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..

,
,
120100

2010

528.28

:
,

..
,
-
..

, ..
: ./ ...- : , 2010. - 142 .
,
..
, , 120100
.
, ,
. : , .
-
.

-
528.28

, 2010

1. .
1.1. ...
1.1.1.
1.1.2. .
1.1.3. ..
1.1.4. ...
1.1.5. ...
1.1.6. .
1.2. ..
1.2.1. .
1.2.2. ..
1.2.3. . .
1.2.4.
1.2.5. .
, ..
1.2.6. .
1.2.7. ..
1.2.8. ..
1.2.9. ..
1.2.10.

5
7
7
7
10
14
15
18
22
24
24
24
25
27
28
29
32
33
33
34

1.2.11. .
.

34

1.2.12. .

35

1.3. .

37

1.3.1.

37

1.3.2.
1.3.3.
1.3.4. ..
1.3.5.
1.3.6. ...
1.3.7.
1.3.8. .
1.3.9. . ...

37
39
42
46
47
48
50
53

1.3.10.
1.3.11. ...
2. .
2.1 ..
2.1.1

2.1.2. -

2.1.3.
..
2.2. .
2.2.1.

2.2.2.
...
2.2.3. ,
..
2.3. ..
2.3.1.

2.3.2. ..
2.3.3. ..
2.4. .
...
2.4.1. .
2.4.2.
2.4.3. ..
2.5. .
2.5.1.
( ).
2.5.2.
( )...
2.5.3.

56
58
61
61
61
62
65
66
66
68
69
70
70
71
72
73
73
73
75
79
79
80
82

2.6. .

83

2.6.1.

83
2.6.2.

84
2.6.3.

85
2.6.4.
.
86
2.6.5.
.
87
2.7.
88
2.7.1.
.
88
2.7.2. .
91
3. ..
94
3.1.
94
3.1.1.
94
3. 1.2. ...
95
3.1.3.
98
3.2. ..
99
3.2.1. ...
99
3.2.2. ..
100
3.2.3. 104
3.3. . 108
3.3.1. . 108
3.3.2.
. 109
3.3.3.
115
3.3.4. ..
3.4.
...
3.4.1. ...
3.4.2. .
3.4.3. ,
..
3.5. .
3.5.1. ..

118
124
124
126
129
131
131

3.5.2.
..
3.5.3. ..

1 1976
2 . IERS 2003 ..

133
134
137
138
139
140


, , .
, . 120100 , 120103 , 120102 ,
, ,
. , ,
, , .


.
:
- , ;
- , , ;
- ;
-
;
- ,
;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ,
;
:
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .

, , , .

, , ,
.
.

.
, , , ,
. .
,
, ,
.

1.
1.1. ,
1.1.1.

.
,
.
.1.1.
. ,
XYZ
R (.1.1.).

X,Y,Z. , - R =
: X -
XOY,
XOY - R.

X = R cos cos,
Y = R cos sin,
Z = R sin,
R= X 2 Y 2 Z 2 .
,
(, , , , ). ,
,
, .
, , , .
,
,
. , , , .

, (.1.2.).
, :

x = cos cos,
y = cos sin,
z = sin.

,
, :
1) ;
. 1.2.
2)

;
3)
;
4)
.
,
, .1.3.

,
.
Z Z'. Z
, Z'
.
,
ZZ'.
.1.3. , - NESW,

, - ()
.
. S, W, N, E, S -
, N - , W - , E - . NS .
PNPS,
, . PN - ; PS .
.
, PNPS. QWQ'E, , () . Q -

( ), Q'- (
). W
E.
PNZQSPSZ'Q'N, ,
() .

. .
ZZ' , . ZWZ'E .
ZZ', , , ,
.
PNPS, , .
nn', , .
.
', , , .

- , .
, , .


. ',

, .

,
23.5 0.

.1.4.
,

. 1.4. :
;
;
; '
; RNRS
; RN - ; RS - ; - .

1.1.2.


, , - .

:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
, . .

.1.5.
SMN. - Z () Z' ().
- ZSZ'N.
- S.
-
ZZ'.
h, . 1.5.
,
M.

-900 h 900.
, , h
z - Z, Z.
900 h:
z = 900 h.

00 z 1800.


SZZ' ( ) , :
= . SZZ' = SOM = SM = . SZM.
S

00 3600.
. ,
, , h, z, A. ,
,
.
,
.
.

.1.6.


Q'KQ. - , N
S.
- NQ'SQ.

Q.

NS.
.1.6. - ,
,
.
-900 900.

= 900 - , 00 1800, .
, , .

t , :
t =. QNS = . QN = Q = QOK.
Q
( ) 00 3600,
, ,
0h t 24h.
:
3600 = 24h, 150 = 1h, 15' = 1m, 15" = 1s.

. t , (ZZ')
, , .

.1.7.

- QQ'.
- NS, .
.1.7. .

NS.
- .
- , ,
N, :

=. NS = . PN = = OK.

, ,
0h 24h.
. , , ,
.
-
. , (A
h), , . .

.1.8.
PN

'.

RNRS.
O
E
E'
- Q'

, RN RS.
K

Q
.
RS
NS.
.1.8.

-
,
.
RN

-900 900.

,
, RN,
:
=. RNRS = . RN = = OK.
,
00 3600.

.
. , .
,
,
. .
1.1.3.

PN

E
Q
ZZ (.1.9.),

G

:
M
N
S

p
q

.
O

q
p
W
Q

g
PS
.
Z
, .1.9.
.

