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Chapter #16: The South and the Slavery Controversy Big Picture Themes 1.

. Cotton ran the South before the Civil War it was "King Cotton." The entire southern economy was based on cotton. 2. The South had developed a pyramid-like social structure. From top-to-bottom: planter aristocrats, small farmers, the white majority (who owned no slaves), free blacks, slaves. 3. Life as a slave could be wildly variedsome slave owners were kind toward their slaves, some were immensely cruel. In all situations, slaves were not free to do as they pleased. 4. Abolition (move to abolish slavery) began with the Quakers. Frederick Douglass became the main spokesman against slavery. And William Lloyd Garrison printed "The Liberator", a radical abolition newspaper. 5. Southerners countered that northern workers were treated even worse than slaves. Slave owners, they said, had a vested interest in their slaves. Northern factory workers exploited then fired their workers. IDENTIFICATIONS: Nat Turner Nat Turner was a African American Priest that led a revolt in Virginia As a result, white people of the south grew cautious of the blacks. Sojourner Truth Sojourner Truth was a free African American that fought for the right of black people. She was also an active womans rights campaigner. In New York, Truth was a Abolitionist supporter.

Theodore Dwight Weld Theodore Dwight Weld was a prominent abolitionist in the 1830's. He was selfeducated and very outspoken. Weld preached about anti-slavery in the Northwest.

Harriet Beecher Stowe Harriet Beecher Stowe was an American abolitionist and author. She wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin and it depicted life of black people under slavery. William Lloyd Garrison Garrison was one of many abolitionists and he also happened to be an author as well. He is best known as the editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, and was

one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society. Garrison also supported the rights of women. David Walker David Walker was a black abolitionist who called for the immediate emancipation of slaves. He wrote the "Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World." GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: "Cotton is King!" Know: Eli Whitney, Cotton Gin 1. What is meant by "Cotton is King?" How did its sovereignty extend beyond the South? What implications did its rule have? Cotton is King means that is it the main crop grown in the south. It helped the southerners grow rich. The south made half of the worlds cotton. In eyes of the British Cotton was King, the cotton gin was his throne, and the slaves were the workers. Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin.

The Planter "Aristocracy" Know: Chivalry 2. In what ways was the south "basically undemocratic?" The south was mostly ruled by rich plantation owners. It was more like an oligarchy meaning it was ruled by the few. It widened the gap between rich and poor. It hampered taxsupported public education, because the rich plantation owners send their children to school and got educated. Chivalry is shown because it showed the honor of the plantation owners; they had a social code they followed.

Slaves and the Slave System Know: One crop economy 3. What were the weaknesses of the South's dependence on cotton? Dominance of the King Cotton led to the Souths one crop economy. The economic structure of the South became increasingly monopolistic. Cotton worn down land and made it unable to grow any more plants after cotton season was finished and therefore lead to the flood to the west were land was still unexposed to cotton growing.

The White Majority Know: Yeoman Farmer, hillbilly 4. Why did many whites who did not own slaves support slavery?

Many white did not own slaves because they could not afford to do so. They also believed that the White race was superior. A hillbilly was someone who was lazy and listless. They were even some times scolded by black slaves as well. A yeoman farmer is an England farmer who owned or leased his farm and could do whatever he wanted to do on the land, grow what he wanted to grow and sell what he wanted to sell.

Free Blacks: Slaves Without Masters Know: Emancipate, mulattoes 5. Would it have been better to be a free Black in the North or in the South? Explain. It was better to be a free Black in the North because most of the northern states were against slavery. They would often help escaped slaves and help them forge paper work to become free. In the deeper South, many free blacks were mulattoes who were a person of mixed black and white heritage and genes, usually the emancipated children of a white planter and his black mistress. Many slaves however got enough money to buy their freedom and purchase their own farm.

Plantation Slavery Know: Chattel, natural increase, Harriet Beecher Stowe 6. "...planters regarded slaves as investments [like a mule]...." Explain what was positive and what was negative about this situation for slaves. The positive side of a slave being like a mule is that they can work all day. Slaves were a sign of wealth, and many white peopled purchased salves to work on the farm. The downside for slaves is that, they were considered property or chattel not people. Therefore they had no rights. If the white man decided to move to the North were slavery was illegal, the slave would have to stay in the south and remain a slave. The natural increase in slaves was going up due to the popular demand of cotton. Harriet Beecher Stowe was an abolitionist and author. She wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin and depicted life of black people under slavery.

