. ODSI J
.
2000 . MIB
ODSI,
. ODSI
IPJ
.

264

10

ATM (ATM Forum)


, ,
MPLS:
(Traffic Management
WG);
ATM IP (ATMJIP
Collaboration WG).
,
ITUT
(Study Groups), MPLS:
11 (SG11): MPLS Signaling ( MPLS),
13 (SG13): MPLS Network
Architecture ( MPLS),
15 (SG15): MPLS and IP Equipment
Requirements ( MPLS IP).
, , . MPLS?
?
MPLS?
, 11J , ?.

11
?
11.1. MPLS
,
. MPLS , ,
, ,
, , .

MPLS,
,
,
.
, MPLS
TCP/IP. MPLS
, , IP RSVP, MPLS LSP.
, MPLS
QoS

, ATM. .
, MIB, , MPLS.
MPLS
.
MPLS,
, MPLS. DiffServJaware

266

11

, MPLS,
MPLS.
AToM (Any Transport over MPLS), ..
MPLS,
.

MPLS,. MPLS IETF 20
draftJ RFC. , MPLS
Traffic Engineering.

.
,
MPLS MPLamdaS ( J)
GMPLS.
, , , (SLA).
SLA
QoS. MPLS. SLA QoS .

11.2. MIB MPLS


, MPLS , , ,
,
. , MIB .
MPLS , MPLS.
MPLS
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol).
SNMP , MIB.

267

MIB (Management Information


Base) , SNMP. ,
, MIB MPLS. MIB
IETF,
draft.
MIB ,
. (ID)
MIB .
MIB ISO (ISO IEC).
. MPLS IANA.
MIB MPLS :

Transmission
(RFC 2578)
MPLS-TC-STD-MIB
MPLS-TC-STD-MIB
MPLS-LSR-STD-MIB
MPLS-TE-STD-MIB
MPLS-LDP-STD-MIB
MPLS-LDP-ATM-STD-MIB
MPLS-LDP-FRAME-RELAY-STD-MIB
MPLS-LDP-GENERIC-STD-MIB
MPLS-FTN-STD-MIB
TE-LINK-STD-MIB
MPLSTCSTDMIB
,
MIBJ.
MIBJ . ,
MPLS MIBJ.
MPLSJ MPLSJTCJSTDJMIB, MIBJ
.

268

11

MPLSLSRSTDMIB
MPLS LSR. MIBJ

. LFIB (Label Forwarding Information
Base) LSP,
LSR.
MPLSJ,
MPLS MIBJ. , MPLSJLSRJSTDJMIB

MPLS crossconnect. MPLS
crossJconnect MPLSJLSRJSTDJMIB
MIBJ
LSP. , MPLSJTEJSTDJMIB , 8.
MPLSLDPSTDMIB ,
, LDP. , LDP. LDP, MIB,
,
LDP MIBJ.
MPLSLDPGENERICSTDMIB

MPLSJLDPJSTDJMIB.
.
LDP , MIBJ
. , ,
MIBJ, .
MPLSLDPATMSTDMIB
MPLS-LDP-STDJMIB ,
ATM. , LDP ATM.
MPLSLDPFRAMERELAYSTDMIB , Frame Relay.
MPLSTESTDMIB
TEJ. MIB , TEJ,
LSR,
LSR, . MIBJ , TEJ.
, LSP 8.2
VPN, 
9.

269

MPLSFTNSTDMIB ,
FECJtoJNHLFE,
LSR.
TELINKSTDMIB , TEJ,
. TE (TElink)

TEJ LSR.
MIB, MPLS WG, MIB
. PPVPN-MPLS-VPNSTD-MIB, ,
MPLSJVPN. , VRF .
TEMIB TE WG
TEJ . , MPLSJTEJSTDJMIB, TEJMIB
.
CCAMP MIBJ, GMPLS.
MPLS MIB .
MIBJ , ,
.

11.3. MPLS
, LSR IPJ MPLS.
MPLS, LSR, ,
, , ,
IPJ, Label Swapping
LSR .
LSR .
Cisco IOS Software, .
Feature Set,
. ,
, Feature Set . , Cisco IOS Soft-

270

11

ware IPJ
Cisco, 12.0, Cisco IOS
Software MPLS. Cisco
MPLS, , , 3600, 2691 2600 Cisco Catalyst.
MPLS, MPLS.
Juniper Networks,
JUNOS, Cisco IOS
Software,
MPLS.
, ,
FPGA (FieldProgrammable Gate Arrays), Marvell, ASIC
(Application Specific Integrated Circuit), Riverstone Networks.
,
,
, , ,
,
.
VPN
MPLS AT&T 1999 .
, IP .
IP/MPLS .
Cisco
Systems. Cisco
Systems,
IPJ Fast Ethernet
. IPJ
,
, DNS, SMTP, WWW.
IP VPN MPLS , . MPLS
.
Cisco. -

271

Cisco GSR 12000, .


40 /.
Cisco 7000, .
MPLS
J .. ,
, 78 132 MPLS.
IP/MPLS
, MPLSJ
2002 .
IP/MPLS ,
xDSL.
, 10
, J STM 16 ( IP/MPLS) STM 4 (
ATM). ,
, . Cisco GSR
12012 Cisco 6400.
MPLSJ , J
J .
MPLS 2003 .
Riverstone Networks,
Alcatel, ATM/Frame Relay J,
. MPLSJ Traffic Engineering Fast ReRoute,
VPN, 3, 2 (VPLS).
2003 AT&T
IP SIPN (SWIFT Secure IP Network)
. , SWIFT,
IP VPN, MPLS. 2003
SWIFT SIPN .

272

11

, MPLSJ
, MPLS
. .

11.4. MPLS
MPLS
J , J. . 11.1
MPLS.

LSR6
LSR3
LSR5
LSR1

LSR2
LSR4


SNTlite

. 11.1

LSR7

SNT-7531

MPLS

, - , - MPLS, .
, Agilent Technologies
MPLS: QARobot, , RouterTester MPLS , MPLS LDP RSVPJTE.
,
, BGPJ4, OSPF ISJIS
MPLSJTE. QAJRobot
LSP, RouterTester MPLS (, ). Agilent Technologies
. 11.1.

