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6



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2014

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373.167.1:51
22.1721
444
20

20

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. 6 / .. . /: , 2014. 223 . : . (
).

ISBN 978-5-222-22060-3
6
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ISBN 978 -5-222-22060-3

373.167.1:51
22.1721

.., 2013
, , 2013

- www.phoenixbooks.ru



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6,
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1 :
( ), ,
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2

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( ),

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. 6

(
) .
3
,
.
, .

16, . 911
. ( ).

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1.

1.
1().
12x2 x2y2 + 11y2 = 223.

.

12x2 132 x2y2 + 11y2 = 91,
12(
x2 11) y2(x2 11) = 91,
(1)
(x2 11)(12 y2) = 91.
2
x 11 = n, n Z, (1)
n(12 y2) = 91,
91
y2 12 .
(2)
n
x2 = 11 + n. (3)
x Z, y Z 91 = 1 7 13, n n = 1; 7; 13. ,
n (2) (3) n = 7.
y 2 = 25, x 2 = 4, x 1, 2 = 2;
y1, 2 = 5.
.
: (2; 5), (2; 5), (2; 5), (2; 5).

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. 6

2(). p ,
14p2 + 1 .

.
p 3, 14 p2 + 1 3.
, p = 3 k + 1, p = 3 k 1,
p2 = 9k2 + 6k + 1, p2 = 9k2 6k + 1, ,
p2 3 1.
, 14p2 + 1 3 p,
3, . . .
p = 3, 14 p2 + 1 = 127 .
: p = 3.
3. ,
3 .

.
p1, p2 p3 ,
p1 p2 p3 = 3(p1 + p2 + p3),
1
p1 + p2 + p3 = p1p2p3.
(1)
3
(1) ,
p1, p2 p3 3. p1 = 3, 3 + p2 + p3 = p2p3.
p2 p3 , . . 2n + 1.
p2 = 2n + 1,
3 + 2n + 1 + p3 = 2p3n + p3,
n + 2 = p3 n, n(p3 1) = 2,
2
n
, p3 = 2, p2 = 5,
p3 1
, 2; 3; 5.
2 3 5 = 3 (2 + 3 + 5).
: 2; 3; 5.

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1.

4. p,
p, 2p + 1 4 p + 1 .

.
p 3 n, 3 n + 1
3n + 2.
1. p = 3n + 1, 2 p + 1 = 2(3 n + 1) + 1 =
= 6n + 3 = 3(2 n + 1) .
2. p = 3 n + 2, 4 p + 1 = 12 n + 9 =
= 3(4n + 3) .
3. p = 3 n, p n = 1,
. . p = 3.
2 p + 1 = 7 4 p + 1 = 13
.
, p = 3 .
: 3; 7; 13.
5. ,
13 p + 1,
p .

.
x3 = 13 p + 1,
(x 1)(x2 + x + 1) = 13 p.
, x 1 = 13, x2 + x + 1 = 13, x2 + x
12 = 0, x1 = 14; x2 = 4; x3 = 3. 14 3 = 2744 = 13 211 + 1; (4) 3 = 64 = 13 (5) + 1;
33 = 27 = 13 2 + 1.
, 3
.
: 2744; 64; 27.
6. , p2 q2 24, p
q , 3.
.
p > 3,
p = 3k1, k N,

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. 6

p2 1 = (3 k1)2 1 = 3(3 k22k) 3.


p > 3, p = 2 n + 1, n N, p2 1 =
= (2 n + 1) 2 1 = 4 n(n 1) 8,
n(n 1) .
p2 1 3 8, p2 1 24.
q 2 1 24, p 2 q 2 =
= (p2 1) ( q2 1) 24.
7(). p, k,
p k4 + 12k2 + 14
k3 + 4k.

.
p k3 + 4 k,
k(k3 + 4 k) =
= k4 + 4k2.
p
k4 + 12 k2 + 14 k4 + 4 k2, , . . ( k4 + 12 k2 +
+ 14) ( k4 + 4k2) = 8k2 + 14.
:
1) p k3 + 4 k
8k2 + 14, , p
8(k3 + 4k) k(8k2 + 14) = 18 k;
2) p 8 k2 + 14
18k, , p
9(8k2 + 14) 18 k 4k = 126.
, 126 = 2 3 3 7, . . 2, 3 7.
, k, 2, 3 7 k4 + 12k2 + 14 k3 + 4k.
k = 1, 2
.