Life Under the Lash Know: Overseer, breaker, Old South, Deep South 7. Give evidence to show that slaves developed a separate, unique culture. What circumstances made this possible?

Slaves were able to band together through religious practices. Most were Christian and worshiped God in groups. They related themselves to those aspects of the Christian tradition that seemed most pertinent to their own situationespecially the captivity of the Jews in Egypt. The Overseer is the one who punishes the slaves if they are not on task. Breakers were even harsher, they would torture slaves to the max extent. Slaves were mostly concentrated in the Deep South or the black belt

New York City, 1712 Like many later revolts, this one occurred during a period of social dissension among whites following Leisler's Rebellion. The rebels espoused traditional African religion. Stono Rebellion, 1739 The Spanish empire enticed slaves of English colonies to escape to Spanish territory. In 1733 Spain issued an edict to free all runaway slaves from British territory who made their way into Spanish possessions. On September 9, 1739, about 20 slaves, mostly from Angola, gathered under the leadership of a slave called Jemmy near the Stono River, 20 miles from Charleston. 44 blacks and 21 whites lost their lives. South Carolina responded by placing import duties on slaves from abroad, strengthening patrol duties and militia training, and recommending more benign treatment of slaves. Prossers Rebellion, 1800 When the day of the revolt arrived though, a violent storm washed out the roads and bridges leading to Richmond. The rebels broke up and Prosser was betrayed by one of his followers. The state militia captured Prosser and he and many of his followers were hanged. Denmark Vesey's Conspiracy, 1822 This failed insurrection was organized soon after the contentious debate over the admission of Missouri as a slave state. Like Gabriel, Vesey consciously looked to Haiti for inspiration and support. Nat Turner, 1831 This insurrection took place at a time when slaves in Jamaica had staged one of the largest revolts in history, when radical abolition had arisen in the North, and Britain was debating slave emancipation. The Burdens of Bondage Know: Peculiar institution, Gabriel Prosser, Denmark Vesey, Nat Turner 8. Thomas Jefferson once said that having slaves was like holding a wolf by the ears, you didn't like it but you couldn't let go. How does this section help to explain this statement? The slaves also universally stripped of their freedom. Many were mistaken as runaways, frequently in search of a separated family member. They were deprived of the dignity and

sense of responsibility that come from independence and the right to make choices. They were denied an education, because they would outsmart the white men and therefore bring about a revolution. Denmark Vesey failed insurrection was organized soon after the contentious debate over the admission of Missouri as a slave state. Nat Turner was an African American Priest that led a revolt in Virginia As a result, white people of the south grew cautious of the blacks. Gabriel Prosser was a literate salve and sparked a rebellion.

Early Abolitionism Know: Abolition, The American Colonization Society, Theodore Weld, Arthur and Lewis Tappan, Harriet Beecher Stowe 9. Describe some of the early abolitionists. In the 1830s the abolitionist grew, mounting to the proportions of a crusade. American abolitionists in 1833 admired their British counterparts when they unchained the slaves in the West Indies. Many were also inspired by the second great awakening. Abolition means putting an end to a law. Theodore Dwight Weld, was one of the leading architects of the American abolitionist movement during its formative years. Harriet Beecher Stowe was an American abolitionist and author. She wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin and it depicted life of black people under slavery.

Radical Abolitionism Know: William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips, David Walker, Sojourner Truth, Frederick Douglass 10. How were the attitudes of William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass different? When dealing with an issue that is moral and political, how rigid should a person be? William Garrison , stern and uncompromising, nailed his colors to the masthead of his weekly. He proclaimed in strident tones that he would not tolerate the poisonous weed of slavery but would stamp it out at once, root and branch. Sojourner Truth was a free African American that fought for the right of black people. She was also an active womans rights campaigner. In New York, Truth was a Abolitionist supporter. David Walker was a black abolitionist who called for the immediate emancipation of slaves.

The South Lashes Back 11. How did the South defend itself against the attacks of abolitionists?

Southerners enforced strict laws that made it impossible for the North to help the salves. It would be illegal and shunned upon with the Northern people were caught. They south threatened to secede if their demands werent met. They were prepared to defend their very way of life.

The Abolitionist Impact in the North 12. How did Northerners view abolitionists? Did they have any success? The North supported abolitionists and wanted to help them. They believed that everyone should have equal rights and freedom. However many Northern did not support them because they felt that slaves and textile mills replaced with machinery would take away jobs from people. Many viewed the south as the land of the unfree.