Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 30

AQA GCSE Science Biology

Keeping Healthy

AQA GCSE Science Biology Keeping Healthy Name: ……………………………………… . Steve Bishop October 2013

Name: ……………………………………….

Steve Bishop

October 2013

B1.1 Keeping Healthy

Summary

A combination of a balanced diet and regular exercise is needed to help keep the body healthy. You should be able to:

evaluate information about the effect of food on health

evaluate information about the effect of lifestyle on development of disease

analyse and evaluate claims made by slimming programmes, and slimming products.

B1.1.1 Diet and Exercise

Key terms

Diet

Minerals

Nutrients

Malnourishment

Carbohydrate

Overweight

Fat

Deficiency

Energy

Diabetes

Insulation

Inherited

Protein

Metabolic rate

Vitamins

Obese

Healthy Diet

A healthy diet contains the right balance of the different foods you need and the right amount of energy.Metabolic rate Vitamins Obese Healthy Diet These foods should provide the following nutrient groups: o

These foods should provide the following nutrient groups:the different foods you need and the right amount of energy. o Carbohydrates for energy and

o

Carbohydrates for energy and to make cell structures

o

Fat for energy and insulation and cell structures

o

Protein to control cell reactions (as enzymes) and to build cell structures

o

Vitamins and minerals to help our bodies function well.

Malnourishment

A person is malnourished if their diet is not balanced.minerals to help our bodies function well. Malnourishment This may lead to a person being overweight

This may lead to a person being overweight or underweight.A person is malnourished if their diet is not balanced. An unbalanced diet may also lead

An unbalanced diet may also lead to diseases.This may lead to a person being overweight or underweight. Lack of essential nutrients in the

Lack of essential nutrients in the diet can lead to deficiency diseases.underweight. An unbalanced diet may also lead to diseases. Excess intake of high energy foods can

Excess intake of high energy foods can lead to type 2 diabetes.nutrients in the diet can lead to deficiency diseases. o This is a disease where the

o

This is a disease where the person is unable to control the levels of sugar in their blood.

o

This is very dangerous, and the person must carefully control their diet and monitor their blood sugar levels regularly.

Slimming programmes

A person gains mass when the energy content of the food taken in is more

A

person gains mass when the energy content of the food taken in is more than the

amount of energy expended by the body.

A person loses mass when the energy content of the food taken in is less

A

person loses mass when the energy content of the food taken in is less than the

amount of energy expended by the body.

An effective slimming programme advises people to reduce the energy content of their food, and

An effective slimming programme advises people to reduce the energy content of their food, and to increase the amount they exercise.

Some slimming programmes encourage people to consume a low proportion of one of the nutrient

Some slimming programmes encourage people to consume a low proportion of one of the nutrient groups in their diet. This may enable them to lose weight, but it will not necessarily be a sensible, healthy diet.

Exercise

Exercise increases the amount of energy expended by the body.will not necessarily be a sensible, healthy diet. Exercise People who exercise regularly are usually healthier

People who exercise regularly are usually healthier than people who take little exercise.increases the amount of energy expended by the body. They expend more energy and their circulatory

They expend more energy and their circulatory system becomes more efficient.are usually healthier than people who take little exercise. They are likely to have lower blood

They are likely to have lower blood pressure, and less likely to be overweight.energy and their circulatory system becomes more efficient. Metabolic rate This is the rate at which

Metabolic rate

This is the rate at which all the chemical reactions in the cells of the body are carried out.pressure, and less likely to be overweight. Metabolic rate One major set of metabolic reactions is

One major set of metabolic reactions is respiration.chemical reactions in the cells of the body are carried out. The rate of these reactions

The rate of these reactions vary with the amount of activity you do.out. One major set of metabolic reactions is respiration. The more activity, the more energy is

The more activity, the more energy is required by the body.of these reactions vary with the amount of activity you do. Metabolic rate also varies with

Metabolic rate also varies with respect to the proportion of muscle to fat in your body.The more activity, the more energy is required by the body. The higher the proportion of

The higher the proportion of muscle to fat, the higher the metabolic rate.respect to the proportion of muscle to fat in your body. Exercise increases the proportion of

