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Lesson #11: Breads/Cereals

Course Title: Grade Level: Foods & Nutrition I 9-12 Dates: 11/6-11/26

Broad Concept: Food Preparation Sub-concept/topic: Leavening agents, breads & cereals, bread group nutrition, bread preparation techniques Recurring Concern: What should be done to teach children about different types of breads and the bread making process? Learner Outcomes: TLWBAT identify chemical, physical, and organic leavening agents TLWBAT perform several bread making techniques TLWBAT compare and contrast quick breads vs. yeast breads TLWBAT understand the process of dough proofing TLWBAT identify the differences between various bread batters and doughs based on the ingredients, characteristics, and mixing methods Key Questions: How do leavening agents cause doughs to rise? How does this process occur? What is yeast? What is the difference between chemical, physical, and organic leavening agents? What are some examples of physical, organic, and chemical leavening agents? What are the differences between quick breads and yeast breads? Why does dough need to proof? What is the fermentation process of yeast? What is required in a recipe for yeast to be effective as a leavening agent? Identify some different types of breads that we have learned about in this unit? Identify the different parts of the grain kernel? What is the purpose of kneading bread dough? Explain the difference between simple and complex carbohydrates. What three things must be present in a bread dough for yeast to work effectively? FCS Essential Learning and NE Standard: National Standards 8.2 Demonstrate food safety and sanitation procedures 8.5 Demonstrate professional food preparation methods and techniques for all menu categories to produce a variety of food products that meet customer needs Assessment: Formative Labs:

o o o o o o o o

Spaghetti and Garlic Bread Crpes Pancakes/Waffles French toast Muffins Biscuits Pretzels Cinnamon rolls

Summative Unit exam

Day #1-Set: (10 min) What can you tell me about breads? Anything you may already know about them! We have discussed them previously in the nutrition unit: we discussed their main nutrients, health benefits, etc. Are whole grain breads or refined grain breads going to be better for us? Do you recall the amount of grains we should be consuming each day? How many of those grains should be whole grain? What do carbohydrates provide for our bodies? Activity #1: (40 min) Pass out note packets on breads and cereals unit. Begin the notes on breads and cereals. o Students should draw the grain kernel model, labeling each of the parts o When going through each of the grain types, be sure to show the stock of those grains we have in the pantry. Letting students see what the grains actually look like. o Along the way continue asking students about their experiences with any of the grains. Have they eaten them? Have they heard of them? What ways were the grains cooked that they may have consumed them? Summary/Conclusion: We got about halfway through these notes today so we will complete them tomorrow. Make sure to bring them back with you!

Materials: Breads/Cereals note packets Breads/Cereals PowerPoint

Day #2 Set: (7 min) Bell ringer: What are some health benefits of whole grains? What substitutions or additions can you make in your own diet to include more whole grains to try to reach the USDAs suggested daily serving? o Directions will be posted on the board above the question. Tells students to sit down quietly and begin working on the question on the board. Be prepared to discuss your answers aloud. o Give students short time to respond to the question on the board about grains. They can write this on the back of their note packets or a scratch piece of paper. Have short discussion with students about their answers. Suggest some ways they can try to get more whole grains in their diets. Activity #1: (5-10 min) In todays news, FDA has come out and said that they believe trans fats are hazardous as ingredients in the foods we consume. Article online about the types of foods that would be banned if trans fats were to be banned from American food products. Ask students about their opinions on the article. o If the ingredient is hazardous to you and can be causing these health problems, do you think it is right the FDA would like to ban trans fats? o What sort of impact would this have on our society? o Just because the product tastes good, does that mean we should keep serving a hazardous product to communities? Is taste really more important to you than the long time health affects it might have on your body? (was a very very heated discussion, definitely worth doing again) Transition: Great discussion class, I enjoy hearing your input on the topic. The obesity epidemic in our country is a continuing and prevalent problem that the government may or may not have a place in trying to fix. Now lets get out our notes so we can complete the rest of the bread unit notes. Activity #2: (30 min) Complete the notes from the point students left off on. Star the questions to review for the test. Summary/Conclusion: Alright! Another set of unit notes in the books! We are going to be doing several labs in this unit so we will not be testing for about 2 weeks. Do not lose these notes; we will not be giving out any additional sets of notes from now on.