273

11.1.
Agilent
MPLS (LDP/CR&LDP)
OA Robot
RouterTester
Hold Timer & KeepAlive LDP/CRJLDP

Hello
KeepAlive, Address, Address Withdraw
Initialization
Label Request (LDP & CRJLDP)

Label Mapping (LDP & CRJLDP)


Label Release (LDP & CRJLDP)
Label Withdraw (LDP & CRJLDP)
Notification (Fatal & Advisory)
Label Request
OA Robot
RouterTester


FEC
, , IGP/BGP/SSM
LSPID
, , IGP/BGP/SSM
Hop Count
, , IGP/BGP/SSM
Path Vector
, , IGP/BGP/SSM
Explicit Route
Virtual LSRs
Traffic TLV

Resource Class TLV

Preemption TLV

Pinning TLV

Label Mapping
OA Robot
RouterTester
Label Mapping Label

Request
FEC
IGP/BGP/SSM
LSPID
IGP/BGP/SSM
Hop Count

Label Request Msg ID TLV
Label Request
Label Request, Traffic TLV

Label TLV
Label Manager 0
Path Vector

User defined TLV

Global Statistics
OA Robot
RouterTester
LSP (s)
LSP
Inbound/Outbound Statistics
OA Robot
RouterTester
Label Request Messages
( Label Request
)
Label Mapping Messages
( Label mapping
)
Label Release messages
( Label Release
)
Label Withdraw messages
( Label Withdraw
)
LSP LSP
MPLS
OA Robot
RouterTester
700 Hz,
GbE
OC3/12/48
LSP (s)
256
128MB
32 MB
LSP
1600/s

18.

274

11

, Ixia,
,
MPLS.
Ixia RSVPJTE
MPLS.
Spirent Communications , ADTECH MPLS.

Agilent Technologies J
SNT (Signaling Network Testing). LDP, CRJLDP, RSVP, RSVPJTE.
,
( OSPF ISJIS), ( BGPJ4). 11.1, , ,
7,
MPLS, ,
J SNTlite.
J MPLS Anritsu
MD 1231A
. 11.2.
11.2. & Anritsu

MD1231AJ07 OSPF
MD1231AJ08 MPLS LDP/
CRJLDP
MD1231AJ09 MPLS RSVP
MD1231AJ10 RFC2889
Benchmarking
BGPJ4

ISJIS

- OSPF
- MPLS (LDP/CRJLDP)

MPLS (RSVP)
1000BASEJT


BERJ
BER
BERJ

MU120101A MU120102A MU120111A MU120112A


10/100 Mb
Gigabit
10/100 Mb
Gigabit
Ethernet
Ethernet
Ethernet
Ethernet

N/A

N/A

275

Randcom Inc. J PrismLite


Packet over SONET (PoS) WireSpeed 622 PoS.
NetTest J,
. 11.1 SNT. ,
. MPLS NetTest
interWATCH interEMULATOR. MPLS (LDP/CRJLDP/
RSVP/RSVPJTE) BGPJ4/OSPF(TE)/
ISJIS(TE).

11.5. VoMPLS
MPLSJ (VoMPLS) IETF
2000 .
IP IPJ
(VoIP) , ,
VoIPoMPLS, . , , IP MPLS

. , /
, VoIPoMPLS , VoMPLS, .
, VoMPLS, ,
; [34],
(VoIP) VoMPLS (. 11.2).
. 11.2 VoMPLS .
MPLS Voice Type 1 (MVT1) H.323- , IP,
MPLS. ,
H.323, , ,
Softswitch.
, H.323,
. UDP,
, MPLS.

276

11

VoATM

VoFR

VoIP

VoMPLS

VoMPLS/

VoMPLS/

MVT1
H.323

H.323

RTP
UDP

RTP
UDP

IP

IP

SAR
AAL1,2,5

MVT2

MVT3

H.323
RTP
UDP
NULL

MPLS

ATM

FR

PPP/POS

Asyns/
SONET

Asyns

SONET

ATM

FR

PPP

Asyns/
SONET

RTP =
UDP =
=
MVTx = MPLS Voice Type x (=1, 2, 3)

. 11.2.

Voice over Packet

MPLS Voice Type 2 (MVT2) H.323-, IP, LSP


.
MPLS Voice Type 3 (MVT3)
, VoATM
ATM. MPLSJ, , , ATM .
VoMPLS ,
MPLS
CRJLDP, RSVP.
, ,
MPLS. IPMPLS
(VoIPoMPLS), IPJ
(RTP)
. , RTP UDP IP MPLS
, FR, ATM PP Ethernet.
VoMPLS, MPLS.

277

VoMPLS
IP (MMoIP), MPLS.
,
.

11.6. MPLS
MPLS
2
LSPJ,
.
MPLS .
, MPLS
NGN. VPN 2,
EthernetJ LAN (VLAN) MPLS.
Ethernet. ,
,
ATM AAL5, ATM Cell Relay, Frame Relay, PPP, HDLC SDH.
ATM AAL5 MPLS
SDU (Service Data Units) MPLSJ
MPLS , . 11.3. AAL5 SDU . LSR, AAL5
SDU, . LSR (control word)
SDU ( , EFCI CLP),
VC LSPJ, MPLSJ. , LSR
, VSJ
LSPJ ( ), AAL5 .

LSR6

ATM

VPI/VCI

VPI/VCI
LSR2

LSR3

. 11.3.