Exercise increases the proportion of muscle to fat.proportion of muscle to fat, the higher the metabolic rate. Inheritance Inherited factors can influence our

Inheritance

Inherited factors can influence our health.increases the proportion of muscle to fat. Inheritance We can inherit genes from our parents which

We can inherit genes from our parents which can influence our metabolic rate.fat. Inheritance Inherited factors can influence our health. We can also inherit genes which influence our

We can also inherit genes which influence our cholesterol level.from our parents which can influence our metabolic rate. Cholesterol is a substance that our body

Cholesterol is a substance that our body creates from fat that we consume in our diet.also inherit genes which influence our cholesterol level. Cholesterol is needed to make cell membranes. However,

Cholesterol is needed to make cell membranes.that our body creates from fat that we consume in our diet. However, too much cholesterol

However, too much cholesterol can increase the chance of cardio-vascular diseases, such as strokes, heart attacks and thrombosis.a substance that our body creates from fat that we consume in our diet. Cholesterol is

A healthy diet

A healthy diet Look at the food labels and complete this table Type of food Energy

Look at the food labels and complete this table

Type of food Energy (kJ/ Nutrient per 100 g 100g) Carbohydrate Fats Protein Fibre
Type of food
Energy (kJ/
Nutrient per 100 g
100g)
Carbohydrate
Fats
Protein
Fibre

For a healthy diet we need these important nutrients Protein needed for cell growth and repair Carbohydrates provides energy Fats and oils provides energy and warmth Vitamins and Minerals - needed for health, to fight diseases Water keeps the body hydrated Fibre helps digestion

Without a balanced diet we can become malnourished. We can have a lack of important nutrients.

Obesity If someone is obese they are extremely overweight. Obesity can lead to heart problems, to high blood pressure, to diabetes type 2 and to arthritis.

To lose weight we need more exercise and to reduce the amount of food we eat; particularly fats such as in chips, crisps and biscuits.

Metabolic rate Our metabolic rate is how quickly our bodies use up our energy resources. Metabolism is the chemical reactions in our body’s cells. The higher the metabolic rate the more we use up our energy resources. We can increase our metabolic rate by exercising. We all have different metabolic rates. Men usually have a higher metabolic rate than women.

Now try these

Use a dictionary and / or the Internet to make your own definition of these terms:

Obese

Malnourished

Nutrient

Metabolic rate

What is meant by the term a ‘healthy diet’?

Fill in the blanks with the correct terms Complete the table

Research How many calories a day can a man eat? How many calories a day can women eat? Why the difference?

 

Needed for:

Found in:

Vitamins and

 

Fruits, vegetables, eggs, milk, meat

minerals

Carbohydrates

   

Protein

cell growth and repair

 

Fibre

   

Fats and oils

   

Food Test Practical

Iodine Test for Starch

Crush a small amount of the food sample using a pestle and mortar.

Put some of the sample in the well of a dimpled tile.

Add a few drops of Iodine Solution. If the food contains STARCH the solution will go blue/black.

Biuret Test for Protein Place small amount of the sample in a test tube. Add 2ml of Sodium Hydroxide. Add Copper Sulphate drop by drop. If the pale blue colour turns purple, PROTEIN is present.

Benedict’s Test for Sugar Place a small amount of sample in a Boiling tube. Add 2ml of Benedict’s solution. Place Boiling tube in water bath for 2-3 mins. If the food contains SUGAR an orange/red precipitate is produced.

Emulsion Test for Fat Place a small bit of the sample into a test tube and add 3ml of ethanol.

Mix together and add 3ml of water.

Shake gently. If a milky white suspension is formed this indicates the presence of FAT.

Food Starch? Protein? Sugar? Fat?
Food
Starch?
Protein?
Sugar?
Fat?

Diet and exercise questions

1. List the main food groups in a healthy diet

2. What might happen to a person if their diet is not balanced?

3. Name three deficiency diseases

4. How can exercise help in losing weight?

5. What inherited factors may affect our health?

6. What is the term metabolic rate?

7. The table shows six different meals A-F

Key terms

Deficiency

Inherited

Metabolic rate

Obese

Key terms Deficiency Inherited Metabolic rate Obese Which meal contains the least sugar? Which meal contains

Which meal contains the least sugar? Which meal contains most energy? Which meal contains the most salt?