Day #3-Set: (5 min) Today we are going to be doing the spaghetti lab that we talked a little bit about yesterday. We will be
using boxed noodles and sauce from a jar. So, the only items we need to do other than that are the garlic bread and brown the hamburger meat for the sauce. Be sure to time this out properly, we dont want to not have enough time for you to eat. Start by boiling the water, this is what will take you the longest. Then get the hamburger starting to brown in your skillet. Last, you will use the rolls, butter the inside where you have cut them in half and sprinkle on some garlic salt and Parmesan cheese. We have used the broilers before when we made croutons, what are some of the rules that we have to remember when cooking with the broiler? Get the evaluation sheets passed out to students. They will fill them out and then pass them back to the demo table before going into labs.

Activity #1: (45 min) o Spaghetti and Garlic Bread lab Summary/Conclusion: o Using lab plan sheets check the kitchens for messes.

Day #4-Set:
Today I will be demonstrating some of the labs we will be completing over the next couple days. These labs use some equipment we havent discussed or used yet so I want to make sure that I give you the chance to see how they work so we have plenty of time to do the labs on lab days. Pick a student to help you with the demonstration.

Activity #1: (50 min)

The labs we have upcoming are crepes and then pancakes or waffles. Your group will have the choice of whether or not you do the waffles or pancakes. No..the batters are not the same so you must pick one! First we will get the crepe batter started. The three batters we will be making all have some differences to be paying attention to the differences in preparation and the final consistency of each. o Show how to put together the blender correctly o We want our crepe batters to be thin so we can achieve that thin structure. So, we will have a lot more liquid ingredients added into this recipe vs. the other two recipes. o We will use the blender for this batter only to make sure that it is very smooth and well mixed, as we might not be able to achieve that consistency with just a whisk. o We will add the liquid ingredients first and then the dry so the dry doesnt get all stuck on the bottom. o Run the blender on stir until smooth, maybe stopping once or twice to scrape it off the sides and move it around a little. o VOILA. Crepe batter. We will leave this set for a bit until we get the other batters done. Next, we will start our pancake batter. o We need to sift together our dry ingredients for this recipe. We can use either the strainers and pat them together but their holes are a little big, so we are going to use this sifter today. o We will get all of the dry ingredients measured out and then add it into the sifter to sift them together. o Now we begin out liquid ingredients to add into the flour. We will beat the eggs and add in the milk and oil. Add these into the dry ingredient mixture. o We know our batter should be lumpy, so how long should I mix the batter? What does our recipe say? Last, we will do the waffle batter. o This recipe is different than the others because of the beaten egg whites we add in to give the batter extra air and fluff. o We need to separate out the egg whites and yolks. We will use the electric mixers to beat the egg whites. o We will then fold in the egg whites into the rest of our batter to give it some air. We will fold it in to keep the fluffy texture of the eggs we just worked so hard to create. Wonderful! Now all of our batters are done! Lets start with making the crepes. o There are a few different pieces of equipment we can use to make the crepes. We have these very shallow skillets with straight sloping sides, the Teflon skillets, and this electric crepe maker. o I will show you how to use all three of these, as you will all be using one of the three of them. o DEMONSTRATE EQUIPMENT USE o Make sure our heat is not too high when using the skillets, it will burn the crepes and end up causing you an extra headache. There are 3 different types of waffle makers as well. We have the ones that can be flipped upside down or the ones that the top just folds down. o It is very important that you spray the waffle irons with cooking spray before the first time you use it so the waffles do not stick. o Only some of the irons will ding when they are done, some of them you will need to be paying close attention to the amount of time they are cooking.

And lastly, we will prepare the pancakes. We can use the griddles to prepare the pancakes. You can do about four at a time, dropping the batter onto the pan with a measuring cup, rather than trying to pour the whole bowl for each.