ATM

MPLS

LSR5

LSR4

ATM MPLS

278

11

ATM Cell Relay MPLS ATM


MPLS. PVC. LSR ATM ,
(EFCI CLP), VPI VCI. LSR VCJ LSP, MPLS
. LSR , LSPJ
VCJ , ATMJ
.
Ethernet MPLS Ethernet PDU MPLSJ.
LSR Ethernet MAC
MAC
. PDU . PDU LSR ,
start of frame delimiter (SFD)
FCS. . LSR , , VC LSP, MPLS
. LSR LSP VC .
. LSR
VLAN.
Ethernet 2 ( FCS)
MPLS. VLAN.
LSR
VLAN EXP MPLS.
Frame Relay MPLS PDU Frame Relay MPLS MPLS. . 11.3,
LSR DLCI

DE
EXP MPLS. LSR Q.933 Q.922, .
PDU : DLCIJtoJDLCI PortJtoJPort. DLCItoDLCI LSR Frame Relay PDU
FRJ (FCS),
FR
FR PDU, , Backward Explicit Congestion Notification
(BECN), Forward Explicit Congestion Notification (FECN), Discard Eligibility (DE), VC LSP,
MPLS . LSR, , FR,
VC LSP, FRJ . PorttoPort FRJ HDLC.

279

HDLCJ , HDLC FCS.


, FECN, BECN DE.
HDLC MPLS HDLC PDU MPLS MPLS. LSR
. HDLC PDU, LSR FCS. LSR PDU, ,
VC LSP, MPLS . LSR ,
VC LSP, FCS .
PPP MPLS PPP PDU MPLSJ MPLS. LSR
. LSR,
PPP PDU, , , , FCS VC LSP, MPLS
. LSR VC LSP ,
, , FCS,
.

11.7.
MPLS ,
P2MP (PointJtoJMultipoint),
, . , MPLS (unicast) . P2MP (multicast), ..
. ,
, .
LSP P2MP ,
.
MPLS
,
. MPLS
LSR, LSR , LSR ,
, LSR LSR .
, IETF MPLS. , ,
BGP/MPLS VPN. , -

280

11

draft
,
BGP/MPLS VPN, BGP/
MPLS VPN ,
VPNJ PIM.
CRJLDP, RSVPJTE , MPLS WG draft, P2MPJ
RSVPJTE, MPLS TEJLSP.
P2MPJ MPLSJTE,
MPLS, GMPLS.
P2MP , ,
Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp.
(NTT) Motorola, 2003 QoS
.

11.8. DiffServaware MPLSTE


11.8.1.
DiffServJawareJMPLSJTE, MPLS DiffServ-TE.
, MPLS,
, , .
SLA , , ,
. SLA

,
,
.

QoS DiffServ,
.
SLA .

281

,
(, ), SLA
.
MPLSJTE
, , , ,
, .
DiffServ MPLSJTE ,
MPLSJTE (CoS)
( ).
11.8.2. DiffServ MPLS
DiffServ QoS ,
.
,
DiffServ Code Point (DSCP) . 6
IPJ
ToS ( ). , IETF
ToS, 6J
DSCP 2J ECN
(Explicit Congestion Notification), . 11.4.
0
C

. 11.4.

6
TOS

MBZ

13
DSCP

15
ECN

ToS DSCP + ECN

DSCP
. PHB (PerHop Behavior),
. PHB
, ,
, ( ), , ,
.
IETF 14
. BE (Best Effort),

282

11


EF (Expedited Forwarding), .
, EF,
,
, , , , . , EF,
:
.
12
AF (Assured Forwarding).

. IETF ,
,
AF.
AFxy, xJ , y
. ,
AFy x
, , ,
. AF ,
, .
IETF DSCP
, DSCP
PHB, PHB.
, J
DSCP, , .
, QoSJ
DSCPJPHB.
DiffServ, DiffServ
c PHB, DSCP PHB
(. 11.5). DiffServ . DiffServ
DSCP, PHB (..
) ,
, . , DiffServ ,
QoS
. ,

283

QoS, , , .

DSCP

LSR 3

AF1
EF

LSR 2

LSR 4

DSCP=101110

. 11.5.

DiffServ

DiffServ MPLS
RFC 3270. ,
DiffServ MPLS, , LSR
, , PHB , EXP .
MPLS
PHB, :
DSCP, 6J
(.. 64 ), 3J EXP,
?
.
,
PHB.
DSCP PHB : DSCP
EXP
PHB. , , , , EXP
PHB . EXP
DSCP IP, LSP, . LSP,
PHB
EXP, ELSP, , PHB LSP.
,
, EXP .
MPLSJ ,
, .
, ,
, EXP ,
, . , PHB ,

284

11

EXP. PHB,
LSP.
LSP, PHB, LLSP. LJLSP , PHB
PHB, , , ,
AFxy, x , y .
EJLSP LJLSP . 11.3.
11.3. E&LSP L&LSP
E&LSP
PHB EXP
LSP PHB

()
,
PHB

EJLSP,
PHB.
PHB,
EJLSP LJLSP

L&LSP
PHB
EXP
LSP PHB PHB
()
, ,

PHB
LSP

PHB

11.8.3. Class of Type CT


,
, MPLSJTE , DiffServ , ,
. DiffServJTE
.
, .
RFC 3564 (Class
of Type),
. CT

. CT, CT0 T7. ,
CT0. LSP, , -

285

CT, DiffServTE LSP.


IETF DiffServJTE, LSP CT
. ,
DiffServJTE LSP, , CT0.
11.8.4.
MPLSJTE CSPF ( )
. DiffServJTE
CT
, LSP. , 5 ,
,
CT, . ,
,
CT .
, (IGP)

CT . ,
CT , 64 , .
IETF .
TE, <CT, >. DiffServJTE TEJ, TE0 TE7 ,
64 <CT, > , . 11.6.
64 CT ,
TEJ.
IGP ,
TEJ. IETF , Unrestricted Bandwidth TLV,

. , ,
CSPF IGP,
CT ,
TEJ. , CSPF
, CT , LSP,
TEJ.

286

11

7
TE-:
TE0 (ct0, 7)
TE1 (ct2, 7)
TE2 (ct4, 7)
TE3 (ct6, 5)
TE4 (ct3, 4)
TE5 (ct5, 4)
TE6 (ct2, 3)
TE7 (ct5, 2)

5
4
3
2
1
0
ct0 ct1 ct2

ct3 ct4 ct5 ct6 ct7

Class of Type
. 11.6.

