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# .. .

1981

## .., .., .., .., ..

:

(. - . , . ..

),
- . , . .. ( . .. )

: . / .., .., .. .;
.. . .:., 1981.-208 , .

.

, ,
.

. ,
.

.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
. .

1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.

.
.
,
,
, .
, ,
, ,
. ,
, .

,
.

-

.
: . 9, 11
. . , . 13 . . , 5, 6 . .
, . 7, 8, 10 . . , . 1, 2, 3, 4, 12
. . .
. . .
. . . ,
.
.. , ..
, .. .. ,
.
: , -51, .,
29/14, .

1.1.

.
( x1 , x 2 , x3 )
( x1 , x 2 , x3 )
.
() :
A = A x1 ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 )1 x 1 + A x 2 ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 )1 x 2 + A x 3 ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 )1 x 3 .

1
1
1
1 x1 +
1x2 +
1 x3 ,
h1 x1
h2 x 2
h3 x 3

(1.1)

## h1, h2, h3 x1, x2, x3

:
(, , z)

hx = h y = hz = 1 ;
( r , , z )
hr=1 , h = r , hz = 1 ;

(r, , )
hr = 1 , h = r , h = r sin .

:

1x +
1y +
1z ;
z
x
y

1
1r +
1 +
1z ;
r
z
r

1
1

1r +
1 +
rsin
r
r

1 .

.
div rt.

. ,
,
.

:

div A =

Ax A y Az
+
+
;
z
y
x

(1.2)

div A =

1
1 A
Az
( rA r ) +
+
;
r r
r
z

(1.3)

A
1 2
1
1

(r
A
)
(sin

A
)
+
+
. (1.4)
r

r 2 r
rsin
rsin

div A =

div A =

1
h1 h 2 h3

( h 2 h3 A x1 ) +
( h1 h3 A x 2 ) +
( h1 h 2 A x3

x
x
x
2
3
1

) . (1.5)

( rot A) x =

Az A y

,
z
y

( rot A) y =

Ax Az

,
z
x

( rot A) z =

A y
x

(1.6)

Ax
;
y

( rot A) r =

A
1 Az

,
z
r

( rot A) =
( rot A) z =

Ar A z

,
r
z

(1.7)

1 ( rA ) Ar

;
r r

( rot A ) r =

1
rsin

( rot A ) =

(sin A )
A
,

1 1
r sin

( rot A ) =

(rA )
Ar

(1.8)

1 (rA ) Ar

.

r r

:
rot A =

1 x1 ( h3 A x3 ) ( h2 A x2 ) 1 x2 ( h1 A x1 ) ( h3 A x3 )

+
+

h 2 h3 x 2
x1
x 3 h1 h3 x 3
+

## 1x3 (h2 Ax2 ) (h1 Ax1 )

h1h2 x1
x2

(1.9)

.
gradU = U , div A = A , rot A = [ A] .

(1.10)

1x +
1y +
1z .
z
x
y

(1.11)

2,

2 A = grad div A rot rot A .

(1.12)

,
,

:

2U
2U
2U
U =
+
+
;
x 2
y 2
z 2

(1.13)

2U =

1 U
1 2U
2U
+
;
r
+ 2
r r r r 2
z 2

(1.14)

2U =

U
1
2U
1 2 U
1

r
+
sin
+
. (1.15)

r r 2 sin
r 2 sin 2 2
r 2 r

.
. , ,
, .
1.2.
1.1.

Ax = A0 , A y = B 0 , A z = 0

.
.
,
, , .
,

dx / A0 = dy / B 0 ,

(1.16)

d, d 0, 0 . (1.16)

= (0/0)+ ,
.

, 0 /0 (. 1.1).
1.2.

div = 0,
( ). rot=0
. ,
,
.

y =152.

, : ) ; ) .
.
. 1.2. (1.2), ,
div=y/y=0. , .
c (1.6) rot=301z, .

A
A
0

. 1.1

. 1.2

1.3. .

. ,

## div [AB ] = [AB ] .

:
[AB ] =

[AB ] + B [AB ] .

,
. , ,
.

## div [AB ] = B [ A A ] + A [ B B ] = B rot A A rot B .

1.3.
1.4.

= 3 x 2 y cos z + 2 z 2 .

## : grad = 6 xycosz 1 x + 3 x 2 cosz 1 y + ( 4 z 3x 2 ysinz )1 z .

1.5.

z=32.

. rot.
: rot =61.
1.6.

.
(. 1.3);
.
,
, ?
=0
<0 >0?

.
Z
1.7.

=r1r.

divA.

0
. 1.3

Y
A

.
: div =3.
1.8.

r- , r= f(r).
f(r),
? .
: f(r)=a/r2, .
1.9.

= (j kr),

- j =

1 ;

k = k x 1 x + k y 1 y + k z 1 z ;
r = x1 x + y1 y + z1 z -.
: grad = -jkexp(-j kr ) , = k 2 exp(-j kr ) ,
k 2 = k x2 + k y2 + k z2 .
1.10. ,

A x = 20 sin( x / ) .

: div A =

x
cos , rot A = 0 .

20

1.11.

2
: Ar = 10 / r , A = 0 , Az = 0 .

: div A = 10 / r 3 , rot A = 0 .
1.12. ,

A = 8 r exp( 10 r ).

## : div A = 0 , rot A = 16(1 5r)exp(10r)1 .

1.13.

1
( 2 ) 3

(k , k
1

, k 3 ) exp [ j ( k 1 x + k 2 y + k 3 z ) ]dk 1 dk 2 dk 3 .

.
: =

1
( 2 ) 3

F (k , k
1

, k 3 ) exp [ j ( k1 x + k 2 y + k 3 z ) ]dk 1 dk 2 dk 3 ,

## F = (k12 + k22 + k32 ) .

1.14. ,

:
Ax = y + 10 , Ay = 0 , Az = 0 .
Bx =

1.15.

x
x2 + y2

, By =

y
2

x + y2

, Bz = 0 .

:
A = cos(ay) 1x + sin(ax)1y + tg(az)1z ,
B = 6 x1 x + 5 z1 y + 10 y1 z .

1.16. ,

## rot[ AB] = (B) A ( A)B + AdivB BdivA .

1.17. .

.
: C = [A rot B] + [B rot A] + (B ) A+ (A ) B .
1.18. (

):
div rot A = 0 ,

## rot ( A) = [ grad A] + rot A ,

div ( A) = grad A + div A ,
1.19. Ax,

2d:

0, ( y < d ),

Ax = A0 , (d y d ),
0, ( y < d ).

.
: rot A = A0 [ ( y - d ) - ( y + d )]1z , () .

2.1.

,

.

. ,

J,
.

rot H = 0

E
+ J ,
t

rot E = 0

H
,
t

(2.1)

div E = 0 ,

div H = 0 .

:
0 = 10 9 /(36 ) / 0 = 4 10 7 /

.

,
;
div J +

= 0.
t

(2.2)
(2.1)

,
:

J = 0

.
t

J.,

,
.
(2.1)
. , , ,
. (2.1)
,
.
,
( ).

,
.
:
J =.

(2.3)

.
(2.3) ;
, J
.

,
.

,

J = /t.

()
D = + .

(2.4)

rot H= D/t + + J.

(2.5)

.
,
,
,
B= ( + ).

rot E= B/t

(2.6)

:
div D = ,

(2.7)

div = 0.

(2.8)

,
:
= ., = . ,

(2.9)

. , . .

D = , B =

(2.10)

.

= / 0, = / 0

(2.11)

(2.10) ,
.

, .
.
( ,
, ),
() ( ).
(2.10) :
D x= axx E x+ axy E y + axz E z ,
D y= ayx E x+ ayy E y + ayz E z ,

(2.12)

## B x= axx H x+ axy H y + axz H z ,

B y= ayx H x + ayy H y + ayz H z ,
B z= azx H x+ azy H y+ azz H z .

, D ,
.
div = 0 ,
. ,

, J.
.
:

rot H = D/ t + E+ J . . ,
rot = / t J . . ,
div D = ,

div B = 0 .

(2.13)

+ E+ J . d S ,
t

H d l =
L

E d l = t
L

+ J . d S ,

(2.14)

D d S = dV ,
S

Bd S = 0.
S

.

:
& =j~
rot H
a E& + J& .. ,
& = j~
& J&
rotE
a H
.. ,

(2.15)

& =& ,
div D
div B& = 0 .

~a
~a :

~
~ = j .
a = a j a ,
a
a
a

.
, ,
.
,
~
~ = .
a = a j / ,
a
a

:
tg = a / , tg = a / a .

(2.16)

. (, )

() :
= n 1n+ 1
(1n

).

:
D1n = D2n, E1 = E2; B1n = B2n, H1 = H2.

(2.17)

,
,
:
=0.

(2.18)

= [1nH].

(2.19)

.

=

1
(ED + HB ) .
2

(2.20)

:
div[EH ] =

( ED + HB ) + E 2 + J . E+ J . H .

t 2

(2.21)

= [EH]

(2.22)

.
, ,

*
& = 1 E
& H .

(2.23)

1 & *
= Re E H
2

(2.24)

.
,
.
J& .1
E& 1 , H& 1 J& .2 E& 2 , H& 2 ,

## & div E& H

& = E& J&
& &
div E& 1 H
2
2
1
2 .1 E 1 J .2 .

(2.25)

.
2.2.
2.1. ,

.
= 130 s 2 1010 t 1.
.
.
J = 0

E
= 0,556 sin2 1010 t 1 x .
t

,
,
90.
2.2. ,

2 E

1 2 E
= 0,
0 0 t 2

1 2 H
= 0.
H
0 0 t 2
2

(2.26)

. ,
:
rot H = 0

E
,
t

rot E = 0

H
.
t

(2.27)

rot (2.27):
rot rot E grad div E 2 E = 0

(rot H) .
t

,
(div = 0) (2.27),
(2.26) .
.
2.3.

: ~ = ~ ( x, y, z ) , a = 0 .
,
,

.
.
:
& = j~
&,
rot H
a E
& .
rot E& = j 0 H

(2.28)

rot (2.28):
& 2 H
& = j rot( ~
& ).
rot rot H
a E

,
div = 0. ,

& ) = grad ~ E
& + ~ rot E
&.
rot ( ~a E
a
a

(2.28):
& = j rot H
& .
E

~
& + 2 ~
& + grad a rot H
& = 0.
2 H
a 0 H
~

2.4. ,

(2.1).
.

div rot H = 0

div E + div J = 0 ,
t

(2.1).
,
/t + div J =0.
2.5.

,
.
:

(r, p ) = E(r, t )e pt dt ,
0

(r, p ) = H(r, t )e pt dt .
0

.
.
(2.27).
, rot
. ,
/t - (r, 0),
t=0. ,

:
rot = p 0 0 E(r,0) ,

rot = p0 + 0 H (r,0) .

2.6.

1
2

,
1 2

(. 2.1).
1

. 2.1

.
:
1 = 2 , D1n = D2 n ,
E1 sin 1 = E 2 sin 2 , 1E1 cos 1 = 2 E2 cos 2 .

,
1

tg1 =

tg 2 ,

tg1 1
=
.
tg2 2

, 2 , 2 /2
.
2.7.

:
& = 35 j 60o 1 ,
E
x

& = j 4 10 31 .
H
y

,
.
. c

(
)
& (r) ) ,
H(r ,t ) = Re(H
& (r) jt
E( r ,t ) = Re E
jt

E(r ,t ) = 35cos(t + 60 o )1 x ,

H(r ,t ) = 4 10 3 sinRei1 y

, ,
=

*
1
& H ] = 6,062 10 21 / 2 .
Re[E
z
2

2.3.
2.8. , ,

H = 6 x cos t 1 x + 2 exp( 2 y ) sin t 1 z ,

,
.
2.9. ,

,
,
:
div H =

1
a

2.10. ,

z.
,
z z.
2.11. ,

,
,
& + 2 E
& = 0,
2 E
a a
& + 2 H
& = 0.
2 H
a a

2.12. , div = 0

rot E= /t
. ?
2.13. =3,5 =0,72 /

, 600 15 /.

, .
: J= 10,94 /2;
0,16 .
2.14.

, 1 2 (. 2.2),
, .
.

?
:

.
:

, = ;

. 2.2

= .

2.15. ,

, (, ),

.
2.16.

7,5 . .

.
: =0,042 /.

2.17. r0,

q, .
.
: = q r 1; .
2.18.

,
:
0
6,5 0

( r ) = 0 6,5 0 .
0
0 6,5

## = 2,5 1x + 1.7 1y + 9,2 1z.

D.
E D?
: D= 0(16,25 1x + 11,05 1y + 61,18 1z,), ( D) = 6,5910-3 .
2.19.

t= 0 0(, , z).
,
:
(, , z, t) = 0 [-/(0)].

, 1 = 107 /, ,
2 = 10-3 /.
: .
: 1 10-18 , 2 10-8 .
2.20. , 5 2,

2 .
= 2105 /.
.
: 1,77 109 ..
2.21. ,

20 ,
.
?
,

= 30 /.
2.22.

7,7/3 2 .
2,1, = 200.
, ,
.
: 2,279 .
2.23. * t=0

. . . (. 2.3).
t=0
+

. 2.3

?
2.24.

x,
.
,

.
2.25.

=201 /,
= 101 +301z /2.

.
: = -1,51 + 0,51z /.

2.26.

= 0 cos (t+1),
= 0 cos (t+2),

0 0 .
,

=

1
[E 0 H 0 ]cos(1 2 )
2

1
[E 0 H 0 ]cos(2t + 1 + 2 ) ,
2

.
2.27. = 2,4

= 200 /.

6 3.
: 1,4851011 .
2.28. *

,
,

.

dP 1
+ P = aE ,
dt
T

; .

.

: ~a = 0 +

aT
.
1 + jT

2.29. , ,

.
: tg =

a T 2
.
0 + T ( a + 2 0T )

2.30. * 2.28 ,

d2 P 2 d P
+
+ 02 P = b E ,
2
T dt
dt

0 ; b .
,
.

.
: a = 0 +

bT
.
( 2 )T + j 2
2
0

2.31.

## & = 28e j 0,16 l 105e j1, 2 l + 36e j 2,3 l

E
x
y
z

( ). 2 .
,
0,1.
: E = 4,31 l x 104,8 l y + 32,9 l z .
2.32.

& = 0,85e j 0,6 l 1,3e j 0,7 l , H
& = 4,2 10 -3 e j1, 2 l .
E
x
y
z

.
: & = 2,73 10 -3 e j 0,5 l x 1,785 10 -3 e j1,8 l y ,
& = 2,396 10 -3 l + 0,406 10 -3 l .

3.1.

,

, .

(2.1) ,
.
:
rot E = 0 ,
div D = .

(3.1)

rot H = J ,

div B = 0 .

(3.2)

, (3.1),
.

, .
,
(3.2) .
,

J;

J = .

(3.3)

,
(3.1),
,

(3.4)

( ,
).
,

2

1 2 = Ed 1

(3.5)

, 1 2,
.

(3.1)

(3.4)
2 = / ,

(3.6)

, .
,

2 = 0

(3.7)

, :
)
;
)
;
)
q,

:
a1

a 2 2 = q
n
n

(3.8)

( 1 2 ,
).

: Q1 Q2,
, 1
2, Q=Q1+Q2
=1+2. ,
.

:
(r ) =

q
4 0 r

(3.9)

V
,

=

1
4 a

dV
R

(3.10)

R .

=Q/U,

(3.11)

U = |1 2 |
.
;

.
q, ,

F=q.

(3.12)

, q1 q2,
r12,

F=

q1q2
.
4 a r122

(3.13)

ED
.
2

(3.14)

1
EDdV .
2 V

(3.15)

, V,
W =

,
F =

dW
.
d

(3.16)

,

, :

Dd S = Q .

(3.17)

Q , ,
S.
( D)

,
, ,
. (3.17)
.
,

. ,
,
.
,
.

(rot = 0) (3.4)
:

(3.18)

( = const)

2 = 0.

(3.19)

,
[5].

,
:
= rot .

(3.20)

div = 0
. ,
div = 0.

(3.21)

:
2 = a J.

(3.22)

V,
(3.10)

a J dV
.
4 V R

(3.23)

,
, .

Hd l = I

(3.24)

I, L.
, ,

= BdS .

(3.25)

(, )
, I,
,
()
L= /I.

(3.26)

, N ,

= N.

(3.27)

L=/I.

(3.28)

.
J [. (3.3)].
S (
), ,
:
I = J d S .

(3.29)

(3.5),
.
3.2.
3.1. 2l
q /.

.
. z
, ,
. ( l, + l)
dq= q dz. z = ,
(r, z)
d =

q dz
4 0 r 2 + ( z ) 2

,

=

q
4 0

d
r 2 + (z )2

[9] :

q
A 1 B 2 + ( A 1) 2
=
ln
.
4 0 A + 1 B 2 + ( A + 1) 2

= z / l, = r / l.
3.2.
q.

.
.
4 0 E z a 2
q

0,2
0,1

-3 -2

-1

-0,1
-0,2
-0,3

z,

. 3.1

z2 + a2 .

dq=(q/2) d.

d = qd / 8 2 0 z 2 + a 2 . .

,

=

q
4 0 z 2 + a 2

z,

Ez =

d
qz
=
2
dz
4 0 z + a 2

3/ 2

= z/,
Ez =

4 0 a 2 + 1 3 / 2
2

(3.30)

. (3.30) , ,
= 1 / 2 , = 1 / 2
. , (3.30),
. 3.1.
3.3.
. ,

0, .
. .

r,

. ,
,

( )
( )

4 r 3 (r < a),
q = dV = 3
3
V
4 3 a (r a ).

Er, .
q/ 0 = E d S = 42 E r ,
S

r / (3 0 ) (r < a ),
Er = 3
2
a / 3 0 r (r a ).