(. ), ( ) ( ).
Z

, ,
.
( 1883).
, ,
.

, A.
.
00 +900 00 -900.
.
(E- ) (W- ) 00 1800 , , 0 12 (12h).
0 3600 , , 0 24 .
, , .

, () .
.
1.1.4.

.
, , . t .

:
t = QO = Q.

.1.10. ,
t = t + .

s:
s = t = t + .

.1.10.


:

.


1.
:
= z = hp.

.1.11. Q
PN
z=
, Moq.
z
hp=


M
N
S
, ZMQ. p
q

o
. , hp=PNMN,

p
z
.1.11.

. , 1 Z

, . .
2. ,


:
t2 t1 = 2 1.
1.9., . ;
.
, .

.

90
Z

Pn, Z, (.1.12.).
1800 A

: t
,
Pn
z
.
q 900
q
.

:
.1.12.
(, z), (, t)
(). .
: s
.
: : A z.
.
, :
0

cos z = sin sin + cos cos cos t,

(1.1)

sin z sin(1800-A) = sin(900-) sin t ,


(1.2)
0
0
0
0
0
sin z cos(180 -A) = sin(90 -) cos(90 -) - cos(90 -) sin(90 -)cost, (1.3)
t = s - .
(1.3) (1.2), :
tg A = sin ctg t - tg cos cosec t.

(1.4)

(1.1) (1.4) , .
1.1.5.

. . . :
1) ,
(1)

(4)

Pn

> N, > 900 ,


2) ,

S N,
(90) (900),

S
(3)

Q
(5)

3) ,
Z

Ps

< S,
< (900),

.1.13.

4) (
,
>Z, >,
5) ,
Z Z, .

.1.13. , ,
.
. .
.
,
.
(.1.14.). t = 0h, t = 12h. s = ,
s=+12h.
A, z
.
():
Z

PN
a) ,
1
Q
2
(-900 < < ), 2 3,

= 00, z = ;

S
3

) -

Q'

PS
Z'

.1.14.

,
(900 > > ), 1,
= 1800, z = .

():
) , (900 > > ), 1 2,
= 1800, z = 1800 (;
) , (-900 <<), 3,
= 00, z = 1800 + (.

. ,
z
.


(, )
z=900,
t, s A, PNZ, .1.15. z (900- ) , :
os z = sin sin + cos cos cost,
sin = cos z sin sin z cos cosA.
z=900, cos z = 0, sin z = 1,
cos t = - tg tg, cos A = - sin/cos.
900

Z
1800 A

Pn

,
>0, (>0) cost <0 cosA<0,
:

t
tW=12h t1, AW = 1800 A1
tE =12h + t1, AE = 1800+A1,

z = 900
900

. 1.15.

t1 A1 , 0h t16h, 00A1900.
<0 cos t>0 cosA>0,

tW= t1, AW = A1,


tE=24h- t1, AE = 3600 - A1.

sW = + tW, sE = + tE.

, , .


(.1.16), -:
cos z = sin/sin, cos t = tg/tg.

(>0),
(>0)
cost >0,
,

tW= t1, tE=24h- t1 .

Z
900-

900
Z
q

t
PN

900-

.1.16.

(<0) cost < 0,

tW=12h t1, tE =12h + t1.


cosz<0, z>900, ,
.


sW = + tW, sE = + tE.
AW = 900, AE = 2700,
.
,
.
.


, , . , PNZ
. -, t, z, A:
cost = tg/tg, cosz = sin /sin, sinA = - cos /cos.

AW = 1800 A1, tW = t1, sW = + tW,

AE = 1800 + A1, tE = - t1, sE = + tE.


.
1.1.6. .
, . (z,A) 1. . (z,A) ,
.

.
.
,
s1 sk A z.
Z
900 (+f)
10. AN
(.1.17.). z
K K
. x
, PNK () KZ ().
f t

PNK ,
U Mi
PN

.1.17.

P K = f = cos t, K = x = sin t, t = s-.
N

KZ .
, KZ = 900-(+f) K = x. -
tg z = tg(900-- f)/cosAN.
z 1' 1/cosA 1,
z = 900-(+f), h = + f .
KZ
sin x = sin AN sin z,

x AN 1'

x = AN sin z = AN cos(+f).

AN = x/cos(+f) = sin(s-cos(+f).
AN N. , S,
W = 1800 - AN;
E = 1800 + AN.
1.1
1. ?
2. , ?
3. (, , ) , .
4. ?
5. , ?
6. , .
7. , ,
?
8.
?
9. ,
,
.
10. ( = -160) ( 550)?
11.
, ?
12. , ?
( 550).
13. ?

1.2.
1.2.1.
,

. .

, :
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .
:
1) ,
(, );
2) , ;
3) , ;
4) .
, , , . ,
.
,
- , ;
- .
1.2.2.
s.
:
1) ;
2) - ,

;

3) - ,
( ) - ;
4) . -
, t. ,

s = t = + t,
,
t, s.
, (
, . 1.3.9),
, .


, , . ,
, .
, , . .
1.2.3. .
( m) . :
1) - ;
2) - -
;
3) - - , - ,
;
4) . - t 12 :
m = t + 12h .
- , 1/86400 , , - .
:
1) ;

2) , ,
23.50.
.
[3].
1 . .
.
, .
2 , . , .

.

.
m.
:
1) - ;
2) - - ;
3) - , ,
;
4) . t 12 .
m = t + 12h.