TE& 64

11.8.5.
,
,

.
IETF RSVPJTE,
CT. CT LSP
Class of Type (CT) Path RSVP. DiffServJTE
, :
CT
LSP CT1 CT7 ( CT ,
CT0),
LSP, Path CT , .
, LSP CT LSP, DiffServJTE, (
DiffServJTE), CT0,
, LSP.
CT, Path, CT,
LSP . , , LSP , CT .
IGP.

287

11.8.6.


CT. ,
CT ( CT),
BC (bandwidth constraint). RFC 3564 , CT BC.
BC CT.
MAM (Maximum
Allocation Model).
CT
,
, CT. ,
. 11.7. 10 /,
: 1 1 / 0
8 /. .
10 /.
, 0.
. 11.7. LSR1 LSR3
10 /c . 10 /
1 / 1 ( ). , 1
9 /c. 1 /c 2. , 1 /c 1 0 /
0, 1 / 1 8 / (..
1 / ) 0.

LSP , ,
LSP .
LSP ,
,
. ,
MAM ,
LSP, CT,
. ,
. 11.7, LSP ,
,
LSP
, .

288

11

MAM , TE, ,
.
, CTn m,
, CTn, , LSP CTn , m.
1
LSP
- 9 /
( - 1 /)

LSR 2
: 1-1 /c
0-0 /


10 /

LSP
- 9 /
( - 1 /)

LSR 1

: 1-1 /c
0-8 /

LSR 4

LSR 3

LSR 5

2
. 11.7.

MAM

,
RDM (Russian Dolls Model), MAM , CT
. J
CT7 QoS,
CT0 .
, .
BC7
,
CT7. BC0
,
CT.
:
BC6 CT7 CT6, BC5 CT7, CT6 CT5, ..
, (BC0)
(BC1),
(BC2) ..

289

RDM MAM ,
. , . 11.7,
. J 10 /. BC1 1 /c, BC0 10 /c.
, 0 1 /
. ,
LSR1J LSR2J LSR3 LSP
, LSP ,
,
.
.
, .
RDM MAM
, CT,
,
CT
. ,
. 11.7, LSP ,
LSP
LSR1J LSR2J LSR3, , . ,
LSP LSP,
..
. LSP
LSR1 LSR4 LSR5 LSR3.
LSP LSP
,
.
RDM , MAM,
LSP
CT, BC. ,
LSP CT0 p BC0 ,
LSP CT p.
MAM RDM . 11.4.

19.

290

11

11.4. RDM
MAM
BC
CT;
CT CT



,

RDM
BC
CT,

CT;

CT,

, BC , TEJ.
BC ,
BC,
IGP Bandwidth Constraints subJTLV. IETF
BC .
,
, , .

11.9. MPLS QoS



[117],

.
, 11
.
DiffServ
, .. MPLS ,
MPLS TE. MPLS QoS.
MPLS QoS DiffJServ
MPLS. MPLS , CoS,
Exp (Experimental), .
MPLS QoS MPLS Support of Differentiated Services.

BA, IPJ,

291

DiffJServ. ,
DiffJServJ BA LSP
DiffJServ MPLS.
LSR DSCP, BA. LSR
DSCP PHB,
. ,

, , LSP FEC. IPv4, IPv6 . MPLS QoS DiffJServ
LSP: EJLSP LJLSP.
ELSP (EXPInferredPSC LSP) OA. EXP MPLS
LSR PHB, .
EJLSP BA FEC,
OA, BA. EXP PHB
EJLSP
.
LLSP (LabelOnlyInferredPSC LSP)
OA. LSR ,
MPLS, EXP . , ATM FR, LSR
2
. ATM, , CLP.
QoS LSP . MPLS
. ,
,

IETF. LSP:
,
.
LSP , , . A Method
for MPLS LSP FastJReroute Using RSVP Detours
RSVPJTE.
.
RSVPJTE,
LSR RSVPJTE .

292

11

LSP, .
.
A Method for Setting an Alternative Label
Switched Paths to Handle Fast Reroute LSP ,
LSP .
, J
LSP ., ,
LSP, , LSP ,
. , IETF MPLS.
.
MPLS
(InterJAS). , MPLS
, SLA. .
MPLS, , .
MPLS
. , LDP.
, , , VPN,
. ,
, MPLS , , ,
. ,

, , , .
MPLS , . ,
MPLS, , . ,
NGN, MPLS,
, www.niits.ru.
.


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Magazine, vol. 38, no. 1, January 2000.
3. Armitage Grenville. Quality of Service in IP Networks. Macmillan Technical
Publishing, 2000.
4. Arvidsson Ake, Krzesinski Antony. The Design of Optimal MultiJService MPLS
Network // Telektronik 2/3.J2001.
5. Ash G.R. Dynamic Routing in Telecommunications Networks. McGraw Hill,
1998.
6. Awduche D. MPLS and Traffic Engineering in IP Networks. IEEE Communications
Magazine, vol. 37, December 1999.
7. .. VPN , //
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8. Belloni A. Alcatel 5620 IP/MPLS Data Network Management. Alcatel
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10. Bouillet E., Mitra D., and Ramakrishnan K.G. The Structure and management
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11. Chen T.M., Oh T.H.. Reliable services in MPLS. IEEE Communications Magazine,
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12. Davidson J., Peters J. Voice Over IP Fundamentals. Cisco Press, 2000.
13. Davie B., Rekhter Y. MPLS, Technology and Applications. Morgan Kaufmann
Publishers, 2000.
14. Douskalis B. Putting VoIP to Work: Softswitch Network Design and Testing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, 2002.
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17. Ghanwani A., Jamoussi B., Fedyk D., AshwoodJSmith P., Li L., and Feldman N.
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19. Goldstein A., Yanovsky G. Traffic Engineering in MPLS Tunnels//In International
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20. .. MPLS//
.J2004J 2.
21. .., .., .. IPJ. .:
, 2001.
22. .. . 2. .: , 1999.
23. .., .., .. 7. .
//.: J2003.
24. .., .., .., .. V5.1
V5.2. //.: BHVJ2003.