The recommended daily amount of fat for a woman is 80g A woman eats meal D. What proportion of the recommended daily amount of fat does she get?

Which meal is the healthiest? Give two reasons for your answer.

8.

Many people are obese (very overweight).

Obesity can lead to heart disease. Other than heart disease, name two conditions which are linked to obesity.

9. The graph shows the number of deaths from heart disease each year in the UK.

the number of deaths from heart disease each year in the UK. (a) The pattern for

(a) The pattern for deaths from heart disease in men is different from the pattern in women.

Give two differences between the patterns for men and women.

(b) Suggest two reasons for the difference in the number of deaths from heart disease in

men and women between the ages of 40 and 60.

10. Scientists estimate that about one third of cancers in the UK may be linked to obesity. Name two other diseases linked to obesity.

The graph shows the changes in the cancer rate and the changes in the percentage of obese adults in the UK from 1995 to 2006.

shows the changes in the cancer rate and the changes in the percentage of obese adults

(a)

Does the data in the graph prove that obesity causes cancer?

(b)

Explain the reason for your answer.

(c)

Exercise helps a person to lose weight.

Explain why.

11.

(b) Explain the reason for your answer. (c) Exercise helps a person to lose weight. Explain
(b) Explain the reason for your answer. (c) Exercise helps a person to lose weight. Explain
10 |
10 |

B 1.1.2 Infectious Disease

Summary Our bodies provide an excellent environment for many microbes which can make us ill once they are inside us. Our bodies need to stop most microbes getting in and deal with any microbes which do get in. Vaccination can be used to prevent infection.

You should be able to:

relate the contribution of Semmelweiss in controlling infection to solving modern problems with the spread of infection in hospitals

explain how the treatment of disease has changed as a result of increased understanding

of the action of antibiotics and immunity

evaluate the consequences of mutations of bacteria and viruses in relation to epidemics and pandemics

evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of being vaccinated against a particular disease.

Key terms

Pathogens

Vaccine

Disease

Immunity

Microorganisms

Antibody

Bacteria

Antigen

Viruses

Pandemic

Toxins

Epidemic

Antibiotics

Mutation

Agar

Fighting disease

Classify these statements into True, not sure, false.

 

True

Not sure

False

Some pathogens make you ill.

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

All pathogens are bacteria.

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

Infectious diseases are not caused by living organisms.

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

Some pathogens can be spread between organisms very easily.

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

Infectious diseases are not caused by living organisms.

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

Vaccinations can wear off after time.

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

Painkillers kill off pathogens.

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

Antibiotics are helpful to destroy viruses.

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

Pathogens Microorganisms that cause infectious disease are called pathogens.

Disease occurs when large numbers of pathogenic micro-organisms enter the body.that cause infectious disease are called pathogens. Bacteria Not all bacteria are pathogens. Pathogenic bacteria

large numbers of pathogenic micro-organisms enter the body. Bacteria Not all bacteria are pathogens. Pathogenic bacteria

Bacteria

Not all bacteria are pathogens.of pathogenic micro-organisms enter the body. Bacteria Pathogenic bacteria reproduce rapidly inside the body and

Pathogenic bacteria reproduce rapidly inside the body and may produce poisons (toxins) which make us feel ill.enter the body. Bacteria Not all bacteria are pathogens. Example: E.coli produces toxins that cause fever

Example: E.coli produces toxins that cause fever symptoms when we have food poisoning. E.coli produces toxins that cause fever symptoms when we have food poisoning.

Viruses Viruses are much smaller than bacteria. All viruses are pathogens. Viruses also produce toxins and they damage the cells in which they reproduce, leading to illness. Viruses replicate by invading cells, reproducing inside them and bursting them. This causes damage to tissues, leading to illness.

them. This causes damage to tissues, leading to illness. Examples: o HIV damages white blood cells,
them. This causes damage to tissues, leading to illness. Examples: o HIV damages white blood cells,
them. This causes damage to tissues, leading to illness. Examples: o HIV damages white blood cells,
them. This causes damage to tissues, leading to illness. Examples: o HIV damages white blood cells,
them. This causes damage to tissues, leading to illness. Examples: o HIV damages white blood cells,