,
. , . m m
:
= m - m = t - t ...
:
= 1 + 2 -7.7msin (l + 790)+ 9.5m sin 2l,

l .
,
, .
1.18.

.1.18.
+14m 16m.
,

= + 12h .


m = t -E.
1.2.4.
, , .
1
4713 . .., ,
, JD. , 1900, 0,12hUT JD 2415020.0, 2000, 1, 12hUT JD2451545.0.

1 365,25 ( ),
36 525 .
, 7980
. XVI . . : 281915 = 7980 . 28 ,
,
19 ,
, 15 .
1.2.5. .
,
.
, , ,
tA - tB =sA - sB = A - B,
t

- t

= m

- t

- m

= A - B,

(1.6)

= mA - mB = A - B.

, .
, =0.
S, M, M. M UT (Universal Time).
(1.6) :
s S = | EW
m - M = | EW

(1.7)

m - UT = | EW
(1.7)
: , - .
, - ,
. - n, n - . 24 -

150, n, 0h, 1h, ... , 23h. - 24 0 23. ,


m :
n = m(n) .

:
Tn1 - Tn2 = n1 - n2 = n1 - n2.
(n=0),
UT :
UT = T0, Tn = T0 + n = UT + n.
16 1930
1 .
, Dn. 1980 ( 1 ), . , Dn
Dn = n + k,
k = 2h , k = 1h .
:
Dn = UT + (n+k) = m + [(n+k) - E].
,
, .
1.2.6.

, . , , , .
(. .1.19.).
( ),
, 10 ( 4 ) ,

, 4
.
,

24h/365.2422 c = 3m56.555s.
10

.1.19.

365.422 366.2422
.

1 . . = (366.2422/365.2422). = (1 + ). ,
= 1/365.2422 = 0.0027379093
.
, m (1+)m
,
s = (1+)m.
(1.8)


1 . = 365.2422/366.2422 . . . = (1 - ). . ,
= 1/366.2422 = 0.0027304336
.
, s (1 - ) s ,
M = (1 - ) s.
(1.9)
(1.8) (1.9)
.


( ) 12h,
s0 =

+ 12h.

S0. S0 .
S0m 0h UT1
:
S0m = 6h41m50s.54841 + 8640184 s.812866T + 0 s.093104T2 - 6.27 s 10-6 T3.
T , 36525 UT1 2000, 1, 12h UT1 (2451545.0).
S0m
S0
S0= S0m + ,
Qeq .1.3.9.
,
.
s0E S0, s0W ( ) - .

24h, , ,
S0 , ..
s0 = S0 |W .

m=0
s0


m=0
m
s0

.1.20.

s m .1.20.,

.
m (ss0), -

,
m = (s-s0)(1-) =(s-s0) - (s-s0) ,

s s0
m, ,
s = s0 + m(1+) = s0 + m + m.
:
UT = (S-S0)(1-) = (S-S0) - (S-S0),
S = S0 + UT(1+) = S0 + UT + UT .
1.2.7.
, ,
, .
.
XVII , . , , 10-11
, ,
.
.
1.
0.0023s 100 . .
2. () . 0.5 1 . 0.001s. .
3. .

(), .
, , .
: - .

.

1.2.8.
, VIII
C 1952.
1. - .
2. - ,
1/31556925.9747 . ,
1900.0, .0, 12h .
3. - 1900, 0 ., 12h
.
4. - UT,
:
ET = UT + T ,
T ,
.
, , ,
.
, - . 1986 ,
.
1.2.9.
1955 ,
,
.
- ,
, . , . 210-14 .
XII 1967
- 1 - 9192631770
,
-133. 10-10-10-11 .
= + 32.184s.

, ,
, . , .
1.2.10.
1986 DT:
1) TDT, ET,
, ;
2) TDB, ( ).
.
DB TDT 0.00166 .
XXI (1991) XXIV (2000) TDT TDB
,
, ,
(TCG) (TCB).
, , ,
(TT). TT TCG . TT
.
1.2.11. .
UT, ,
. -
. ,
,
. -
:
UT0 ,
. , ;
UT1 , ,

UT1 = UT0 + ,
- , , (.
);
UT2 ,
Ts:
UT2 = UT1 + Ts.
UT1 AT 1964 -
UTC - . UTC AT , . UTC UT1 , , -, UT1, , -, UT1 AT (1 1
UT1). UTC UT1 0.9s
1s:
UTC = AT + b,
b = 1s, |UTC-UT1| > 0.9s,
b = 0, |UTC-UT1| < 0.9s.
1s .

UTC.
1.2.12.
GPS () ()
.
. , . .
. , ,
.
GPS UTC, 1980:
TGPS = UTC(1980.0).
TGPS UTC
, .


,
T = UTC.
1.2.
1. .
2. ?
3. ,
?
4. ?
5. ,
, ?
6. : .
, . , . ?
7. ,
12 ?
8.
(=10h55m48s). ,
17h32m06s?
9. 3h18m.
, 2
10 , 12 05 ?
10. 6h45m.
, 6h31m
?
11. 23h56m.
2 ?
12. 13h15m
6h48m .? = 12h10m.
13. UT0, UT1, UT2,
UTC.
14.
?
15. TT, TCB, TCG?
13. UT0, UT1, UT2,
UTC.

1.3.
1.3.1.
, , z t , - . , . .
:
1. , :
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .
2. , :
- ;
- : ( ) ( ).
1.3.2.
-
. ()
, . , , .
. ,
, .
. , :
- ;
- ;
- , , .
:
1) , , .
,
,
, .

