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SemesterChemistryproject NatashaChyiandDouglasLau Topic: ExploretheFollowingEnvironmentThreatstoLifeonEarth 1. climatechange 2. waterpollution 3. toxinsinfoodandsoil(onlypart1) 4. depletingozonelayer 5. airpollution Usingtheinternet,libraryreferencebooksoryourtextbookyouwillexplorethe environmentalthreatsabove,outliningwhatproblemstheypose,themain idea/definitionofeachthreat,givingsomeexplanationsofsomebutnotall variationsthatexistwithineachthreatcategory.

(includepicofeachthreat) ResearchReactionsthatcontributetotheseenvironmentalthreats Giveatleast1exampleofareactionthatcontributetoeachoftheaboveenvironmental threats.Foreachreactionyouwill: A.Classifythereaction B.Balancethereactionandincludeallstates C.Identifyitasaoxidationreductionreactionornot:Ifoxidation/reductionyou willidentifyspeciesoxidized&speciesreduced,&#ofelectronstransferred. D.Writethenetionicequationforeachreaction. E.Givequalitativeobservationsofreactantsandproducts Investigateproposedsolutionstosolvetheseenvironmentalthreats UsingtheInternetyouwillfindproposedsolutionstoeachofthe5environmental problemsthathavebeenthoughtandperhapsimplementedonsomescalebyscientists aroundtheworld.Chooseatleast1solutiontoeachproblem,brieflyexplaintheprocess bywhichtheyhopetocorrectthethreat,citinginformationonthechemicalreactions thatonewouldneedtoconductinordertorectifytheenvironmentalthreat.

ClimateChange: Definitionofthreat GlobalClimateChangereferstoanincreaseinglobaltemperaturesandsignificant/longlasting changeinweatherpatterns. Causesforclimatechange Combustionoffossilfuelswhichreleasesgreenhousegases Deforestation(lesstreestofilteroutgreenhousegases) Volcaniceruptionswhichalsoreleasesgreenhousegases Watervapour,thoughitmaybesurprising,causes36%70%ofthegreenhouseeffect Disruptionofthegreenhouseeffectcycle Greenhouseeffectcycle:thesunsenergyheatstheearthssurfaceandradiatesback intospace.However,greenhousegasestraptheenergyintheearthsatmosphereand contributestotheriseintemperature. Greenhousegases:Carbondioxide,methane,nitrousoxide,etc. Problemsposedtoenvironmentnow Increaseinstrongtyphoons,hurricanes,anddroughts(superstorms). Longerspellsofdryheatorintenserain. Extremeandunusualweatherconditionsthatnativepopulationsareunsuitedfor. Problemsposedtoenvironmentinthefuture Waterscarcityinthelongrun. Massiveextinctionofspecies. Collapseofbiologicalandecologicalsystems. Submergenceofsmallislandsasaresultofrisingsealevels. http://www.globalissues.org/article/233/climatechangeandglobalwarmingintroduction#Whatis GlobalWarmingandClimateChange

WaterPollution: Definitionofthreat Waterpollutionisthecontaminationofbodiesofwaterwithpollutants. Typesofwaterpollution Groundandsurfacewaterpollution Pointandnonpointsourcepollution: Pointsourcewaterpollutionreferstopollutionfromasingleidentifiablesource. Nonpointsourcewaterpollutionreferstopollutionthatdiffusesfrommultiplesources,it doesntoriginatefromasinglesource. Thermalpollution Causesofwaterpollution Improperdisposalofwaste(garbage,litter). Releaseoftoxicchemicalsfromfactories. Rainrunofffromurbanareascancontaintoxins. Toxicchemicalsusedinagriculture(rainrunoffcantransporttoxinstobodiesofwater). Acidraincanraiseacidityofbodiesofwaterandkillmarinelife. Resultsandthreats Harmtofisheries Extinctionofmarinespecies Eutrophication,theecosystemsresponsetotheadditionofartificialsubstances. Increaseinlevelsofphytoplanktonasaresponsetoincreaseinnutrients. Depletestheamountofoxygenintheaquaticsystem. Healthhazardstohumans(foodchain) http://worldwildlife.org/threats/pollution http://www.nrdc.org/water/

