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Honors Chemistry

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U n i t 4 : S t o i c h i o m e t r y

Stoichiometry and Measurements Lab

Introduction to Lab Problem Astronauts in the space station need to produce 0.200 mol of calcium carbonate for a certain experiment they are performing. To do this, they combine sodium carbonate and calcium nitrate in a double replacement reaction. This means 0.200 mole of Na 2CO3 is needed. t is then !eighed out and dissol"ed in !ater to form a solution of sodium carbonate. (a) Write an equation to show what happens when this solid dissolves in water (!) "ind the mass o# Na2CO3 needed

0.200 mole of calcium nitrate is needed. t is also !eighed and dissol"ed in !ater to form a calcium nitrate solution. (a) Write an equation to show what happens when this solid dissolves in water (!) "ind the mass o# Ca(N$%)& needed

The sodium carbonate solution is mixed !ith the calcium nitrate solution. (a) Write a !alanced equation #or the reaction

(!) State the type o# reaction (c) 's there a limitin( reactant) '# so* determine the limitin( reactant

(c) What process would you use to separate the solid product) (d) "ind the theoretical masses o# !oth products o!tained in this reaction

(e) '# only % 4+( o# calcium car!onate #orms* calculate the percenta(e yield and percent error
N$,-: 1++. . yield / actual mass predicted mass 0 1++. . error / predicted mass2 actual mass predicted mass 0

Pre-lab: Questions to address prior to starting lab 1 How much o# the reactants will you need to measure out) & How much water should you add to the !ea3er) % ,o separate the solid #rom the liquid* you will need to #ilter What is in the #ilter paper) Should you mass the #ilter paper !e#ore hand) Why) 4 How will you collect the aqueous product) 4oes this need to !e measured) 5 Where are some places where you mi(ht lose some o# your product) How can you ma0imi6e your percent yield and minimi6e your percent error) 7ea3er #or 7a(N$%)& 7ea3er #or Na(S$

7e#ore !e(innin(* include all calculations necessary to !e(in your procedure 4raw a data ta!le necessary to collect the data 7e care#ul to thin3 o# all data necessary to collect and include this in your ta!le (i# you #or(et somethin(* you can always repeat the la!) Calculations:

Analysis and Discussion: 8s you collect your data* include a calculation o# the percent yield and percent error* sources o# error* will your patient have enou(h #or his medicine* what improvements would you ma3e to your procedure #or ne0t time

Honors Chemistry 9a! Stoichiometry and :easurement 987 79$; <U7<'C ;roup :em!ers ____________________________________________________________________________ ,itle=purpose _____= 1 :aterials _____= 1 Conclusion statement _____= 1 Concludin( statement at the end o# the report summari6es your la! #indin(s and re#ers !ac3 to purpose 9a! clean _____= &
-0cellent >ery ;ood 5 45 Procedure: (past tense* para(raph #ormat* no use o# ?'@ or ?we@) 2 with rationale related to the ?Auestions to !e addressed ? #rom pre2la! Show all calculations in your lo(ic o# the masses o# reactants used 's the amount o# water important) Why not) Why did you mass the #ilter paper and=or the !ea3er) Data tables with titles and la!els e() ,a!le 1: :asses o# B $N9C relevant data provided in the data ta!le (#or e0ample* do you need the mass o# the !ea3er that you mi0ed the reactants in) 4id you use that mass in your calculations) '# not* donDt include itE) <eaction descri!ed (reactants and products) Analysis of data Show calculations o# actual yield Calculations to determine percent yield and percent error #or each product (with attention to si( #i(s #rom data) Discussion 1: What was the theory !ehind your la!) What techniques were used) Why) What chemical concepts helped you to produce the products) 4id you (et close to 1++. yield) Will your patient survive) 's your yield too hi(h or low) What a##ected your yield #or each) (!e speci#ic in your error analysis F to coincide with your results (hi(h or low)) Discussion : What would you di##erently ne0t time Gropose three #easi!le improvements to this la! What did you learn #rom the la!) What other real li#e application can you apply this to) ;ood 4 8vera(e 7elow %5 8vera(e %2+

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