2 = / 0 .

(3.31)

r > , ,

2 = 0 ,

, () = 0 .

(3.32)

,
r, (3.31) (3.32) :

1 d 2 d
= (0 r < a ) ,
r
2
0
dr
r dr
1 d 2 d
r
= 0 (r a ) .
dr
r 2 dr

:
=

r 2 C1
+ C2
6 0 r

(0 r < a ) ,

C3
+ C4
r

(r a ) ,

1, 2, 3, 4 .

:
1) () = 0 , 4 = 0;
2) ,
, 1 = 0;
3) r = a
.

C2 =

a2
a3
C
=

, 3
.
2 0
3 0

r 2 3a 2

6 0

=
3
a

3 0 r

(0 r < a ),
(r a ).

r (3 0 ) (0 r < a ),

E r = ( grad ) r =
3
2
(r a ).
a 3 0 r

, .

3.4.

, z (. 3.2).
.
U0.
,
.

U0

:
b

' 2 '
+
=0
x2 y2

. 3.2

x=a

x =0

y =a

= 0,

y =b

= U0 .

(3.34)

(
):
( x, y ) = X ( x)Y ( y ) .

(3.35)

(3.35) (3.33)
X / X + Y / Y = 0 ,

X / X = k 2 , Y / Y = k 2 ,

(3.36)

k .
(3.36)

X ( x) = A1cos kx + A2 sin kx ,
Y ( y ) = A3ch ky + A4sh ky .

(3.37)

=0 y=0 , A1=A3=0.
= sin ka=0, . .
k = n / a, n = 1,2,...

(3.38)

n x n
sh

a a

( x, y ) = C n sin
n =1

y
,

{n} ,

n x n b
sh

a = U0 .
a

( x, b) = C n sin
n =1

m x

sin
a

x 0 .

m x n
sin
0 a sin a
a

x
a / 2, m = n,
dx =

0, m n.

,
2a
m x
, m ,

0 sin a dx = m
0, m .
a

4U 0

, m ,

m b

m = m sh
a

m .
0
,

,
(2k + 1) x (2k + 1) y
sh

sin
a
a

4U 0
.
( x, y ) =

k =o
(2k + 1) b

(2k + 1) sh
a

(3.39)

,
(3.39), . 3.3.
.
3.5. I

, z.

.
.
r

J =

( r )1z .

(3.40)

, , z = const,
I:

d S = d rJ z dr = I .

(
r = 0,
).
(3.40)
(3.23). - .

0 I1z
01z 2 I (r )dr
=
d d
A ( ) =

4
4 0 0 2 + 2

+
2

(3.41)

+
2

= ln + 2 + 2 + C ,

,
, .
.

, :
I
1 Az
=
H =
0
4

d
2

2 3

2b

U0

2a
U0/2

U0/10

. 3.3

. 3.4
,
H ( ) = I / (2 ) ,

.
3.6. ,

(>>1). . 3.4.
.
. ,
. ,
,
H = I / (2r ) ,

r , .
, ,
= BdS =

0 Ih b dr 0 Ih b
=
ln ,
2 a r
2
a

,
.
L=

0 h b
=
ln .
I
2
a

3.7.

b (. 3.5)
.

2a

2r

1 2.

2b

r.

2
. 3.5

R = U 12 / I ,

U 12 = E r dr , I = J dS .
a

:
I = J dS ,
S

r.

I = d dE r r 2 sin .

r,

Er = A / r 2 ,
b

, U 12 =
a

Er =

U 12
.
r (1 / a 1 / b)
2

I=

4U 12
,
1/ a 1/ b

dr
1 1
= A .
2
r
a b

R=

1/ a 1/ b
.
4

3.3.
3.8. (. 3.6) (a=0)

q1=1 , q2 = 23 q3 = 5 .

q3

0,5
q1

q2

. 3.6

0.
: 55,8103 /.

3.9. 5

. ,
30 /.
,
.
: 8,3107 .
3.10. 5

105 /2. ,
, .

10 .
.
: 5,65 /.
3.11.

= 2 b = 5 , .
.
5 , .
r = 4
.
: 136/.

3.12.

, a b ( < b).
,
, U0.
.
,
.

ln 2
+ 1 .
ln (b / a )

: U = U 0
3.13.

, b/a >2
, b/a <2
.
3.14.

41012 /2.
D , ,
a=0.
: D= 210-12 /2, = 0,226 / ( ,
).
3.15. (. 3.7).

h2

2,

h1 h2,
S,

h1

. 3.7
.

: C =

0 1 2 S
.
2 h1 + 1 h2

3.16.

,
, () = 1 + f (),
f(} .
: C =

3.17.

0S
h

dx
0 1 + f ( x)

, h .

, . 3.7.
:
U 0 2 x

2 h1 + 1h2
( x) =
U 0 1 x
U ( )h

+ 0 2 1 1
2 h1 + 1h2
2 h1 + 1h2

(0 x < h1 ),
(h1 x < h1 + h2 ),

U0 .
3.18.

b ,
U0 .
, ,
, . ,
(a=0).
:
=

U 0 a(b r )
4 0 abU 0
4 0 ab
, Q=
, C=
.
r (b a )
ba
ba

3.19.

2 = 0 , .
: = A ln r + B , A, .
3.20.

, r.

: =A/r+B.
3.21.

, r .
: :
R(r)(), .
.
: = (An r n + Bn r n )(C n cos n + Dn sin k ) ,

n =0

## An, Bn, Cn, Dn .

3.22.

, r z.
:

: = R(r ) Z ( z ).

## : = ( An J 0 (kn r) + Bn N0 (kn r))(Cn chkn z + Dnshkn z ) ,

n=0

kn ; J0 N0
, (
).
3.23.

D
x

0
. 3.8

z (. 3.8)?

.
: :
= X ( x) Y ( y ).

n =0

n y
n y
n x
n x
,
+ Dn sh
C n ch
+ Bn sin

D
D
D
D

: ( x, y ) = An cos

## An, Bn, Cn, Dn ,

.
3.24.

, ,
. (=0),
U0.

.
:
R (r) ().
: = U 0 / .
3.25. * q (.

3.2). ,
. ,
.
, .
, ,
.
:

eq
=
3
4 0 ma

1/ 2

.
3.26.
U0

, . 3.9.

. 3.9

.
, ,

.
U 02l 0
( 1) .
: F =
2d
3.27.

J.
.
Jr / 2

: H =

(r a ),

2
Ja /(2r ) (r > a ).

3.28. , ,

J = J r / a .
J 0 r 2 /(3a) (r a),
: H = 2
J 0 a /(3r ) (r > a ).

3.29.

. ,
b (b > ),
. , ,
.
: .
: L =
3.30.

0 b
ln .
2 a

z,
I.
.
: A =

0 I 1 z r2
ln .
2
r1

r1 r2
.
3.31. 3.7 ,
,

(r ) = 0 (r / a) 2 .
: R = a 2 (1 / a 3 1 / b 3 ) /(12 0 ) .

4.1.
,

,
, ,
. ,
,

, ,
(
, ).
l << l << ,
.

.
, ,

rot H = E + J . ,

rot H =

H
.
t

(4.1)

, (. 4.1),
Aj (j=1,2,
...), .

Aj
Aj-1

Aj+2

() ,
Aj+1

. 4.1

J =

J = .

(4.1)
:
2 H = a

H
rot J . ,
t

2 = a

.
t

(4.2)

.

[3] ,
.
4.2.
4.1. , ,

.

. S. V
, .
,
S. ,
.
div J + / t = 0

div J dV = t V = 0 .

div J

dV = J d S = I n = 0 .
n

.
4.2. ,
(t),

(t) = u i,
u ; i
.
. , ,
(. . 2):
p (t ) = [EH ]dS ,

(4.3)

S,

. <0

. > 0
.
(4.3) i.
1 2 S
(. 4.2):

) 1 2
(

A1

);
)

{l1},

l1

l2

;
)
{l2},

4.2

A2

u = Edl 1 .
l1

i = Hd l 2 .
l2

d S = [d l 1 d l 2 ] ,

p (t ) = [EH ][d l1 d l 2 ].
S

,

p(t ) = Ed l1 Hd l 2 Ed l 2 Hd l1 .
l1

l2

l2

l1

,

. ,

p(t ) = Ed l1 Hd l 2 = u (t ) i(t ) .
l1

l2

, ,
,
.
4.3. x>0
a = 0.
=0 ,
, :
=H01y.
,

y z,
.
.
, (4.2):
d 2 H& y
dx

j aH& y = 0 .

(4.4)

b 2 = j a , :

## H& y ( x) = A& e bx + B& e bx ,

. x
,
.

, = H0. , > 0,

H& y ( x) = H 0 e bx ,

a
a
H& y ( x) = H 0 exp
x exp j
x ,
2
2

(4.5)

,
,
.

, (
).
d=

(4.6)

,
= 2,71828 ... .
4.4.
,
.
.

& = J& ,
: rot H
, . (4.5),

J& =

H y
x

1 z = (1 + j ) H 0 e (1+ j ) x 1z ,

(4.7)

a
2

,
, .

(4.7)

a
E& = J& / =
(1 + j ) H 0 e (1+ j)x 1 z .
2

(4.8)

## & S = J& dx = (1 + j ) H 0 1z e ( 1+ j)x dx = H 0 1z , A / .

0

(4.9)

a
E& (0) =
(1 + j ) H 0 1z .
2

(4.10)

,
( ):

:
Z S = E& (0) / & S .

(4.11)

(4.9) (4.10)
Z S = RS + jX S =

a
(1 + j ) .
2

(4.12)

RS =
1

a
1
=
.
d
2

(4.13)

RS

1 ,
4.3

d
(. 4.3).

4.3.
4.5. (=5105 /).
50 , 0,25 .
,
30.

0,1

1 .
, .
: 167 .
V2

4.6.

V1

V2,

, . 4.4.

?
V1
4.4

?
4.7.

(. 4.5).

4.5

.
4.8.

.
-
?
Oem: .
4.9.
, .
,
.

L1, /
C1, /.
,
U I

## dU& / dx = jL1 I& ,

dI& / dx = jC1U& ,

(4.14)

.
: x <<

.
4.10. , (4.14)

d 2U& / dx 2 + 2 L11U& = 0,

## d 2 I& / dx 2 + 2 L11 I& = 0,

.
:

x
x 0.
4.11. 4.4,
.
: =

a 2
H 0 exp( 2 a x )1 x .
8

4.12.
.

,
200
-. 30 .
: 2 .
4.13. RS
100 3 .
:8,32210-5 1,4410-2 .
4.14.
,
.
: (4.12).
: R1 = RS /(2a0), L1 = RS /(2a), , /.
4.15.
1,5 1
, ?
: 5,63 .
4.16.
= 75, = 1
= 2 /.
, , 300 ,
,
.
30
100 .
: 0,065 1,125 .

5.1.

. ,
,

2 E& + 2 E& = 0 ,
& + 2 H
& = 0.
2 H

(5.1)

= ~a ~a = j ,
, ; .

, .

. z
, :
& (z) = E
& (0)e jz + E
& (0)e jz .
E
1
2

(5.2)

()

z,

()

~a ~a ,
:

r+a
ra
,
j
a jb =

2
2

r = a 2 + b 2 ; r + a r a
.

.

a = 0

~a = a a = 0 (1 j tg ) ,

= j = 0 a 1 j tg .

(5.3)

. ,
2 , :
= 2 / .

,
:
= / .

(5.4)

:
2
2 1 + 1 + tg
=
0
2

2
,

(5.5)

2
2
2 1 + tg 1
=
.

0
2

,
= tg ( / 2) .

(5.6)

(5.7)

(5.8)

1 + 1 + tg
2

1/ 2

2 0

1 + 1 + tg 2

1/ 2

:
n = .

,

:
Z c = a / = ~a a ,

(5.9)

E& = Z c H& .

a = 0

1
1

j
0
120
2
2
4
Zc =
(1 j tg ) =
(1 + tg ) e 2 .
0

( ) /4
( ).

Z 0 = 0 / 0 = 120 = 376,991 .

(5.1) ,

2U& + 2U& = 0 ,

U& = C exp j ( x x + y y + z z ) .

x , y , z

(5.10)
,

2x + 2y + z = 1 .

(5.11)

x , y ,z , (5.10)

.

U& = C exp[ j (r )] .

(5.11)

x , y ,z ,
, r - (x, y, z).
x , y ,z , (5.10)
:

U& = C exp{ j Re ( x x + y y + z z Im ( x x + y y + z z ) },

(5.13)

Re (x x + y y + z z ) = const ,

Im ( x x + y y + z z ) = const .

.
,
. , E& x 1 x E& y 1 y
,
& = E& 1 + E& 1 .
E
x x
y y

(5.14)

, ,
.
E& x E& y

.
.
(5.14) z

90,
. ,
,
(, , z).
k

, 90.
, .

& = E& (1 j1 ) .
E

x
y

(5.15)

,
(
),
( ).

,
& = E& 1 = E
& +E
& ,
E
x x
+

(5.16)

## E& + = E& x / 2 (1x + j1y ) , E& = E& x / 2 (1x j1y )

(5.17)

.

:
=

1 & *
Re E H .
2

(5.18)

2
E&

2
H&
1
=
Re 1 z =
Re[Z c ]1z .
2
Z
2
c

(5.19)

z.

:
= (0) exp(2 z ) .

(5.20)

/:
E (0)
(0)
= 20 lg
= 10 lg

,
E (1)
(1)

= 8,69.

' ''
. .

, ,
.

, , ,

S ( ) = s (t )e jt dt

- z = 0,
z,
s (t z ) =

1
2

S ( )e

jz

e jt d .

(5.21)

, s(t,z)
, ,

d
.
d

(5.22)

.
5.2.
5.1.

109

= 2,4, tg = 10-1, = 1.

.
. , tg << 1 (5.3)
. ,

= 0 a 1 j tg 0 a 1 j

tg tg 2
.
+
2
8

,
:

0 a (1 + 0,125 tg 2 ),
0.5 0 a tg .
(5.4),

(1 + 0,125 tg 2 )

,
. tg = 10 1
0,125%,

= 1,94 10 8 /

= / f = 0,194 .

= 1,622 -1.
5.2. ,
c
10, =5107 /, = 1.
.
. (5.3)

0 j

(1 j ) .
=

= = 0 2 = 44,43 10 3 1 .
:

= 1,414 10 3 / .
,
. ,
d=1/ = 22,510-6 = 22,5
5.3.

109

= 2,25, tg = 0,01, = 1.
z = 0 100 /.
z = 1 .
.

=

2
E&

1
Re exp( 2 z ) .
2
Zc

,
. , 5.1,
. = 0,162 -1.

tg << 1
,
(5.10).

Zc =

0
1
120
1
=
.
0 1 0,5 j tg
1 0,5 j tg

2
E&

exp(2 z ) ,
2 120

(z = 1) = 14,38 /2.
5.4. ,

90.
.
. , x = x + jx , y = y + jy ,

z = z + jz ,
x x + y y + z z = const ,

x x + y y + z z = const ,

[3]
cos =

xx + yy + zz

[( ) + ( )
2

] [

2
2
2
2
+ (z ) + (x ) + (y ) + (z )

].

(5.11) ,
xx + yy + zz = 0 ,

, , 90.
5.5.

( ) ,
z = 0
E& x = E 0 x exp( j x ) , E& y = E 0 y exp( j y ) .

.
.

:
= E0 x cos( t + x ) ,
= E0 y cos( t + y ) .

s t sin t:
cos t =
sin t =

sin y
E 0 x sin( y x )
cos y
E 0 x sin( y x )

sin x
,
E 0 y sin( y x )

cos x
.
E 0 y sin( y x )

t,
2

cos
2

+
= 1,

E 0 x E 0 y sin 2
E 0 x sin E 0 y sin

= x y .

(,) [3].
,
tg 2 =

2 E0 x E0 y
| E 02x E 02y |

= cos ,

+ = 1.
a b

[3],

a=

E02x + E02y
2

E02x E02y
+

b=

E02x + E02y
2

E02x E02y

## + E02x E02y cos 2 .

b.
1
a
k = =
b 2 sin

E 0 x + E 0 y + E 0 x E 0 y + 4 cos 2 .

E0 y E0 x
0 y E0 x

, ,
1z.
5.6. (, )

.
.
.

, ,

.
. , z = 0

& =E 1 ,
E
0x x

:
& = E 0 x (1 + j1 ) , E
& = E0 x (1 j1 ) .
E

x
y

x
y
2
2

E& ( z ) = E0 exp( j z ) ,

E& ( z ) = E0 exp( j z ) .

z 0
.
:
E
E& x ( z ) = 0 x (e j z + e j z ),
2
E
E& y ( z ) = j 0 x (e j z e j z ).
2

(, , z), z.
tg =

z 1 1
.
= tg
2
Ex

Ey

,
L
L
tg = tg
.
2

L
L
= ,
2

;
; = / f .
5.3.
5.7.

30 .
, 270
2520.

: 7,5 70 .
5.8. ,

= = 10, 10 .
: 3 , 3107 /.
5.9.

1508

= 1.
.
: 16.
5.10. = 4, = 1, = 0

,
z = 0, E& = 0,5 1x + 0,2 1y .

,
z.
& = (1.061 1x + 2.65 1 y )10 3 / .
: H

5.11. 5.10,

z=1 10 .
: E = (0.5 1 x + 0.2 1 y )cos 2 10 10 t / ,

4
3

## H = ( 1.061 1 x + 2.65 1 y )cos 2 10 10 t / .

3

5.12.

6107 /
= 1 10 1 .
: 25,610-6 (1 j) , 25,6105 (1 j) .
5.13.

= 6107 /, = 1 10 1 ,

H& = 25 1 y / . .

## : 640 10 6 exp j 1 x / , 640 10 5 exp j 1 x / .

5.14.