3.Toxinsinfoodandsoil Definitionofthreat Toxicsubstances,suchaspesticidesandherbicides,canseepintothesoilandsurrounding landandmaycontaminatefood.Thesetoxinscanalsobetransferredtohumansvia consumptionofcontaminatedfood. Bioaccumulation:Aprocessinwhichcompoundsaccumulateorbuildupinanorganismata fasterratethancanbebrokendown. Causesoftoxinsinfoodandsoil Industrialactivities(ie.nearbyfactories) Agriculturalchemicals(eg.pesticides) Improperwastedisposal Humandefecationandurinationintheopen Landfills Foodcropsmayabsorbtoxinsfromsurroundingsoil Resultsandthreats Canspreaddiseasesandcausetissuedamage. Toxinsmayspreadintounderwateraquifers,resultinwaterpollution(seeabove). Toxinscanalterthemetabolismofmicroorganismsandkillmanyorganisms. Thisisathreattothefoodchain. Canreducecropyields

4.Depletingozonelayer: Definitionofthreat Thedeteriorationoftheozonelayerisduetothereleaseofpollutants.Thereisasteadydecline ofabout4%oftotalozoneinEarthsatmosphereperdecadesincethelater1970s.Thereisalso amuchlargerstratosphericozonedepletionduringthespringtimeintheNorthandSouthPole. OzoneLayer:AnaturalbeltofozonegasintheEarthsstratospherewhichservesasashield fromharmfulultravioletBRadiationfromthesun. Cause Industrialprocesses Pollutantscontaininghalogens(eg.bromidesandchlorides). Chlorinecontainingsourcegases. Themainculpritarechlorofluorocarbons Thereleaseofrefrigerantscontaininghalocarbons Containedinairconditioningunitsandinaerosolpropellants. InthepresenceofUVlight,gasescontainingchlorinedissociateandreleasechlorineatoms. Theseatomsmaycatalyzeozonedestruction(chlorineatomsreactwithoxygenandripsapart ozonemolecules).1chlorineatomcandestroy100,000ozonemolecules Results AnincreaseofUVlightduetoozonedepletioncancauseskincancerandcataractsinhumans DamagetoplantsduetoincreasedamountsofUVlight Reductionofplanktonpopulationintheocean inhibitsreproductionofphytoplankton,algae,andotherorganismthatmakeupthe bottomofthefoodchain(producers),aswellasfish,shrimp,andcrabs. Foodchainresourceswillbecomescarce.

5.AirPollution: Definitionofthreat Theintroductionofchemicals,smallparticles(dust/soot),andbiologicalmaterialintotheair whichcausesdamagetotheenvironment. Causesofairpollution Releaseofsulfuroxidegas(SOx ) Producedbyvolcanoes,industrialprocesses,andcombustionofcoalandpetroleum. Releaseofnitrogenoxidegas(NOx ) Thisisthemostprominentpollutant,causedbyhightemperaturecombustion,produced naturallybylightning Releaseofcarbonmonoxidegas Causedbytheincompletecombustionofwood,naturalgas,coalandreleasedby vehicularexhaust Othergreenhousegasessuchasmethane(avolatileorganiccompound), Particulates(fineparticlesofliquidorsolid)suspendedingas. Causedbyduststorms,volcanoes,bushfires,combustionoffossilfuels. Metalparticles Agriculturalactivity,releaseofammonia Airpollutioncanbeclassifiedinto2categories:visiblepollutionandinvisiblepollution Results Willleadtoothertypesofpollutionsuchasthedepletionoftheozonelayer. Healthriskinhumans(3.3milliondeathsworldwideareattributedtoairpollution) Respiratoryproblems,heartproblems,cancer Globalwarming Acidrain Contaminationofwaterandvegetation Depletionofozonelayer

Reactionscontributingtopollution
Climatechange Carbondioxideisoneofthelargestcontributorstoglobalwarming,itisoneofthebyproductsof combustion. Reactiontype:Combustion Equation:2C4H10(g)+13O2(g)10H2O(g)+8CO2(g) Redoxreaction:Yes Oxidized:CarboninC4H10(g) Reduced:Oxygengas #electronstransferred:20etransferred Netionicequation:Nonetionicequation Observationsofreactantsandproducts: Butanegasisacolourlessgasthatsmellslikepetrolandoxygenisacolourlessgas.Duringthereaction,it burnswithayelloworangeflame(someblue).Colourlesssteamandcolourlesscarbondioxidegasis produced. Waterpollution AcidrainisoneofthecausesofwaterpollutionasitraisesthepHlevelofaquaticecosystems. Reactiontype:Synthesis Equation: i)2SO2(g)+O2(g)2SO3(g) ii)SO3(g)+H2O(l)H2SO4(aq) Redoxreaction: i)Yes ii)Notaredoxreaction Oxidized: i)SulfurinSO2(g) ii)N/A Reduced: i)O2(g) ii)N/A #electronstransferred:4etransferred i)Thereisnonetionicequation ii)Thereisnonetionicequation

