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Castillo, James Matthew A Darnayla, Rhoda Trisha R.

Rizal- Sat 12-3 room 411

Chapter 9: Rizals Grand Tour of Europe with Viola (1887)

After the publication of the Noli, Rizal planned to visit the important places in Europe. Dr. Maximo Viola agreed to be his traveling companion. Rizal had received Pacianos remittance of P1, 000 which was forwarded by Juan Luna form Paris. He immediately paid Viola the sum of P300 which the latter kindly loaded so that the Noli could be printed. Having paid his debt, and with adequate funds in his pocket, he was ready to see Europe before returning to Calamba. First, he and Viola visited Potsdam, a city near Berlin, which Frederick the great made famous.

The Tour Begins At dawn of May 11, 1887, Rizal and Viola, two brown-skinned doctors on a roaming spree, left berlin by train. It was ideal season for travel. Spring was in the air, and all over Europe the flowers were blooming, the meadows were turning green, and the villages were humming with activity. According to Viola, the luggage of Rizal included all the letters he had received form his (Rizals) family and friends. Their destination was Dresden, one of the best cities in Germany.

Dresden Rizal and Viola tarried for some time in Dresden. Their visit coincided with the regional floral exposition. Rizal, who was interested in botany studied the numerous plan varieties of extraordinary beauty and size. They visited Dr. Adolph B. Meyer, who was overjoyed to see them. In the Museum of Art, which they also visited, Rizal was deeply impressed by a painting of Prometheus Bound and recalled seeing a representation of the same idea in an art gallery in Paris. While strolling at the scene of the Floral Exposition, they met Dr. Jagor. Upon hearing of their plan to visit Leitmeritz (now Litomerice, Czechoslovakia) in order to see Blumentritt for the first time, Dr. Jagor advised them to wire Blumentritt of their coming because the old professor was of a nervous disposition and he might suffer a shock at their sudden visit. Teschen (now Decin, Czechoslovakia) was their next stopover after leaving Dresden. Rizal and Viola sent a wire to Blumentritt, as per suggestion of Dr. Jagor.

First Meeting with Blumentritt At 1:30 p.m. of May 13, 1887, the train, with Rizal and Viola on board arrived at the railroad station of Leimeritz, Bohemia. Professor Blumentritt, who had received their wire was at

Castillo, James Matthew A Darnayla, Rhoda Trisha R.

Rizal- Sat 12-3 room 411

the station. He was carrying a pencil sketch of Rizal which the latter had previously sent him, so that he could identify his Filipino friend. He warmly received by Rizal and Viola. For the first time, the two great scholars --- Rizal and Blumentritt --- who came to know each other by correspondence, met in person. They greeted each other in fluent German. Blumentritt was a kind0hearted, old Austrian professor. Upon seeing the talented Rizal for the first time, he immediately took him into heart, loving him as a son. Professor Blumentritt, the genial host, helped Rizal and Viola to get a room at Hotel Krebs, after which he brought them to his home and introduced them to his wife and family. The two Filipino tourists spent many pleasant hours at the home of their kind host. They stayed in Leitmeritz from May 13 to May 16, 1887.

Beautiful Memories of Leitmeritz Rizal had beautiful memories of his visit to Leitmeritz. He enjoyed the warm hostility of the Blumentritt family. The professors wife Rosa, was a good cook, and she prepared special Austrian dishes which Rizal liked very much. His children were Dolores (called Dora or Dorita by Rizal), Conrad, and Fritz. Blumentritt proved to be a great tourist guide as well as a hospitable host. He showed the scenic and historical spots of Leitmeritz ti his visitor. One afternoon he invited them to a beer garden where the best beer of Bohemia was served. At a near table there was a lively discussion among the drinkers about the advisability of having the railroad pass through a neighboring town. One of the men in the group was the burgomaster (town mayor) of that town, Blumentritt knew the burgomaster, so that he approached the party and delightfully introduced his two Filipino friends. Rizal talked in fluent Germanm for which reason the burgomaster and his friends were amazed, the burgomaster asked Rizal how long it took him to learn German. And Rizal replied: Eleven months, sir. The burgomaster was further amazed, and in great admiration, he lauded the privileged talent of Rizal. Blumentritt embraced Rizal, telling him that few Germans could speak well their own language as Rizal could. On another afternoon Rizal and Viola were invited to a meeting of the Tourists Club of Leitmeritz, of which Blumentritt was the secretary. Rizal spoke extemporaneously in fluent German to the officers and members, praising Austrias idyllic scenes and its hospitable, natureloving, and noble people. The audience wildly applauded him, for they were enchanted by his eloquence and fluency in German. Rizal, desiring to commermorate his happy hours at the Blumentritt home, painted a portrait of the kind professor and gave it to him. Blumentritt was pleased with the gift. It was during his visit to leitmeritz when Rizal men another renowned scientist of Europe, Dr. Carlos Czepelak. Blumentritt brought him to Czepelaks home, and Rizal had a nice conversation with this Polish scholar. Blumentritt also introduced Rizal to Professor Robert Klutschak, an eminent naturalist.