Examples:them. This causes damage to tissues, leading to illness. o HIV damages white blood cells, reducing

o

HIV damages white blood cells, reducing immunity and leading to AIDS.

o

Influenza virus released toxins which cause aches and fever symptoms.

reducing immunity and leading to AIDS. o Influenza virus released toxins which cause aches and fever

Virus replication Use the information above to complete the diagram and table

Use the information above to complete the diagram and table stage Description 1   2  

stage

Description

1

 

2

 

3

 

4

 

5

 

6

 

Virus or bacteria? Are the following viruses or bacteria?

TETANUS TB FOOD POSIONING

AIDS

SORE THROAT

COMMON COLD

CHICKEN POX

RUBELLA

MUMPS

Virus

Virus Bacteria

Bacteria

Virus Bacteria

Which goes where? Look at these statements do they apply to both bacteria and viruses or only one?

single-celled microorganisms require living hosts killed by antibiotics can cause infections or diseases doesn’t have a nucleus too small to be seen by the naked eye

Place them in the correct box

Same

Only virus

Only bacteria

The immune system The body has different ways of protecting itself against pathogens. White blood cells defend our internal environment from pathogens These form part of our immune system. There are various types of white blood cells:

immune system. There are various types of white blood cells: Cells that ingest and destroy microorganisms
immune system. There are various types of white blood cells: Cells that ingest and destroy microorganisms
immune system. There are various types of white blood cells: Cells that ingest and destroy microorganisms
immune system. There are various types of white blood cells: Cells that ingest and destroy microorganisms
immune system. There are various types of white blood cells: Cells that ingest and destroy microorganisms

Cells that ingest and destroy microorganisms

blood cells: Cells that ingest and destroy microorganisms Cells that produce antitoxins that destroy toxins released

Cells that produce antitoxins that destroy toxins released by pathogensblood cells: Cells that ingest and destroy microorganisms Cells that produce antibodies that destroy specific

Cells that produce antibodies that destroy specific pathogens:produce antitoxins that destroy toxins released by pathogens o They produce specific antibodies to kill a

o

They produce specific antibodies to kill a particular pathogen.

o

This leads to immunity from that pathogen.

o

The body is able to rapidly produce large numbers of the specific antibodies if it is exposed to the same pathogen in the future.

o

In some cases, dead or inactivated pathogens stimulate antibody production.

o

This also leads to immunity.

In some cases, dead or inactivated pathogens stimulate antibody production. o This also leads to immunity.

The skin: defend and protect

Watch this clip:

and answer these questions

What is the body’s first line of defence?

What is on the surface of the skin that could cause infection?

How many skin cells a day do we loose?

How does this help the body’s defences?

What is dehydration?

What is sebum secretion?

How does it help stop dehydration?

How Humans heal themselves

Watch this clip and answer the questions

How does the body help to defend us?

What helps stop bleeding?

What stringy protein helps form scabs

What produces the purple colour of the black eye?

What do macrophages do?

What give red blood cells their colour?

Dr Ignaz Semmelweiss death on their hands

Who was Dr Semmelweiss Watch these video clips and answer the questions.

In which country was Semmelwiess born?

Why did more mothers die when delivered by doctors than by midwives?

What was his simple life-saving idea?

Why did it take a long time for his ideas to become accepted?

What is septicemia?

GCSE-style question

idea? Why did it take a long time for his ideas to become accepted? What is

In the 19th century, Dr Semmelweiss investigated infection in a hospital. He compared the number of deaths of mothers on two maternity wards (see above)

• On Ward 1, babies were delivered mainly by doctors. These doctors worked on many different wards in the hospital.

• On Ward 2, babies were delivered by midwives. The midwives did not work on other wards. The bar chart shows the results of his investigations. 600 mothers gave birth on Ward 2 in 1845. How many mothers died from infections on Ward 2 in 1845?

Which was the safer ward on which to have a baby?

In January 1848, Dr Semmelweiss asked all doctors to wash their hands before delivering babies.

The table shows the number of deaths on the two wards in 1848.

table shows the number of deaths on the two wards in 1848. What was the effect

What was the effect on the death rate on Ward 1 of doctors washing their hands before delivering babies?