Summary/Conclusion: Hang on to that information in the back of your head. Remember about your cleaning in this lab: o You will need to be sure to clean up your stovetops if you are making pancakes Im sure there will be batter everywhere. o If you are using the waffle makers, those need to be wiped off well to get off any excess crumbs, grease, and batter overflow. o The sifters also need to be washed off with just a damp rag, you should not be submerging those in water! They will rust!! Be ready to cook and eat! The last three days of this week will be labs! Materials: o Equip: o Waffle irons o Griddle o Crepe pans and electric crepe maker o Ingredients for batters o Mixing equipment o Breads/Cereals recipe bookets

Day #5-Set: (5 min) o Yesterday I was able to demonstrate the crepes for you. That will be todays lab. o On the demo table, in addition to the ingredients for your crepes, I have fruit pie fillings for the French crepes, and corn syrup and butter for the Swedish crepes. Please choose one or the other. There are boxes of lemon pudding mix that you could mix up if you would like. There are some other toppings there as well. Chocolate syrup, powdered sugar, strawberry syrup, whipped topping, etc. Please take all these toppings and fillings in moderation. Dont waste all those ingredients; I have several classes that would like to use them too. o Lastly, the crepe skillets are up at the demo table. There are only two so make sure if you are one of the kitchens to use one that you are returning it when you are done and have cleaned it. The electric crepe makers are also here at the front. Make sure those are well cleaned before returning them. If you are using a skillet, make sure that it is a Teflon coated skillet! Activity #1: (45 min) o Crepe lab

Day #6-Set: (5 min) o Moving on to the next lab, today we will be making pancakes or waffles. Your groups need to choose
whether you would like to make pancakes or waffles. If you are the odd ball in your group that does not want to make what the rest of the group is making, you can maybe move around to another group that is making the other. Make sure you are asking me first before moving groups. My waffle people: you NEED to be sure you are separating the yolks and whites, and do not throw out the yolk, you need it! The recipes are both very different, make sure you are following the correct one so you do not have soupy waffles!

o o

Activity #1: (45 min) o Pancake/waffle lab

Day #7-Set: (5 min) o Last lab of the week! Today we will be doing French toast. All of the ingredients are set out and ready for you. No demonstration for this lab, make sure you are following all your directions and the recipe and you will do just fine! Do not take more bread that the 4 that are listed, we have a limited supply for all the classes! o Make sure you are not using high heat on your griddles. The butter on the pan WILL BURN if the pan is too hot! Activity #1: (40 min) o French toast lab Transition: o Bring up your lab plans and evaluation sheets please. I am going to go around and check the kitchens once your labs are completed and cleaned. Please come sit down so we can discuss one more thing! Activity #2: (5 min) o We are going to be doing muffins and biscuits next week. On Monday we will be having a little demonstration about muffins and biscuits. Also on Monday, you will have the chance to choose what kind of muffins your groups would like to make. So, over the weekend, if you a recipe for muffins at home that you would like to bring in, please do it! We need to have it here Monday though, if not we will not know what ingredients we need to purchase. o If you have smart phones in your group, you will be able to use those on Monday to find a recipe online. Try thinking outside the box! I would love to see some creative and unique muffins! Think fruits, flavoring chips, vegetables, anything that could be baked into a muffinwithout hazard of course!

Day #8-Set: o So, back in the dark ages when family and consumer science classes were still called Home Economics, there was always a lesson about baking muffins. These students would learn how to make the PERFECT MUFFIN. Anyone have any idea what they might have meant by the perfect muffin? What problems can happen easily with the final product of muffins that they were trying to teach children how to correct? o Muffins, if we mix the batter too much, will have tunnels in them. We want our muffins when we cut them open to be even throughout. No tunnels! Here are some First off, I would like to have one student to help me out again today. We are going to be mixing up some small batters for muffins and biscuits as a short demonstration. Please turn in the recipe packets in front of you to todays recipes!