.
, , 10 , 1
40.

.
: = 16/9 = 1,78, = 4/3 = 1,33.
5.15. 10 :

## = 3,8, =1, tg =10-4.

.
: 1,54 , 2,04102 -1, 193 (j 0,5104) .
5.16. ( i O3) 10

: = 144, = 1, tg = 0.6.

.
: 0.24 , 758 1, 29 ( j 0,28 ) .
5.17.

2
=103/, = 2, = 1 1 ?
: 1,083 .
5.18.

,
.
= 2,

=1, = 103 / 10 ?
: 1,327 .
5.19. 1 .

, ,
1 ,
0,1, ,

.
: 0,4189 .
5.20. ,

104 50
50 .
: 9,271 , 29,374 .
5.21. ,

104 50 ,
=5107 /, = 900.
.
: 3,09 .
5.22.

## (N3) 1,33102 f0=23866

5,4 10 9
~

a = 0 1 +
f 0 f + j 2.7 10 7

23866 23866 27 .
: 0,05 0,025 -1 .
5.23.

n =

1 dn
.
n dT

n = 4105 1 = 1,5,
, 1 ,
1 51014 .

10

.
: 200, 0,004.
5.24. , (Li

Nb

O3),

( ),
.
,
,
(t)=(1+
+ncos2F), F .
,
10, =1,5, n=105,
F = 1 , f = 51014 . ,

10 ?
: = 5, = 9,87104 -1, l = 100 .
5.25.

, z, z = 0,
E& = 0 (1x + e j 1y ) .

, = 60.
: ;
45 ; k = 3 .
5.26.

, z, z = 0,
& = ( 1 0 .5 j 1 ) .
E
0
x
y

.
: ;
; k =2.
5.27.

=0

'
E = 0 (1x j1y ) exp( j ),

## E = 0 (1x + j1y ) exp( j ).

,
= = 45 o .

: , 45 .
5.28.

, . .

, 0= 0,6328 , ,
1 17,32 . .

,
1,5 ( ).
: 4,06105.
5.29.

,
.

. ,

, 1,56 1,59.
,
51014 .

: 5 .
5.30.

1 2.
300 z = 0
5 /
.

z = 1 .
: 0; 12,5 B2/2.
5.31.

. ,
z.
z,
360, 100 , = 60.
: 6.
5.32.

,
, z z 180.

,
E& 1 = E& 2 = l 1 y /. z
, 100 , = 60.

2
: E& = 2 exp j x sin cos z cos 1 y /;

3 .
5.33.

300 .
z=0.
108 /.

z = 0,1 ,
z = 0 1 /, z = .
: 0,169 /.
5.34. =5107/

.
z = 0.

exp j
0

x .

, =0,
0=3.
: 15,37 . . z.
5.35. = 2.25, = 1, = 0

100 /.
,
.
: 19,894 /2.
5.36.

, =3,8,

=1, = 210-4 /, z = 0 1 /.
z,
1 .
: 94,844 /2.
5.37. ,

= 144, = 1, tg = 210-4,
z = 0 10 ,
100 /.
: 165 /2.

5.38.

10% 2 .
.
: 0,025 1.
5.39. ()

4 2. 100 .
, ,

.
: 13,73 /.
5.40.

106 .
,
.
,
, , 30 /.
: 0,838 3.
5.41. , 3,39 , ,

,
.

=1,3510-2

.

1 .
: 164 22 /.
5.42. *

, .
,

> 0?
:
.
: (dn d ) + (n 1) 0 .
5.43. , ,

10 20 .

100 , ,
() = 1010 .
: 20
41,9 .
5.44. z = 0

-

E(t ) = E 0 (1 + M cos t )cos t 1x /.

z = 1 ,

2 10 4
n = 1+
.
0 + j 2 108
= 0,5, = 2108 -1, = 5 1010 1.
: E(t , z = 1) = 0.949 E0 [1 + 0.513cos(t 0.26)]cos 0 t 10 3 1 x /.

6.1.
,
~a , a , ,
.

R& E = E& / E& , R& = & / &
()
T&E = E& / E& , T& = & / & .

,
.

:
R = / , =
,
Z Z c1
R& E = c 2
,
(6.1)
Z c 2 + Z c1
2Z c2
T&E =
.
(6.2)
Z c 2 + Z c1
Zc1 ,
.
(6.1)
Zc1, Zc2.
R .
[12].

.
, , . . tg
<< 1.

, . ,
, .
, , 0

=0

sin /sin = 2 / 1.
(6.3)
1 , .
(6.3)

sin
= 2 2.
sin
1 1
R
.
,

R E|| =

Z c 2 cos Z c 1 cos
,
Z c 2 cos + Z c 1 cos

(6.4)

2Z c 2 cos
,
(6.5)
Z c 2 cos + Z c1 cos
,

Z cos Z c1 cos
R = c 2
,
(6.6)
Z c 2 cos + Z c1 cos
2Z c 2 cos
E =
,
(6.7)
Z c 2 cos + Z c1 cos
(6.4) (6.7) (6.1) (6.2)
. , = 0
. , = 1, R
:
sin( )
R =
,
(6.8)
sin( + )
tg ( )
R|| =
,
(6.9)
tg ( + )
E|| =

2 sin cos
,
sin( + )
2 sin cos
T|| =
.
sin( + ) cos( )

T =

(6.10)
(6.11)

(6.3).
(6.9) , + = /2
, , ,
. ,
, .

tg = 2 / 1
(6.12)
(6.3) 22 < 11 ,

= arcsin 2 2 .
1 1

(6.4), (6.6) .
;
R||, R.
. (6.4), (6.6) , ,
= arcsin 2 2 / 1 1 :

sin 2 ( / )
2 2
1 1
||
&
,
R = exp 2 j arctg 2
cos
1

sin 2 ( / )
2 2
1 1
,
R& = exp 2 j arctg 2

cos

(6.13)

(6.14)

T|| T .
(6.3)

E& = &E& exp 1 z sin 2 ( 2 2 / 1 1 ) jx sin
(6.15)

{[

]}

& ,

2
,
(6.16)
2
2 2 1
2
j sin
1
1 1
,
2 cos
22
(6.17)
T&|| =
,
2 2 1 1
2
2
j sin
1 1
1
.

, ,
.
(. 5.34),
, .
(, )
& 1 E& = Z H& ,
(6.18)
E& = Z n
n
T& =

2 cos

1n , ; Z = j a /
; H&
.
(6.18)
H& , . p
, .
6.2.
6.1.
, = 81, = 1, = 0,1 /.
R& E T&E 100
. ,
z = 0, , 1 /,
.
. , ~ a = 0 (1 j tg ) , (6.1)
R& E =

1 (1 j tg )1 / 2

.
1 + (1 j tg )1/ 2
,
(1 j tg ) 1 0.5tg ,

tg =

2
= < 1.
0 9

8+ j
R& E =
= 0.8 exp( j 0.025),
10 j

2
10

T&E = 1 + R& E =

j
R& E

## E& = R& E E& = 0.8 exp( j 0.025) exp( j 0 z ).

,
E = 0.8 cos(2 10 8 t 0.025 + 0 z ).
6.2. R& E
1 R& = 0,5e -j0.09 .
E

, tg , , , =1.
.
.
= 1, ~a = 0 (1 j tg )
R& E =

1 (1 j tg )1/ 2
1 + (1 j tg )1 / 2

1 R& E
= 4 1 j tg e j / 2 .
1 + R& E
R& E = R& e -j ,
R& sin
R& sin
'

= arctg
+ arctg
1 + R& cos
1 R& cos
2

2
1 + R& + 2 R& cos
2
.
1 + tg =
2
1 + R& 2 R& cos

,
tg =0, =9,0 , =0,06 /.
6.3.
d.
,
Z
Z
Z
.
.
a
. (6.1)
b

.
.
, . 6.1. '
, Z0. ,
b . ,
,

c
d = 0 p=
p
2n
2nf

c
f =
p, p = 1, 2,...
2nd
a

6.4.
. 1 2, .
.
, .
,

1 *
= Re E& H .
2

(6.18),
& 2
*
1 &

Re(Z )1n.
= Re Z 1n H =
2
2

a
Re(Z ) =
,
2
:
1 a & 2
P =
,
2 2
& , ,

[ ]

a & 2
,
2

,

& 2 ,
P = 2 a cos 2
2
.
P = 2

6.3.
6.5.
. 0,1 /.

,
z,
.
.
:
& = 0,1 l x /,
& = 0,265 l y /,
H
2
E(t , z ) = 0.2 sin
z sin t1x /,

0
2
H(t , z ) = 0.53 cos
z cos t1 y /.
0
6.6.
= 6107 /.
10 , =0
: RE=-1+1.3610-4(1+j).
6.7. 10
1 / ,
= 6107 /.

.
: 1,18510-4 (1+j) /, 8,610-6 /2.
6.8.
= 4, = 1, = 0.
,
1 /.

: 8/9 /3.
6.9. ,
d

. .
=2,4 01 = 3,1 02 = 6,2 , d = 0,5 .
: d,
Z0.

(1 )tg 2 d

0
R& E = j
,

2
:
2 + j (1 + )tg
d

0
R& E1 = 0.412, R& E 2 = j 0.412 /(0.9118 + j ).
6.10. ,
, , 6.9,
1 /.
6.11.
0,63 (
),
.
:
[12].
: = 1,95, d = 0,1125 .
6.12. ,
d,
Zc .
: z = 0 z = d
.
2
,
: T&E =
Z0 Zc
sin d
2 cos d + j +
Zc Z0
6.13. 6.12,
( i O3) 10 , = 144, = 1, tg =0.6, d = 0,1 .
: T&E = (1,9 + j1,5) 1 .
6.14. , ,
d
.
6.12, T&E .
T&E = -1, d = 1 10 .
2
T&E =
,
1 2
2

d + j
sh
d
2ch
:

0

TE = 0.244
6.15.*
95%,
.
= 0 ,
N 0 /(4
1 2,

3.
, 1 = 2,5, 2 = 6.25, 3 = 3,8, N = 11.
:
/4.
2

1 3 ( 1 / 2 ) N / 2
R=
, N ,
N /2
1 + 3 ( 1 / 2 )

N +1

1
( 2 / 1 ) 2
1
3
, N ,
R=
N +1

1 + 1 ( 2 / 1 ) 2
3

6.16. , ,
.
,
.
: z, , c ,
,
E& = 2 jE sin ( 0 z cos )exp ( j 0 x sin )1y /.
& = 2 H [cos cos( z cos )1 + j sin sin ( z cos )1 ]exp( j x sin ) /.
H

6.17. ,
,
a, . 0
?
0
2a
, 0
: a = m
, m .
2 cos
m
6.18. 6.16 ,
. = 45.
: ,
= 2 E& sin ( 0 z cos )sin 2 (z cos )1x /2.

= / sin = 2c.
6.19.
(. 6.17).
0 .
.

: =
.
2
1 [m0 /(2a)]
6.20. ,
,
a = 0 ( = 1, = 0 ) = arctg .
.
.
: = / .
6.21. ,
, 1 = 1, 1 = 9, 1 = 0
2 = 1, 2 = 1, 2 = 0
: ) ; )
?
: ) 1825, ) 1930.
*

6.22.
.
,
.
: 6250.
6.23.
, 1,531.
0, 45, 5651.
: = 0 , = 45
3,177, = 5651 , .
6.24. 20, 45, 60 80,
= 1,5
.
: 1,007; 1,045; 1,101; 1,286.
6.25.
.
, ? ,
?
:

tg =

tg =

2 2 1 1 2

- , ,
1 2 2 11
2 2 1 1 2
1 1 1 2 2

- , ,

6.26.
:
(=81), ( = 6), ( = 2,25), ( =
16).
: 620', 24, 4140', 1430'.
6.27. , = 2,25, =
1, = 0, 45 .
,

.
: R\\ = - (j7340'}, R = {j3640'}.
6.28. , . 6.2, .
, . .
,
.
A
B
1,5.
90
:
= 0,96 j 73 40 e
,
o

'

2
1,5 L
0

ABCD=
. 6.2

= 0,96

j 36 o 40 '

2
1, 5 L
0

- ,

.
6.29. ,

?

n1 + 2 = 2,41.

6.30. ,
135 ( ,
.) ( = 81)
.
, ?
?
: 629' 44 38'; .
6.31
1,5 .
45 (. 6.30).
, 45.
: , 45
, 1 : 0.333.
6.32.
(, ).
,
?
6.33. , , .
? , ,
, , 3 , 1,33?
.
: 6,8 .
6.34. ,
=1,5, 45 . 1 /.
6
, 10,
.
: 0,0226 /.
6.35.
a=0 .
?
: sin (90 )1/
6.36. * ,
, .

, .
.
, ,
1 ,
()= 1+ 0,003 (1 /300).
: 15,3.
6.37.* ,
.
d/df.
60, =1,75 + 1,68*10-16(f
5*1014).

d n
sin
dn
=
df
n n 2 sin 2 df

d n
= 0.3132 *10 14 . / .
df

6.38. 60 .
, = 5*107
/, = 1, f = 100 , 1 /
. (. 6.4)
: =22*10-2(1+j) /
=2*10-2 /2

7.1.
,
.
(. 7.1) (. 7.2) ,
, - -.

z 0, z0
(

z

),
(),
z 0, z0.

y
Z

. 7.1

z
Hz
a

[2].
O
,

= 1.

. 7.2
,
0 / <
,
(7.1)
0 ; ,
.

2
=
( m / a ) 2 + ( n / b) 2 ,
(7.2)
a, b (. . 7.1).

= 2 / mn
,
(7.3)
; mn - Jm () = 0.
Hmn

= 2 / mn

,
(7.4)
mn - J m () = 0.
vmn mn I.

:
h = 2 g 2 ,
= 2 / 0 ; g = 2 /

(7.5)

.
(7.1), 2 f g 2 , h
. (7.1) , 2 p g 2 , h
, e . (7.5)
.

h = 2 / B = / v ,
(7.6)
.
(7.6) ,
.

c/
.
(7.7)
v =
2
1
1 0

1
1

(7.8)

1
v =
1 0

,
(7.9)
.
,
mn
:
hm
mx ny jhz
& = j 2 E 0 cos
sin
e
g a
a b
,
hn
mx ny jhz
& y = j 2 E0 sin
cos
e
g b
a b
,

mx

ny

jhz
& z = E0 sin
sin
e
a b
,

(7.10)

n
mx ny jhz
H& x = j a 2 E0 sin
cos
e
g b
a b
,
m
mx ny jhz
H& y = j a 2 E0 cos
sin
e
g a
a b
,
&
Hz = 0.
11.

11 . 7.3.

. 7.3
Hmn
:
n
mx ny jhz
& = j a 2 H 0 cos
sin
e
g a
a b
,
m
mx ny jhz
& y = j a 2 H 0 sin
cos
e
g b
a b
,
E& z = 0 ,
hm
mx ny jhz
H& = j 2 H 0 sin
cos
e
g a
a b
,
hn
mx ny jhz
H& y = j 2 H 0 cos
sin
e
g b
a b
,

(7.11)

mx my jhz
& z = 0 cos
cos
e
a b
.
>b 10,
=2, 20, 01, 11.
H10

H20

H11

E
H
E

H
. 7.4

. 7.4.
10 .
:

& x = 0 ,
x
& y = E0 sin e jhz
a
,
& z = 0 ,
h
x
H& x =
E0 sin e jhz
a
a
,
&
Hy = 0
,

E0
x
H& x = j
cos e jhz
a a
a
.

(7.12)

mn
h
E& r = j E0 j ' m ( gr ) cos(m )e jhz
g
,
hm
E& = j 2 E0 jm ( gr ) sin( m )e jhz
g r
,
&E = E j ( gr ) cos(m )e jhz
z
0 m
,

g r
,

(7.13)

E01

H11

g
,
E11

E
H

H01

H
E
. 7.5

. 7.6

H& z = 0 .
01,
= 2,613, 11.
0 11 . 7.5.
mn

## E& r = j 2 a m 0 j m ( gr ) sin( m )e jhz

g r
,
a
E& = j
0 j 'm ( gr ) cos(m )e jhz
g
,

E& z = 0 ,

(7.14)

h
H& r = j 0 j ' m ( gr ) cos(m )e jhz
g
,
hm
H& = j 2 0 jm ( gr ) sin( m )e jhz
g r
,
jhz
&
H z = 0 jm ( gr ) cos(m )e .
s

d
b

2
b

2d

a
. 7.7

,
, 11, = 3,413.
01 =1,640.

b/a=0

b/a=0

0.25
0.8

0.6

0.25

0.8

0.5

0.5
1.0

0.75

0.6

1.0

0.75

1.25
0.4

1.25

0.4
1.5

1.5

0.2

0.2

s/a=0.25

0.2

0.6

0.4

0.8

d/b

s/a=0.5

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

. 7.8

11

01

.
7.6.
C
(.7.7). ,
b ,
,
. - -
.
- - .
10
2
=
,
(7.15)
- , d s.
7.8, , .
- - [6].
Zc
.
2

Z cE = Z 0 1

.
(7.16)

Z0
Z c =
2

.
(7.17)
Z0 .
, ,
:
*
1

= Re 1z E& H dS
2S
.
(7.18)

d/b

(7.12) (7.18)
, 10 :

ab 1 [0 / 2a ]
=
4Z 0
,
(7.19)
0 .
, 11
:
2

a 2 E02
1 0
=

4,28Z 0
.
(7.20)

() .
max=30 /.
,
.
,
:
=+.

