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Chemistry

Name ___Litsa Sursock_____ Period ___1 Date ___/___/___


T h e M o l e C o n c e p t U n i t 4

Moles, Molecules, and Grams Lab


As weve already discussed in class, its easy to make conversions between moles, molecules/formula units, and grams. For example, if we want to go from moles to grams, we use the molar mass to make this conversion. If we want to go from moles to molecules, we use Avogadros number, or 6.02 x 10 23. Finally, if we want to go from grams to molecules/formula units, we just use a two-step process where we first convert from grams to moles, and then from moles to molecules/F.U. Visually, it looks like this: Molar mass Grams

6.02 x 1023 Moles Molecules/Formula Units

In this lab, we will be weighing out five different substances then finding out how many moles and molecules/F.U. of each one we have. Pre-lab: If you measure out 25.0 grams of NaOH in this lab, how many moles of NaOH would you have? How many formula units? 25g NaOH * 1mol/39.997g = 0.63 mol NaOHfv Lab: In this lab, there are five different balances set up, each of which has a labeled substance in a little jar next to it. Your job is to find out how many moles and how many molecules of each substance are in the canister. Some information you might find useful: sand baking soda (NaHCO3) chalk (CaCO3) table salt (NaCl) sugar: sucrose (C12H22O11) Make sure that your lab has a data table that contains the following: The name of each of these substances The formula for each of these substances The molar mass of each of these substances The mass in grams of each of these substances. When you are done weighing each material, calculate the number of moles of each material, and the number of molecules of each one, and put them in the right space. All calculations must be shown on lined paper with all conversion factors and unit cancelling.

Data Table: Sand SiO2 60.08g 6.00g 5.96g Baking Soda NaHCO2 84.007g Chalk CaCO3 100.0869g 2.54g Table Salt NaCl 54.44g 5.09g Sugar C12H22O11 342.2965g 4.45g

Chemical Formula Molar Mass Mass of Sample in Grams Formula for Moles Number of Moles Formula for Molecules Number of Molecules

6.00g * 1mol/60.08g 0.0999 0.0999mol * 6.02*1023molecules/ 1mol 6.014 * 1022

5.96g * 1mol/84.007 0.0709 0.0709mol * 6.02*1023molecules/ 1mol 4.268 * 1022

2.54g * 1mol/100.0869 0.0254 0.0254mol * 6.02*1023molecules /1mol 1.529 * 1022

5.09g * 1mol/54.44g .0935 .0935mol* 6.02*1023molecule /1mol 5.629 * 1022

4.45g * 1mol/342.2965g 0.0130 0.0130mol * 6.02*1023molecule/ 1mol 7.826 * 1021

Calculations: Using your data, find the following values. Make sure to show all work and write all numbers with the correct significant figures. 1a. Number of moles of sand: 0.0999moles

b. Number of molecules of sand: 6.014 * 1022molecules

2a. Number of moles of baking soda: 0.0709moles

b. Number of formula units of baking soda: 4.268 * 1022formula units

3. Number of formula units of chalk: 1.529 * 1022formula units Hint: String two conversions together

4. Number of formula units of salt: 5.629 * 1022formula units

5. Number of molecules of sugar: 7.826 * 1021molecules

Post Lab Questions: 1. Which of the materials we worked with had the largest number of molecules/formula units? Was this the material that had the largest weight? Why? Sugar had the largest number of molecules, it had the lowest mass. Its molar mass was very large, which is the reason that it would have the greatest number of molecules

2. Water has a molecular formula of H2O. If I have 50.0 g of water, how many moles of water do I have? How many molecules? 50.0g H2O x 1Mol / 18.01528 grams = 2.78 Mol H2O 2.78 Mol x 6.02 x 10^23 Molecules / 1Mol = 1.67 x 10^24 Molecules

3. Butane has a molecular formula of C4H10. If I have 50.0 grams of butane, how many moles of natural gas do I have? How many molecules?

50.0g C4H10 x 1 Mol / 58.12 grams = 0.860 Mol C4H 100.860 Mol x 6.02 x 10^23 Molecules / 1 Mol = 5.18 x 10^24 Molecules 4. I had the same weight of water and butane in problems 3 and 4. Why didnt the answer come out the same? Explain. This is because the molar masses of water and butane are different. Through dimensional analysis, the answer would be different.