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1.

k = 2, 2
.
3
.
k 7, 7
.
: 7 2.
8. , p2 1 24,
p p > 3.
.
p2 1 = ( p 1)( p + 1). , p 1 p + 1
, p . 2, 4, p2 1 8.
, p 1 p + 1 3,
p
, p 3, , .
, p2 1 24.
9. , n ,
n5 n 5.
.
n5 n = n(n2 1)(n2 + 1).
n 5, 5 k 1;
5k 2, n2 = (5 k 1)2 = 25 k 2 + 10 k + 1 n2 =
= (5k + 2) 2 = 25 k2 20k + 4, . . n2 1 5,
n2 + 1 5. , n2 1, n2 + 1 5.
10(). b,
a,
a4 14a2 9

b.
a3 13a
.
b,
b

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10

. 6

(a4 + 14a2 + 9) a(a3 + 13a) = a2 + 9.


b ( a3 + 13 a)
a(a2 + 9) = 4 a.
, b
4(a2 + 9) a 4a = 36.
b , . . b 36.
, b = 2 b = 3.
a.
a ,
, ,
2. a 3, ,
3, . .
3.
: b = 2; b = 3.
11. x y,
x2 + x = y4 + y3 + y2 + y.
.
4, 1.
4x2 + 4x = 4y4 + 4y3 + 4y2 + 4y,
2
4x + 4x + 1 = 4 y4 + 4y3 + 4y2 + 4y + 1,
(2x + 1) 2 = (2y2 + y) + (3y2 + 4y + 1).
1

3y2 + 4y + 1 = 3( y + 1) y .
(1)
3

, y Z, y = 1, 3y2 + 4y + 1 > 0. , y Z,
y 1 (2 x + 1) 2 > (2y2 + y)2.
, 4y4 + 4y3 + 4y2 + 4y + 1 =
= (2y2 + y + 1) 2 (y2 2y).
y Z, y 0, y 1, y 2, y2 2y > 0, . .
(2x + 1) 2 < (2y2 + y + 1) 2.

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1.

11

, (2y2 + y)2 < (2x + 1) 2 < (2y2 + y + 1) 2, y. ,


y = 1; 0;
1; 2.
1) y = 1, (2 x + 1) 2 = 1, x = 0, x = 1;
2) y = 0, (2 x + 1) 2 = 1, x = 0, x = 1;
3) y = 1, (2 x + 1) 2 = 17 x;
4) y = 2, (2 x + 1) 2 = 121, x = 5, x = 6.
: (1; 1), (0; 1), (1; 0), (0; 0), (6; 2), (5; 2).
12(). x2 + 19x = x!,
x! = 1 2 3 x.
.
, x 0, x + 19 = ( x 1)!
x 1 = y, x = y + 1 y + 20 = y!
(1)
, y = 4 (1). , y! , y + 20,
y > 4 (1) . ,
y = 4 (1),
x = y + 1 = 5 .
: x = 5.
13().
71x + 13y = xy 14.
.

71x + 13y + 14 = xy, xy 71x 13y = 14,
xy 71x 13y + 71 13 = 14 + 71 13,
(xy 13y) (71x 71 13) = 937,
(x 13)(y 71) = 937.
(1)
937 , (1)
:
x 13 1,
x 14,
1)

y 71 937; y 1008.

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12

. 6

x 13 937, x 950,
2)

y 72.
y 71 1;
, .
: (14; 1008), (950; 72).
14().
xy2 7(x + y2) = 1.
.

xy2 7 x = 7 y2 + 1, x(y2 7) = 7 y2 + 1,
7y 2 1
x 2
, , ,
y 7

x 7

50
.
y 7
2

(1)

x ,
50
, . .
y2 7
y2 7 = 1, 2, 5, 10, 25, 50.

, y2 7 = 2, y2 = 9,
y1, 2 = 3, (1) x = 7 + 25 = 32.
, ,
.
: (32; 3), (32; 3).
15. , p p > 2,
p2 5 8.
.
, p2 5 = 8 m, m N.
p 2, p . p = 2 k + 1, k N,
(2 k + 1) 2 5 = 8 m, , k(k + 1) = 2 m + 1. ,

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1.

