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11

Frame Relay

Frame Relay
,

.
Frame Relay ,
LAPD ,
2- Frame Relay. Frame
Relay DLCI,
.
, .

(VC)
Frame Relay
( ).
(PVC)
(SVC). PVC
-.
SVC (
).

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

178

Frame Relay

Frame Relay
Frame Relay
X.25
. Frame Relay
:


,
.

,
.


( )
Frame Relay ,

.

Frame Relay
.
Frame Relay
.

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

Frame Relay

179

Frame Relay
Frame Relay
ANSI CCITT. LMI
ANSI.
.
Frame Relay LAPD.
Frame Relay
DLCI (Data Link Connection
Identifier) .
Frame Relay 2
.

DLCI
876543

Frame
Relay

C/R
2

EA
1

DLCI
8765

FECN
4

BECN
3

DE
2

FCS

EA
1

Frame Relay

DLCI
10- DLCI
PVC.

C/R
, .

EA
2 Frame Relay
.

FECN
- Forward Explicit Congestion Notification
(. ECN ).

BECN
- Backward Explicit Congestion
Notification (. ECN ).

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

180

Frame Relay

DE
- Discard Eligibility (. DE ).

,
X.25, IP SDLC (SNA).

ECN
,
, .
, .

,
,
.

Frame Relay
FECN (Forward Explicit Congestion Notification)
BECN (Backward Explicit Congestion Notification). FECN
1 ,
(downstream)
.
. BECN
1 ,
.
.

DLCI
RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

Frame Relay

181


(CLLM)
, ,
.
, .

DLCI .
ANSI
(Consolidated Link Layer Management CLLM).
CLLM

DLCI ( 1023). ANSI T1.618
CLLM.
DLCI,
.

(LMI)
DLCI
PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuit).
(, )
DLCI PVC.
DLCI 1023 DLCI 0 (
.
LMI
(multicast status). ,
DLCI,
multicast-.
DLCI (
).

(DE)

. DE

.
DE (1).
DE ,
( ). ,
DE ,
.

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

182

Frame Relay

Frame Relay
ANSI T1.618
T1.618 ,
Frame Relay, ANSI T1.606.
T1.618 ANSI T1.602 (LAPD),
Core Aspects ( )
.
T1.618
CLLM. CLLM
. CLLM DLCI 1023
.
T1.618 ,
. ,
, DLCI,
, .

ANSI T1.617
SVC (Switched
Virtual Circuit) Frame Relay ,
T1.617.
DLCI .
T1.618.
PVC
(setup protocol), D ISDN T1.617.
ISDN D
. ( ISDN) D
,
. T1.617
DLCI 0.
T1.617
Frame Relay.

ANSI LMI
ANSI LMI
PVC, Annex D
T1.617. ANSI LMI LMI
, . ANSI
LMI DLCI 0.

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

Frame Relay

183

LMI
Manufacturers LMI Frame Relay
, 001-208966 18 1990.
LMI Frame Relay PVC
DTE Frame Relay.
ANSI
LMI. Manufacturers LMI
DLCI 1023.

Frame Relay NNI PVC


NNI (Network-to-Network -) PVC Frame Relay
FRF.2. NNI
U C (U-plane C-plane) ,
Frame Relay.

FRF.3
FRF.3 Frame
Relay ANSI T1.618. Frame Relay
.
8

(7Eh)

T1.618
( 10 DLCI)

2
3

Q.922 ( UI I)

(00h)

NLPID

.
.
.

n-2
n-1

(7Eh)

FRF.3

NLPID (Network Level Protocol ID


) .
NLPID . ,
0xCC IP.

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

184

Frame Relay

Q.922

UI

0x08

0xCC

0x81

Q.933

CLNP

..01...

IP

SNAP

ISO 802.8
8

..10...
ISO 802.8
128

OUI
...
PID
L2 ID

L3 ID

0x70
0x4E

0x51
7776

Q.922

802.2 - 802.6
--

0x4C

802.2

Frame Relay

UNI SVC
FRF.4
Frame Relay - (UNI).
,
ISDN Frame Relay ISDN,
case A.
SVC:

ss

Call proceeding ( ).

Connect ().

Connect Acknowledge ( ).

Disconnect ().

Progress ( ).

Release ().

Release complete ( ).

Setup ().

Status ().

Status enquiry ( ).

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

Frame Relay

185

UNI SVC

NNI SVC
RADCOM
NNI (Network-to-Network) SVC
Frame Relay Forum FRF.10.
SVC Frame Relay NNI SPVC.
NNI,
, ,
.
.