o o

Activity #1: (needs to be quick, need 20 min for muffins to bake) o Walk through the steps of the recipe for the muffin batter. Having the students talk you through the amounts of ingredients and the steps involved. o Let the student helper mix up half of a recipe and you will mix the other half. o When at the step when the liquid will be added to the dry: o I just talked to you about how muffins, if over mixed, will have holes in the crumb of the final product. In order to avoid this, we are going to mix our liquid and dry ingredients ONLY until all of the dry ingredients have been moistened and we can no longer see clumps of dry ingredients. If we continue stirring and stirring and stirring, we will have some problems with our muffins. o So, I am going to mix my batter until the dry ingredients are JUST moistened and I will have ____________ (aid) continue stirring the batter for an additional 45 second or minute or so. When the muffins are baked, we will be able to compare the differences in the two! Transition: o Lets get them in the pans and into the oven! These will take about 20-25 minutes to bake so in the meantime we will begin our next activity. Activity #2: o Next I would like you to get together with your lab groups. You can move around the room and sit together. Your job is to pick out the recipes that you would like to make tomorrow with the muffin lab. Make sure one group member has a piece of paper to write down the entire recipe ingredient list and directions. You will not be able to use a phone tomorrow to look off the ingredients so I need you to write EVERYTHING down. o So move into your groups and start planning. As I mentioned Friday, you will be able to use smart phones to look up recipes. o If you have some questions or need some ideas, please ask! I will do my best to help you out! o Please work efficiently, we do not have much time, I need this done today! You have about 1520 minutes to do this.

Activity #3: o When you are done, bring up your written out recipe to the demonstration table. o I have a short 5 minute clip pulled up on biscuit making that we can watch while we let the muffins finish and cool. This is just a short video from Alton Browns show (start episode at 1:40). He is making a healthier version but the method is fairly similar. Of mixing together the ingredients. Activity #4: o Our muffins are just about done, so we can compare the differences in the muffins we just mixed up, during the demonstration. o Cut open the two muffins and let the students see the difference in consistency between the two crumbs. Summary/Conclusion: o Tomorrow we will be making the muffin recipes you have chosen and Wednesday we will be working on the biscuits!

Day #9 Set: (5 min) Pass out the recipes students turned in for their muffin selections, evaluation sheets, and lab plans. Tell students additional instructions about location of baking papers, muffin tins, and other ingredients they may need. Put up your hair ladies and everyone remove jackets so you do not have sleeves hanging in the way! Activity #1: (45 min) Students will complete the muffin lab using the recipes they selected from the previous day. Should finish with plenty of time left in the class period, will be able to take the left over muffins with them. Summary/Conclusion: Tomorrow we will be making biscuits; using the method will be very close to the method I showed from the Alton Brown video yesterday. Make sure you have brought up your lab plans so I can check your kitchens.

Day #10 Set: Today is the biscuit lab. I wanted to go over a few things with you to remind you of some important steps. First, you will need to knead the dough, folding it over and back a few times in order to create the layers of the biscuit that we desire! Then we will need to press the dough out until it is about inch thick and use the biscuit cutters I have placed in your labs to cut out the dough. Make sure you are pressing STRAIGHT DOWN into the dough with the cutters, twisting, and then pulling out so that we can get biscuits that dont lean over! Activity #1: I will pass around your evaluation sheets and lab plans. Make sure your jackets are off, hair is up, and you are washing your hands! Get to work!

Summary/Conclusion: A lot of great work today, everyone! The biscuits turned out great! If your biscuits are for some reason still in the oven, make sure you go check in with your next class teacher and come back to get them. Tomorrow we will be doing a demo on making pretzels. There are several steps to pretzel making to be sure to be paying attention! We will be preparing the pretzels as a class the following day.