294

25. .., .., .. 7. ISUP.


// .: BHVJ2003.
26. .., .., .. R1.5.
// .: BHVJ2004.
27. Goralski Walter J., Kolon Matthew C. IP telephony/The McGrawJHill Co. Inc.,
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28. Gray Eric. MPLS: Implementing the Technology. Boston: AddisonJWesley, 2001.
29. Hendling K., Franzl G., StatovciJHalimi B., Halimi A. Residual Network and Link
Capacity Weighting for Efficient Traffic Engineering in MPLS Networks. ITC 18 /
Charzinski J., Lehnert R., and TranJGia P. (Editors), Elsevier Science B.V., 2003.
30. Hersent O., Gurle D., Petit JeanJPierre. IP Telephony: PacketJBased Multimedia
Communications Systems.J AddisonJWesley Pub Co, 2000.
31. Hoebeke R., Aissaoui M., Nguyen T. MPLS: Adding Value to Networking. Alcatel
Telecommunication Review 3rd Quarter 2002.
32. Hoey G.Van, Van S. den Bosch, P. deLa ValleeJPoussin, Degrande N., and H.
De Neve. An Integrated Approach to MPLS Traffic Engineering over Automatically Switched Transport Networks. Internet Traffic Engineering. Vol. 13, No.1,
JanuaryJFebruary 2002.
33. Kamei S., Kimura T. Evaluation of Routing Algorithms and Network Topologies
for MPLS Traffic Engineering. Proceedings of GLOBECOM01, vol. 1, November
2001.
34. Kar K., Kodialam M., Lakshman T.V. Minimum Interference Routing of Bandwidth
Guaranteed Tunnels with MPLS Traffic Engineering Applications. IEEE Journal
on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 18, December 2000.
35. Kodialam M., Lakshman T. Minimum interference routing with applications
to MPLS traffic engineering // In IEEE Infocom 00, Vol.2, IEEE, Tel Aviv, Israel,
2000.
36. ., . . .:
, 2001.
37. Kohler Stefan, Binzenhofer Andreas. MPLS Traffic Engineering in OSPF
Networks A combined approach. ITC 18 / Charzinski J., Lehnert R., and
TranJGia P. (Editors), 2003 Elsevier Science B.V.
38. Lawrence J. Design multiprotocol label switching networks. IEEE Communications
Magazine, July. 2001.
39. Li Tony. MPLS and the Evolving Internet Architecture. IEEE Communications
Magazine, December 1999. pp. 38J41.
40. Minoli D. Voice over MPLS. Planning and Designing Networks. McGrawJHill,
2002.
41. Mizuhara B., Kazutaka O., Katsumata K., Yamada K. MPLS Technologies for
IP Networking Solution. NEC. Res. & Develop., Vol.42, No.2, April 2001.
42. Moy J. OSPF Anatomy of an Internet Routing Protocol. AddisonJWesley,
1998.
43. ., . IPJ. I, II /
, 13(47), 14(48). 1999.
44. Pepelnjak Ivan and Guichard Jim. MPLS and VPN Architectures: A Practical
Guide to Understanding, Designing, and Deploying MPLS and MPLSJenabled
VPNs (Cisco Networking Fundamentals). Indianapolis, IN: Cisco Press, 2001.
45. RFC 1058 Routing Information Protocol (RIP). C. Hedrick. June 1988
46. RFC 1131. The OSPF Specification Open Shortest Path First. J. Moy. October
1989.
47. RFC 1142. OSI ISJIS IntraJdomain Routing Protocol. D. Oran, Editor. February
1990.

295

48. RFC 1191. Path MTU Discovery. J. Mogul, S. Deering. November 1990.
49. RFC 1195. Use of OSI ISJIS for Routing in TCP/IP and Dual Environments.
R.W. Callon. December 1990.
50. RFC 1246. Experience with the OSPF protocol. J. Moy, Editor. July 1991.
51. RFC 1247. OSPF Version 2. J. Moy. July 1991.
52. RFC 1248. OSPF Version 2 Management Information Base. F. Baker, R. Coltun.
July 1991.
53. RFC 1252. OSPF Version 2 Management Information Base. F. Baker, R. Coltun.
August 1991.
54. RFC 1253. OSPF Version 2 Management Information Base. F. Baker, R. Coltun.
August 1991.
55. RFC 1254. Gateway Congestion Control Survey. . Mankin, K. Ramakrishnan.
August 1991.
56. RFC 1321. The MD5 MessageJDigest Algorithm. R. Rivest. April 1992.
57. RFC 1364 BGP OSPF Interaction. K. Varadhan. September 1992.
58. RFC 1370. Applicability Statement for OSPF. Internet Architecture Board. Lyman
Chapin. October 1992.
59. RFC 1403. BGP OSPF Interaction. K. Varadhan. January 1993.
60. RFC 1483. Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM Adaptation Layer 5. Juha
Heinanen. July 1993.
61. RFC 1577. Classical IP and ARP over ATM. M. Laubach. January 1994. (
RFC 2225).
62. RFC 1582. Extensions to RIP to Support Demand Circuits. G. Meyer. February
1994.
63. RFC 1583. OSPF Version 2. J. Moy. March 1994. ( RFC 1247.
RFC 2178).
64. RFC 1584. Multicast Extensions to OSPF. J. Moy. March 1994.
65. RFC 1586. Guidelines for Running OSPF Over Frame Relay Networks. O.
deSouza, M. Rodrigues. March 1994.
66. RFC 1587. The OSPF NSSA Option. R. Coltun, V. Fuller. March 1994.
67. RFC 1654 A Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGPJ4). Y. Rekhter, T. Li. July 1994.
68. RFC 1745 BGP4/IDRP for IP OSPF Interaction. K. Varadhan, S. Hares, Y.
Rekhter. December 1994.
69. RFC 1765 OSPF Database Overflow. J. Moy. March 1995.
70. RFC 1771. A Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGPJ4). Y. Rekhter, T. Li. March 1995.
( RFC 1654).
71. RFC 1773 Experience with the BGPJ4 protocol. P. Traina. March 1995.
72. RFC 1774 BGPJ4 Protocol Analysis. P. Traina, Editor. March 1995.
73. RFC 1793 Extending OSPF to Support Demand Circuits. J. Moy. April 1995.
74. RFC 1930 Guidelines for creation, selection, and registration of an Autonomous
System (AS). J. Hawkinson, T. Bates. March 1996.
75. RFC 1953. Ipsilon Flow Management Protocol Specification for IPv4. Version
1.0. P. Newman, W. Edwards, R. Hinden, E. Hoffman, F. Ching Liaw, T. Lyon, G.
Minshall. May 1996.
76. RFC 1966. BGP Route Reflection. An alternative to full mesh IBGP. T. Bates, R.
Chandra. June 1996. ( RFC 2796).
77. RFC 1987. Ipsilons General Switch Management Protocol Specification. Version
1.1. P. Newman, W. Edwards, R. Hinden, E. Hoffman, F. Ching Liaw, T. Lyon, G.
Minshall. August 1996. ( RFC 2297).