Netionicequation:

Observationsofreactantsandproducts: i)Sulfurdioxideisaclearandcolourlessgas,oxygengasisclearandcolourless.Theyreacttoforma colourlessgas(sulfurtrioxide) ii)Sulfurtrioxideingaseousformisclearandcolourless,wateringaseousformisclearandcolourless. Theyreacttoproduceaclearandcolourlesssolution(sulfuricacid)ingaseousform.

Depletionoftheozonelayer Chlorideionscatalyzethedestructionofozone,theyarentpartofthereactantsandproducts. Reactiontype:Synthesis Equation:O3 (g)+O (g)2O2(g) Howchlorineworksasacatalyst: Cl (g)+O3 (g)ClO(g)+O2(g) ClO(g)+O (g)Cl (g)+O2(g) Redoxreaction:Notaredoxreaction Oxidized:N/A Reduced:N/A #electronstransferred:N/A Netionicequation:Nonetionicequation Observationsofreactantsandproducts:Ozoneisapalebluegas,chlorineisaslightlypalegreenish yellowgas.Afterthereaction,onlyapalegreenishyellowgas(chlorine)remains(oxygengasisproduced, butitisaclearcolourlessgas). Airpollution Nitrogendioxideisamajorcontributortoairpollution Reactiontype:Synthesis/Combustion Equation:N2(g)+2O2(g)2NO2(g) Redoxreaction:Yes Oxidized:N2(g) Reduced:O2(g) #electronstransferred:8etransferred Netionicequation:Nonetionicequation Observationsofreactantsandproducts:Nitrogengasisclearandcolourless,oxygengasisclearand colourless.Afterthereaction,areddishbrowngasisproduced(nitrogendioxide).

Proposedsolutionstoenvironmentalthreats Climatechange Theexcessivecombustionoffossilfuelsiscurrentlyoneofthemaincausesofglobal climatechange,yetashumans,ourdailyhabitsrequireburningfossilfuelsatanextensive scale.Sohowdowepreventclimatechangefromworsening?Asolutionproposedbyscientists inWashingtonandCaliforniaisCROPS(CropResidueOceanicPermanentSequestration). Thissolutioninvolvesusinggreatsumsofcornstalk,wheatstraw,andothercropswhich absorbcarbondioxide.Wecollecttheresiduefromtheseplantsandburytheminthedepthsof theoceansothatthedecompositionoftheplantwillnotreleaseCO2intotheatmosphere.Dueto oceanstratification,theCO2shouldnotbeabletospreadintotheupperoceanorthe atmosphereforoverathousandyears.Thissolutionhastheoreticallybeendeemedmost effectiveandcostefficient,howeverfurtherresearchmustbedonetounderstandanynegative impactsthismayhavetowardsoceansediments. Forthissolution,thechemicalreactionthattakesplaceisphotosynthesis.Therestofthe solutionreliesontakingtheproductsofthatreactionandburyingthemwheretheycannotbe released. EquationforcropabsorptionofCO2(a.k.a.photosynthesis):
6CO2(g)+12H2O(l)+photonsC6H12O6(aq)+6O2(g)+6H2O(l)

*Decompositionofaplant/hydrocarbonresultsinthereleaseofCO2.However,burieddeepin theoceanfloor,itlltakemanycenturiesfortheCO2toreachtheatmosphere.

*Thisisallwegotupto,Mr.Marangelo,sorry.Welldefinitelybemore caughtupnextsemesterthough.
http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/pressroom/podcasts/globalchallenges/climatechange1/global climatechangethequestforpermanentsolutions.html Waterpollution http://www.freshpatents.com/dt20130711ptan20130175220.php http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/bk20131123.ch001 Depletionofozonelayer chlorideionscatalyzedestruction http://www.odec.ca/projects/2008/laic8c2/present_subs.html Airpollution creationofnitrogendioxide http://www.cereplast.com/top5alternativepowersourcestoreplacefossilfuels/