2) . i1 i2 , 2 1:
Z

sin i1/sin i2 = 2 /1 .

, 2
1, 2>1 , i2 < i1,
,
z
, .
, M
.1.21. .

, (.1.21.). , , , .
,
. , z z' :
z = z' + .
, ,
,
A = A'.
.
sin z/sin z' = /1, sin z = sin z',

sin(z'+) = sin z'.

(1.12)

(1.12):
sin z' cos + sin cos z' = sin z' .
,
cos ~ 1, sin = "/206265".

sin z' + cos z'"/206265" = sin z'.

(1.13)

(1.13) sin z' ":


" = (-1) tg z' 206265".
, . , , , . - :
= 21.67"B tg z/(273 + toC),

(1.14)

- , ..,
t ,
z'- .
to=0oC =760 .. 0 = 60.3"tg z',
to=10oC 0 = 58.1"tg z'. 0 ,

1".
.
35.
1 00 <
z < 500, 00 < z < 800.
. :
- , t=10oC =760 ..,
, ..
0= f(z',t10,B760).
- .
1".
0.1" .
1.3.3.

. - , ,

,
.

. ,
, ( ).
. - ( ),
().

(
9"), z
. .1.22. M
S
, S. z
, , S ; R
D
C
, ,
.1.22. .
Zz

z = z - P , A= A,
P .
CMS : sin P = R/D sin z . P

sinPP"/206265",

P"=R/Dsinz206265".
Z

P0
a
D0

.1.23.

,
z = 90o. P .
P0, , ,
, , (.1.23.).

, "".

z = z - P0sin z.
P, , , D0 . 1976 1979 .
P =8.794".
,
,
, .

, ,
,

(.1.24.). :
" = A 206265"/.


.1.24. 18371840 :
..(,1837) - (
Lyrae),0.25", () - N61 , 0.51",
- , 0.76".
,
.

= A/ " 206265",
A - ,
(..).
1.. = 149600 103 .
, , 1 () - , 1".

1 = 206265 ..
6000 ,
. ,
- , =0.762", m=10.5.
, " " , 0.01".
0, 0
( , )
:
0 = cos sin(0)sec0
0 = (sincos0 cossin0cos(0)),
, .
q
P ,
P = q E,
E .
1.3.4.
-
,
. .
.1.25. , . . V. .
',
(-V) , '= +(-V),
.
. '
, . . ':

sin a = V/c sin u' ,

a" = V/c sin(u-a) 206265".

O
-V

u' = u - a.
- ,

k=206265"V/c


u
c

.1.25.

. = ksinu' ,
, ,
= ksinu.

(1.15)

- , . , V
.

.
.
,
.

v = 2R/T,
R - ,
- , .
v = 0.464/.
v = vcos . ,
k = 0.32" cos = 0.0213s cos .
, , .


. .1.26 '
, :

Z
A
z

A
u

' = k sin u = 0.32" cos sin E.

Z'
.1.26. z-z' A-A':
:
(1.16)
- z-z' = 0.32" cos cos z sin A,
(,z); '- - A-A' = 0.32" cos cos A cosec z. (1.17)
S

(A',z').

(1.16) (1.17) ,
.
, ; .
A' z', ,
Ta = -0.021s cosZ.
:
' = -(t-t') = 0.021s cos cos t sec ,
-' = 0.32" cos sin t sin .
> 800 .
t = 0h t = 12h
, . t = 6h t = 18h .

.

1725-1728 , . 900.

. ,

v0 = 1/2 (va + v) ,

T
S

A
A

.1.27.
:
T ; S ; A ;

v - (),
v - ().
k0, v0,
.


J2000.0:

A
, .

k0 = 20.49552" .

.1.27. :
- ( );
- A 900 ,
A = - 900 .

(. .1.28). :
(') cos= k0v/v0(cosA sinsinAcoscos),
(') = k0v/v0 (cos A cos sin +
+ sin A sin sin cos sinA cos sin ).
,
(v = v0, A = -900),
(')cos = k0(sin sin + cos cos cos),

(1.18)

(') =k0(sincossin cossinsincos+ coscossin). (1.19)

:
= k0cos cos, D= k0sin,
c=1/15cossec ,
c'=tgcos sinsin,
d=1/15sin sec, d'= cos sin .

P

a

(1.18) (1.19) :
Q

' = Cc + Dd , ' = Cc'+ Dd' .


A

,',d,d'
.1.28. . . , c', d,
d' . D , ,
" ".
. p1 , V
, , :

(p V ) V
(1 p V ) ,
p1 = 1p V
1
1

p ( ); V=Ev/c=0.005 7755 Ev; = (1V2)-1/2; c ; Ev - ; .


, ,
, v .
1.3.5.
,
, .
, 240
/, - 30
/.

- ,
.
.
v (.1.29.),
2 :
1) vr - ,
vr
; ;
v

vt
2) vt - , ,
. O
.
1(1,1) - t1,
.1.29.

2(2,2) - t2, :
= (1 -2)/(t1-t2) , = (1 - 2)/(t1-t2).
,
=(( s )2 + 2)1/2.
, t1,t2 .
- .
(t1-t2) ,
.
.
, 1" .

(" ", 9.7m, =10.27"), 100 17', .
1.3.6.

( ). .
1919 . (. ).