2
RS H& dl
1
=
2 Re E& H * dS
S
,
(7.21)
a
- RS =
- ; -
2
, .
(7.21) ,
.
(7.21),

:
10
2 2b
RS 1 + 0

2a a
=

{[

]}

Z 0b 1 0
2a

,
mn (n1)

b 2
2 RS
0
=
+ 1 0
1 +

0 a 2 2

Z 0b 1
2

mn

(7.22)

bb 2
2
n + m

* a a

2
2

b n
2

+
m

a2
,

(7.23)

b 3

2 RS n 2 + m 2
a

Z 0b 1 0
2

b2n2
2 + m 2

,
mn
2
2 RS
m 2
0
+ 2
=

2 m 2
2
mn

Z0a 1 0
2

,

(7.24)

(7.25)
mn
2 RS
=
2
0

Z0a 1
2
.
(7.26)
(7.20), (7.21), (7.23)(7.26) ,
. ,
0 0 / .

(7.5),
0 ~ = (1 jtg )

= Im 2 (1 jtg ) g 2 .

(7.27)

tg pp 1 (7.27) :

2tg
2h ,
tg
0

1
1 0

(7.28)
2

(7.29)

7.2
7.1 3 ,
= 3,2?
10.
. ,
<, = 0 / = /( f )
. = 1,675 .
2a/vmn 2/mn Hmn.
,
mn<2a/
mn,< 2a/
2a/=5,62
: 01, 02, Ell E20 hoi, 11, 12, 21 H31,
41.
7.2 4 X 3 11,
= 1,15.
8 .
.

. 11
:
2
=
= 4,8
(1 / a ) 2 + (1 / b) 2
0=c/f=3,75 .

c
v =

= 4,084 *10 8 /

1
1 0

0
2

= 5,105 .

1
1 0

7.3
10 ?
.
0=c/f=3 .
11.
=2a/1,841=3,413, 11:
a > 0/3.41 = 8,79 .
01.

= 2a /2,405 = 2,613.
01 ,
<0 /2,61 = 11,48 .
, 17,58 < < 22,96
7.4 23 X 10
.
=6, f 0= 10 . l=50.
, .
. , 23 X 10
10 10.
=2 = 4,6
f = = 6,52 .
S(w)

[2].

w1 w0 w2
w

. 7.9
( 0 )
sin
E
2
S ( ) =
2 ( 0 )
2
, . 7.9.
. : f1 = f0 -1/ = 9,833 ,
f2=f0+ 1/ = 10,167 .

t =

l
l

v ( f1 ) v ( f 2 )

.
(7.30)
(7.9),

l
1
1
= 5, 4 .
t =

2
c 1 ( f / f1 ) 2
1
(
f
/
f
)

,
.
.
7.5 5 01.
6 , 20 .

.
. E01,
(7.13) = 0, = 1:
.

H r = j a E 0 j ' 0 ( gr )e jhz ,
g
&E = E j ( gr )e jhz ,
z
0 0

## H& = j a E0 j '0 ( gr )e jhz .

g
(7.18):
v
a 2
h
a h 2 01 2
1
1
E
= Re & * dS = a2 E 02 [ j ' 0 ( gr )]2 rddr =
0 J 1 ( x) xdx .
2S
20 0 g
g2
0

2
v 01
a h 2
E0
, J ( x) xdx =
J 12 (v01 ) = 0,778 , P = 0,778
2
g2
0
r r, h g:
v 01

2
1

## g = v01 / a = 0.962 1 , h = (2 / 0 ) 2 g 2 = 0.809 1

J0 () x = 0, J0 (0) =1.
J0 ()= J1 () = 1,8411
0,5839. , r Ez.
, 0,
. (7.31):
Pg 2
0,778 a h

max=1,676103/.

:
P
= (r = a ) = a
J 1 (v 01 ) = 3,01A / .
0.778 a h
7.6 2
11.
: ) , ; )
; ) ,
50%.
. (7.23) Hmn
m = 1, n =1; , b = .
11 :
max = E0 =

2
2 RS 1 + 0

=
2

Z0 1 0

.

(7.32)
,
20 lg e = 8,69.
11 .
, /
7.10.

,
0,325 /,
0.20
25,5 ;
,
0.15
r2

0.10
20

40

50

f,

r1

. 7.10
. 7.11

50% 13,492 .
7.7

,
.7.11. . : r1 = 1,
r2=3 .
.
. 11

r .
z

1 z 1 2 z
+ g 2 Ez = 0 ,
r
+ 2
2
r r r r

E z |r = r1 = 0, E z =| =0 = 0 .
r = r2

, :
Ez=[A1J1(gr)+A2N1(gr)]sin
z=0 r=r1 r=r2,
A1J1(gr1)+A2N1(gr1)=0
A1J1(gr2)+A2N1(gr2)=0
,

2,

J1(gr1)+N1(gr1)= J1(gr2)+N1(gr2)
, [7],
(r2/r1=3):

gr1 =

3,271
= 1,635 ,
3 1

2r1
2
=
= 3,84 .
g 1,635
1
2. , 1 ,
J ( gr )
(7,34): A2 = A1 1 1 = 1,77 A1 .
N 1 ( gr1 )
[2]:
jh Ez
E& r = 2
g r ,
=

jh E z
E& = 2
g r ,
j Ez
H& r = 2 a
g r ,

j E z
H& = 2 a
g
r

(7.35)
(7.33) z,

jh
E& r =
A1 [J 1 (gr) + 1,77N 1 (gr)]sin e jhz ,
g

jh
E& = 2 A1 [J 1 (gr) + 1,77N 1 (gr)]cos e jhz ,
g r
j
H& r = 2 a A1 [J 1 (gr) + 1,77N 1 (gr)]cos e jhz ,
g r
ja
A1 [J 1 (gr) + 1,77N 1 (gr)]sin e jhz
H& r =
g
.

(7.36)

(7.36)
. ,
H
. 7.12.
,

.
E

11

;
11,
. 7.12
. 7.3, .

.
, .
7.8
4, 6 9 .
- (. . 7.7)
= 27,28 , 2b = 11,7 , s=6,8 , 2d = 2,28 ?
?
.
. 10.

. 7.8, = 0,54.
=2/ = 101 . f=c/=2,97.
, , -
. ,
. [6]
30. 12,94 . ,
.

v =

c
1 ( f / f )2

,
4 v = 4,48-108 /,
6 v = 3,45-108 /,
9 v = 3,18-8 /.
7.9 (. 7.13),
1, 2
3, .
,
l

1. 23 X
10 .
0 = 3,2 .
2

3
,
25,4
1

= 4.
. 7.13
.

, . (7.8), 0 /

=
0

1
1
1 0

:
2

= 0 + 0

,
(7.37)
= 2.
,
= 2,07.
tg
, .
,
[12]:
2

1
.
+ 1

, ,
= 2l

ln
,
2l
,
=0,255 -1.

.
(7.22), 0 / 0,
:
=1,2610-2 -1.
:
= - =0,242 -1.
tg (7.28), , h=2/ =2/0
2h 20
tg = 2 =
.

(7.38)
,
tg = 1,510-3.
=

7.3
7.10
10X4 f=6 ?
: 10,20,30,01,11,21,11,21.
7.11 1
10 ?
= 2,6. : 10, H.20 H01, H02 H1l E11.
7.12 ,
3 7,5 ?
: 01, E11, H01, H11 H21, H31.
7.13 23 X 10
= 2,25. 8,4 .
v .
: 2,34.10s /,2,78 .
7.14 ,
11. 4x3 .
10 .
: 4,8 , 6,25 , 3,84 .
7.15
5 5 .
: 3,516 , 4,219108 /.
7.16 ,
4 .
: 4,3955,740 .
7.17 ,
. 10 .
: 5 < < 10 , b < 5 .
7.18 ,
4 .
: 5,303 < < 8,385 .
7.19 , 01 .
, 01.
9300 .
: 12.35 < < 15,68 .
7.20 , 01
10 5108 /.

: 14,34 .
7.21 , ,
E11 6108 /. 5 .
: 4,9 X 4,9 .
7.22 4,5 .
2,6 1,3 .
.
: 8,82 .
7.23 10 5 ,
.
, 10 .
: = 5,1 ; b .
7.24 10 72X
34 3 .
: 2,16I08 /.
7.25 01. 10 ,
4 .
.
: 2,25108 /.
7.26 7.26. ,
= 2,25, 3108 /.
.
: 1,333-10 /.
7.27
10
72 X 34 3 .
a
: 523,9 .
7.28
01
30 3,2 .
: 217,7 .
7.29 5 ,
. 7.14
,
11. 3 .

, ,

a
.
: =2,37.

7.30

23 X 10,
.
(
. 7.15
,
.
.
,
10 22,6 .
: = 2,19.
7.31 *
(. 7.14).
.
: 3,41.
7.32 *

(. 7.14).
.
: 1,64.
7.33 *
(. 7.15) .
.
: 1,64.
7.34
- (, , 7.7) = 36 , b=16 , d = 6 ,
s = 9 . 6 .
: =11,2 , Zc = 446 .
7.35 -
1,2f f .
- ; (. . 7.7)
: = 20 , b = 6 , d = 1 , s=10 .
20 .
: 4,315 .
7.36 H10
23 X 10 , 10 6 .
: 46,4 .
7.37 ,
3 , 40 60 .
: 5,80 .
7.38
23 X 10 , 10 ? ,
30 /.
: 1,04 .
7.39 50 X 25, 10,
10 . 5 .
,
.
: 1,23 105 /, 261 /.
7.40
5 2,5 105 /.
7,5-109 . . 11.

.
: 265 /, 4,17104 /2.
7.41 3 11,
7,5 , 50 .
.
: 4,28 /.
7.42 01.

?
: 0,48.
7.43 10
?
? 7,2 X 3,4 , 10 .
: ,
90 .
: 1,76 ; ,
.
7.44 5 11 01.
6 .

180?
: 15 .
7.45 ,
72X34 50 ,
. 1 , 3.
.
: 0,23 .
7.46 ,
.
,
.
28,5X 12,6 ,
0,02
9380 , ,
.
:
.
: 1014 .
7.47 * , 01.
10 .
E(t)=E0exp(-t2/2)cos0t =20 c. 37,5 .
,
. 0,1 .
: 68 .
7.48 * 25
10
800 .
23 X 10
- (. . 7.7) : = 24,6 , b=11 ,
d = 1,9 , s = 4,2 .
(
) - .
.
: 0,25 ; 0,75 .
7.49 10
72 34 3 . .
: 0,02 /.
7.50 10
50 X 50 .
?
, .
:. 10; 0,03 /.
7.51 10
23 X 10 ? ,
.
: 15,2 , 0,093 /.
7.52 ,
10,
. 6 .

5,7107 /.
7.53 01 8 .
10 .
1,4107 /.

: 1,82 /.
7.54 3
50 , 11. 7,5 ,
3107 /.
.
: 40%.
7.55 ,
01.
01 50
8 .
: 1,82 /.
7.56 H01
50 5 /?
11? .
: 1,51 , 0,0166 /.
7.57 4 X 2 10.
,
30%.
: 4,4 <f<15,8 .
7.58 7,2 X 3,4
=2,56, tg = 10~3. 10.
1,8 .
.
: 6,79 /.
7.59 20 X 10 ,
= 2,1, tg = 410-4, .
.
?
.
: 12,5 , 0,080 /, 97,9% .
7.60 25
3 01 0,4 /.
2,25,
tg . ,
.
: tg =510-4
7.61 28 X 12
10 . 3,2 .
, 1 ,
, .
: 350 .

8.1.
,
, ( ).
.
; ,
x
,
, ,
z

.

(. 8.1)

.

u
.
-

. 8.1
:
(| > );

## E& x1 = jhpCe px e jhz

E& z1 = p 2 Ce px e jhz
H& x1 = H& z1 = E& y1 = 0 (8.1)
,
p2=h2-200
(8.2)
(|x|<a);
H& y 2 = j a g ( A sin gx B cos gx )e jhz ,
E& = jhg ( A sin gx B cos gx)e jhz ,
x2

(8.3)

## E& z 2 = g 2 ( A cos gx + B sin gx)e jhz ,

H& x 2 = H& z 2 = E& y 2 = 0 .
g :
g2= 2a0-h2.
(a ).
= x=
:
E& z1 = E& z 2 , H& y1 = H& y 2 .
(8.5)
:
E1, 3, 5, ... , = , 0
; 2, 4, 6, ..., A 0, B=0

x.
(8.1) (8.3) (8.5),
:

pa =

1
ga tg ga ,

(8.6)

pa =

1
ga ctg ga ,

(8.7)

. ,
g
(pa)2+( ga)2=(a)2(-1)
(8.8)
.
Hz, :

E& y1 = j 0 pCe pxe jhz
H& = jhpCe px e jhz
x1

## H& z1 = p 2Ce px e jhz

E& x1 = E& z1 = H& y1 = 0

E& y2 = j a g( Asingx + Bcosgx)e jhz
H& = jhg(Asingx Bcosgx)e jhz

(8.9)

x2

## H& z2 = g 2 (Acosgx + Bsingx)e jhz

E& x2 = E& z2 = H& y2 = 0

(8.10)
(8.9) (8.10) (8.5)

pa = ga tg ga (1 , 3, ...);
(8.11)
pa = ga ctgga
(2, 4, ...).
(8.12)
pa

.
H1
5
ga,
H3
H5
,

4

,
(8.11),
3
,
(8.8) (. 8.2).

2
.
II

1

(8.6)

.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7 ga
. 8.2

z
d

a
b

-a

-d
. 8.4

,
(8.2)
(8.4)

h,

.

(.8.3)

(. 8.4).

, .
- (. . 8.4)
, .

:

=| y =0 = 0, z =| y =0 = 0
y =b

y =b

(8.13)

10,

Z
d
a
l

. 8.5

, , H1
.
-

.

, , . 8.5.

z.
;
, , ,
d .
I
:
E& x = jhpAe px e jhz ,
H& y = j 0 pAe px e jhz ,
E& z = p 2 Ae px e jhz ,
H& x = E& y = H& z = 0 .
(8.14)

l. :
E& z = Bsin ( x l ) ,
B
cos ( x l ) .
H& y = j
(8.15)
Z0

[2]:
Z = E& z / H& y .
= 0,

p = tgl .
, >0.
, , l </2 l< 0/4/
(8.16)
v / = cos l .
a

,

d (. 8.6),
d

,
. 8.6

,

. ,
, z Hz
/0 (r) 0 (r) .
I0 (r) K0 (r).

K1 ( pa ) I1 ( pa )
,
(8.17)
p=
tga K 0 ( pa ) I 0 ( pa )
tg a = d/2a .
>>1, ,
(8.17) :
p ctga .
,

(8.18)

v / sin a .
(8.19)
(8.17), ,
(8.18), (8.17).
(8.17) .
. , .
8.2.

2 =
2,9. 3,2 .
, .
. 1.
(8.11) (8.8). 1 =2,706.
II ,
=2,456 ga= 1,137, = 245,6 -1 ,g = 113,7 -1. (8.2)
h.

8.1

h = 2 + p 2 =314,4 -1,
, 10:
v = / h = 1,874108 /.
; 2,: = 1,582, ga = 2,195,
=158,2 -1 g = 219,5 -1, h = 252,15 -1 v = 2,336-108 /.
.
(8.9), (8.10). 1,
, (8.10) = 0.
-jhz, 1
= - ,
= cos g; .
;
(8.5),
-a = cos g,
(8.21)
=1,
(8.21)
g,
(8.20)
(. 8.7).
.

2
. (8.10) = 0
,
= - ,
(8.22)
= A sin g;

-a= A sin g,
(8.23)
, (8.22)
(8.23), . 8.7.
8.2
,
(. . 8.3).
=15 , = 2,25.
10 .
.
E1, 3, 5, ... ,

.
(. . 8.2) 1 > (n 1) / 2 , .

(n 1)c
f =
.
4a 1
,
:
1f = 0, . . ;
3 f = 8,944 , . . ;
5 f = 17,89 ( ), ,
.
1 3 , (8.6)
(8.8). ,
, II. , :
1 ga = 1,3827, pa = 3,2288,
3 ga = 3,4722, pa = 0,5296.
(8.2)
h = 2 + p2

v = / h .
, :
1 v = 2,092108 /,
3 v = 2,958108 /.
8.3
3 H1 12
0,72 .
.
.
h = / v = 349,06 -1
(8.2) :
= 0,9686.
III ( ) ,

R= 1 =1,289.

1,289
= 2,644 .
= 1 +

, 10 -
.
2 = 25 , b=15 (. . 8.4).
=2,56. 4 .
30 /, 200
/.
. ,
. (8.9) (8.10),

E& y = C1e px e jhz ,

8.4

h
H& x =
C1e px e jhz .
0

(8.24)

## E& y = B1 cos gxe jhz ,

h
B1 cos g jhz .
H& x =
(8.25)
0
1 1 , 1
.
1 1 (8,5):
1- = 1 cos g

1 = 1 cos g (8,26)
, :

h 2 px
1
1
= Re( E& x H *y ) = C12
e
2 0
2

h
1
= B12
cos 2 gx .
2 0
, ,
:

a
b 1
h
1
hb 1
(8.27)
P1 =
B12
cos 2 gxdx = B12
( sin 2 ga + ga ) ,
x = a y =0 2
0
2 0 g 2
||>

b 1
h 2 px
1
hb 2 pa
P2 = 2
C12
e dx = C12
e
.
(8.28)
x = a y =0 2
2 0 p
0
(8,27) (8,28) (8,26),
, :
1
hab sin 2 ga cos 2 ga
1 +
.
(8.29)
P = B12
+
2 0
2 ga
pa

g, . .
(8.11) (8.8). ,
R= 1 =2,452.
3 pa=2,19, ga=1,103
h = ( ) 2 + ( p ) 2 = 2,941 .
, ,
-
(|| = ),
30 /. (8.25)
Emax = B1 cos ga .
(8,29)
1 2 hab 1 tgga
1

.
(8.30)
P = Emax
+
+
ga cos 2 ga
2
0 pa
= 24 .