Castillo, James Matthew A Darnayla, Rhoda Trisha R.

Rizal- Sat 12-3 room 411

On their last night in Leitmeritz, Rizal and Viola, to reciprocate Blumentritts hospitality, tentered a banquet --- a farewell dinner --- in his honor at their hotel. On May 16, at 9:45 A.M., Rizal and Viola left Leitmeritz by train. Blumentritt, his wife, and children were at the railroad station to see them off, and they all shed tears in parting as the train slowly departed. Rizal carried unto his grave the beautiful memories of his visit to Leitmeritz. In a letter to Blumentritt, written in Vienna on May 24, 1887, Rizal exoressed his and Violas concern for the illness of Dora, the professors little daughter, Viola and I, thus wrote Rizal, are very sad because our little friend Dora is sick. We still remember her little blue eyes; we hear her merry laughter, and we see her little teeth. Poor Dorita! I saw her run after us when the train was leaving! With all my heart I wish her prompt recovery. In another letter, written in Brunn, Austria, on May 19, 1887, three days after leaving Leitmeritz, Rizal wrote to Blumentritt: I shall make my good friends of Leitmeritz the object of my thoughts and I shall say of myself: you are not alone, Rizal; in a small corner of Bohemia there are good, noble, and friendly souls who like you; think of them; consider them as if they were with you, as if they saw you; they will rejoice over your joys, and will weep over your suffering. . . Please kiss the children for me, express my greetings to your wife, and to your good father and the friends in Leitmeritz. I am at heart an inhabitant of Leitmeritz just as you yourself are a Filipino in sentiments. I believe Austria will always live in my heart. In the same letter, Rizal told Blumentritt that he forgot his diamond stickpin at his room in Hotel Krebs.

Prague After Leitmeritz, Rizal and Viola visited the historic city of Prague. They carried letters of recommendation from Blumentritt to Dr. Willkomm, professor of natural history in the University of Prague. The good professor and his charming wife and daughters welcomed them and showed them the citys historic spots. Rizal and Viola visited the tomb of Copernicus, the famous astronomer; the museum of natural history; the bacteriological laboratories; the famous cave where San Juan Nepomuceno, the Catholic saint, was imprisoned; and the bridge from which this saint was hurled into the river. After saying good-bye to Professor Willkomm and his family the two tourists went to Brunn. According to Viola, nothing of importance happened in this city.

Vienna On May 20, Rizal and Viola arrived in the beautiful city of Vienna, capital of Austria-Hungary. Famous in song and story, this city fascinated Rizal because of its beautiful buildings, religious images, haunting waltzes, and majestic charm. Vienna was truly the Queen of the Danube.

Castillo, James Matthew A Darnayla, Rhoda Trisha R.

Rizal- Sat 12-3 room 411

Rizal and Viola, armed with the letter of recommendation from Blumentritt, met Norfenfals, one of the greatest Novelists in Europe during that time. This great Austrian novelist was favorably impressed by Rizal, and years later he spoke highly of Rizal, whose genius he so much admired. In Vienna, Rizal received his lost diamond stickpin. It was found by a maid in Hotel Krebs and was given to Blumentritt, who in turn, forwarded it to Rizal in Vienna. Rizal and Viola stayed in Hotel Metropole. They visited the citys interesting places, such as churches, museums, art galleries, theaters, and public parks. They met two good friends of Bluementritt --- Masner and Nordmann, Austrian scholars.

Danubian Voyage to Lintz On May 24, Rizal and Viola left Vienna on a river boat to see beautiful sights of the Danube River. As they traveled along the famous river, Rizal observed keenly the river sights --the barges loaded with products, the flowers and plants growing along the river banks, the boats with families living on them, and the quaint villages on the riversides. We particularly noticed that the passengers on the river boat were using paper napkins during the meals, which was a novelty to him. His fellow passenger, Viola, commented that the paper napkins were more hygienic and economical than cloth napkins.

From Lintz to Rheinfall The river voyage ended in Lintz. They traveled overland to Salzburg, and from there to Munich where they sojourned for a short period of time to savor the famous Munich beer, reputed to be the best in Germany. From Munich, they went to Nuremberg, one of the oldest cities of Germany. Among the sights which they saw in this city were the horrible torture machines used by the Inquisition. Rizal examined carefully these torture machines. He and Viola were impressed carefully by the manufacture of dolls which was the biggest industry of the country. After Munich, they visited Ulm. The Cathedral of this city was the largest and tallest in all Germany. Viola related that he and Rizal climbed its many hundred steps. He rested twice in the way to the tower and felt dizzy from the strain upon reaching the top. Rizal, on the other hand, ascended without resting and was not tired when he reached the top. From Ulm, they went to Stuttgart, Baden, and hen Rheinfall (Cascade of the Rhine). At Rheinfall, they saw the waterfall, the most beautiful waterfall of Europe.