FRF.11
Frame Relay
.
.
Frame Relay, Frame Relay Forum UNI
( -) NNI ( ),
,
Frame
Relay. ,
, IP SNA.

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

186

Frame Relay

FRF.11 Frame Relay,


() . ,
FRF.11 :

Frame Relay.

Frame Relay.

256 Frame Relay DLCI.

Frame
Relay DLCI.

FRF.12
FRF.12
(Fragmentation Implementation Agreement) Frame Relay.
,
Frame Relay
.

(,
SNA)
PVC.
UNI NNI /
PVC
.

Frame Relay,
.
, , ,
UNI, NNI / PVC.
(DTE)
(DCE) Frame Relay

DTE DCE
.
(,
) (
) .
PVC PVC
.
FRF.12 :
1.

Frame Relay UNI


DTE/DCE .

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

Frame Relay

187

2.

Frame Relay NNI


DCE .

3.

Frame Relay DTE,


Frame Relay.


Frame Relay,
DTE.

FREther
FREther Frame Relay,
EtherType Frame Relay.
Frame Relay,
.

Timeplex (BRE2)
(proprietary) BRE (Bridge Relay Encapsulation),
Ascom Timeplex,
WAN- . BRE2
,
,
, .
BRE2 4.0
4.x 5.x.
BRE2 :
1

Source BRE (2 )
Source Bridge = 1
VLAN

SRB #

BRE
7
12

BRE

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

188

Frame Relay

F = 0, BRE2 17
. F = 1 BRE2
22 . SRB # Source Route (4 ).

Cascade
Frame Relay RBOC (Regional
Bell Operating Companies) Cascade
LATA LATA,
LATA .
Cascade STDX
ANSI T1.618-1991 ISDN Core Aspects
Frame Relay Bearer Service.
Cascade .
1

C/R

ODE

DE

BECN

FECN

VC

Cascade

R
.

C/R
- .

,
Cascade STDX. 0.

ODE
1 , (ingress rate)
(excess burst size).

DE
,
ANSI T1.618.

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

Frame Relay

189

BECN
ANSI T1.618.

FECN
ANSI T1.618.

VC
, ,
(, )
, (, ).
1, 2 3 (1
).
PDU:
0
Call request PDU ( )
1
Confirmation PDU ()
2
Rejected PDU ()
3
Clear PDU ()
4
Disrupt PDU ()
5
Hello PDU ()
6
Hello Acknowledgment PDU ( )
7
Defined Path Hello PDU ( )
8
Defined Path Hello Acknowledgment PDU (
).

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

190

Frame Relay

LAPF
LAPF
DL U
ISDN
B, D H.
,
Q.933 [3], ( ) . LAPF


ISDN (B, D H) LAPF
HDLC.
.


(2 )

DLCI
DLCI

FECN BECN

C/R

EA
0

DE

EA
1

LAPF

(
128)

N(S)

N(R)

P/F

P/F

Su

Su

N(R)
U

P/F

LAPF

EA
.

C/R
- .

FECN
.
RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

LAPF

191

BECN
.

DLCI
.

DE
.

D/C
DLCI DL-CORE.

N(S)
.

N(R)
.

P/F
(Poll) .

X
(0).

Su
(Supervisory).

M
.

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

192

Frame Relay

Multiprotocol over Frame Relay


RFC 1490 http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/htbin/rfc/rfc1490.html
RFC 2427 http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/htbin/rfc/rfc2427.html
Multiprotocol over Frame Relay
Frame Relay.
Q.922 Annex A.
,
, PDU
.
.
(7Eh)
Q.922

(00h)
NLPID

FCS
(7Eh)
Frame Relay

Q.922
2- , 10- DLCI.
Q.922 3 4 .

Q.922. ,
UI=0x03.
XID (0xAF 0xBF).


(2
). ,
0.
RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

Multiprotocol over Frame Relay

193

NLPID
, ISO CCITT (ITUT). .

FCS
2- .
, Frame Relay
.
, , ,
.
SNAP NLPID.
, NLPID,
.
NLPID, SNAP.
SNAP .

(OUI)


(PID)

2
SNAP


NLPID SNAP
.
OUI ,
(PID),
OUI. . ,
OUI=0x00-00-00 , PID
EtherType.
NLPID,
NLPID
. ( NLPID)
Frame Relay, NLPID
0x80, SNAP. EtherType,
OUI=0x00-00-00 PID=EtherType .

.
Frame Relay .
NLPID=80,
SNAP. SNAP
.
SNAP, NLPID,
. OUI, 0x00-80C2. PID SNAP ( OUI)
RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

194

Frame Relay

MAC, SNAP.
PID (FCS)
.

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

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