What might the reason be?

Preventing transmission

In the 1850s Semmelweiss recognised the importance of hand-washing in the preventionbabies? What might the reason be? Preventing transmission of spreading some infectious diseases. He insisted that

of spreading some infectious diseases.

He insisted that medical students washed their hands before delivering babies.in the prevention of spreading some infectious diseases. This resulted in doctors washing their hands before

This resulted in doctors washing their hands before and after examining patients.students washed their hands before delivering babies. This greatly reduced the number of deaths from infectious

This greatly reduced the number of deaths from infectious diseases in his hospital.washing their hands before and after examining patients. This idea was not readily accepted – people

This idea was not readily accepted – people were not aware of microorganisms. people were not aware of microorganisms.

Nowadays, it is standard practice for people to wash hands after treating patients, toreadily accepted – people were not aware of microorganisms. prevent disease being transmitted to other patients.

prevent disease being transmitted to other patients.

Using drugs to treat disease Some medicines, including painkillers, help to relieve the symptoms of infectious disease, but do not kill the pathogens. Antibiotics are medicines that help to cure bacterial disease by killing infective bacteria inside the body. Eg penicillin Antibiotics cannot be used to kill viral pathogens, which live and reproduce inside cells. It is difficult to develop drugs which kill viruses without also damaging the body’s tissues. It is important that specific bacteria should be treated by specific antibiotics. Antibiotics kill bacteria inside the body. The use of antibiotics has greatly reduced deaths from infectious bacterial diseases.

greatly reduced deaths from infectious bacterial diseases. Antibiotic resistance Overuse and inappropriate use of
greatly reduced deaths from infectious bacterial diseases. Antibiotic resistance Overuse and inappropriate use of
greatly reduced deaths from infectious bacterial diseases. Antibiotic resistance Overuse and inappropriate use of
greatly reduced deaths from infectious bacterial diseases. Antibiotic resistance Overuse and inappropriate use of
greatly reduced deaths from infectious bacterial diseases. Antibiotic resistance Overuse and inappropriate use of
greatly reduced deaths from infectious bacterial diseases. Antibiotic resistance Overuse and inappropriate use of
greatly reduced deaths from infectious bacterial diseases. Antibiotic resistance Overuse and inappropriate use of

Antibiotic resistance Overuse and inappropriate use of antibiotics has increased the rate of development of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. Pathogenic bacteria mutate, producing resistant strains. Antibiotics kill individual pathogens of the non-resistant strain. Individual resistant pathogens survive and reproduce, so the population of the resistant strain increases. Antibiotics and vaccinations may no longer be effective against a new resistant strain of the pathogen. The new strain will then spread rapidly because people are not immune to it and there is no effective treatment. Many strains of bacteria, including MRSA, have developed resistance to antibiotics as a result of natural selection. These bacteria can enter the body through wounds and cuts. Healthy people’s white blood cells would quickly destroy these bacteria. People who are ill in hospital are likely to have reduced immunity to bacterial disease, and become infected more easily.

who are ill in hospital are likely to have reduced immunity to bacterial disease, and become
who are ill in hospital are likely to have reduced immunity to bacterial disease, and become
who are ill in hospital are likely to have reduced immunity to bacterial disease, and become
who are ill in hospital are likely to have reduced immunity to bacterial disease, and become
who are ill in hospital are likely to have reduced immunity to bacterial disease, and become
who are ill in hospital are likely to have reduced immunity to bacterial disease, and become
who are ill in hospital are likely to have reduced immunity to bacterial disease, and become
who are ill in hospital are likely to have reduced immunity to bacterial disease, and become
who are ill in hospital are likely to have reduced immunity to bacterial disease, and become
who are ill in hospital are likely to have reduced immunity to bacterial disease, and become
who are ill in hospital are likely to have reduced immunity to bacterial disease, and become

What can be done?

Doctor’s should only prescribe antibiotics when necessary – and not for viruses.

Doctor’s should only prescribe antibiotics when necessary – and not for viruses.

It is important that if you are prescribed antibiotics you take the whole course.

It

is important that if you are prescribed antibiotics you take the whole course.

