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..

5
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,

--

2014

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373.167.1:51
22.1721
444
20

20

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: 5 : , / .. . /: , 2013. 224 . : . (
).

ISBN 978-5-222-21755-9

5 , , .

.
,
.
, , , , ,
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ISBN 978 -5-222-21755-9

373.167.1:51
22.1721

.., 2013
, , 2013

- www.phoenixbooks.ru


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5 .
,
,
.
,
, .
.
,

. , , .
( )

,
,
.

,
5 , ,

.

- www.phoenixbooks.ru

1. ,

1. I ()
: ax + b = 0.
1) a 0, a R, b R, x = b/a ( ).
2) a = 0, b 0, .
3) a = b = 0,
.

2. II ()
: ax2 + bx + c = 0, a 0.
a I () , b II ,
c .
D = b2 4ac ().
1) D > 0,
x1, 2

b D
.
2a

b
.
2a
3) D < 0, ().

2) D = 0, x

:
1) :
c
, a c a
; a c , ;
) ax2 + c = 0, x1, 2

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1. ,

) ax2 + bx = 0, x1 = 0, x2 = b/a;
) ax2 = 0, x = 0.
2)
2

x2 + px + q = 0, x1, 2

p
p
q.
2
2

3)
ax2 + 2kx + c = 0, x1, 2

k k2 ac
.
a

3.
) :
b
c
x1 x2 , x1x2 ;
a
a
) :
x1 + x2 = p; x1x2 = q.
,
p, q, x1, x2 , x1 + x2 = p; x1x2 = q,
x1 x2 x2 + px + q = 0.

4.
ax2 + bx + c = a(x x1)(x x2),
x1 x2 , D > 0.
D = 0, ax2 + bx + c = a(x x1)2.

5.
: ax4 + bx2 + c = 0, a 0.
x2 = y :
ay2 + by + c = 0.

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. 5

:
x1, 2, 3, 4

b D
, D = b2 4ac.
2a

6. IV
: ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + bmx + am2 = 0, a 0.

m2
m

a x2 2 b x c 0
x
x

m2
m
y2 2m x2 2
y x
x
x

ay2 + by + (c 2am) = 0.
:
1) ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + bx + a = 0, m = 1 I .
1
y x ;
x
2) ax4 + bx3 + cx2 bx + a = 0, m = 1 II .
1
y x .
x

7.
x, y a > 0, b > 0

a0 = 1 ( );
axay = ax + y; ax : ay = ax y;
(ax)y = axy; (ab)x = axbx;

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1. ,

ax
1
1
a
x
1
x; a x; a .
a
b
a
b

8.
a2 b2 = (a b)(a + b) ;
(a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 ;
(a b)2 = a2 2ab + b2 ;
(a + b)3 = a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3 ;
(a b)3 = a3 3a2b + 3ab2 b3 ;
a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 ab + b2) =
= (a + b)3 3ab(a + b) ;
a3 b3 = (a b)(a2 + ab + b2) =
= (a b)3 + 3ab(a b) .

(a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2ab + 2ac + 2bc;
(a b c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 2ab 2ac + 2bc;
2

ab ab


ab;
2 2
a4 b4 = (a b)(a + b)(a2 + b2) =
= (a b)(a3 + a2b + ab2 + b3);
a5 b5 = (a b)(a4 + a3b + a2b2 + ab3 + b4);
a5 + b5 = (a + b)(a4 a3b + a2b2 ab3 + b4);
a6 b6 = (a b)(a + b)(a2 + ab + b2)(a2 ab + b2) =
= (a b)(a5 + a4b + a3b2 + a2b3 + ab4 + b5);
a6 + b6 = (a2 + b2)(a4 a2b + b4).

9.
,
, .

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. 5

Pn(x) > 0 Pn(x) < 0,

Pn (x)
0
Qm (x)

Pn (x)
0, Pn(x) Qm(x) Qm (x)
n m, . . Pn(x) = a0 + a1x + +
+ anxn; Qm(x) = b0 + b1x + + bmxm, ().
:
.
- ,
x, , ( ), , , .
. f(x) ( ).
,
. ,

. ,
.
,
.
, ,
.
,
.
, .

- www.phoenixbooks.ru

1. ,

10.
,
.
, ,
,
.

. ,

,

, .
, ,
, , , . , ,
.

11.
11.1.
1. a (x1 7 x2)(x2 7 x1), x1 x2 1
x2 3 ax + a , 4
?

- www.phoenixbooks.ru

10

. 5

.
x1 x2 3a,


1
x1x2 a 4 .
(x1 7x2)(x2 7x1) = x1x2 7x22 7x12 + 49x1x2 =
= 50 x1x2 7(x12 x22 ) = 50 x1x2 7(( x1 + x2)2 2 x1x2) =
1
1

= 50 a 7 9a2 2 a = 63a2 + 64a 16.


4
4

y = 63 a2 + 64 a 16
, ,
63 < 0, , ,
b
32
x0 1
, x0 a.
2a1 63
32
.
63
32
.
x1 x2 a
63
32 32 1
32
65
x2 3

x2
x
,
63 63 4
21
252
, a

D 16
65 256 65

0.