296

78. RFC 1997. BGP Communities Attribute. R. Chandra, P. Traina, . Li. August 1996.
RFC 2113. IP Router Alert Option. D. Katz. February 1997.
79. RFC 2178 Protocol OSPFv2. J. . July 1997.
80. RFC 2205. Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) Version 1 Functional
Specification. R. Braden, Ed., L. Zhang, S. Berson, S. Herzog, S. Jamin.
September 1997. ( RFC 2750).
81. RFC 2208. Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) Version 1 Applicability
Statement. Some Guidelines on Deployment. A. Mankin, Ed., F. Baker, B. Braden,
S. Bradner, M. O`Dell, A. Romanow, A. Weinrib, L. Zhang. September 1997.
82. RFC 2209. Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) Version 1 Message
Processing Rules. R. Braden, L. Zhang. September 1997.
83. RFC 2210. The Use of RSVP with IETF Integrated Services. J. Wroclawski.
September 1997.
84. RFC 2283. Multiprotocol Extensions for BGPJ4. T. Bates, R. Chandra, D. Katz, Y.
Rekhter. February 1998. ( RFC 2858).
85. RFC 2328. OSPF Version 2. J. Moy. April 1998.
86. RFC 2370. The OSPF Opaque LSA Option. R. Coltun. July 1998.
87. RFC 2385. Protection of BGP Sessions via the TCP MD5 Signature Option. A.
Heffernan. August 1998.
88. RFC 2547. BGP/MPLS VPNs. E. Rosen, Y. Rekhter. March 1999.
89. RFC 2571. An Architecture for Describing SNMP Management Frameworks. D.
Harrington, R. Presuhn, B. Wijnen. April 1999. April 1999.
90. FRC 2578 Structure of Management Information Version 2 (SMIv2). Editors
of this version: K. McCloghrie, D. Perkins, J. Schoenwaelder. Authors of previous
version: J. Case, K. McCloghrie, M. Rose, S. Waldbusser. April 1999.
91. RFC 2676 QoS Routing Mechanisms and OSPF Extensions. G. Apostolopoulos,
S. Kama, D. Williams, R. Guerin, A. Orda, T. Przygienda. August 1999.
92. RFC 2684. Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM Adaptation Layer 5. D.
Grossman, J. Heinanen. September 1999. ( RFC 1483).
93. RFC 2702. Requirements for Traffic Engineering Over MPLS. Awduche D.,
Malcolm J., Agogbua J., ODell M., McManus J., September 1999.
94. RFC 2740. OSPF for IPv6. R. Coltun, D. Ferguson, J. Moy. December 1999.
95. RFC 2749. COPS usage for RSVP. S. Herzog, Ed., J. Boyle, R. Cohen, D. Durham,
R. Rajan, A.Sastry. January 2000.
96. RFC 2751. Signaled Preemption Priority Policy Element. S. Herzog. January
2000.
97. RFC 2844. OSPF over ATM and ProxyJPAR. T. Przygienda, P. Droz, R. Haas. May
2000.
98. RFC 2858. Multiprotocol Extensions for BGPJ4. T. Bates, Y. Rekhter, R. Chandra,
D. Katz. June 2000. ( RFC 2283).
99. RFC 2917. A Core MPLS IP VPN Architecture. K. Muthukrishnan, A. Malis.
September 2000.
100. RFC 2961. RSVP Refresh Overhead Reduction Extensions. L. Berger, D. Gan, G.
Swallow, P. Pan, F. Tommasi, S. Molendini. April 2001.
101. RFC 2983. Differentiated Services and Tunnels. D. Black. October 2000 .
102. RFC 3031. Multiprotocol Label Switching Architecture. E. Rosen, A. Viswanathan,
R. Callon. January 2001.
103. RFC 3032. MPLS Label Stack Encoding. E. Rosen, D. Tappan, G. Fedorkow, Y.
Rekhter, D. Farinacci, T. Li, A. Conta. January 2001.