Crossing the Frontier to Switzerland

Castillo, James Matthew A Darnayla, Rhoda Trisha R.

Rizal- Sat 12-3 room 411

From Rheinfall, they crossed the frontier to Schaffhausen, Switzerland. They stayed in this city from June 2 to 3, 1887. They continued their tour to Basel (Bale), Bern, and Lausanne.

Geneva After Sightseeing in Lausanne, Rizal and Viola left on a little boat, crossing the foggy Leman Lake to Geneva. This Swiss city is one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, visited by world tourist every year. The people of Geneva were linguists, speaking French, German, and Italian. Rizal conversed with them in these three languages. Aside from visiting the tourist spots, Rizal and Viola went boating on the lake. In this aquatic excursion, Rizal showed his rowing prowess which he acquired during his boyhood days in Calamba. On June 19, 1887, Rizal treated Viola to a blow-out. It was his 26th birthday. According to Filipino custom. He celebrated his birthday with a sumptuous meal. Rizal and Viola spent fifteen delightful days in Geneva. On June 23, they parted ways --- Viola returned to Barcelona while Rizal continued the tour to Italy.

Rizal Resents Exhibition of Igorots in 1887 Madrid Exposition While Rizal, accompanied by Dr. Viola, was happily touring Europe, an Exposition of the Philippines was held in Madrid, Spain. Upon reaching Geneva (Switzerland), he received sad news from his friends in Madrid of the deplorable conditions of the primitive Igorots who were exhibited in this exposition, some of whom died, and whose scanty clothing (G-strings) and crude weapons were objects of mockery and laughter by the Spanish people and press. Being a champion of human dignity, Rizal was outraged by this degradation of his fellow countrymen the Igorots of Northern Luzon. In the Letter to his friend, Blumentritt; dated Geneva, June 6, 1887, he said:
My poor compatriots (Igorots --- Z) who are now being exhibited in Madrid are mocked by Spanish newspapers, except El Liberal which says that it is not consistent with human dignity to be exhibited side by side with animals and plants. I have done everything possible to prevent the display of this degradation of men of my race, but I have not succeeded. Now one women died of pneumonia. The Igorots were housed in a barraca (rustic house made of bamboo, grass and tree branches --- Z) and El Resumen still makes mean jokes about it!

In another letter to Blumentritt, dated Geneva, June 19, 1887, Rizal said he was in favor of holding an exposition, but not an exhibition of add individuals, showing out countrymen as a curiosity to entertain the idle inhabitants of Madrid. He emphatically reiterated: We want an

Castillo, James Matthew A Darnayla, Rhoda Trisha R.

Rizal- Sat 12-3 room 411

industrial exposition of human beings who are compelled to live almost outdoors and die of nostalgia pneumonia or typhus!

Rizal in Italy From Geneva, Rizal went to Italy. He visited Turin, Milan, Venice, and Florence. On June 27, 1887, he reached Rome, the eternal city and also called the City of the Caesars. He was thrilled by the sights and memories of the Eternal City. Describing to Blumentritt, the grandeur that was Rome, he wrote on June 27, 1887.
I am in Rome! Everything I step on is the dust of heroes. Here I breathe the same air which the Roman heroes have breathed. I salute every statue with reverence, and to me, a humble native of a small island, it seems that I am in a sanctuary. I have already seen the Capitolium, the Tarpeian Rock, the Palatinum, the Forum Romanum, the Amphitheatre, etc. Everything here is glorious except the cafes and the caf singers. I do not enter these (cafes) because I loathe to hear their French songs or see modern industries. My favorite places are the Amphitheatre and the Roman Forum; there I remain seated for hours, contemplating everything and resorting life to the ruins . . . I have also visited some churches and museums, like the Capitoline Museum and the Church of Santa Maria Maggiorie, which is also grandiose.

On the 29th, the Feast Day of St. Peter and St. Paul, Rizal visited for the first time the Vatican, the City of the Popes and the capital of Christendom. He was deeply impressed by the magnificent edifices, particularly of St. Peters Church, the rare works of art, the vast St. Peters Square, the colorful Papal Guards and the atmosphere of religious devotion that pervaded the Vatican. Every night, after sightseeing the whole day, Rizal returned to his hotel, very tired. I am tired as a dog, he wrote to Blumentritt, but I will sleep as a God. After a week of wonderful sojourn in Rome, he prepared to return to the Philippines. He had already written to his father that he was coming home.