.
8.5
H1
.
2 = 10 , 24 = 2,7,
tg=10-3.
.

, [2];
1
=
.
(8.31)
2 0

| E |2
=
dv ,
(8.32)
v
2
,
1 & *
(8.33)
0 = E
H dS.
S 2
.
,
(8.32) (8.33) .
0, , (8.31)
,
(8.32) (8.33) ,
.
h1 (8.24), (8.25).
(8.32) (8.33),
a
1 1
P =
B12 cos 2 gxdx =B12
(8.34)
( sin 2 ga + ga ) ,
a 2
2 g 2

P0 =

1 2 ha sin 2 ga cos 2 ga
1 +
.
B1
+
2 0
2 ga
pa

(8.35)

## (8,34) (8,35) (8,31) , /( ) = tg ,

sin 2 ga
1+
2
0
2 ga
=
tg .
(8.36)
2
sin 2 ga cos 2 ga
1+
+
2 ga
pa
.
III = 1,405, ga = 0,967, h = 384 -1.
(8.36),
= 0,209 -1.
8.6
,
= 1 , l= 6 (. . 8.5.) 9 .
100 ?
. (8.17):
v = c cos l = 0,426 .

= 0 cos l = 1,42 .

= tgl = 400,6 1 .
100 0,
-=0,01,
1
0 = ln 100 = 1,15 .

8.7
= 5 , d =3. 2 (. . 8.6).
3 .
(8.19)
(8.17). .
v/

1%?
.
d
tg =
= 0,06375 .
2a
(8.18):
p ctga 985,6 -1,
(8,17), , :
= 974,98 -1,
(8,17). .
=974,73-1.
, .

(8.19):
v/0,06362.
, ,,
v/:
v

= =
= 0,06432 .
2

h
p + 2
. . 1,1 % . ,
(8.18) (8.17)
. , .
1,1% = 4,87. , , > 5
(8.18), (8.19) 1%.
8.3.

12 10 ?
=3.
: H1, H2, 1, 2.
8.9

1? 4,5 .
: 2 < 1,80 .
8.10 2 = 20
= 3,2 1
2, 3 ?
: 5,056 < f < 10,11 .
8.11 1,
5 = 2,9.
16 .
: 2,065108 /.
8.12 1
12 = 2,21 8
.
: 2,726108 /.
8.13 1 2,
10 =2,8 12
.
: 1,678 1, 2,474 2.
8.14 18 1.
6 .
20 ?
: 11,4 .
8.15 1
8.8

0,8 . 35 .
100 ?
: 8,4 ,
8.16
1 0,7 20 ?
: 2 = 2,36 .
8.17 ,
1, 2.108 / 9380 .
: = 3,96.
8.18

? = 12 ,
=2,9.
: 4,53 < f < 13,6 .
8.19
,
16
(. . 8.3).
3,2 .
: 2,81108 /.
8.20

.
. 8.8
n1 = 1 = 1,544,

n2 = 2 = 1,547. 0,59 .
2
?
: 2 < 3,07 .
8.21 ,
2 = 5 1 v < 0,8 ,
2 .
: 11,2 << 17,7 .
8.22 1, 1,1
.
, ?
: 1,47 .
8.23 20 H1.

, ?
: 14,1 .
8.24 ,
. 8.8. 10
.
, , .
, ,
, 22 , '32 .
: = 4,1.
8.25 8 1.
3 .
,
. .

sin 2 ga

2 ga
: =
= 0,808

sin 2 ga cos 2 ga
+
1+
pa
2 ga
8.26 v/
-
(. . 8.4)
2=18 , b = 12 .
, 3,2 .
: 0,675, 21,6 .
8.27 -
2 = 20 , 6=10 , 2d = 80 = 2,7
10 20. 10 .

, ?
: 1710 10; 126
20.
8.28 - 2 = 12 ,
b = 10 10.
.
1+

. 8.9

3,2 .
2d,
100 , ?
: 45 .
8.29 - 2 = 18 , b = 20 , = 2,6
10 2.0 . .
20? , ?
: 9,97 ; ; 2,56-108 /.
8.30 *.
=10, b = 10 . = 2,56 . 8.9.
10 .
: 2,4588 /.
8.31 - 2 = 20 , b=15 , = 2,7
10 1 . 8 .

.
: 4,66104/.
*. - 2 = 20 , == 2,6
8.32
10 10 20
, 20.

8.4,

,
10 20.
20 /.
1 2 hab 1
ctg2ga ctg ga
2 +
.
P20 = Emax

2
0 sin ga
pa
ga

## =7,53 10, = 1,66 20.

8.33 *.
10 - .
10
: 2 = 12 , b = 10 , = 2,56, tg = 210-4, = 5,7107 /.
10 .
: = + ,

sin 2 ga
cos 2 ga

## + ( ha) 2 + ( ga) 2 + (ha) 2 + ( pa) 2

RS (ha ) 2 ( ga) 2
pa
2 ga

=
sin 2 ga cos 2 ga

+
ha 2 0b1 +
pa
2 ga

, ;
, (
8,36) = 0,0125-1, = 0,0283-1, 0,0408-1.
8.34 v/ l=4, =0,5
12 .
: 0,536.
8.35 2,2 10 .
.
: 3,57.
8.36 9
2108 /.
.
: 4,46 .
8.37 6 , 3,2 .
100 .
: 9,7 .
8.38 2,6 , 4,6 .
10 ,
?
: 7,34 .
8.39 12 10 ,
.
, 6 .
: 7,9 .
8.40 l = 8 , = 1
8 . : Z = j1607 .
8.41 j 900 .
, .
: 1,16108 /.
8.42 ,
, (.
8.10). : / = 5 , d = 10 , .
2,6 .

. 8.10
: ,
,
.
: 1,064108 /.
8.43 1 4
0,5 .
: 1,59107 /.
8.44 = 2 , d = 0,4 , = 6 .

,
?
: 111 .
8.45
105 ? :
= 2 , d = 2 , 1
: 8,46 .
8.46 , 10-
1 . 10.
: 2,55 .

9.1.
,
, ,
.

( = 0), .
g = 0, h
, .
h = = a a ,
(9.1)

1
v =
,
(9.2)
a a
= .
(9.3)

a a .
, ZT

,
, ,
:
Z cT = Z c = a / a .
(9.4)

:
2 0 = 0, 2 0 = 0 .
(9.5)
z
:

& = jz , H
& = H jz ,

(9.6)
0
0
= j : 0 0 (9.5).

,
, . ,
,
(, ,
.).

(. 9.1):
& dl ' ,
U& = E
(9.7)

L ( P ,Q )

.
:
(9.8)
I& = & d 1 ,
l

l.
ZB,

;
L1 1 :
Z B = L1 / C1 .
(9.9)
c
1
Q
v =
.
(9.10)
L1 / C1
,
,
L
1

P=

&H
Re | E

2
S

|dS

1
P=
2
. 9,1

a
a

& | dS ,
|E

(9.12)

.

,
,

, :

= + 1 ,

(9.13)

1
= a a tg ,
2
& 2
1 RS l | H | dl
=
,
2 Re | E
& H * | dS

(9.14)

(9.15)

Rs (. 4).
,
.

; ,
.

.
9.2

.

.
/
U
:

. 9.2

I& = Ie ,
U& = Ue jz .
j z

(9.16)

2D d
L1 a ln
, / ,(9.17)
d

E
. 9.3

1
, / .
(9.18)
2D d
ln

d

2D d
Z 120
ln
(9.19)
, .
d
. 9.3. ,
,
U2
U2
1
P=
=
, .
(9.20)
2Z 240 2 D d
ln

d
,
. d/D < 0,4
U 1 + d /(2 D)
max =
.
(9.21)
d 2D d
ln

d

.

(9.14). , .
RS
=
, 1 .
(9.22)
2
dZ B 1 (d / D )
1

; d<D!3 .

d D,

(. 9.4).

U&
1 jz
e 1r , (9.23)
E& =
ln( D / d ) r
d
U

(
)

= 0.

. 9.4

Z cT = a / a = 120 / ,

(9.24)

:
L1 = a /(2 ) ln( D / d ), / ,
(9.25)
2 a
C1 =
, / .
(9.26)
ln( D / d )

Z = 60
ln( D / d ) = 138
lg( D / d ), .
(9.27)

.
U2
1
P=
, ,
(9.28)
120 2 D d
ln

d
d
U = Emax ln( D / d ), .
(9.29)
2
(9.28)
2
Emax
d2 D
(9.30)
P=
ln , .
480
d
,
, - (9.14). ,
,
RS1 / d + RS 2 / D 1
(9.31)
v =
, .
120 ln( D / d )
RS1 RS 2
.

. ,
. ,

4

.
(9.32)
(d + D )

,
, .
. 9.5,

b
b

2d+t
d
.

a)
)

. 9.5
.

. --
,
.

.
(9.5).

- .
,
.
, .

. 9.6, .
, [8].
(/) :

)
. 9.6

(. . 9,5,;)
C1 = 1,06 10 11 (1 + b / d )(t / d << 1, b / d > 0,6) ,
(9.33)
1
C1 = 1,06 10 11 (1 + b / d )
(b / d < 2) ,
(9.34)
1 t / d
b
1
C1 = 1,06 10 11 (1 + (
(9.35)
))(b / d > 2) .
d 1 t / d
(. . 9.5, )
C1 = 1,54 10 11 (1 + b / d )(t / d << 1, b / d > 0,6) ,
(9.36)
1
C1 = 1,54 10 11 (1 + b / d )
(b / d < 2) ,
(9.37)
1 t / d
b
1
C1 = 1,54 10 11 (1 + (
))(b / d > 2) .
(9.38)
d 1 t / d
l
:

314
Z =
(b / d < 2) ,
(9.39)
1+ b/ d

1
(b / d > 2) .
1+ b ( 1 )
d 1 t / d

1 t / d
Z = 216
(b / d < 2) ,
1+ b / d
Z = 314

(9.40)

(9.41)

1
(9.42)
(b / d > 2 ) .
1+ b ( 1 )
d 1 t / d
:
314
Z =
,
(9.43)
1+ b / d

216
Z =
.
(9.44)
1+ b / d

2 2 rB
(9.45)
P = 8,44 10 4
E0 d ln , ,

rA
0 , /.
rB rA b/d
IV,
b/d 1 (9.45) ,
r
ln B rB ,
(9.46)
rA
:
2 2
(9.47)
P = 8,44 10 4
E0 d rB , .

.
,
.
,
,
, :
Emax = 2 E0 / k H ,
(9.48)
k
.

t
t
kH 2 2 + 4 .
(9.49)
d
d
t/d
t
kH 2 2 .
(9.50)
d
, (9.47), (9.48)
,
k2
2
(9.51)
P = 8,44 10 4
E d 2 rB H , .

4
(9.50) (9.51) :
Z = 216

2
t
(9.52)
E d 2 rB , .

d

1
2 2 2 1 + rc
,
(9.53)
P=
E0 d k c ln
2

60
1 rc

P = 16,88 10 4

t
t
t
t
(9.54)
1 + 2 + 4 + .
d
d
2d d
,
. r
b/d . 9.1.
9.1
b
1
1
1,
1,
2
3
4
5
6
9
14
20
/d
,2
4
6
r
0
0
0,
0,
0
0
0,9
0,
0,9
0,9
0,9
0,999
,89
,92
945
948
,98
,99
909
999
996
999
9999
9999

t/d<0.3; b/d>1,
(9.53)
2 2
t
b
(9.55)
P = 5,4 10 3
E0 d 0,1 + 4 + .

d
d

2
t
b

(9.56)
P = 5,4 10 3
E d 2 0,1 + 4 + .

d
d

,
,
RS
ln( rA k H / 2)
.
(9.57)
=
120d ln( rB / rA )
ku (9.49) .(9.50) r r
IV. ,
( t/d < 0,3, b/d> 1),
RS

7 50t / d + b / d
.(9.58)
=
120d 3,2(0,1 + t / d )(4 + d / b)
(9.57), (9.58) Rs .

(9.14).
k c2 =

9.2.
9.1
. d = 3 ,
D = 200 . , .
108 .
. ,(9.19)
2D d
2 200 3
Z 120
ln
= 120 ln
= 586 .
d
3

, . .
(9.22)

RS

= =

, 1 .

dZ B 1 (d / D )

d
3
=
= 0,015 1 (d / D ) 2 = 1 0,015 2 1 ,
D 200

1
= =
= 0,048 *10 2 , 1 .
2 dZ B
9.2
, , ,
.
.
. (9.14) = , , = 0,
(9.31). RS1 = RS2=Rs,
(9.31)
=

RS (1 / d + 1 / D)
.
120 ln( D / d )

,
D/d:
RS ( D / d + 1)
,
=
120D ln( D / d )

RS

D
= A, = x ,

120D
d
1+ x
=A
.
ln x

1+ x
ln( x),
x
4
3
2

1+ x
x

1
ln(x)
0

.9.7
(. 9.8).

1+ x
ln x
da
x =0
=A
dx
ln 2 x

1+ x
ln x =
.
x

.
(. 9.7)
= 3,6, D/d = 3,6.
,

D/d =3,6.
9.3

D h

c
d
h
ZB = 70
,

d = 4,5
,

dm = 3,0
,
. 9.8

= 2,3. .
.
.
U ,
, Znl = ZB2,
ZB2 , .
(9.27)
D
Z B1 = 60 ln( ) = 70 ,
4,5
D = 14,45 .
1
14,45 + 2h
Z B1 = 60
ln(
).
2,3
3.0
ZBl ZB2,
1 14.45 + 2h
14.45 + 2h
70 = 60
ln
= 1,77 .
ln
3.0
2,3
3.0

h = 1,58.
,
- .
9.4 , ,

. : b = 5 ,
d = 1 , t = 0,025
(. . 9.5, ),
= 30 /.
.
(9.39) (9.40) b/d.
b/d > 2,

1
, .
Z = 314
b
1

1+ (
)
d 1 t / d
, =1 =1.
1
Z = 314
= 51, 24 .
5
1
1+ (
)
1 1 0,025 / 1

(9,43), . .
t/d=0.025<<1.
314
314
Z =
=
= 52,333 .
1 + b / d 1 + 5 /1
2,5%.
(9.33):
C1 = 1,06 10 11 (1 + b / d ) = 1,06 10 11 (1 + 5 / 1) = 63,6 / ,

Z B = L1 / C1 L1 = Z B2 C1 = 0.173 10 6 / .

(9.52). b/d=5 t/d = 0,025
IV , r = 14,56. , = 5,53 .
9.5
. : b = 1,2 ,
d = 1 , t = 0,05 (.
.9.5,). . : , = 1, = 2,55,
tg = 8-10. 6-109 .
. (9.13)
= + .
(9.14).

= 0 0 =
,
3 *108

1
1
8 10 4 = 0,0798 1 .
= 2 6 10 9 2,55 1
8
2
3 10
, ,
(9.58) 0,0979 -1.
= + = 0,0979 + 0,0798 = 0,1777 -1.
9.3.
9.6
-75-9-12. : 1,35 ,
9,0 , = 2,2.
: L1 = 0,379 /, 1 = 64,4 /, ZB = 76,7 .
9.7
3 .
, 600 ,
.
:22,4 , L1 = 2 /, 1 = 5,55 /.
9.8 ,
, . :
b = = 7 ,
d = 1 , t = 0,05
(. . 9.5, ). . .
:26 , 0,126 /, 186,3 /.

Z,
9.9

80
,

t/d=0.01
50 ,
60

2-108 /.
0.2
40
: L1 = 0,25 /, 1 = 100 /.
9.10
20

, ,
1
2
3
4
5 b/d

=
2,55,

. 9.9
60 /.
: 88,7 .
9.11

b
d t/d (0,01; 0,1; 0,2), t
(. . 9.5, ). bid 1 6.
: Z (b/d) (t/d . 9.9.
9.12
, , 10 ,
100 /. 2 .
: 50 .
9.13 60 .
. ,
.
: 0,2 /; 55.5 /, v= 3108 /.
9.14 ,
. 15 ,
50 . .
: d = 2,89 , D =,.6,66 .
9.15

d = 5 , D = 11 (. . 9.4) ,
. . ,
= 2,1?
: f = 11,94 , 1,45 .
9.16 d= 2,1 , D = 7,3
(. . 9.4) . 3 .
= 2,2.
,
1 . .
.
.
1
: E(t ) = 802,6 cos(6 10 9 t 93,15 z )1r B / ,
r
1
H(t ) = 3,16 cos(6 10 9 t 93,15 z )1 / ,
r
v = 2,02 10 8 / ,

100

= 6,74 .
. 9.10. |
9.17 d = 12 ,

D = 28 (. . 9.4) 100 .
. .
: 62,72 .
9.18 d = 4,5 ,
D = 12 ( ) 1 A.

E
H

. 9.10

.
:Er(r=d/2) = 26,67 /, H (r = d/2) = 70,77 /, Er (r = D/2) = 10 /,
H(=D/2)=26,54 /.
9.19 , d = 2 ,
10 . 60 .
& = 2,2.

.
: Er max = 23,36 /, Hr ma = 91,93 /.
9.20
d = 2 , D = 40 2 .
.
: 1,326 , 3,016 .
9.21 , 25 ,
1 = 16 / L1 = 1 /.
.
: 2,5-108 /, 10 .
9.22 ,
, , , 7 ,
50 . 3 .
: 0,24 /, 95,2 /.
9.23 ,
, 100 , 100 .
.
: 0,33 ./, 33,3 /.
9.24 ,
.

6

d
D .
5
d/D
Em

?
:
3
21,9
D/d
max =
P F , F =
D
ln( D / d )
F (d/D)
. 9.11.
0
0.2
0.4
d/D
0.6
d/D=0,606,
ZB = 30 .
9.25
*
. 9.11

,
d D. /.
Z I
1
1
: max = B
d
2D d 1 d / 2D
ln

d
Z I 1 + d / 2D
d / D << 1 max B
.
d
2D d
ln

d
9.26 d=2, D = 10 (.
. 9.4) . .