297

104. RFC 3033. The Assignment of the Information Field and Protocol Identifier in the
Q.2941 Generic Identifier and Q.2957 UserJtoJuser Signaling for the Internet
Protocol. M.Suzuki. January 2001.
105. RFC 3034. Use of Label Switching on Frame Relay Networks Specification. A.
Conta, P. Doolan, A. Malis. January 2001.
106. RFC 3035. MPLS using LDP and ATM VC Switching. B. Davie, J. Lawrence, K.
McCloghrie, E. Rosen, G. Swallow, Y. Rekhter, P. Doolan. January 2001.
107. RFC 3036. LDP Specification. L. Andersson, P. Doolan, N. Feldman, A. Fredette, B.
Thomas. January 2001.
108. RFC 3037. LDP Applicability. B. Thomas, E. Gray. January 2001.
109. RFC 3038. VCID Notification over ATM link for LDP. K. Nagami, Y. Katsube, N.
Demizu, H. Esaki, P. Doolan. January 2001.
110. RFC 3063. MPLS Loop Prevention Mechanism. Y. Ohba, Y. Katsube, E. Rosen, P.
Doolan. February 2001.
111. RFC 3101. The OSPF NotJSoJStubby Area (NSSA) Option. P. Murphy. January
2003.
112. RFC 3107. Carrying Label Information in BGPJ4. Y. Rekhter, E. Rosen. May
2001.
113. RFC 3209. RSVPJTE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP Tunnels. D. Awduche, L.
Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, G. Swallow. December 2001.
114. RFC 3232. Assigned Numbers: RFC1700 is Replaced by an OnJline Database.
Edit by J. Reynolds. January 2002.
115. RFC 3270 MultiJProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) Support of Differentiated Services. F. Le Faucheur, Editor, L. Wu, B. Davie, S. Davari, P. Vaananen, R. Krishnan,
P. Cheval, J. Heinanen. May 2002.
116. RFC 3468. The Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Working Group decision
on MPLS signaling protocols. L. Andersson, G. Swallow. February 2003.
117. RFC 3471. Generalized MultiJProtocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Signaling Functional Description. L. Berger, Editor. January 2003.
118. RFC 3472. Generalized MultiJProtocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Signaling
ConstraintJbased Routed Label Distribution Protocol (CRJLDP) Extensions. P.
AshwoodJSmith, Editor, L. Berger, Editor. January 2003.
119. RFC 3473. Generalized MultiJProtocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Signaling
Resource ReserVation ProtocolJTraffic Engineering (RSVPJTE) Extensions. L.
Berger, Editor. January 2003.
120. RFC 3479. Fault Tolerance for the Label Distribution Protocol (LDP). A. Farrel, Ed.
February 2003.
121. Rouskas George N., Jackson Laura E. Optimal Granularity of MPLS Tunnels, ITC
18 / Charzinski J., Lehnert R., and TranJGia P. (Editors), 2003 Elsevier Science
B.V.
122. Swallow George. MPLS Advantages for Traffic Engineering. IEEE Communications Magazine, December 1999, pp. 54J57.
123. Vismanathan A., Feldman N., Wang Zh., Callon R. Evolution of Multiprotocol Label Switching. IEEE Communications Magazine, May 1998.
124. Wang Z. Internet QoS: Architectures and Mechanisms for Quality of Service. The
Morgan Kaufmann Series in Networking, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, March
2001.
125. Xiao X., Hannan A., Bailey B., Ni L. Traffic Engineering with MPLS in the Internet,
IEEE Network, March/April 2000.


AAL (ATM adaptation layer) ATMJ, ATM, AAL,
AAL .
ABR (Area Border Router) , OSPF.
AC (Admission Control) .
Alias .
ARIS (Aggregate Route&based IP Switching) IPJ
.
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) , .
AS (Autonomous System)
.
ASBR (Autonomous System Border Router) OSPFJ
,
OSPF.
ASN.1 (Abstract Syntax Notation One) 1.
OSI
. ISO 8824.
AS& (AS path) , BGPJ;
, .
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) .
,
: ATM, ATMJ,
, ATMJ ( AAL),
, .
ATM Forum ( ) , 1991 . Cisco
Systems, NET/ADAPTIVE, Northern Telecom Sprint J.
BDR (Backup Designated Rouler) OSPFJ.
BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) , EGP BGPJ.
CBWFQ (Class Based WFQ) WFQ,
.
CE& ; (PEJ)
.
CIDR (Classless InterDomain Routing) ;
.
CLNP (Connectionless Network Protocol) ,
.
CLNS (Connectionless Network Service) .
CLNS ISJIS.
CoS (Class of Service) , , , .
CSR (Cell Switch Router) ATM.

299

DiffServ (Differentiated Services) ,



. QoS.
DLCI (Data&Link Connection Identifier) 2, PVC SVC Frame Relay. Frame Relay
DLCIJ ( ,
DLCI), LMI ( ).
DMZ (DeMilitarized Zone) .
DR (Designated Router) OSPFJ,

.
DWDM (Dense Wave Division Multiplexing)
.
eBGP (Exterior BGP) ;
BGPJ,
.
EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol) ; .
EGP, IDRP.
ES&IS (End System&to&lntermediate System) , CLNS
, ,
.
FEC (Forwarding Equivalence Class)
, MPLS LSP
( LSPJ).
Flapping . , ,
( , ) ,
.
Flooding . ,
.
GMPLS (Generalized MPLS) MPLS. MPLS,
.
Hop&by&hop ,
.
HSRP (Hot Standby Router Protocol) Cisco,
IPJ, .
, ,
.
iBGP (Interior BGP) .
BGPJ,
.
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)
Internet.
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) Internet.
, Internet.
IFMP (Ipsilon Flow Management Protocol) ,
.
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol)
.

300

IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol) .


IntServ (Integrated Services) ,

. (QoS).
IPoATM IP- ATM-
.
IPNG (Internet Protocol Next Generation) InternetJ .
IP Switching - MPLS,
Ipsilon.
IS&IS (Intermediate System&to&Intermediate System)
.
ISP (Internet Service Provider) .
Label Stack .
LER (Label Edge Router) .
LDP (Label Distribution Protocol) , ..
FEC.
LIB .
LSA (Link&State Advertisement) . , OSPF
.
LSP (Label Switching Path) .
LSP (Link&State Packet) . , ISJIS .
LSR (Label Switching Router) MPLS.
MOSPF (Multicast Open Shortest Path First) .
MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching) .
MTU (Maximum Transfer Unit)
.
NHLFE (Next Hop Level Forwarding Entry) , , .
NHS (Next Hop Server) .
NHRP (Next Hop Resolution Protocol)
, .
NSAP (Network Service Access Point)
CLNSJ.
NSSA (Not&so&Stubby Area) . OSPF,
, .
OSI (Open System Interconnection) , , ISO ITUJT
, .
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) IGP ,
RIP Internet.