13

,
. . , ,
.
16().
x4 = y4 + 2y2 + 157.
.
:
x4 = (y2 + 1) 2 + 156,
(1)
x4 (y2 + 1) 2 = 156.
2
2
2
2
(x + y + 1)(x y 1) = 156.
156 = 1 156 = 2 78 = 3 52 = 4 39 = 6 26 =
= 12 13.
, x2 + y2 + 1 > 0, , ,
x2 + y2 + 1 > x2 y2 1.
x Z, y Z 156
, 156
.
(2; 78) (6; 26).
:
x2 y2 1 78,
x2 y2 1 26,
2)
1) 2
2
2
2
x y 1 2.
x y 1 6.

, (1)
, (2) 4 , : (4; 3), (4; 3),
(4; 3), (4; 3).
: (4; 3), (4; 3), (4; 3), (4; 3).

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14

. 6

17.
xy + yz + xz = 1.
.
y x z:
1 xz
y(x + z) = 1 xz, y
.
xz
x, y, z Z,
1 xz (z2 1) z(x z)
z2 1
y

=
z.
xz
xz
xz
z2 + 1 = x + z, y = 1 z.
, x = z2 z + 1; y = 1 z, . .
.

:
.
18().
x3 + y3 + 3 = 4( x + y).
.
(x + y)(x2 xy + y2) + 3 = 4( x + y).
, x + y 3, . .
x + y = 1, 3.
, x3 + y3 = (x + y)3 3xy(x + y).

(x + y)3 3xy(x + y) + 3 = 4( x + y),
(x y)3 3 4(x y)
xy
.
3(x y)

x + y = 1, xy = 0, .
x + y = 1, xy = 2, x = 2; y = 1,
x = 2; y = 1.
x + y = 3, xy = 2, x = 2; y = 2,
x = 2; y = 2.

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1.

15

4
.
3
, 4 .
, x + y = 3, xy

: (2; 1), (2; 1), (2; 2), (2; 2).


19().
(x + 2) 4 x4 = y3.
.
(x + 2) 4 x4 = y3, x Z, y Z.
,
:
((x + 2)2 x2)((x + 2)2 + x2) = (x2 + 4x + 4 x2)(x2 + 4x +
+ 4 + x2) = (4x + 4)(2x2 + 4x + 4) = 8( x + 1)(x2 + 2x + 2) =
= 8(x + 1)((x + 1) 2 + 1) = 8( x + 1) 3 + 8(x + 1).
,
8(x + 1) 3 + 8(x + 1) = y3.
(1)
y = 2z, (1)
(2)
(x + 1) 3 + (x + 1) = z3.
x + 1 = t (2)
t3 + t = z3, t(t2 + 1) = z3, t t2 + 1
, , t = a3, t2 + 1 = b3, z = ab, a, b Z.
, a6 + 1 = b3, b3 c3 = 1, c = a2 0.
(b c)(b2 + bc + c2) = 1,
2

1 3

b2 bc c2 b c c2 0.
2 4


b c 1,
b c 1,
b c 1,

2
2
(c 1) c(c 1) c 1,
2
2
c(c 1) 0.
b bc c 1; c 0;

c 0 c Z, c = 0, b = 1, ,
a2 = c = 0; a = 0, z = ab = 0, t = a3 = 0, . . x = t 1 = 1;
y = 0.
: (1; 0).

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16

. 6

20(). -

xxyy (xx)2 (yy)2.


.
xxyy 1100x 11y.
1100x + 11y = (11x)2 + (11y)2,
99x + (x + y) = 11(x2 + y2).
, x + y 11.
1 x 9, 1 y 9, x + y = 11,
100x + (11 x) = 11( x 2 + (11 x) 2), , x = 8,
y = 11 8 = 3.
: 8833 = 88 2 + 33 2.
: x = 8, y = 3.
21().
x, y N ,
x2 + y2 + xy = (aaa)2.

.
x2 + y2 + xy = (x py)2, y N, x2 + 2px = p2y y,
x(2 p 1)
y
, p > 1, x , p2 1
y , ,
x = p2 1; y = 2p + 1.