 

o

A lot of people will stop taking the antibiotic when they feel better.

o

If you do this, you leave a few bacteria inside your body.

o

These will reproduce, increasing the chance of some developing resistance.

Scientists are trying to develop new versions of the antibiotics.

Scientists are trying to develop new versions of the antibiotics.

Some antibiotics are developed but not used – just in case.

Some antibiotics are developed but not used just in case.

Epidemics and Pandemics

Epidemics – diseases that spread widely through one country. diseases that spread widely through one country.

Pandemics – diseases that spread through several countries. diseases that spread through several countries.

Eg Influenza

A viral disease.

A

viral disease.

Most people recover in a week.

Most people recover in a week.

People who are old or very young or already ill can die.

People who are old or very young or already ill can die.

Different strains of influenza affect other animals.

Different strains of influenza affect other animals.

These rarely affect humans, because humans need to directly contact an infected animal.

These rarely affect humans, because humans need to directly contact an infected animal.

Humans that are infected may be more likely to die than if they had human

Humans that are infected may be more likely to die than if they had human influenza.

Most of these viruses cannot be transmitted from human to human.

Most of these viruses cannot be transmitted from human to human.

However, there are concerns that the viruses could mutate and become able to be transmitted

However, there are concerns that the viruses could mutate and become able to be transmitted between humans.

If it does this, it will start off by causing an epidemic, which may spread

If

it does this, it will start off by causing an epidemic, which may spread to become a

 

pandemic.

Many people could die, particularly very old people, very young people, and people who are

Many people could die, particularly very old people, very young people, and people who are already ill.

Immunisation

If a large proportion of the population is immune to a pathogen, the spread of

If

a large proportion of the population is immune to a pathogen, the spread of the

pathogen is very much reduced.

Eg small pox was completely eradicated by the 1970s.

Eg small pox was completely eradicated by the 1970s.

People can be immunised against a disease by introducing small quantities of dead or inactive

People can be immunised against a disease by introducing small quantities of dead or inactive forms of the pathogen into the body (vaccination).

Vaccines stimulate the white blood cells to produce antibodies that destroy the pathogens.

Vaccines stimulate the white blood cells to produce antibodies that destroy the pathogens.

This makes the person immune to future infections by the microorganism.

This makes the person immune to future infections by the microorganism.

The body can respond by rapidly making the correct antibody, in the same way as

The body can respond by rapidly making the correct antibody, in the same way as if the person had previously had the disease.

An example is the MMR vaccine used to protect children against measles, mumps and rubella.

An example is the MMR vaccine used to protect children against measles, mumps and rubella.

Growing Microoganisms

Microorganisms = organisms that can only be viewed with a microscope.Growing Microoganisms Eg bacteria, viruses and fungi. Uncontaminated cultures of microorganisms are required for

Eg bacteria, viruses and fungi.= organisms that can only be viewed with a microscope. Uncontaminated cultures of microorganisms are required

Uncontaminated cultures of microorganisms are required for investigating the action of disinfectants and antibiotics.be viewed with a microscope. Eg bacteria, viruses and fungi. It is important that the culture

It is important that the culture is not contaminated with other microorganisms that may compete for nutrients or produce toxins.investigating the action of disinfectants and antibiotics. Careful procedures are required to prevent potentially

Careful procedures are required to prevent potentially pathogenic microorganisms being released into the environment.that may compete for nutrients or produce toxins. Culturing microorganisms To study microorganisms, they need

Culturing microorganisms

To study microorganisms, they need to be cultured.released into the environment. Culturing microorganisms They need to be provided with the conditions they need

They need to be provided with the conditions they need to reproduce quickly:To study microorganisms, they need to be cultured. o Nutrients o Warmth o Moisture Bacteria

o

Nutrients

o

Warmth

o

Moisture

Bacteria and fungi can be grown in special media called agar.quickly: o Nutrients o Warmth o Moisture This provides them with: o Carbohydrate o Protein

This provides them with:and fungi can be grown in special media called agar. o Carbohydrate o Protein or amino

o

Carbohydrate

o

Protein or amino acids

o

Water

When agar is heated up it is liquid.Carbohydrate o Protein or amino acids o Water It can be poured into a Petri dish.