301

O&UNI (LDP Extensions for Optical User Network Interface (O&UNI) Signaling)
LDP
J.
QoS (Quality of Service) .
PE& .
, CEJ . PEJ IPv4 12J VPNJIPv4.
PEJ Edge LSR.
PoP (Point of Presence) .
PPP (Point&to&Point Protocol) J.
P& , .. MPLSJVPN,
PJ PEJ.
RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
(IGP), UNIX BSD.
RSVP (Resource reSerVation Protocol) .
RTO (Round Trip Timeout) . ,
EIGRPJ , J .
SIA (Stuck&in&Active) . EIGRP, .
SHIM HEADER J,
.
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
.
SPF (Shortest Path First) , ISJIS OSPF . ( ).
SVC (Switched Virtual Circuit) .
, ATM,
Frame Relay .25.
TDP (Tag Distribution Protocol) .
TLV JJ. , LDPJ.
TS (Tag Switching) . J MPLS,
Cisco.
TE (Traffic Engineering) . .
ToS (Type of Service) .
TTL (Time To Live) . ,
; TTL .
VCI (Virtual Circuit Identifier) . VPI/VCI J .
VPI (Virtual Path Identifier) . VCI
.
WFQ (Weighted Fair Queing) , .

AAL, 39, 277, 298


ABR, 124, 133, 199, 298
AC, 298
Alias, 298
ARIS, 13, 19, 298
ARP, 16, 238, 298
AS, 117, 123, 133, 161,164J
172, 174,197, 298
ASBR, 117, 124, 128, 133,
134, 197, 298
ASN.1, 298
AS-, 168, 169, 171, 180,
298
ATM, 15, 19, 38J41, 63, 72,
102, 117, 191, 239, 247,
264, 271, 276, 276J278,
291, 298
ATM Forum, 21, 264, 298
B
BDR, 124, 125, 128, 129,
132, 139J142, 298
BGP, 13, 21, 25, 50, 56, 82,
161J181, 191J201, 203,
211, 272J275, 280, 298
C
CBWFQ, 298
CE, 191, 193J196, 198J205,
208, 209, 298
CIDR, 51, 298
CLNP, 43, 144, 148, 158, 298
CLNS, 144, 298
CoS, 32, 35, 281, 290, 298
CSR, 13, 17, 18, 298
D
DiffServ, 35, 88, 115, 265,
280J286, 290, 293, 299
DLCI, 38J41, 64, 86, 104,
278, 299
DMZ, 299
DR, 124, 125, 129, 130, 132,
133, 139J143, 150, 299
DWDM, 41, 239, 299
E
EBGP, 162, 164, 166J168,
170, 171, 180, 197, 199,
205, 206, 299
EGP, 51, 118, 171, 211, 299
ESJIS, 144, 299
F
Flapping, 170, 299
Flooding, 145, 146, 299
G
GSMP, 18

H
HopJbyJhop, 22, 25, 27, 35,
185,218, 251, 299
HSRP, 299
I
IBGP, 162, 164, 165, 168J171,
180, 197, 299
ICMP, 100, 238, 299
IETF, 13, 15, 19J21, 41, 56,
88, 94, 100, 115, 116,
135, 145, 191, 198, 215,
224, 226, 227, 229, 237,
239, 240, 249, 281, 282,
285, 286, 290J292, 299
IFMP, 18, 299
IGMP, 299
IGP, 51, 57, 117, 145, 171,
177, 198, 200, 210, 211,
218J222, 255, 273, 285,
290, 300
IntServ, 88, 100, 300
IPoATM, 15, 300
IPNG, 300
IPv6, 39, 43, 52, 71, 98,
105J111, 253J255, 259,
260, 291
IP Switching, 13, 17J20, 300
ISJIS, 25, 51, 79, 144J156,
161J163, 221, 222, 274,
300
ISP, 300
ISR, 19, 300
L
Label Stack, 21, 36, 37, 300
LER, 25, 28, 300
LDP, 21, 24, 54J75, 78J85,
115, 189, 204, 224, 268,
273, 300
LIB, 23, 31, 32, 43, 44, 53,
203, 204, 209, 300
LSA, 51, 79, 117, 120,
131J135, 137, 300
M
MOSPF, 300
MTU, 42, 100, 129, 300
N
NHLFE, 24, 43, 269, 300
NHS, 300
NHRP, 17, 300
NSAP, 148, 149, 155, 300
NSSA, 117, 133,134, 300
O
OSI, 14, 15, 29, 144, 145,
148, 149, 185, 300
OSPF,13, 51, 79, 116J143,
144J146, 149J151,
154J156, 171, 199, 300

OJUNI, 56, 263,301


Q
QoS, 25, 88, 89, 94, 115, 185,
206, 210J212, 224, 228,
280J283, 290J291, 301
P
PE-, 192199, 202-204, 209, 301
PoP, 164, 184, 301
PPP, 19, 21, 38, 39, 41, 42,
63, 183, 191, 193, 277,
279, 301
P-, 198, 205,
208, 209, 301
R
RIP, 51, 116, 118, 119, 125,
133, 134, 138, 139, 145,
163, 171, 199, 210, 301
RSVP, 19, 25, 32, 60, 88J115,
224J241, 253, 255, 256,
260J265, 274J276, 301
RTO, 301
S
SIA, 301
SHIM HEADER, 38, 301
SNMP, 18, 56, 266, 267, 301
SPF, 51, 120, 137, 220, 301
SVC, 301
T
TDP, 18, 301
TLV, 60J76, 78, 80, 81, 87, 97,
224, 248J251, 259, 260,
273, 285, 301
TS, 13, 18J20, 301
TE, 13, 79, 81, 115, 210, 212,
219J223, 288, 301
ToS, 23, 119, 128, 281, 301
TTL, 34J37, 114, 301
V
VCI, 38J40, 63, 64, 86, 103,
277, 278, 301
VPI, 38J40, 63, 86, 103, 277,
278, 301
W
WFQ, 301

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, , Evolution of Telecommunication Protocols, .

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:
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138

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:
(812) 3892972
: (812) 3896897
Email:
nio1@loniis.ru
Internet:
www.niits.ru

95

75

25

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