:
p = 2(e-(pe)p)/[c2E(1+ pe)],

, =GM ,
, e, p
, pe .
(
p, e 1800), (pe)= 1,
p . p 1.6". 440
0.01".
, , 440, .
, 1- , :
1. ( 00 Z 900, 00 2000");
2. ( P 8.8", max = 0.762");
3. (k 20.5" , k 0.32");
4. ( , 1" ).
5. ( 60 ).
1.3.7.
,
, - , . , , , -0.5

.
Pi
Pi
,
, y
O
(.1.30.),

-0.5
+0.5

26 ,
Pi

+0.5
x
- 0.5".
.1.30. :
1770 . ,
; Pi
; Ox , .
,
-

, 10 .
.
1891 . , 14 . XX :
, . ,
437 .
: 14 (), 12- (), 6 - ().
, .
, - .
0.05 .
x,y 1898 (). 3908' , . x,y

x cos i - y sin i = i 0,
i , i () ,
0 .
, ().

();
(International Earth Rotation Service,
IERS). x,y " " .
,
(),
:
= (x cos - y sin ,
= - 1/15 (x sin + y cos ) tg ,
a0 = aa = a - (x sin + y cos ) sec .
.

1.3.8. .
.
, ,
, () , ,
(A,Z) ( ). R
PN
, ,
.

. ,
N ,
.1.31.
, 23.50,
(. .1.31.).
R 26000 .
, , , ,
, , .
,
. .
, . (. praecessio aequinoctium - ). II .. .
, , 50.2". 25600 .

P1

P0

M1
FA
A

F
M

O O

FB
B

.1.32.
:
; A, B ; M0 .


1687
" ".
(1717-1783).
,
, , -

.
.1.32, . , , , . , ,
FA, FB, |FA| < |FB|. F ' .
, , , ,
. '
.1.31. 1 = M0 + ' - , .
, "", .
.
- ,
, . ,
60 . . . t t
t = t0 46,8150T 0,00059T2 + 0,001813T3,
t0 = 2302621,448
J2000.0,
T = (JDt JDt0)/36525 , ,
.

, . 0 - , P0 - , ,
0 - . ,
,
. ,
, (J2000.0,
1950, 1975 ..).

.1.33
:
P0 t0
P0' t.


00'=d1.
d1 :
0M = d1cos 0 - d1
, -
,
0'M = d1sin 0 - d1
, -

R
P0(t0)
P0'(t)

K'

K
M
d1

0'

.1.33.

.
- ,
n = d1/dt sin 0 - - ,
m1 = d1/dt cos 0 - - (
),
m = m1 - q1 - ( q1 -
).
m, n 0 [2]: n2000.0 = 20.051",
m2000.0 = 46.071" .
0, 0 t0.
t,
tt0:
= 0 , = 0.
, :
= d/dt(tt0) + d2/dt2 (tt0)2/(12) + d3/dt3 (tt0)/(123)+,
= d/dt(tt0) + d2/dt2 (tt0)2/(12) + d3/dt3 (tt0)/(123)+,
, ,
.
1 :
d/dt = m + n tgsin,
55

d/dt = n cos.

, :
= 0 + = 0 + 1/15 (m + n tgsin)(tt0),
0 + = 0 + n cos(tt0).
- ,
, . , .

r0 = [X0 Y0 Z0]T
t0,
r = [X Y Z]T t.

,
r = P r0.
(1.20)
(1.20) P ,
P = R3(-ZA)R2(A)R3(- A).
ZA, A, A .
. 1895 , . ZA, A, A (tt0), t0 -
.
1.3.9. .
,
. 1747
,
- , - ,
18 2/3 . 18 2/3
.
.

,
R

(. .1.34). ,
P(t)
P0(t)
. :
( ) - []
.1.34. :
,
R ; P0(t) t;
( ) - [],
P(t) t.
:
[] = + d , [] = + d .
[] [] ,
.
, ,
[] = 6.86" sin = x, [] = 9.21" cos = y,

x/9.21" = cos, y/6.86" = sin ,


- .
,
x2/9.212 + y2/6.862 = 1,

P0 9.21" 6.86".
, 0
6.86" 9.21".

, :
s = t , s = t .
, .
,
S0 S0m, [2]:

Qeq = ( +d)cos 0 + 0."00264sin + 0."000063sin2.



', ', () ,
.
t, ', ' .
, ,
:
= f1() ,
'= f1 (',','),

= f2 (),
' = f2 (',',').

[] [], ,
' = f1 (, , ), ' = f2 (, , ).
:
= /[ + [ , = /[+ [.
( ), :
= [](cos + sin sin tg) - [] costg,
= [] sin cos + [] sin .

, , , , . :
N = R1(0d)R3d)R1(0).


,
R = NP.

R
.
t0 t.
, II :
1.
: 14, 12, 6 ;
0.5;
2.
: 26 000 ; 50.2;
3.
: 18 2/3 ; 97.
1.3.10.
, ( ).
. . .1.35.

(Z, A) T


() T0

()
T
(Z,A)
T

()
T

(Z,A)
T

()
T


(Z,A) T


() T

00,

. 1.35. .

1.3.11.

( ) .
t, ,
TDB, ,
TT : t=
TDB = TT.
t :
0, 0,
- (
J2000.0);
, ;
v;
E ( ..) Ev ( ../)
t;
R t;
JD(t), t.