It can be poured into a Petri dish.acids o Water When agar is heated up it is liquid. o A circular plastic or

o A circular plastic or glass dish with a lid:

Petri dish. o A circular plastic or glass dish with a lid: The agar solidifies when

The agar solidifies when left to cool.Petri dish. o A circular plastic or glass dish with a lid: Petri dishes and culture

Petri dishes and culture media must be sterilised before use to kill unwanted microorganismsdish with a lid: The agar solidifies when left to cool. Inoculating loops are used to

Inoculating loops are used to transfer microorganisms to the media.be sterilised before use to kill unwanted microorganisms These must be sterilised by passing them through

These must be sterilised by passing them through a flame:before use to kill unwanted microorganisms Inoculating loops are used to transfer microorganisms to the media.

loops are used to transfer microorganisms to the media. These must be sterilised by passing them
loops are used to transfer microorganisms to the media. These must be sterilised by passing them
loops are used to transfer microorganisms to the media. These must be sterilised by passing them

21 |

The lid of the Petri dish should be secured with adhesive tape to prevent microorganisms from the air contaminating the culture.In school and college laboratories, cultures should be incubated at a maximum temperature of 25

microorganisms from the air contaminating the culture. In school and college laboratories, cultures should be

In school and college laboratories, cultures should be incubated at a maximum temperature of 25 o C. o C.

This greatly reduces the likelihood of growth of pathogens that might be harmful to humans.should be incubated at a maximum temperature of 25 o C. In industrial conditions higher temperatures

In industrial conditions higher temperatures can produce more rapid growth.of 25 o C. This greatly reduces the likelihood of growth of pathogens that might be

Questions

1. What is a pathogen?

2. What is an antibiotic?

3. Use these three terms to make the sentence correct:

Diseases

are

Germs

that causes

Microbes

4. What is meant by a ‘mutation’ of a pathogen?

5. How is a pandemic different from an epidemic?

6. What are antibiotics?

7. Why don’t doctors give antibiotics for mild throat infections?

8. How can bacteria develop antibiotic resistance?

9. Why are antibiotics not used to kill viruses?

10. What is meant by vaccination?

11. How does a person develop immunity form a vaccination?

12.

What three things do white blood cells do to defend the body?

13. Why do industrial laboratories use 35°C instead of 25°C as in schools to grow cultures?

14. Why are cultures not grown at 100°C?

15. Vaccines like MMR, give people immunity against infectious diseases.

Which three diseases does MMR vaccine protect against? Explain how vaccinations help to protect the body against a disease.

16. What are the advantages of vaccination?

17. What are the disadvantages of vaccination?

GCSE Style questions

1.

GCSE Style questions 1. 25 |
GCSE Style questions 1. 25 |
2. Influenza is caused by a virus. (a) How do viruses cause illness? (b) A

2. Influenza is caused by a virus. (a) How do viruses cause illness?

(b) A British company making a reality television show in the Peruvian Amazon has been accused of starting an influenza epidemic. This epidemic allegedly killed four members of a remote Indian tribe and left others seriously ill. The members of the television crew did not show symptoms of influenza, but members of the Indian tribe died from the disease.

Suggest an explanation for this

Influenza is an infectious disease. The influenza virus often mutates. This has made the World Health Organisation worried about another influenza pandemic. (a) What is meant by a pandemic ?

(b) Explain why a mutation of the influenza virus might cause another influenza pandemic.

The MMR vaccine is used to protect children against measles, mumps and rubella. (a) Complete the sentences about vaccination.

Vaccines stimulate white blood cells to produce

This makes children

3.

to the pathogen.

cells to produce This makes children 3. to the pathogen. Describe how the percentage of children
cells to produce This makes children 3. to the pathogen. Describe how the percentage of children

Describe how the percentage of children vaccinated with the MMR vaccine changed between 1990 and 1995.

Does the data in the graph support a link between MMR vaccination and autism? Explain your answer.

Examples of What they Where they're How they MICROBES diseases they are found get around
Examples of
What they
Where they're
How they
MICROBES
diseases they
are
found
get around
cause
What does one look like –
find and copy labelled
diagram of one of these
Bacteria
Viruses
29 |

29 |

30 |