, ,
20 . 3109 .
: (r = d/2) = 33 /, (r = D/2) = 6,6 /, Jm= 2,072103 /2.
9.27 9.26 ,
= 2.2. .
: (r = d/2) = 48.94 /, (r = D/2) = 9.79 /, Jm= 4.559103 /2.
9.28
(. . 9.2),
.
60 I 2
max =
(1 + d / 2 D ) 2 .
2
d

9.29 9.26,
.
: cp (r = d/2) = 2,052103 /2, (r = D/2) = 8,207 103 /2.
9.30 ,
d = 4 , D = 40 .
. 10 .
.
: 78,72 .
9.31 d = 9 ,

D = 21 (. . 9.4) .
,
30 /. .
: 1,287106 .
9.32 ,
d = 10 ,
30 /. 8 /.
: 12,28106 .
9.33 ,
10 d=4,68 , D=11,7 (. . 9.4),
1 . . .
3 .
, ,
.
: 1283,5 , 375,75 .
9.34 d 19 , D = 40
10 . 50 .
,
1 ,
F
,
.
4.5
.
: 72 .
9.35
4.0
.

3.5
D/d.
D/d

2
4
3
,
, .
. 9.12

.
RS
: = 0,023
F ( D / d ) /
D
1+ D / d
F ( D / d ) =
.
ln D / d
F (D/d) . 9.12.
9.36 -75-4-11
10 d = 0,72 , D = 4,8 .
. = 2,2, tg = 510-4.
3 .
. . . . . . .,
.
: 90%, 79%.
9.37 . . .
200 . 8 ,
32 . . 3 ,
10 . I
. . . , , .
: 97,44%, 219,8 8,362 .
9.38 d D
,

D, /
.
0.6

D
. I
0.5
: d/D = 0,435.
9.39
D
0.4

0.3

D
0.2
.

0.1
(. . 9.5,
): b = 12 MM,
0
d=2, t = 0,050 .
2
3
5 f,
1
4

.
500 .
. 9.13

, ,
, .
.
: 0,06 /, 13%.
9.40 D/d ,
10% ?
.
: D/d= 3,6 2,4-6,6.
9.41 ,
, ,
30 /.
5 . : b= 2,93 ,
d = 1 , t = 0,05 (. . 9.5, ).
.
D, /
: 1,049 /, 50,52 .
9.42

1.8
.
5 . : b = 2 ,
t/d=0.01
d=2, t = 0,05 .
1.6
= 9, tg
= 810-4.

1.4
0.03
.
?
1.2
: 0,807 /,
0.05
0,371 0,436 /
.
1.0

. 9.14

b/d

9.43

D, /

3.0

2.5
d = 2,72
, D = 16 .
D
, .
2.0
0,1 6 .
D
:

1.5
. 9.13.
9.44

1.0

D
,
, b
0.5
( b/d 26)
t(
t/d 0,01;0,03; 0,05).
0

6
4
2
8
f,
d = 1 .
.
5 .
. 9.15
: (b/d)
. 9.14.
9.45

. : b = 6 , t = 0,05 , d = 1 , s = 2,4,
tg = 7-10-4. . 0,110 .
: (f)
. 9.15.

10.1.
,
, .
,
(, 10.1), (. 10.2),
(. 10.3) (. 10.4)
y

b
Z
L

. 10.2

. 10.1

. , ,
.
, Hz 0,
, = 0.
L

. 10.3

. 10.4

[21.

.
.
Emrlp
m n p
p =
(10.1)

+ + ,
a a a b l
a, b, I (. . 10.1).
Hmnp:
n
mx ny pz
E& x = j a C cos
sin
sin
,
b
a b l
m mx ny pz
E& y = j a C
sin
cos
sin
,
a
a b l
E& z = 0 ,
(10.2)
m p mx yn pz
H& x = C
sin
cos
cos
,
a l
a b l
y p
mx ny pz
H& y = C
cos
sin
cos
,
b l
a b l
m 2 n 2 mx ny pz
&
H z = C
+ cos
cos
sin

a b a b l
.
:
1

n mx yn pz
H& x = j a C sin
cos
cos
,
b
a b l

m
mx ny pz
H& y = j a C
cos
sin
cos
,
a
a b l
H& z = 0 ,
(10.3)
m p
mx ny pz
E& x = C
cos
sin
sin
,
a l
a b l
y p mx ny pz
E& y = C
sin
cos
sin
,
b l
a b l
m 2 n 2 mx ny pz
E& z = C
+ sin
sin
cos
.
a b a b l
, , , , z
.

z
,
,
,
b, l 101, 011 110.
H
, b < , b < l
x
101,

E
. 10.5,

. 10.5

E& x = 0 ,

x z
E& y = j a C sin sin ,
a a l
E& z = 0 ,
2
x z
H& x = C
sin cos ,
al
a l
&
Hy = 0,
2

x z
H& z = C cos sin .
a
a l

(10.4)

E
H

. 10.6

011 110
. ,
011 ,
1, .

( ).
.
Hmp

1
mn p
p =

+ , (10.5)
a a a l
, ,
; mn- n- J'm(x) = 0.
, z,
, .
:
ja
r
pz
E& r =
mCJ m mn sin(m )sin

r
a
l
2

r
pz
E& = ja C mn J m' mn cos (m )sin

a
a
l
E& = 0
z

(10.6)

p ' mn r
pz
H& r = C mn
Jm
cos (m )cos

a l
a
l
1 pm mn r
pz
H& = C
Jm
sin (m )cos

r l
a
l
2

r
pz
H& z = C mn J m mn cos (m )sin

a
a
l
111,
. 10.6.
Emnp
mn p
(10.7)

+ ,
a l
mn -n- Jm(x).

:
1
p =
a a

ja
r
pz
H& r =
mCJ m mn sin(m )sin

r
a
l

r
pz
H& = ja C mn J m' mn cos (m )sin

a
a
l
H& = 0
z

(10.8)

p ' mn r
pz
E& r = C mn
Jm
cos (m )cos

a l
a
l
1 pm mn r
pz
E& = C
Jm
sin(m )cos

r l
a
l
2

r
pz
E& z = C mn J m mn cos (m )sin

a
a
l
.
,)10.
. 10.7.
,

1 2,4048
p =
.
(10.9)

a a
.
,

E

,
H

l=p B,
(10.10)
2
(
);
( ).
(10.10)
:
.10.7
pv
p =
,
(10.11)
l
v
, .
, 1
(. . 10.3),

p =
.
(10.12)
a a l
,
(. 10.8). [12]

l
1
Z B tg p =
.
(10.13)
c
p cH
ZB ; ;
, .
, .
, /
,

p =

2pv

( = 1, 2,3,...) .
(10.14)
l

(. 10.4);
L

,

,

h
2
=
.
d
(10.15)
d
D

L,

. ,
. 10.4,
h b
L = a ln ,
(10.16)
. 10.8
2
a
h .
, ,

1
p =
.
(10.17)
0 0 ha 2 b
ln
2 d
a
, ,
E2
H2
W = a
dV = a
dV ,
(10.18)
V
V
2
2
;
.
, 101, 011, 110
E2
W = a max abl , (10.19)
8
.
,
, :
010
2
W = 0,423 max
a 2l ;
(10.20)
011
2 v01 2
+
2
max
a 2l l a
;
(10.21)
W=
2

4
v01

a
101
2
W = 0,316 max
a 2l ;
(10.22)
)
2
W = 0,749 max
a 2l .
(10.23)

, , ,
:

Q=

p a | H |2 dV
V

RS | H |2 dS

(10.24)

1
a p
abl (a 2 + l 2 )
,
(10.25)
Q=
2 RS a 3 (l + 2b) + l 3 (a + 2b)

:
010
a p al
;
(10.26)
Q=
2 RS a + l
011,
a p al
; (10.27)
Q=
2 RS 2a + l
011
a p a p a a 2 l
Q=
;
(10.28)
2 RS a 2 2 l 2
+ 0
l2
a
111
3/ 2

1 2 a

p 1
11 + l
a p
11

Q=
. (10.29)
2
2
2 RS

a
2
a

2 112 + + 1
l l11
l

(10.24) (10.29)
.
,

1
,
(10.30)
1 / Q + tg
QM , ; tg
, .
,
.
() Tmnp, , ,
,
. .

:
2l
1
Q=
,
(10.31)
2
p 1 R +
R ; a
.

N=a2/(l), (10.32)
a ; / .

, , ,
.
Q=

. 10.9
1 2 . N
:
0,3 N 3 (10.33)
- ,
10,9 *10 4, 94 N (10.34)
- .
mnp
c
f mnp = (1 + 2 p + 2m + n) , (10.35)
4l
.
mn
:
2
2
E = Ae r / cos , (10.36)
2 = l / ; 2 = l / 2 (
),

, , .
10.2.
10.1 : = 20 ,
b = 25 , / = 30 .
.
?
. 101, 011
110, , .
.
:
= / f p = c 2 / p . (10.37)
(10.37) (10.1),
2
=
. (10.38)
2
2
2
m n p
+ +
a b l
,
:
101, = 3,328 .
011 = 3,841 ,
110 = 3,123 .
, 011 ,
H101.
10.2 6 5
=2,5; tg = 210-4. .
? ,
.
. 010

2

1
2,405
p =

.
a a
111

1,841
p =

+ .
a a l

1

1,841
2,405
+ .

<
l

010
2

p =
fp =

1
a a

2,405
16

=1,5210 /,

= 2,42 .
2
(10.26) (10.30), Q = 3680.

2 = / Q = 4.13 10 6 / 2f = 685 .
10.3 ,
(. . 10.3) d = 10 , D = 40 , / = 80
. 30 /.
.

A z
r = sin ,
(10.39)
r
l
.
(10.39) (10.18), , :

D
W = a A 2 l ln .
(10.40)
2
d
(10.39)
, . . r = d/2.

2A
Emax =
d

d
A = E max .
(10.41)
2
(10.41) (10.40), :

D
2
W = a E max
dl ln
(10.42)
8
d

W = 0,3466 10-3 .
10.4 3 111.
,

y
y
, ,

.
H
.

111
H

(10.1):
E
p
E
fp =
= 8,66 .
2
x
x
. 10.10

111
11 (. . 7.4).
,
.
,
,
, . . z = 0 z = . ,
. 10.10.
,
:

x n z
H& x = j a C sin cos cos ,
a

x y z
H& y = j a C cos sin cos .
a

(10.29),
Q=

p 2 + 2 dV
V

RS | H | 2 dS

(10.43)

(10.43):

V + dV = 0 0 0 + dxdydz = a C 4 . (10.44)
(10.43)
: ( = 0, x = , y=0,

D
. 10.11
y = ) (z = 0, z=).
,
. , = 0:
a
a
2 a2
2
2
|
H
|
dS
=
|
H
|
dxdz
=
(

C
)
,
a
S ( y =0 )
x=0 z =0 x
a 4

(z=0)
2 a2
S ( z =0) | H | dS = x=0 y =0 | H x + H | dxdz = ( a C a ) 2 .
, (10.43):
2 2
2
S | H | dS = ( a C a ) 2a . (10.45)
(10.44) (10.45) (10.43), :
2

Q=

a p

2 a p

,
(10.46)
8 RS
8
Q = 10 470.
10.5 ,
. 10.11. : D = 60 , d = 30 , / = 20 .
?
.
. ,
. 1
(. 10.12, ) 010 , .
10.12,6. .
1 (10.12):
p
fp =
= 7,5 .
2
010
z:

a)
. 10.12

## 2 & z 1 2 & z 1 2 & z 2 & z

+
+ 2
+
+ 2 & z = 0 .
(10.47)
2
2
2
r
r r
r
z
010 z z,
(10.47) :
2 & z 1 2 & z
+
+ 2 & z = 0 .
(10.48)
2
r
r r
,
E& z = C1 J 0 ( r ) + C 2 N 0 ( r ) .
(10.49)

E& z |r =d / 2 = 0, E& z |r = D / 2 = 0 .
(10.50)
(10.49) (10.50)
d
d
0 = C1 J 0 ( ) + C 2 N 0 ( ) ,
2
2
D
D
0 = C1 J 0 ( ) + C2 N 0 ( ) .
2
2
1 2, :
d
D
D
d
J 0 ( ) N 0 ( ) J 0 ( ) N 0 ( ) = 0 .
(10.51)
2
2
2
2
(10.51) [7]. D/d=2
(10.51) d2 = 3,123,

P =

2 3,123
d 0 0

= 6, 246 1010 /

fp =

= 9,94 .
2
, 1
.
10.6

(. 10.13).

.
,
.

L
,

,
Qo Q.
.
,
.

d
0np, .
011,
.
.10.13

011:
P =

( 01 / ) 2 + ( / l ) 2

.
0 0

:
(3,832 / ) 2 + ( / l ) 2
=
.
(10.52)
2p 0 0
, , (10.30),
tg ; QM ,
.
(10.28), QM
, QM
Q0. , QM Q0.
(10.28)
0 p 0
a p2 0 a a 2 l
Q0 =
,
0 p 0 a 2 2 l 2
2 + 01
2
a
2 l

2
2
0 p
a p a a l
,
Q =
0 p a 2 2 l 2
2 + 01
2
a
2 l

( .

5/ 2

QM p
=
= 1 / 4 ,
(10.53)
Q0 p0

QM = Q0 .
(10.53) (10.30),
tg 6:
1 4
.
tg =
Q Q0
10.7 , 10,6 ,
;
0,98. 30 ,
1,2 .

. 0,1
.
. (10.35)

f = c /(4l ) = 62,5 .

N = a 2 /(l ) = 17,7 ,
(10,32) =410-87
,
:
2l 1
Q=
= 1,8 10 7 .
p 1 R2
(10.36)
2
2
E
= e r / .
Emax

10 , r0,1 = ln 10

= l / = 2,01 10 3
r0.1 = 3,05

= l / = 1,42 10 3
r0.1 = 2,16
10.3.
10.8
2 .
: 1,414 .
10.9 010 111
, 5 .
: 4,593 4,622 .
10.10 =
2 , 6 = 4 , / = 3 ? .
? .
: 6,25 ; 110, 8,38 .

10.11 ,
5 .
: 4,243 .
10.12
23x10 ,
(. 10.14).

L
812 .
101.
.10.14
: 14,89 < / < 32,37 .
10.13 ,
010 111
?
: = 2,03.
10.14 .
011 6 .
.
: 4,026 .
10.15 3:2:1.
111 8 .
.
: 65,62x43,75x21,88 .
10.16 010 4 ,
111=5 .
.
: = 2,871 ', / = 3,795 .
10.17 ,
10, 11 12 .
: 24,2 X 19,1 X 16,5 .
10.18 1:1,2:1,5.
.
: 1:1,126:1,220.
10.19 0 3
, 23 X 10
.
.
: 3,957 .
10.20
, . 10.3. : D = 20 , d = 12
, / = 60 .
: 2,5 .
10.21 6 .
,
= 2,7?
: 3,65 .
10.22 011.

.
,
.
: .
10.23 ,
, .
, .

y

? ,

?
:
;

;
,
,

101,
z
, . 10.15.
10.24
(. . 10.11) : D =
40 , d = 20 , l = 5 .
x
?
. 10.15
.
.
: 14,91 .
10.25 ,
. 10.8. ; D = 40 , d = 10 , l = 100 ,
h = 1,5 .
: .
: 713 .
10.26 (. . 10.8)
. h
300600 ? : D = 40 ,
d=20, / = 100 .
: 0,158 1,341 .
10.27
(, . 10.4) : 2 b = 60 . 2 = 20 ,
h = 20 , d = 2
: L = 4,410-9 , = 1,410-12 , f = 2,036 .
10.28 = 5 = 3 , / = 6
. ,
= 2,3, tg = 410-4.
.
'
: 2,575 , 2042, 11160.
10.29 5 ,
10 . 011, .
: 17 970.
10.30
, 011, 5 ,
6,1107 /.
: 7,93 , 37 450.
10.31 , ,
010. 2 . ,
.
.
?
: 1595, 12 720.
10.32 (. . 10.3),
. : D = 25 , d = 8 ,
/ = 120 . .
: 1,25 , 2695.

10.33 (. . 10.8
. : / = 150 , D = 36 , d = 12 . .
500800 .
?
: Q = 0 0 / 2 ln( D / d )(1 / D + 1 / d )
1660 2100.
10.34 10 12 / = 0
011.
10 ?
.
: 7,6 .
10.35 , 20
12 , 0,01 . 01.

.
: 1,93-106 /, 5,1 103 /.
10.36
= 20 , b = 10 , l = 30 105 /.
. 101.
.
: 0,66-10~4 , 43,3 .
10.37
, , 011,
30 /? 6 , 8 .
: 1,8110-3 .
10.38 40
25 , 011,
.
tg ,
12 790 , 850.
: = 2,6, tg = 1,1 10-3.
10.39
.
,
, 0,1
. 12 000.
: /. = 1,6710-5.
10.40 ,
.
35 , 0,92 ,
0,3 /.
.
.
: 3,94 ( ), 5760.
10.41 ,
8 , 2 , .
0,9 , 0,5 /.

.
: 67,5 , 10 .
10.42 5.
,
. 10,6 ,
2 .
: 1,5710-2 /.

10.43
10 .
3,39 ; 0,5 . .
: 1,735108.
10.44 , 0,63 ,
.
8 , 400 , 0,985.

,
.
: 1,31108 , 1,34108
.
10.45 2 .
. 500 .
106?
: 2 >> 56,6 .
10.46 ,
, ,
.