.
1. q,
J2000.0:
q = q(cos0cos0, sin 0cos0, sin0 ).
2. m, ,
mx = -cos0 sin 0 - sin0 cos0 + v cos0cos0,
my = cos0cos0- sin0 sin 0+ v sin0cos0,
mz =
cos0
+ v sin0,
v 100
(1/c=21.09495 ../100 ), , - .
3. t
P = q + Tm E,
T=(JD(t)-245 1545.0)/36 525
J2000.0, .
4. p e:

p = P/|P|, e = E/|E|.
5. p

p1 = p + 2(e-(pe)p)/[c2E(1+ pe)].
6. : p2 , V :

(p V ) V
p2 = 1p 1 V 1 1 (1 p1 V ) ,
1

V=Ev/c = 0.005 7755 Ev; = (1-V2)-1/2 ; c .


7. : p2:
p3 = R p2.
8. : :
p3 = p3 (x,y,z); = arctg (y/x); = arcsin z.

1.3.
1.
:
. ;
. 0 ;
. ;
. ;
.
;
. ;
. ;
. .
2. ,
?
3.
, ?
. . .

4. 0.374", - 0.048".
?
5. -
?
6. ?
7. , 900?
8. - ?

2.
2.1.
2.1.1.
, . ,
. . , ,
.
.
1.
:
; ,
- ; ; -;
2.

,
, , ;
3. , ,
, , ;
4.

;
5.
;
6.
, ;
7. ;

8.
, ,
- .
. , , . . , , : 0.3, 0.03s, 0.5. - ().
1 1', ,
, .
:
, , 1s, , , ..

.
:
- , ;
- ;
- ;
-
;
- ;
- , ;
2.1.2. -

. u - ( ).

M
B, L . ZA,

Z (. .2.1.).
N
900 -
ZA
,

-L

u
Q
P

v

L 0
90 B-
P; R
K Z
PG.
, G
,
.2.1. -


.
, PZAZ :
PZA = 900 -

PZ = 900 - B;

ZAZ = u - .
ZA ZAK, PZ, KZ, , - , KZA, ,
- .
ZAKP:
cos (-L) = tg ctg(B+);
sin = sin(-L)cos

(-L) ,
tg = tg (B+); = (-L)cos .
, cos cosB,
:
= B; = (-L)cos B.
(2.1)
N N. , -

.2.1., A = R + . v
N, u (
ZAZ) ZN. Z= ZN z = ZAN
MN,
ZAZQ NZ NZA
v = Z-z = u cosR = u cos(A-) = ucosAcos + usinAsin.
ZAZK
= u cos ;
= u sin ,

v = Z z = cosA + sinA.
, , A A+900:
= cosA - sinA.
, A.
:
A = tg +(cosA - sinA)ctg z,
, (2.1),
A = (-L)sin + (cosA - sinA)ctg z.

(2.2)

(2.2) . , ,
,
, - . ,
, .
- . , ,
.
.
, [6], :

- 1 ( );
- () 1
70-110 ;
- 1 2 ( ) . ,
1 - 18-20 .
,
1 2 ,
- .
1 200 2 125 .
2.1.3.

- .
.
:
1. 0,2 ;
2.
- () [7];
3. 0,15 0,20 ,
,
.
( , ,
.).
, ( , ). , , - [8], , , .
2.1

1. (
);
2. ?
3. . , .
4. ?
2.2.
2.2.1.

Z z,z)
PN

z=
Q

()

W
z=s

,
,
NS s
T
, Z
(. .2.2.).
:

,
hP = = z.

.2.2.

,
, z. ,
1-2 = s1-s2,
, s=z. , , ,
.
Z(z,z)
T :
- Z1=Z1 Z2=Z2 1(1,1) 2(2,2),
- ,
, , A1 A2.
: .

() ,
, .
,
, .
(A,Z)
, () ,
(,) . , .
cosZ = sin sin + coscoscost,
(2.3)
,

tg A = sin ctgZ tg cos/sint
(2.4)
.
(2.3), (2.4)
t = T+u-,
T , u .
N
. 2.3:
MN
00

a = A+Q ,

A
M*
Z

Q = M* ,
M

M *,
S
A ,
.2.3.
(2.4).
(), u
.
Q
. ,

.

:

= MN,

(2.5)

MN ,
. . MN ,
. (2.5)
.
2.2.2.

,
.
Z Z; T, .
. .
.
(2.3) :
-sinZdZ = (cossin sincoscost)d + (sincos cossincost)d
coscossint(dT + du d).
:
-sinZcosA = cossinsincoscost,
sinZsinA = cossint,
sinZcosq = sincos-cos sincost.
sinZ, :
dZ = cosAd+ 15cossinA(dT +du-d) cosqd.

(2.6)

(2.6) d du, , Z, T, u ,
(d=0 d=0),
:
= Z/cosA 15cos tgA(T+u),

(2.7)

u = T + (Z/(cossinA) / (costgA))/15.

(2.8)

(2.7) , , 00 1800. T u
, . S=ZS, = Z. ,
.
.

. (2.8) ,
Z ( = 900 = 2700).
uW=-TW+ZW/cos,
u=-T+Z/cos,

.
.
2.2.3. ,

:
ctgAsint sincost + tgcos = 0.

(2.9)

(2.9) A, t, dA, d dt A, t, :
A = cosqcos(T+u)/sinZ sinA/tgZ.
(2.10)
(T+u) , 900, 1800.
. , .
.
()
u,
(2.10):
u = - T + sinZ A/coscosq cosZsinA/ coscosq.
(2.11)

(2.11) , () , ,
, .
,
= - coscosq(u + T)/ cosZsinA + tgZ A/sinA.

(2.12)

(2.12) , , , , .
2.1.
1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. .
5.
) ) ) ?
2.3
2.3.1.
:
) .
,
. .
) . ( - ).
.
) ,
, , . , .