4 21 252 441 252
32
.
63
2. a (x, y, z), 2(x + y + z) = 4x2 + y2 x + 2y + 3z = a?
: a

.
x + 2 y + 3 z = a, z

a x 2
y,
3 3 3

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1. ,

11

a x 2y

2
2
2xy
4x y ,
3
3
3

2x y a
2
4x2 y2 ,
3 3 3
(1)
4x + 2y + 2a = 12x2 + 3y2.
(1) 12 x2 4 x + 3 y2 2 y 2 a = 0,
4
2
2
4x2 x y2 y a 0,
3
3
3
2

1
1 2 2a

0.
2x y
3
3 9 3

,
2 2a
0, 9 a = 3,
( x, y, z),
9 3
1
, a .
3
1
: a .
3
3. ,
1
x2 px 2 ,
2p
p R, x16 x26 11,
x1 x2 .
.
x1 x2 ,
x1 x2 p,

x1x2 2 p2 .

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12

. 5

,
,
1
2
x12 x22 x1 x2 2x1x2 p2 2 2,
p
x x x x
4
1

4
2

= p4 2

2
1

2 2
2

1
1

2x x = p2 2 2 2 =
p

2p
2 2
1 2

1
1
1

p4 2 4 .
p4 2 p4
2p

x16 x26 x14 x24

2
1

x22 x12x22 x12 x22 =

1
1 1

= p 4 2 4 p2 2 4
2
p
p

4p

2 1
p p2 =

1
1
1

= p2 2 p 4 2 4 4 =
p
2
p
4
p

1
1

= p2 2 p 4 2 4
p
4
p

= p6 6
4
p

9
1

6
2
p 3 p p2 4 p 6 =

1
9
2 9
6
2
3 p p2 2 p 4 p 6 2 3 p p2 =

1
= 2 2 3 3 1 6 3 11,
2
.
4. m n
2 x5 x4 + x2 + mx + n
x3 + x + 1?

.
, ax2 + bx + c ,

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1. ,

13

(x3 + x + 1)(ax2 + bx + c) = 2x5 x4 + x2 + mx + n.



:
ax5 + ax3 + ax2 + bx4 + bx2 + bx + cx3 + cx + c =
= 2x5 x4 + x2 + mx + n,
ax5 + bx4 + (a + c)x3 + (a + b)x2 + (b + c)x + c =
= 2x5 x4 + x2 + mx + n.
x , a = 2, b = 1,
a + c = 0, c = 2, b + c = m, . . m = 1 + (2) = 3,
c = n = 2.
,
x3 + x + 1 m = 3, n = 2.
: m = 3, n = 2.
5. c
x2 10x + 2c3 = 0 ?

.
x1 x2 .
x1 x23 ,
x1 x2 10,
, x1 x23 ,

3
x
x

2
c
,
1 2
x23 x2 10,
4
3
x2 2c .
I
x23 x2 10 0.

(1)

, x2 = 2 (1),

x2 x22 4 + 5( x2 2) = 0, ( x2 2) x22 x2 5 0,
x2 = 2; x22 2x2 5 0 -

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14

. 5

, D < 0. , x2 = 2, II
2c3 = 16, c3 = 8, c = 2.
: c = 2.
6. a
( x2 a)2 10 x2 3 x + a = 0 4
?

.
a:
x4 2ax2 + a2 10x2 3x + a = 0,
a2 (2x2 1)a + (x4 10x2 3x) = 0,
D = (2x2 1) 2 4(x4 10x2 3x) = 4x4 4x2 + 1 4 x4 +
+ 40x2 + 12x = 36x2 + 12x + 1 = (6 x + 1) 2 > 0,
(2x2 1) (6x 1)
, a1 = x2 + 3x; a2 = x2 3x 1.
2
:
1) x2 + 3x a = 0, D1 = 9 + 4 a;
2) x2 3x a 1 = 0, D2 = 9 + 4( a + 1) = 4 a + 13.
D1 < 0 D2 < 0,
a, . ,
a,
4 ,
D1 > 0 D2 > 0.
9
13
D1 > 0, a ; D2 > 0, a
.
4
4
9
, a .
4
: a > 2,25.
a1, 2

7. a |x2 5x + 6| + |x2 5x + 4| = a?

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1. ,

15

.
y = |x2 5x + 6| + | x2 5x + 4|.

x2 5x + 6 = ( x 2)(x 3) x2 5x + 4 =
= (x 1)(x 4),
y = |(x 2)(x 3)| + |( x 1)(x 4)|.
(1)
:
1

5 :
1) x < 1, y = x2 5x + 6 + x2 5x + 4 =
= 2x2 10x + 10;
2) 1 x < 2, y = x2 5x + 6 x2 + 5x 4 = 2;
3) 2 x < 3, y = x2 + 5x 6 x2 + 5x 4 =
= 2x2 + 10x 10;
4) 3 x < 4, y = x2 5x + 6 x2 + 5x 4 = 2;
5) x 4, y = x2 5x + 6 + x2 5x + 4 =
= 2x2 10x + 10.
b
3) x0
2,5;
2a
25
25 10 2,5.
2
, (2,5; 2,5) y

y = 2x2 + 10x 10.
3
, (1): 2,5
y0

: a < 2, ; 2 a < 2,5, 4


; a = 2,5, 3 ; a > 2,5, 2 .