0,5 ,
4 .
: ,
.
: R > 0,92, 2 > 3 .
10.47 *. ,
1,06 . 0,6 ,
20 , 0,99.
: < 8,810-5 /.
10.48 *. 210-4 /
0,85
.

0,975? .
: l > 0,66 .

11.1.

:
& j E
& = J& ,
rotH
a
.
&
&
rotE + j H = J&
.
(11.1)
.

J. J. .
(11.1) ,
.

(11.1)
.
& 1 rotA
& ,
& = jA
E
(11.2)

a a
a
& j A
& .
& = 1 rotA
H
(11.3)

a
a a

:
& + 2 A
& = J&
2 A
(11.4)

a
. ,
& + 2 A
& = J&
2 A
.
(11.5)

(11.4) (11.5)
jR
&
& = J . e
dV ,
A
(11.6)

4 V
R
jR
&
& == a J . e
A
dV .
(11.7)

4 V
R
R
-,
Q
(. 11.1).

.

( )
,

V
JC

R(P,Q)

/., l
(. 11.2). /. l .
, ,
:
Z
Z

A
-1

1r

Ar1r

I.
P
1

I.l
. 11.3
I.
. 11.2
jr
& = a I& l e
A
1z

.
4
r

(. 11.3)

e jr
A& r = a I&. l
(11.9)
cos ,
4
r

e jr
A& = a I&.l
sin .
(11.10)
4
r

(11.2),
(11.3),

H& r = 0 ,
H& = 0 ,
I l
H& = . 2 (1 + jr)sin j ,
4
I .l
E& r =
(1 + jr)cos j ,
(11.11)
3
j22 a r
I . l
E& =
(1 + j 2 r 2 )sins j ,
3
j44 a r
E& = 0 .
: (r/0<<1)

I l
H& = . 2 sin ,
4r
I l
E& r = j . 3 cos ,
2 a r
I l
E& = j . 3 sin .
4 a r
(r/0>>1)

(11.12)

I l
H& = j . sini j ,
2r 0
I l
E& = j . Z c sini j .
(11.13)
2r 0
- ,
E& / H& = Z c
(11.14)

(, )= (, )/ ,
(11.15)
(, ) ;
.

F (, ) = sin.
(11.16)
( )
S, :
P = d S ,
S

= 1 / 2 Re E& H .

Z c ( I . l ) 2
.
(11.19)
320

( I ) 2 R
P = .
,
(11.20)
2
,
:
P =

2Z c l
.
P =
320 0
Zc = Z0 = 120 ,

(11.21)

l
P = 80 .
0
2

(11.22)

/<<0,
/..
.

. (11.13)

& H
& ,H
& E
& , J&
&
E
. J .
a a , a a .
(11.23)

I l
E& = j . sine jr ,
2r0
(11.24)

I l
H& = j . sin e jr .
2r0 Z c

S,
(. 11.4).
, .
(11.24)

I . l = ja I . S .

(11.25)

I
SZ
E& = . 2 c sine jr
r 0

I.

I
S
H& = . 2 sine jr
(11.26)
r 0

, /
(. 11.5).
,
l<<0 <<0

I.
H

. 11.4

,
(.
11.5,
).

)
11.5

). , . 11.5, ,
( ). (11.24)

I . = 2U& , l = l . (11.27)

E& = j
H& = j

U& l
r 0

sine jr ,

U& l

(11.28)
sine jr .
2r 0 Z c
u .
> )

F (, ) = sin.
(11.29)
2 (11.17).
U2
P dS = .
(11.30)
S
2 R
R .

,

.
y

,

.
11.6,
E

,
x

S=xy
( x<< 0, y<<0),
x

& |, &
&
& . =| 1 z H
. =| E 1 z |
. 11.6

,
, (
)
.

SZ c
(1 + cos ) (1 cos 1 sin )e ir ,
(11.31)
E = j .
2 0 r
(= 0, = /2)

1 + cos
F ( , / 2) = F ( ,0) =
.
2
.

, V,
z1<z<z2 (. 11.7), J , J . ,
, , , .
V :
& &

C n E n ( z < z1 )

& = n =1
E

C& E
& ( z > z )
+n
+n
2

n =1
& &

C n H n ( z < z1 )

& = n =1
(11.33)
H

C& H

& (z > z )
+n
+n
2

n =1
( ,
);
Z1
Z2
;
n n
n- .
,
z.
Z
j.
j.

(11.33)

(11.1).
. 11.7

,
,
.
(11.33) V
n n k-ro ,
, :
1
& )dV
& K =
(J& . & K J& .
(11.34)
K
N k V

{[

] [

]}

&
&
& &
Nk =
+
+ 1 z dS
S

(11.35)

- .
k-

1
P =| C& k | 2 | N k | .
(11.36)
4

-| S0,
(11.1)
|1n] = 0.
(11.37)
, , . .

, .
.
:
& E& dV = 0, H
& H
& dV = 0( p q ) ,
(11.38)
E

(, , , ,
).

& 2 dV = H
& 2 dV .
(11.39)
N = E
p

, , ( ,
, .
, , .)

& = A& E
& ,
E
q
q
n =1

& = B& H
& .
H
q
q

(11.40)

n =1

1
& )dV ,
(11.41)
A& p = j 2
(J . E& p p J. H
p
2

V
( p )N p
1
& J
&
( p J . E
(11.42)
p
. H p )dV .
( p )N p V
, , ,
= A .
, ,
.

Q

p
& p p + j
,
(11.43)
2Q p
Qp - .
, Qp , ! = .

& dV
& )dV
J . E
J . H
p
p
p
V
V
&
=
,
(11.44)
Ap j
( 2 2p j p2 / Q p ) N p
B& p = j

B& p = j

& p dV
p J . E

V
2
p

& p )dV
J . H

.
( 2 2p j /Q p ) N p
= .

. , ,
V' .

, :

'p = p 1 +

& |2
|H
p
a
2

dV

| E& p | 2 a
2

| E& p | 2 a
2

dV

dV
,

(11.45)

& |2
|H
p
a

dV

| E& p | 2 a

dV .

V' ;

&2
E
p a
2

dV -

- .
(11.45) .
11.2.
11.1 10
10-3 /.
, , 0,1 0.
. (11.20) (11.22) ,
2

l ( I . ) 2
P = 80
.
2
0
(11,13)
2

I l
E& = . Z c sin .
2 r 0

2 E&

r
I l
= .
Z c sin
0

= /2. , Zc = Z0 = 120 ,

## 160 2 E2 r 2 160 2 E2 r 2 160(10 10 4 ) 2 (10 10 3 ) 2

=
=
= 1.111 .
P =
Z 02
(120 ) 2
120 2
11.2 10
5 10-3 / 5 . ,
0 = 4 .
. (11.26) :

I . =

E& r20
SZ c sin

= /2. , Zc = Z0,

I .

E& r20

5 10 4 4 2 5 103
=
=
SZ 0
120 0,12

11.3
.
.
= 1 / 2 Re E& H * .
(11.28),

U& l
1 U& l
jr
jr
j
sin

e
1
(
j
)
sin

e
1

=
2
r0
2r0 Z c

1 U 2 l 2
1 U 2l 2
2
sin =
sin 2 1r
= [11 ] 2 2
2 2
2 r 0Zc
2 r 0Zc

2
2
1 U l
1 U 2l 2
2
sin 1r1r dS =
sin 2 2r 2 sin d =
P = dS =
0 2 r 2 2 0 Z
S
S 2 r 2 2 0 Z
c
c

U 2 l 2
=
2 0 Z c

4U 2 l 2
sin d =
32 0 Z c

(11.30):
U2
4U 2 l 2
.
P = =
2 R
32 0 Z c
, Zc = 120; ,
452 0
R = 2 , .
l
11. 3.
11.9 5,
r = 1 , = / 2 = 10-4 /.
108 .
: 31,85 .
11.10 5
104 300 .
10 .
: = 9,42510-3 /, = 0,2510-3 /.
11.11 / = 5
0 = 3 . , 1 . :
0,22 , 0,11 .
11.12 ,
, 1== 90 = 89. 5 ,
10 , .
: 14,3410-2 .
11.13
5, .
2
2
4 S
4 S
: R = 320 2 , , P = ( I . )160 2 .

0
0
11.14 ,
50 100
/.
: 0,2778 .
11.15
100 , 1700 1000 . .: 856 ,
2,729 .
11.16 ,
r=1000 = / 2 .
1 . , ,

0,1
0,

: 11,83210-3 /; 0,031410-3 /.
11.17 ,
, ,

1000 . 100 .
.
: 84,29 . .
11.18
.
.
: //U = 5,310-3 .
11.19 5 ,
r =1 , = / 2 =10~4/.
108 .
: 6.
11.20 50 5 . ,
, 22 .

?
: 1,2010-21 .
11.21 .
, .
:
2
S2
P = 2 ( . ) 2 Z c ,

3
0
1 + cos
F ( , ) =
.
2
1
11.22
.
11.12

,
.
4

2
10
3
( , 11)?
: 10

1,
2,
4
11 2, 3.
11.23

. 11.12

(.
11.13),

0. /<< 0,
U0. (x1,b,z1).

, 0/2<a< 0, b<0. .
11.24 11.23, ,
, .
x1 z1 , ,
2

1 0 sin 2 x1 cos 2 hz1 .
: P =
abZ c
a
2a
1 = /2, z1=H10/2.
U 02 l2

11.25 11.23,
z? .

, .
Z
l
.

,
.
Z1
:
1

y
2
4a 2
0 1
.
11.26

72 34 ,
X
a
3 ,

. 5 , 100 .

.
: 0,5238 /.
11.27 10
I0, 0. S0.

,
10
.

.
l
:
4l0 S 0 Z c

2a
E& = j
sin xe jhz 1y .
2
2
a
ab 4a 0
11.28

a (.
11.14) l<<0,

I0.

11 < 0 < 01.
:

I0

. 11.14

H& = j

l0 l
a 2 J 12 ( 01 )

0 01
2 a

J 1 01 r e jhz 1 .
a

1 0 01
2 a
2

11.29 11.24, , ,
.

:
P =

l02
l2
Z c 2 2
2 a J 1 ( 01 )

R =

l2
Zc
a 2 J 12 ( 01 )

0 01

2a

1 0 01
2a
0 01

2a

1 0 01
2a
11.30

6
3 ,

. 11. 15.
I

,

Z1
1 .
3,75
.
. 11.15

.
?
: 0,8483 , 3,18 ,
11.31 11
I0, 0.
S0. , 10.

, .
, .
4l0 S 0 Z c
e jhz .
: E& z =
2

a 3 1 0 2
2a
2

11.32 20
a b . I0
/ , . .
,
20
10.
20 .
: : x1=a/4, z1=20/4;
: x2=(3/4)a, z2= z1=20/4; = 180;
4l0 l Z c
2 jhz
& =j
sin
E
xe 1 y ,
2
a

ab 1 0
a

H 20 =

0

1 0
a

, 0 =

2
.

ay

a/2

b
b/2
z

11.33
a, b,
l

E110
(.
11.16).

QE110
.

l,
(/2, b/2, 0).

(l<<0), I0.
.
4l l Q
& = 0 E110 sin xsin y1 .
: E
z
b
a
E110
abl
a
11.34 , ,
110 , 11.33.
, , : 1)
x; (0, /2, /2); 2) y;
(/2, 0, a/2)?
: 1) 011; 2) 101.
11.35 102
l.
: l/4 .
11.36 E012
.
: .
11.37 ( )
E011 ? .
: , .
11.38 l
E011. QE011 .
l .
(l<< E011 ), I0.
.
:

H& = j

## QE011 l0l 2E011 01

2 a lJ ( 01 )
3

2
1

J1 01 r cos z .
l
a

11.39 11.38 ,

l.

U0.
.
:

H& = j

QE011U 0 l E011

J1 01 r cos z
Z c a lJ 1 ( 01 ) a
l
2

l
11.40 .
' (. 11.17) 2a
d0

E010. QE010
,
U0.

.
:
d
U 0 d 02 Q E010 J 0 01 0
2a J r 1 ,
& =j
E
z
0 01
2 2
4la J 1 (01 )
a
d
U 0 d 02 Q E010 J 0 01 0
2a J r 1 .
& =
H

1 01
2 2
4 Z c la J 1 (01 )
a
11.41 11.40

2 d0 = 6 , , , 10-4 .
. 2 .
QE010 = 5000.
: 302,5-103 /.
11.42
, 11.41, ,
0,02%
.
.
: 188,022 /; 1,41 .
11.43
= 5 , b = 3 , l = 6 , ( = /2,
= b, z= l/2) h = 3 d= 5
(. 11.18)?
: 5,095 .
11.44 11.43 ,
( = /2, = b/2, z=0).

y
:

2,07
.
11.45
h

d
6
10 ,

x

a
E010,

. 11.18
10 ,

.
, -0,1%
.
: 7,788 .

12.1.
,
. , ,
.
:
1) ;
2) .
, , .
k- (rk, k, k),
,

:
N
e iRk
,
(12.1)
E& (P ) = I k Fk (k , k )
Rk
k =1
Ik k- ; Fk (k, k) ,
; Rk , k-
.
, ,
, ,
, . , ,
,
.
e iRk
E& (P ) = Fk , f ,
.
(12.2)
R
F(, ) , ;
f(, ) ,
.
(, , )
,
, .
,
,
.
.
.

:
& + 2 E& = 0 ,
2E
& + 2 H
& = 0 ,
2H
(12.3)

)(

, . ,
, .

F&
lim r
+ j E&
r

= 0

(12.4)

,
,
2 + 2 = 0 .
, S,

1 e jr
e jr
dS ,

( P) =

(12.5)

4 S r n
n r
/ ;
r P .
(12.5) , /n
. , ,
,
.
, .
[5]
, , ,
,
180. N-
,
Nz > r > ( N 1)z ,
(12.6)
z .
12.2.
z

12.1

0 0,

,
I dz
z .

,

R
.

r ,
, . .
r
P
r>> 1.
O
.
dz,

()
. 12.1
ldz. z
,
z=0, , ,
R = r 2 + z 2 (. 12.1). ,
:

jI sin e jR
dz ,
4
R
, ,
dH& =

sin = r r 2 + z 2 .
, ,
:

jIr e j r + z
dz ,
H& (r ) = dH& =
(12.7)
4 r 2 + z 2
.
.
, , ,
r >> 1. z
,
z, ,
z ( ).

J=

g (t , )e

jf ( t , )

dt ,

(12.8)

g(t, ) t, .
t0 f t ' (t , ) = 0 (
).
:

1
f (t, ) = f (t0 , ) + (t t0 ) 2 f (t0 , ) + ...
2
,
f (t 0 , ) >> 1 t 02 .

f (t , ) t0 , ..

J e jf ( t0 , ) g (t , ) e j (t t0 )

f ( t 0 , ) 2

dt .

(12.9)

cos(ay)

dy = sin( ay ) 2 dy =

2a

> 0 (. [9]),

2
j ( t t 0 ) 2 f ( t 0 , ) 2
4
.
e
dt
=

j
=
e
(
1
)

f (t 0 , )
f (t 0 , )
(12.9),
2
(12.10)
J=
g (t 0 , )e j [ f (t0 , )+ 4 ] .
f (t 0 , )
(, f (t 0 , ) > 0 ).
(12.7).
f ( z, r ) = r 2 + z 2 ,
f ( z , r ) = z r 2 + z 2 ,
z = 0. f (0, r ) = r > 0.
,

e j r + z
r 2 + z 2 dr

H& (r )

8r

2r 1 j ( r +
e
r2

e j ( r

4)

4)

(12.11)

(12.11) ,
,
,
1 r ( , ).

I& [4]:
I& ( 2 )
H& (r ) =
H 1 ( r ) ,
(12.12)
4j
H 1( 2) ( r ) ,

2 j ( r 3 4 )
.
(12.13)
H 1( 2) ( r )
e
r
r
(12.12) (12.11).
12.2 ,
,
, , . .
r << 1.
. , , , ,
, :
& sin e jR
&e j r 2 + z 2
I
r
I
dH& =
dz =
.
(12.14)
4R 2
4 (r 2 + z 2 ) 3 2
, ( )
, , . ,
1/R,
, .
(12.14) ,
& e j r 2 + z 2
r
I
H& (r )
dz = 0 .
(12.15)
4 (r 2 + z 2 ) 3 2
(12.15) , ,

sin r 2 + z 2
(r 2 + z 2 ) 3 2 dz = 0 ,

- . , u=z/r
= r,

I& cos(a 1 + u 2 )
(12.16)
H&
du = 0 .
4 (1 + u 2 ) 3 2
a<<1,
. , cos(a 1 + u 2 ) 1 , a 1 + u 2 ) 1/4.
(-1/(4a); + 1/(4)).
, u = 0,
1/(64 3).
,
. ,

I
du
I
.
(12.17)
H& (r )
=
2 32

4r (1 + u )
2r

;
.

(12.12). ,
2j
H 1( 2) ( r )
.
r
(12.12), (12.17).
12.3 N
, ,
. 12.2.
,
,

(N-1)dsin
.
. (. 12.1),
2dsin

dsin
H (r ) = A& e jr r .
x
,
0
2d
d
(N-1)d
,
, ,
. 12.2

,
.

= d sin ,

N 1

f ( ) = e jk ,
k =0

,
1 e jN
f ( ) =
,
(12.18)
y
1 e j

sin( Nd sin )
f ( ) =
,
(12.19)
sin( d sin )

(12.19)
.
1. = 0
E0
;
N

.
H0
2.
Nd sin = m , (m=1, 2, 3),

-
.
2
3.

. 12.3

,
. - (12,19).
12.4 z (. 12.3).
-
x.
.
, .
. ,

jx
&
E
1 z = E 0 e jz cos 1 z .
= E 0 e
[]:
E& z = E 0

n =

( r )e jn (

2)

(12.20)

,
, ,

E& z + E& z | r =a = 0 .

