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PHOTOSYNTHESIS SUMMERATIVE PROJECT

Sofia Perozzi Science 7 Period: 2 11/14/13

PROBLEM: How does doubling the amount of carbon dioxide from .5g of bisodium carbonate dissolved in 100mL of water to 1g. dissolved in 100mL of water affect the rate of photosynthesis in elodea? HYPOTHESIS: When the amount of carbon dioxide is doubled, by adding baking soda, the rate of photosynthesis will increase. The increase in photosynthesis is seen by the increase in bubbles. PHOTOSYNTHESIS: Photosynthesis is a process in which plants capture and use sunlight to produce food (create glucose) and oxygen. This process also requires the presence of carbon dioxide and water. The process of photosynthesis takes place in chloroplasts where the sunlight is captured. When this energy is combined with the water, and carbon dioxide a chemical reaction occurs producing glucose and oxygen. This procedure is required in order for cellular respiration to occur which is the process in which the energy is used and released. THEORY: Carbon dioxide is necessary for photosynthesis. The process of photosynthesis requires the presence of sunlight, H2O, and CO2. When the amount of carbon dioxide is increased by double, the rate of photosynthesis should also increase. The amount of carbon dioxide available increased because the amount of baking soda added was also doubled. The average amount of bubbles increased approximately 45%, in last year's data. This is proof that the rate of photosynthesis increased. In last year's data, the amount of baking soda increased from 0.5 grams to 1 gram. In 2012, 4 out of 5 classes had increased amounts of oxygen bubbles when the quantity of baking soda was doubled. The more baking soda you add, the more oxygen will be produced because that is one of the products of photosynthesis. PROCEDURE FOR CARBON DIOXIDE (BAKING SODA) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Measure and cut at an angle elodea 7 cm. Remove a few leaves from end of stem and slightly crush end of stem. Measure mass in grams and record. Put elodea stem side up in a test tube. Fill test tube with water and baking soda solution (1 gram to 100 mL of water). Put tube in rack and adjust lamp with blue light 5 cm from top of test tube. Turn on lamp and wait 1 minute. After 1 minute, begin counting small, medium and large bubbles for 3 minutes. Record data. 9. Repeat with .5 grams and 100mL of water. 10. Repeat for Trial 2 DATA/OBSERVATIONS:

Trial 1 ___grams Oxygen produced in 3 minutes with .5g and 1g of baking soda Small x 1 CO2 1 gram 1x1=1 Medium x 2 5 x 2 = 10 Large x 3 25 x 3 = 75 Total

Sofia Perozzi Science 7 Period: 2 11/14/13

1 + 10 + 75 = 86 4 + 54 + 24 = 82

.5 gram

4x1=4

27 x 2 = 54

8 x 3 = 24

Notes: Trial 1 had much higher amounts of oxygen bubbles with both 1 and 0.5 grams of baking soda. Trial 2 _____grams Oxygen produced in 3 minutes at 5 and 10 cm Small x 1 CO2 1 gram .5 gram 5x1=5 46 x 1= 46 Medium x 2 2x2=4 5 x 2 = 10 Large x 3 0x3=0 0X3=0 Total 5+4+0=9 46 + 10 + 0 = 56

Notes: Trial 2's lamp was positioned much higher than it was supposed to be. AVERAGES: Trial 1 Trial 2 Total/2 Average .5g 82 56 138/2 69 1g 86 9 95/2 47.5

Baking Soda
.5g CLASS PERIOD AVERAGES 1 2 3 4 6 7 TOTAL/5 1g % Oxygen Decrease/Increase

108 69 33.7 23.7 26.3 3.8 264.5/6

139 47 26.5 14.3 36.3 72.8 335.9/6

22.3% increase 31.9% decrease 21.4% decrease 39.7% decrease 27.5% increase 94.8% increase 21.25% increase

Sofia Perozzi Science 7 Period: 2 11/14/13


AVERAGE 44.1 56 21.25% increase

AVERAGE OXYGEN IN 3 MINUTES

COMPARISON OF CARBON DIOXIDE AND BAKING SODA


69 44.1 47 56

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.5 g

Period 2 7th Grade

1g BAKING SODA

CONCLUSION: In this lab, we studied how doubling the amount of carbon dioxide from .5g of bisodium carbonate dissolved in 100mL of water to 1g. dissolved in 100mL of water affect the rate of photosynthesis in elodea. I hypothesized that when the amount of carbon dioxide is doubled, by adding baking soda, the rate of photosynthesis will increase. This was shown from previous years in the data averages from each period in the 7th grade. This makes sense because the elements required in photosynthesis are carbon dioxide and water and adding baking soda increases the amount of carbon dioxide. However, my group had a decrease in data from an average amount of 69 oxygen bubbles when 0.5 grams of baking soda had been dissolved in 100 ml of water and 47 oxygen bubbles when 1 gram of baking soda with 100 ml of water had been mixed together. Therefore, I am questioning if we wrote the results down correctly and if we reversed the results. Based on last year's data, 4 out of 5 of the periods [80%] had increased amounts of oxygen bubbles when the amount of baking soda was doubled. The data from this year had shown that 3 out of 6 classes had an increase while 3 out of 6 classes had a decrease, [50%] and therefore it makes me think that something was performed inaccurately. Last year's data makes more sense and that causes me to believe that our group's information is incorrect in some way. I believe that our group could have possibly incorrectly input our data, or had done something to affect the lighting. These possible mistakes most likely caused discrepancy in the data and made the test unsuitable. My hypothesis was only correct/incorrect 50% of the time. ANALYSIS: Last year's data showed that when a larger amount of carbon dioxide is added, the rate of photosynthesis is increased. 4 out of 5 class periods that year showed an increase in oxygen bubbles. This year's data does not show the same results. My group had a decrease in data from an average amount of 47 oxygen bubbles when 1 gram of baking soda with 100

ml of water had been mixed together and 69 oxygen bubbles when 0.5 grams of baking soda had been dissolved in 100 ml of water. I am questioning the possibility that there could have been an error in our process. The discrepancy in the data most likely from writing the results down incorrectly, from reversing the results, counting the bubbles improperly, placing of the light or also the amount of light that had been absorbed by the elodea. The entire 7th grade's data showed that 3 out of 6 classes had an increase and the same number of periods also had a decrease [50%]. These factors are all possibilities of the caused discrepancy in the data and made this an unsuitable test. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Coolidge-Stolz M.D., Elizabeth, et al. Focus On Life Science. Boston, Mass: Prentice Hall, 2008. Young, Paul. The Botany Coloring Book. Cambridge, New York: Harper and Row, 1982.

Sofia Perozzi Science 7 Period: 2 11/14/13