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Overview of topics for Unit Test on Ecology STUDY / PRACTICE YOUR LAST QUIZ (answers on the website) (biotic/abiotic,

population/community/ecosystem, etc.; herbivore/carnivore/omnivore, etc.)

What is a food chain? What is a food web? What do the arrows show? (the direction of the flow of energy) Be able to explain the effect on other populations if one species in a web decreases in population or is eliminated. Food webs show the high level of connections and interactions between populations. What are the feeding roles/levels? Define each. Producer significant because they bring energy into the ecosystem / start off the food chain. Ecosystems cannot exist without producers. Consumer Primary Consumer Secondary Consumer Decomposer significant because they recycle nutrients. Ecosystems cannot be self-sustaining without them. Know major examples of decomposers: bacteria, fungi (includes molds and mushrooms), & worms. What is an energy pyramid? What does an energy pyramid show about the amount of energy at each level of a food chain? Why is there less energy at each level as you go up? What does an energy pyramid show about the amount/biomass of organisms that can be supported at each level of the food chain? Which level has producers? Which has herbivores? Which has carnivores? 3 Major types of interactions between organisms: 1: What is symbiosis? What are the different types of symbiosis? Mutualism Commensalism Parasitism: Know the terms parasite & host 2: What is predation? How do predators and their prey affect each others populations? (Recognize a graph that shows the typical fluctuation of predator & prey populations.) 3. What is competition? Recognize competition as a struggle for shared resources. What factors would increase / decrease competition? What is an ecological niche? What can happen if 2 species try to occupy the same niche? Population Dynamics: 4 processes that affect population size death, emigration, birth, immigration; carrying capacity. Recognize carrying capacity on a graph & give examples of limiting factors (factors that limit population size). What is ecological succession? Know the difference between primary succession & secondary succession.

USE THE CLASS WEBSITE as a STUDY TOOL . Use it to review topics, take quizzes & check homework answers.

STUDY / PRACTICE the FIRST UNIT TEST (answers on the website)