1
0

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16

. 5

8. a
1
x5 5x3 + 5x = a5 + 5 .
a
.
1
1
y x, y2 2 x2 2;
y
y

y3

1 2 1
1
1
y 2 y y =
3
y
y
y
y

2
3
= (x 2)x x = x 3x;

1 3 1
1
1
y 3 y y2 2 =
4
y
y
y
y

3
2
4
2
= (x 2x)x (x 2) = x 4x + 2;

y4

1 4 1
1
1
y 4 y y3 3 =
y5
y
y
y
= (x4 4x2 + x)x (x3 3x) = x5 5x3 + 5x.
,
y5

y5

1
1
a5 5 .
5
y
a

(1)

.
:
1
1) a = 1, y5 5 2, y = 1,
y
1
2;
y
2) a = 0, (1) ;
1
3) a = 1, y5 5 2, y = 1 x = 2;
y

x y

1
4) a 1, a 0, y = a, x a .
a

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1. ,

17

: a = 1, x = 2; a = 0,
1
; a = 1, x = 2; a 1, a 0, x a .
a
9. a
x3 + ax2 + 56 x 64 = 0 ?
.
x1 = m, x2 = mq, x3 = mq2
, , q ,
:
x3 + ax2 + 56x 64 = ( x x1)(x x2)(x x3) =
= (x m)(x mq)(x mq2).

x,
x3 + ax2 + 56x 64 = ( x2 mx mqx + m2q)(x mq2) =
= x3 mx2 mqx2 + m2qx mq2x2 + m2q2x + m2q3x m3q3 =
= x3 (m + mq + mq2)x2 + (m2q + m2q2 + m2q3)x m3q3.

m(1 q q 2 ) a,
2
2
m q (1 q q ) 56,
mq 4.

II I,
56
56
mq
, mq = 4,
4,
a
a
a = 14.
m mq mq 2 a,
2
2 2
2 3
m q m q m q 56,
m3q 3 64,

: a = 14.

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18

. 5

10. a, b,
c, k ( ax2 + bx + c)2 = (2 x 1) 4 +
+ (kx + 1) 4, x R.

.
x,
1
x ,
2
2

1
1
1

(1)
a b c k 1 .
2
4
2

(1) 1
k 1 0, k = 2, 2

(2)
(ax2 + bx + c)2 = (2x 1) 4 + (2x + 1) 4.
4
(2) x ,
a2 = 2 4 + 2 4, a2 = 2 16, a 4 2.
a k

(4 2x2 bx c)2 (2x 1)4 (1 2x)4 ,
(4 2x2 bx c)2 2(2x 1)4 ,
4 2x2 bx c 2(2x 1)2 ,
4 2x2 bx c 4 2x2 4 2x 2.

x, b 4 2, c 2.
: a 4 2, b 4 2, c 2, k = 2.
11.
3x a
a
4
.

(a 3)(x 4) a 3 x 4

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1. ,

19

.
, a 3, x 4.
:
3x a a(x 4) 4(a 3)
0,
(a 3)(x 4)
3x a ax 4a 4a 12
0,
(a 3)(x 4)
ax 3x (12 9a)
0,
(a 3)(x 4)
(a 3)x 3(4 3a)
0.
(a 3)(x 4)

(1)

(1) :
3(4 3a)

,
(a 3)x 3(4 3a) 0, x
1)
a3

a
x
4)
0,
(
3)(

x 4,
3(4 3a)

,
x
2)
a3
x 4.
3(4 3a)

4.
a 3
3(4 3a)
12 9a 4a 12
5a
(4)

,
a 3
a 3
a 3

5a
0 a < 0 a > 3;
a 3

5a
5a
0 0 < a < 3;
0 a = 0.
a 3
a 3

3(4 3a)
4 a < 0 a > 3;
a 3

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223

1.3. ..................... 143


................. 146

4. .
............................150
................150
1. ............................... 150

....................................... 150
2. - .................. 151
3. ........................... 151
... 152
4. ................................ 152
5. ............................. 153
6. - ................ 153
7. ......................... 154
8. - ..... 155
9. ....................................... 156
9.1. ............................................... 156
9.2. ............................................. 175
................. 188

5. . ........................... 191
................191
1. ............................... 191
2. ................................... 192
3. ............................ 192
4. ................................. 193
5. .......................................... 193
6. ..................................... 193
7.
.......................................... 194
8.
..................................... 194
9.
...................................... 195
10. ()
...................................... 195
11. ...................................... 196
................. 210

............................................................... 212
......................................................... 221

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