)
, .
:
- ;
- () ;
- ;
- ;
- ,
;
- .
2.3.2.
:
- ,
;
- ;
- . , , : ; ; , ,
;
- , 7-9

.

;
- ;
- ( ) .
: 2/10 (, 30- ), -4
(, , 40- .), 3- (-, ), 01
(, , 80- .).
, , 2, 22,
, , Theo 01, .
,
.

2.3.3.
, , , .
,
.
.
u . (
) :
u = UTC T,
UTC ,
.
, .
.
w 1
2 u1 u2 .
:
w = (u2 - u1)/( 2 - 1).
,
. ,
.
w , ,
(2 - 1) u1 1,
u T :
u = u1+ w(T 1).

2.3.
1. .
2. .
3. ?
4. ?
5. .
6. ?
2.4. .

2.4.1.

( ) ,
. , .

. , ,
.
:
- ( ) ( ) ;
-
,
.
, .
.
, , , , .
2.4.2.

, , , . , , (
). Mz , ( ).
L,
R,
Z = L Mz = Mz R,

Z = (L R)/2 Mz = (L + R)/2.
().

;
.



, .

, .
, ; .
, i,
L = L + i.
,
.

i = i.,
.


.

= 21.67"B tg Z'/(273 + toC),

(2.13)

- , ..,
t ,
Z'- .
( 1")
0 = 60.3"tg Z',
1
00 < z < 500,

00 < z < 800, .


, ,
Z = Z' +



,
Z = Z - P0sin Z,
Z , Z , P0 ,
. P0 = 8.8".
2.4.3.
.
, .
, , ,
, , .
Z
Z
y
H

H
b

.2.4.
HH HH:
L ; L

-

HH (.2.4.) -

Z L L. LL=x b = ZZ .
ZZ LL :
sin Z = tg b ctg y,
cos Z = tg x ctg y.

tg Z = tg b/ tg x.

tg x = tg b ctg Z.
- b x,
x = b ctg Z.
, , HH (.2.8.),
L = L - b ctg Z.
,
L = L + b ctg Z.
b ( , ) .


c = k = 0 (.2.5.)
L.
c 0 L. Zk
sin c = sin (L L) sin Z.
- c (L L)

L L = c cosec Z,

L = L + c cosec Z.

c
c

c
L
L

.2.5.
:

,

L = L c cosec ZR
,

L c = 0; L 0.

R = R + c cosec ZL .


N = (L + (R 1800))/2 = (L + (R 1800))/2 + c(cosec ZR cosec ZL)/2.
, cosec ZR = cosec ZL = 1,
N = (L + (R 1800))/2,

c = (L (R 1800))/2.
ZR = ZL, .


,

= 0.32cos sin E.

A = AN AN = 0.32cos cos AN cosec Z.
cos AN = 1,

AN = AN + 0.32cos cosec Z.
, , , cos AN = 0 AN = AN.

.

,

.
cosec Z, ,
N = cosec Z,
.
.

,
, , ,
, . . ,
, , .
,
. , , .
2.5
1. .
?
2. . ,
( 1')?

3.
?
2.5.
2.5.1.
( )
.
(1740),
. - XIX
.
, .
.
(N) (S) :
= S + ZS, = N ZN,
,
= (S +N) + ( ZS ZN).

, ,
. , , ,
.
.

( ZS ZN) = (S MN)R + (iS iN) /4 + (S N),
S, MN , ,
R , ",
iS , iN , ,
, ",
S, N .
2.5.2.
( )

,
.
L0 ( 1-2'), -

. . ,
. ,
(, , ), , .
, ,

Z = L0 + L (Mz + Mz) + i /2 +
L0 - ;
Mz - ;
Mz - ;
i - , ;
- ;
- .
()
Z = L0 - Mz.
':
' = zconst = L Mz +
:
Z = Z + ' + i /2.
() .

.
(), , , ( ), -,
().
, , , .

( )
.. 1874 .
, .
() .
.
,
. 300,
200 500. 650700.

( )
..
1887.
, 100 400. 150 600.

.

2.5.3.

. :
-
. , ;

- , , ;
- .
, :
-
sec .
100 600;
- , .
,

. , . 18 10005'. , ,
.
,
, 0,1 .
.
,
, .
(2.5), . .
2.5.
1. .
2. .
3. ,
.
4. .
5.
?

2.6.
2.6.1.

a
a = A+Q,

, Q
.

a

Z
(2.4),
k
y
. x

t

PN
(.2.6.).
= 90-

k.
.2.6.
PNk

,
:
x = cost, y = sint,
Z

t = s- = + u .
kZ
cos (+x) = ctg(1800-A)tgy,
, = 1800-A,
= y sec(+x) = sint sec(+x).
kZ, - a, kZ Z,
Z (900-) x,

= sint osecZ.


.
,
, T, Q
. u -

1m 1'. , , .
-
600.
. ,
.
2.6.2.
: .
( =900-<10), ,
, :
h = 900-Z.
h Z .
,
(. .2.11):
h x = h cos t.
1'.
, ,
:
tgx = cos t ctg,
sin(+x) = cosZcosx/sin,
= (+x) x.
, h Z , T. / . u . () "
" . t
t = T + u .
. ,
.

2.6.3.


:
,
= m UT,
UT
UT = Dn (n+k) = + u (n+k),
,

m = t E,
.

= + Q,
Q .
t
,
, Z:
cos t = (cosZ sinsin)/coscos = K,
cosA = (sin cosZ sin)/cossinZ = L.