Day #11 Set: As I mentioned yesterday, today is the pretzel lab demonstration. I will need two people to help me up here today. For right now, however, I only need one. Is there anyone who would like to help me? You will be doing a lot of the mixing as I am getting everything ready for the next step! There is a lot to be done in a short period of time! Activity #1: First lets start our pot of water on the stove so it will be boiling by the time we need it. This is an important first step so that we do not have to wait on the water later on. We have enough to do, lets not make this something we need to worry about! Put a lid on the pot and just keep an eye on it so it does not boil over. Now that I have my helper, class what is the temperature range of the water that I need to stay in in order for my yeast to be effective? Good! So I am going to get some hot water and use my thermometer that can be found on top of the knife toolbox to test the temperature of the water. Now that I am in the safe range that my recipe tells me, I can go ahead and put the yeast into the water and stir it in. We will then add this water/yeast mixture into the mixing bowl so we can start adding our ingredients. This recipe calls for two different types of flour, what are those two different types? Yes! Bread AND All-Purpose flour. Which flour am I going to be adding first? Make sure that you are paying attention to which flour it is that you need, you have the all-purpose flour in your kitchens but you will need to get the bread flour from the demonstration table tomorrow when you are collecting your ingredients. Now that we have combined all of our ingredients and the dough ball isnt so sticky anymore, we are going to run the Kitchen Aid mixer on a setting of about 5 for 2 minutes. So lets set our timer helper and run it for 2 minutes. Our dough appears to be done, so lets get it out and using our bench scraper we can cut it into 12 different pieces. Take each of those pieces, roll them out into ropes about 15 long, and then following the directions in the recipe we will form our pretzels! (Demo the motion using the camera for the projector) Lastly, we need to take all of our formed pretzels and using a slotted spoon drop them into the baking soda/water mixture on the stove. The pretzel will sink, and then float back to the top when it is done. We will place the pretzels on a greased baking sheet and salt them before putting them into the oven! Summary/Conclusion: That is it for today, make sure you remember the main order of the steps in making the pretzels. Sticking to this order will help you to be on time tomorrow. All of the group members need to be working tomorrow to keep everything running smoothly!

Day #12-Set: Yesterdays demonstration on pretzels was long but we had a lot of steps to do. You will be the same way! Make sure everyone is working, you get the water on the stove right away, and you are starting to mix the dough together. I dont want to keep you long, so I will pass around your evaluation sheets and lab plans to your kitchens, get those filled out and brought back up to me! Jackets off, hair up, hands washed!!

Activity #1: Students complete the pretzel lab Summary/Conclusion: Monday you will be doing cinnamon rolls. This is also a yeast bread like the pretzels, however we will be letting them proof overnight so you will be eating them on Tuesday before you go on break. Also, Tuesday will be your test over the breads and cereals unit. Make sure you are looking over your notes over the weekend! We will have a review Tuesday while you are eating your cinnamon rolls.

Day #13-Set: Today is the first day of the cinnamon roll lab. This is also a yeast bread, however today we are going to give the bread time to proof, we did not do this with the pretzel lab. We will be leaving the cinnamon rolls in the refrigerator overnight and then baking them tomorrow. You do not need to make the frosting today, that will be tomorrows activity as the cinnamon rolls are baking. I will pass out your evaluation sheets and lab plans, fill these in and bring them up to me before heading off to your kitchens. Hair up, jackets off, hands washed!

Activity #1: Students will complete day one of the cinnamon roll lab. Summary/Conclusion: Make sure all of your trays of cinnamon rolls are labeled and put in the refrigerator. The tray should not be squishing any other groups cinnamon rolls! Tomorrow when you come in I will have the trays of rolls set out for you, make sure you pop them in the oven when you get here! Have a good day!

Day #14 Set: Your rolls should already be in your kitchens. Make sure you get those in the oven right away! They take a while to bake. As the rolls are baking, you will be putting together your frosting that will go on top of the rolls. Make sure you are using just a little bit more milk if the frosting is too thick, however, the frosting will melt a little bit when it is added to the top of the hot cinnamon rolls. Also, I have these review sheets here, I will give two to each lab group. They are folded in half, the front has the question, the flip side has the answer. You can quiz yourself and a partner as you are waiting on your cinnamon rolls. This will be your review for the exam. I know this is a little different than before, but it is still covering just as much as the review games would! Take advantage of this opportunity. In the last 20 minutes we will be taking the exam. Hair up, jackets off, hands washed! Activity #1: Students will bake cinnamon rolls and prepare frosting. Frost their cinnamon rolls and be asked to come sit down ready to take breads/cereals unit exam. Transition: Okay, come sit down please, I need to collect the review sheets. I will not be passing out the exam until I have all 10/12 of the reviews. Pass out exam, pick up cell phones.

Summary/Conclusion: That is all I have for you today! Have a wonderful thanksgiving break and I will see you all back on Monday!

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