(p2 1) 2 + (2p + 1) 2 + (p2 1)(2p + 1) = p4 + 2p2(p + 1) +
+ (p + 1) 2 = (p2 + (p + 1)) 2 = (p2 + p + 1) 2 = (aaa)2.
, p = 10:
(102 + 10 + 1) 2 = 111 2,
x = 10 2 1 = 99, y = 2 10 + 1 = 21.


992 + 21 2 + 99 21 = 111 2.
, x = 99, y = 21 .

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1.

17

22.
13x2 + 7y2 + 11 = x2y2.
.

x2y2 13x2 7y2 = 11.
(1)
(1)
(x2y2 7y2) (13x2 13 7) = 11 + 13 7,
y2(x2 7) 13( x2 7) = 102,
(2)
(x2 7) ( y2 13) = 102.
2
x 7 = n, n Z, (2)
102
n(y2 13) = 102, y2 13
,
(3)
n
x2 = 7 + n.
(4)
x Z, y Z, n
1; 2; 3; 6; 17; 34; 51; 102.
, n
(3) (4)
102
n = 2, y2 13
, y2 = 64, y = 8; x2 = 7 + 2;
2
x2 = 9; x = 3.
,
.
: (3; 8), (3; 8), (3; 8), (3; 8).
23.
xy x = y5 + y3 7, x N, y N.

.
, y 1, 0 = 5.

y5 y 3 7
y3 (y2 1) 2(y3 1) 5
x
, x
=
y 1
y 1
= y3(y + 1) + 2( y2 + y + 1)

5
=
y 1

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18

. 6

= y4 + y3 + 2y2 + 2y + 2

5
.
y 1

x y ,
y 1 = 5.
65 63 7
1597;
y 1 = 5, . . y = 6, x
6 1
y 1 = 5, y = 4 N.
,
(1597; 6).
: x = 1597, y = 6.
24.
,
2013x 2012y = 2014.

.

2013x = 2012y + 2014,
2012y 2014
x
.
(1)
2013
(1):
2013y 2013 y 1
1 y
x
y 1
.
2013
2013
1 y
x N,
.
2013
1 y

y1, y1 N,
2013
1 y = 2013y1, y = 1 2013 y1
x = y + 1 + y1 = 1 2013 y1 + 1 + y1 = 2 2012 y1.
, x = 2 2012 y1, y = 1 2013 y1.
, y1 = 0 x = 2, y = 1.
, (2; 1) , .
: x = 2, y = 1.

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1.

19

25.
19x + 15y = 1915, x N, y N.
.
x = 100 a, y = 1 + b.

:
19(100 a) + 15(1 + b) = 1915,
1900 19a + 15 + 15 b = 1915,
19a = 15b.
(19; 15) = 1, . . ,
a = 15p, b = 19p, p Z, ,
x = 100 a = 100 15 p y = 1 + b = 1 + 19 p.
, x y , p = 0, 1, 6.
p = 0, x = 100, y = 1;
p = 1, x = 85, y = 20;
p = 2, x = 70, y = 39;
p = 3, x = 55, y = 58;
p = 4, x = 40, y = 77;
p = 5, x = 25, y = 96;
p = 6, x = 10, y = 115.
, .
: (100; 1), (85; 20), (70; 39), (55; 58), (40; 77),
(25; 96), (10; 115).
26.
2x2 + 5xy + 3y2 = 21.
.
,

(x + y) (2y + 3y) = 21.


21 = 1 (21) = (3)(7),
x y 1,
x = 18, y = 19.
1)
2x 3y 21,

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223

7.7. . .......... 186


7.8. ............................ 186
7.9. . .............. 187
7.10. .................................... 188
7.11. .................................................... 189
7.12.
.............................. 190
7.13. ............. 191
7.14. ..................................................... 192
7.15. ................................................... 193
7.16. ........... 194
7.17. .......................................................... 194
7.18. ................................................... 195
7.19. n- ....196
7.20. ......... 197
7.21. .................... 197
7.22. ........................ 198
7.23. ................. 199
7.24.
................................... 201
7.25. .................................... 203
7.26. .................................. 203
................... 204
........ 205
.............................. 205
7.27. .............................................. 205
7.28. .................... 206
7.29. .......................... 207

........................................................ 209
...........................................209
..............................................................212

............................................................... 215
1. ............ 215
2. ... 216
3. ..................... 217
4. ,
............................................... 218

......................................................... 221

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