. ( ),
t = arccos (K), A = arccos (L),
,
t = 3600 arccos (K), A = 3600 arccos (L).
:
=0 + v(UT)h, E = E0 + vE(UT)h,

0, E0 ,
v , vE .
, , . 1.5 (), 1.5 . -
,
100. .

Z 2
Q
.
1
Dn.
u
. . 2.7.

Z

:
Z = Z + PsinZ = Z + 60.2tgZ 8,8sinZ.
.
(.
.2.7.). .
2.6.4.

, ,
, - . , . (. . 2.8.).
2
M K, :
1

tgM = tg/cost,
cosN = cosZsinM/sin.

. 2.8.

:
= M + N.

t = m + E,
m = T + u (n+k) + .
2.6.5.


, .
( A),

(. 2.9.):
= a + A + -
2.9. , . , ( ).

V

A= - = (L-)sin

a
A

. 2.9.



2-3".

0,1-0,2"

", = 0,00253"(x - x)ym,

x, x , , ;
ym , .
B l=L-L0, :
"= l" sin B + l"3/3"2 sin B cos2B(1+32),

= e'2cos2B 0,0067 cos2B, "=206265".


2.6.
1. .
2. .
3. . 1
19.. 22 ( - 5h 32m, n+k
= 7h). .
4. 10h 30m . - 1 19.. , 21h . .
5. ,

1'?
2.7.
2.7.1.

,
( )
, .

.
,
- ,
, .

Pn

EZ

Zc

Zb

Z
Za
c
a
Q

q
O

Ps

. 2.10.


(.2.10.). ,
Za.
T h.
Za=900-h Z. ZaZbZc Z.

ZaZbZc ,
abc,



ZaZbZc.
,

.
e
. .
, -
, , Pn

.
ZG
tE
, E
, pn
G
.
e
, e

E
Q
(.2.11.), G q
q
O
. ZG
e
OG m
.
ps
, e e M
tE
:

E=ME=e, tE = QM = e.
Ps
. 2.11.

E , tE

tE = T + u E,
T ,
u ,
E , .
, , e
Z,
.
, a a,
.
Z , :
cos Zc = sin c sin E + cos ccos E cos tc,
(2.14)
sin Ac = cos E sin tc/sinZc,
tc = T + U + c E.
2 , , 1 1. ,
3.5 . .
0
0 , 1:100 000
.


X

Zc

(2.14).

y
Z = Zc Z . .
x

0, 0

.2.12.


.
,

0, 0
(.2.12.).
X
, ,
, Z . , Z , , , . , .
, , .
(x, y)
= x/m, = y/(15mcos),
m , 1 .
:
= 0 + , = 0 + .
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5. , .. : / ..
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2010 / .. , .., .. . - : -2005. -, 2005.
. 39 40.
13. IERS Conventions 2003. D.D. McCarthy, G. Petit (eds.) IERS Tech. Note 32.
IERS Conventions Centre, 2004.
14. Capitaine, N., Guinot, B., and McCarthy, D. D. Definition of the Celestial
Ephemeris origin and of UT1 in the International Reference Frame. Astron.
Astrophys., 2000, 355, 398 405.
15. Wallace, P.T. and N. Capitaine. Precession-nutation procedures consistent
with IAU 2006 resolutions. Astronony & Astrophysics, 2006,Vol. 459,
pp.981-85, + Online Material p. 1-4.

1
1976 .
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0,01720209895

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1,327124331020
1,327124431020

17

M/ M =

332 946,0

332 945,7
332 946,3

328 900,5

328 900,2
328 900,8

18

19

= GM/ GM

M/ M(1+)

M=GM/ G

1,98911030

( )
1,000000
M

20

21

6 023 600

22

408 523,5

23

328 900,5

24

3098710

25

4
1047,355

1,98791030
1,98911030

6 020 000
6 027 000
408521
408526
328900
328901
3 098 600
3 098 760
5
1047,330
1047,380

26

3498,5

27

22869

28

19314

29

3 000 000

3497
3500
22650
23 100
19300
19450
2000000
15000000

2
. IERS 2003
1
,

c, [-1]

299792458

LB

1.55051976772 10-8

2 10-17


1 d(TT)/d(TCB)

LC

1.48082686741 10-8

2 10-17


1 d(TCG)/d(TCB)

6.969290134 10-10
6.673 10-11

1 10-13

GM, [3-2]

1.32712442076 1020

5 1010

* A , [c]
* cA , []

499.0047838061
149597870691

2 10-8
6

84381,4059

0,0003


J2000.0

J2

2 10-7

(
DE405)

0.0123000383

5 10-10

GM , [3-2]

3.986004418 1014

8 105


(EGM96)

+ aE, []

6378136.6

0.10

+ 1/f

298.25642

0.00001

+ J2

1.0826359 10-3

1.0 10-10

w, [/]

7.292115 10-5

+ gE, [-2]

9.7803278

110-6

W0, [2-2]
R0 = GM /W0, []

62636856.0
6363672.6

0.5
0.1

LG
G, [ -1-2]
3

1 d(TT)/d(TCG)

* A cA "TDB"-.
+ aE, 1/f, J2 g, " "
("zero tide").
"TDB"- "TCB"- :
tTDB = tTCB(1 LB), lTDB = lTCB(1 LB), GMTDB = GMTCB(1 LB),
X, xTCB, "TCB" (-),
xTDB "TDB"-, :
xTDB = xTCB(1 - LB).

, xTCG ( ) xTT "TT" -


xTT = xTCG(1 - LG).

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