2 E& z + 2 E& z = 0 ,

.
.

1 d d E z 1 d 2 E 2
r
+
=0
r dr
dr r 2 d 2

r>a, r .
2,
, (12.20):

E& z =

n =

(r )e jn (

2)

2 E& z
=

n 2 an (r )e jn (

n =

(12.21)

2)

= r :

2 a n 1 a n 2
( n 2 ) an = 0 ,
+
2
r
r r

2 a n 1 an
n2
+
(
1

)a n = 0 .
+
2
2
H n(1) ( )
H n( 2) ( ) . ,
:
2 j[ / 2 ( n +1 / 2 )]
,
H n(1) ( )
e

H n( 2) ( )

2 j[ / 2 ( n +1 / 2 )]
.
e

, H n( 2 ) ,
. ,
E& z =

A H

n =

( 2)
n

( r )e jn (

2)

J ( a )
A& n = E0 (n2 )
.
H n ( a )
, ,

J ( a )
E& z = E0 (n2 )
H n( 2 ) ( r )e jn ( 2) .
n = H n ( a )
,
a:
2 j ( r / 4 ) J n ( a ) jn
.
E& z E 0
e
e
(2)
r
n = H n ( a )
a < 3. , :
1) (a/<0,1)
;
2) (a/ ~ 1-3)
, =0. , ,

x
(a/ >> 1) [4].
12.5

2a,

a
y (. 12,4).
E0
,

y
E0 exp( jz )1y .
z
0

z>0.
.
[11].
-a
:
2 E& y 2 E& y
(12.22)
+
+ 2 E& y = 0 ,
x 2
z 2
z>0
z=0.
. 12.4

,
, ,
E0. ,
0( x > a, x < a),
(12.23)
E& y ( x,0) =
E0 ( a x a ).
(12.22)

E& y ( x, z ) = X ( x ) Z ( z ) .
,
2
2
E& = A& e j ( x + z ) ,
(12.24)
y

.
. , 2 < 2 ,

(12.24) ,
z, . 2 > 2
, x
, ;
z. (12.24)

2
2
1
&
(12.25)
E y ( x, z ) =
A& ( )e j ( x + z ) d

2
A& ( ) . ,
1
E& y ( x,0) =
2

A& ( )e

jx

d .

, A& ( ) z=0:

## A& ( ) = E& y ( x,0)e jx dx .

sin a
.
A& ( ) = E 0 e jx dx = 2 E 0 cosxdx = 2 E 0 a
a
a
0
:
E a sin a j ( x + z 2 2 )
(12.26)
E& y ( x, z ) = 0
e
d .
a

. x = r sin , z = r cos .
a

## E0 a sin a jr ( sin + z 2 2 cos )

&
E y (r , ) =
e
d .
a

d
( sin + z 2 2 cos ) = 0 ,
d

tg
=
.
1 + tg 2

.
d2
r
2
2
2 [ r ( sin + z cos )] = ,
d

x
a

-b
E0
(12.10)
0
2 sin a j ( r / 4 )
E& y (r , ) = E0 a
e
. (12.27)
b
r a

y
(
-a
1 r ),
, ,
a.

=0;

0 ,
. 12.5

a 0 =
12.6

2a 2b (. 12.5).
z < 0
E0 exp( jz )1y .
, z > 0 ,
, .
. (12.5) E y
.
1 e jr E& y & e jr
dS ,
E& y ( P ) =
E y
(12.28)

z r
4 S r z
n = z . . Q
x, y, z; , , .
r = ( x ) 2 + ( y ) 2 + ( z ) 2 .
(12.29)
, (12.28), :
E& y
&
z = 0 = fE 0 ,
z
e jr r
e jr e jr r

=
=

.
r r
z r r r z

r = lr = cos ,
Q;
e jr
j 1 jr

=
+ 2 e .
r r
r
r
,

E e jr
cos
(1 + cos ) + 2 e jr dS .
E& y ( P) = 0 j
4 S
r
r

r >> ; ,
cos .
j r
jE 0
e
&
(12.30)
E y (P)
(1 + cos )
dS .
4
r
S
:
( )
.
r0 .
x y
r r02 2 x 2 y r0

r0 x cos 1 y cos 2 ,
r0
r0
1 2 , .
(12.30),
a
b
jE j r
j x cos 1
j y cos 2
E& y ( P ) = 0 e 0 (1 + cos ) e
dx e
dy =
4
a
b
.
(12.31)
j r0
sin( a cos 1 ) sin( b cos 2 )
jE0 ab e
=
(1 + cos )

r0
a cos 1
b cos 2
,
.
; ,
a b .
,

.
12.7 , -
,
b.
. =const.
, r Q
(12.29)

(x )2 + ( y )2
r +
+ ....
2

(12.32)

.
, , , (1 + cos ) 2 .
(12.32) (12.30),
j

( x ) 2 + ( y ) 2

a
b j
jE e
2
(12.33)
E& y ( P) 0
dx
e
dy .

2
a b

. :
a

J = e

( x ) 2
2

dx .

u = (2 ) ( x ) ,

J=

( 2 ) ( a )
ju 2

du .

( 2 ) ( a + )

[7]:

2
C ( ) =
cos u 2 du ,
0

2
S ( ) =
sin u 2 du ,

e
0

ju 2

du =

[C ( ) jS ( )] .
2

=
. 12.6

J=

[C ( g (a )) C ( g (a + )) jS ( g (a )) + S ( g (a + ))],

g = (2 ) .
2

J, J ,
.
[5], ,
. , = a = b ,
(. 12.6).
,
, .

.
:
2
a =
,

2b
b =
.
(12.34)

.
, .
12.3.
12.8
; .
, . . ,

.
: .
: E sin sin( d cos )
12.9 , (. ) ,
= 60 ?
: d = m , m = 1,2,...
12.10 ,
= 45.
12.11 12.8,
, ?
: E cos sin( d cos ) .
12.12 ,
,
, .
sin( d cos )
: E sin
.
d cos
12.13 ,
12.12, :
: 82,8 . .
12.14 12.12 ,
j ( z ) = I 0 exp( jkz ) .
sin( l (cos k / )
: E sin
.
l (cos k /

12.15 (. )
, .
?
:54.
12.16 , ,
12.3,
.
: d >
12.17 1,5;
, f = 40 .
200
.
: 7,30 /, 0,0194 /.
12.18
.
: ,
.
jE a e jr
J ( a sin )
: E& = 0
(1 + cos ) 1
,
2
r
sin
; .
12.19
; f=10 , = 0,4 .
: 5,25 . .
12.20 , ,

.
:
(12,3.4).
: = 4a 2 / .
12.21 20 .
0,628 ( ).
, .
: 630 .
12.22 , , . 12.3,
.
, >> ,
.
2 H& cos1z ( / 2 < < / 2)
: & =
.
0
(

/
2
<

<
3

/
2
)

12.23 ,
.
.
2 H& 1 ( / 2 < < / 2)
: & =
.
0( / 2 < < 3 / 2)

12.24
(. 12.4), .
: ,
J n ( x ) H n( 2)' ( x ) J n' ( x ) H n( 2 ) ( x ) = 2 j /(x) .
: & =

E0
e jn ( / 2 )
.

60a n = H n( 2 ) ( a)

12.25 ,
,

H& = H 0 exp( x )1z

J n' ( a )
= H 0 J n ( r ) ( 2 )
H n( 2 ) ( r ) e jn ( / 2) .

H n ( a )
n =

12.26 * , / (z)
<< , ,
E0 ,

j 0 l &
1 2 e jR
E 0 e j z =
I

+
d ,
(
)(
1
)
2 z 2 R
4 l
: H& z

2/ ; R = a 2 + ( z ) 2 .

13.1.
. 2,
.

D= (), = (), J=().
(), () ()
. . ,
,
. (), () () ,
. ,
(), () ,
, . (), () ()
. .

,
. ,
. ,
. . ( )
().
, ,
, .
(),
.
. 0.
e2n
,
m 0
; .
.
ij
I j.
= .

, . , ,
= 1.
,
,
:
02 0
02
, = 2
= 1 2
.
(13.1)
+ 2
+ 2
<< (13.1) :
2
2
1 02 , 0 2 0 .
(13.2)

- .

,
0 =

n p, ,

02 p
02n

,
= P 1 2

+ n2 2 + 2p

2
2
0 n n 0 p 0 p p 0 n
=
+
.
(13.3)
2 + n2
2 + p2
;
; *n m*p .

, (13.3).

~ = j .
(13.4)

~
=
= j ,
c

=
c

,
+ +
2
2 2 0
2

.
=
+ +
(13.5)
c
2
2 2 0
\ -, (13.5)

=
,
c

=
.
(13.6)
c 2 0

:
n = ~ = n' jn"

= 8.686 dz .
0

(13.7)

, ,
L
2
= ( )dz .
(13.8)
0

. , ,
.
,
. D ,
:

xx

xy

xz

( ) = yx
zx

yy
zy

yz
zz

xx

xy

xz

( ) = yx
zx

yy
zy

yz
zz

(13.9)

,
J, J

xx xy xz
( ) = yx
zx

yy
zy

yz
zz

J = ( )E .
(), () ()
. , ,
, :
xx = yy = , zz = || , xy = yx = yz = zy = zx = xz = 0, ( ) = 1 .

,
=
. 1 z , , = . ,
|| 1, , = || . ,
.
:

0 =
= n0 ,
c
c

e =
|| = ne
(13.10)
c
c
, ,
, , ,
. .

,
(), ()
xx j xy 0
( ) = j yx
yy
0
0
0
zz
xx j xy 0
( ) = j yx
yy
0
0
0
zz
, .
, 0 =H01z

2
H
+H
xx = 1 0
+
,
2
2
2
2
2 ( H ) + v
( + H ) + v

02 H
+ H
,

2
2
2
2
2 ( H ) + v ( + H ) + v
2
zz = 1 2 0 2 ,
+v
|e|
H = 0
H = H = 2,21 106 (/) .
m

02 ( j )
,
~xx = 1
2
2
( j ) H
xy =

~xy =

H
,
2
2
( j ) H

2
0

(13.12)

02
.
( j )
() ,
0.
0 == 0 1z
S H
~ xx = 1
,
( j )2 H 2
~zz = 1

S ( j )
,
(13.13)
( j )2 H 2
~zz = 1 .
H =H0 S =M (M . ); ,
.
,
(13.13), :
, ~ xy = xy j xy .
~ xx = xx j xx
~xy =

~ xx = xx = 1 2 S H 2 , ~ xy = xy = 2 S 2 , zz = 1 .
(13.14)
H
H
x
. H0,
v.

(
, ) .

. , ( )
, ,
= xx xy , = xx xy ,
= xx + xy , = xx + xy
:

=
,
c

.
(13.15)
c

, ,
.
0 , (13.15),
z
z
= 0 ( ) = 0 ( ) .
(13.16)
2
2c
=

13.3.
13.8 ,,

109 .
-. 1,24-1010 -3.
13.9 1010 3,
109 -1.
.
: f1=108 f2=1010 .
:1 =- 21,8, 2 =0,992, 1 = 0,202 /, 1 = 7,1210-5 /.
13.10 106 -3,
107 -1.
, ,
1 /, 10 .
: 3,96 /3.
13.11 1 . 21014 ~3, 0,013 m,
1,71012.
= 15,9.
.
; . 13.2.
: = 8,316; = 114,1 /.
13.12 7,71014 -3,
2,51014 -3. 0,05 0,5 m
.
1,71012, 3,81012 -1.
1

= 12,5.
: = 4,81 j 7,04.
13.13 ,
,
21010 -1. : f1=8109 f2=21010 .
: 1 = 88,86 -1, 2 = 88,86 -1, 2 = 362,75 -1, 2 =0.
13.14 :
51010 -3, 2109 -1.

30 .
: = 628 j 0,0149 .
13.15
1 . 5109 -3,
2109 -1.
c
0,1 .

: = 1,32 , = 24 ..
13.16
0,48 0,2078 8,410-4 / .

.
: 2,27109 -3, 1,20108
13.17
8,68 /
10 /.

, 30 .
: 9,595- 109 -3, 3,70-108 -1.
13.18 n-
, m = 10 /, = 0,5 .
: n* 0,07 , =1014 ~3, vn = 1,31012 -1.
: 32,4 /2.
13.19 ,
,
109 -1, 2-109 -1.
: 4,64109.
13.20

:
xx
2
2
2
= /( + )

0 = 61016 1
v = 21013 -1
3

f1 = 1010 , f2 =1013 f3
= 51016 .
,
2

:
0 = 2 / = 5107 /.
: 1= 5107 /,
1
2 = 2,5107 /, 3 = 200, /.
f
=1013 .
13.21

0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
/

( 22)
( ).

22 = 4,65 = 4,55;
. 13.1
,
z0
, ,
. = 8 .
: 85, 78 .
13.22
0 = 2,84104 1z /.
1.241010 -3, 3109 c-1.
, E = 10,1 1 /.

13.23. xx
1 = 21010 , 2 = (21010 + 2107)
-1 3= (21010 2107) -1, v = 2107-1, H = 21010 3=0,4 H.
z.
: xx1 = 1,1; xx1 =200, xx2 = 99, xx2 = 100, xx3 = 101, xx3=100.
13.24 . 13.1 xx
H/ .
0, v,
, H = = 2 1010 .
; , v <<
13.6.
: 0 = 5,7104 /, v = 5108 -1, H0 = 2,84106 /.
13.25 - 106 0= 1,351016 /, = 13,8,v= 3108 -1

.
z0,
, /4,
0 =H1z 1,42106 /, 21010.
: , | - H|>> v, .
: 8,4 .
13.26
(123)
xx 0
0
( ) = 0 yy 0 .
0
0 zz
( z).
10 ,
= = 13,2 22 = 11,4.
: 0,567,0,557.

I

.1.1

J ()

1
2
3
4
2,405
5,520
8,654
11,792

1
2

3,832
5,136

7,016
8,417

10,173
11,620

13,324
14,796

6,380

9,761

13,015

16,223

7,588

11,065

14,373

17,616

. 1.2
J ().

1
2
3
0
3,832
7,016
10,174
1
2
3
4

1 ,841
3,054
4,200
5,317

5,331
6,705
8,017
9,284

8,536
9,965
11,403
12,626

3
.3.1
.
1
2
1
ga
pa
-ga
Pa
0,0099
0,0994
0,1
0,0389
0,1961
0,2
0,0851
0,2877
0,2
0,1456
0,3726
0,4
0,2173
0,4499
0,5
0,2982
0,5204
0,6
0,3862
0,5842
0,7
0,4785
0,6411
0,8
0,5741
0,6923
0,9
0,6730
0,7388
1,0
0,7749
0,7813
1,1
0,8762
0,8191
1,2
0,9800
0,8540
1,3
1,0844
0,8858
1,4
1,1881
0,9147
1,5
0,0457
1,5994
1,2938
0,9416
1,6
0,1991
1,6882
1,3983
0,9662
1,7
0,3490
1,7651
1,5045
0,9892
1,8
0,4951
1,8344
1,6090
1,0102
1,9
0,6381
1,8955
1,7143
1,0298
2,0
0,7786
1,9506
1,8204
1,0483
2,1
0,9117
2,0004
1,9252
1,0654
2,2
1,0516
2,0456
2,0302
1,0814
2,3
1,1850
2,0872
2,1352
1,0964
2,4
1,3164
2,1253
2,2398
1,1105
2,5
1,4461
2,1606
2,3439
1,1237
2,6
1,5742
2,1933
2,4492
1,1364
2,7
1,7014
2,2239
2,5536
1,1482
2,8
1,8270
2,2523
2,6588
1,1596
2,9
1,9518
2,2790
2,7629
1,1702
3,0
2,0749
2,3039
2,8668
1,1802
3,1
2,1965
2,3273
2,9706
1,1898
3,2
2,3171
2,3493
3,0740
1,1989
3,3
2,4372
2,3701
3,1776
1,2076
3,4
2,5577
2,3901
3,2814
1,2159
3,5
2,6761
2,4087
3,3852
1,2239
3,6
2,7935
2,4264
3,4889
1,2315
3,7
2,9108
2,4433
3,5923
1,2387
3,8
3,0268
2,4593
3,6956
1,2457
3,9
3,1429
2,4746
3,7685
1,2523
4,0

4.
r r b/d t/d,
.
.4.1
r r t/d=0,025.
b/d
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5

rB
5.1289
6.4321
7.6705
8.8691
10.0405
11.1919
12.3280
13.45.20
14.5661
15.6719

rA
1.036510-1
4.516010-2
2.019510-2
9.428910-3
4.546110-3
1.887110-3
8.596910-4
3.918210-4
1.786210-4
8.143210-5

b/d
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
8.5
9
9.5
10
10.5

rB
16.7708
17.8637
18.9514
20.0346
21.1137
22.1893
23.2617
24.3312
25.3981
26.4625

rA
3.712710-5
1.692710-5
7.717710-6
3.518810-6
1.604310-6
7.314810-7
3.335110-7
1.520710-7
6.932910-8
3.160910-8

b/d
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
8.5
9
9.5
10
10.5

rB
19,0964
20,3370
21,5717
22,8014
24,0265
25,2476
26,4651
27,6793
28,8905
30,0090

rA
4,072910-5
1,856910-5
8,466510-6
3,860210-6
1,760010-6
8,024510-7
3,858610-7
1,668110-7
7,605610-8
3,467710-8

.4.2
r r t/d=0,06.
b/d
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5

rB
5,8905
7,3660
8,7697
10,1290
11,4578
12,7643
14,0536
15,3293
16,5938
17,8490

rA
1,337210-1
4,948110-2
2,214210-2
1,001210-2
4,547910-3
2,070010-3
9,430810-4
4,298410-4
1,959510-4
8,933310-5