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. .

517
47

, , , , .
.

c
2000,
.. ,
c
2000,
- ( )

1.

1.
1.1.

, , , . ,

. : ,
.
.
1. , M , M M
: M M R,
:
1) (x,y) > 0

x,y M ;

2) (x,y) = (y,x) x,y M ;


3) (x,y) 6 (x,z) + (z,y) x,y,z M ;
4) (x,y) = 0 x = y

x,y M .

( ). , 3
.
2. , , . .
,
M , {M ; }. , , -

. . .

. ,
.
n-
Rn , ()
n
x = (x1 , . . . ,xn ) y = (y1 , . . . ,yn )

1/2
n
X
(x,y) =
|yj xj |2 .
(1)
j=1

(. 1 . 6), (1)
.
,
0 (x,y) = max |yj xj |,
1 (x,y) =

j
n
X

|yj xj |

(2)
(3)

j=1

.

Cn , n
(1). ,
(2) (3) Cn
.
3.
{M ; } M1 M .
{M1 ; } {M ; }.
,
M1 M . ,

1.

M .
, ,
{M ; } M .
,
( ).
, Rn Cn ,
(1). Qn ,
n
(1), Rn .
,
(2) (3).
- , , , .. .
4. x0 {M ; } > 0 x
M , (x,x0 ) < ,
- x0 O (x0 ).
r > 0 Or (x0 ) r x0 .
5. x0 M
{xn } M ,

> 0 N : n > N xn O (x0 ).


(4)
, (4)
lim (xn ,x0 ) = 0.

(5)

(4) ( (5)), ,

. . .

{xn } x0 , :
xn x0

lim xn = x0 .

. ,
xn x xn y n ,
(x,y) 6 (x,xn ) + (xn ,y) 0
n , (x,y) = 0, , , x = y.
6. X M , x0 M r > 0 ,
X Or (x0 ).
, {xn } {M ; } x0 M ,
.
, (xn ,x0 ) 0 n ,
C :

(xn ,x0 ) 6 C

n.

7. G {M ; }. x0 M G M , x0 G.
GM G G.
,
.
- x0 ,
x0 , - x0

O (x0 ).
x0 M
G M , - x0 G.

1.

, G G .
8. x0 M
G M , -
x0 G, M \G.
G
G G.
,
G M .
, G M
G = G G.
9. x0 G M
, > 0, O (x0 ) G.
G , .
, . ,
.

.

, . , , , =
= (1; 2), (0; 1) , [0; 1]. (0; 2) ,
[0; 2).
.
1. G M
, F = M \G .

. . .

. G , x0 G.

> 0 : O (x0 ) G,
x0 G
F = M \G. , F F , .. F .
F = M \ G , x0
G. x0 F ,

> 0 : x O (x0 ) x 6 F,
, , O (x0 ) G.
1 .
2.
. .
. ( )
G
S
M . x0 G = G , : x G .
G ,
> 0 :

O (x0 ) G ,

O (x0 ) G. , G .
1. ,

T F M ,
F = F .
T
G = M \F G = G .
F = M \G, F .
2 .
3. . .

1.

. G G1 , . . . ,Gn . G , . x0 G. x0 Gj j = 1,2, . . . ,n,


Gj ,
j

rj > 0 :

Orj (x0 ) Gj .

, Or (x0 ) G, r = min rj .
j

1.
3 .
1.2.
, {xn } {M ; } ( ),
:
> 0 N :

n,m > N

(xn ,xm ) < .

(1)

, ,
.
, {xn } M , ..

x0 M :
lim (xn ,x0 ) = 0,
(2)
n
. , (2),

> 0 N : n > N (xn ,x0 ) < ,


2

n,m > N (xn ,xm ) 6 (xn ,x0 ) + (x0 ,xm ) < .
.
,


1 1
1
M = 1, , , . . . , , . . .
(3)
2 3
n

10

. . .

.
xn =

1
,
n

n N,

(4)

, M .
, (3) x0 = 0,
(4)
. , . (
!)
1.
,
.
.
, Rn ,
Qn .
.
1. C([a; b])
[a; b]
(f,g) = sup |f (x) g(x)|

(5)

x[a;b]

.
, fn (x),
n N, (5),
x [a; b]
{fn (x)} , (
R). f (x).
fn (x) f (x) n (5). ,
> 0 N :

n,m > N

|fn (x) fm (x)| <

x [a; b]. x

1.

11

m , n > N
|fn (x) f (x)| 6

x [a; b].

, [a; b]
fn (x) f (x).
, f (x)
[a; b]. C([a; b]) .
2. [a; b]
(5) .
, 1, ,
{fn (x)} (5), f (x),
x [a; b], (5).
n1 : sup |fn1 (x) f (x)| < 1,
x[a;b]

x [a; b]
|f (x)| 6 |f (x) fn1 (x)| + |fn1 (x)| 6 1 + sup |fn1 (x)| .
x[a;b]

, f (x) ,
.
,




({ k },{ k }) = sup k k
(6)
k

.
3. (6)
.
{xn } (6).
xn = {nk },


k
k
> 0 N : n,m > N n m < k.
(7)

12

. . .

, k {nk } .
lim k
n n
,
:
n > N
..
n > N

= k .

m (7),

k
k

n
6 k,




sup nk k 6 ,
k

, xn x = { k } n .
, { k } .
k, p n :
| k k+p | 6 | k nk | + |nk nk+p | +
+ |nk+p k+p | 6 2(x,xn ) + |nk nk+p |.

(8)

, xn x n , ,

> 0 n : (x,xn ) < ,


3
xn = {nk } ,




K : k > K , p nk nk+p
< /3,


k > K , p



k

k+p < .

, x = { k } .
.
4. , [a; b],
Z b
(f ; g) =
|f (x) g(x)| dx.
(9)
a

, .

1.

i
h
1

,
1,

1;

ni

h
1 1
fn (x) = nx, x n ; n ,

h
i

+1, x 1 ; 1 .
n

13

(10)

, n p
Z 1
|fn+p (x) fn (x)| dx 6
1

|fn+p (x) sgn x| dx +

6
1

|sgn x fn (x)| dx =
1

1
1
+ ,
n+p n
(10) (9). ,
f (x) = sgn x,
x [1; 1]. ,
.
: (10)
(9) g(x), x [1; 1].

Z 1
|f (x) g(x)| dx = 0,
=

F (x) = f (x) g(x)


[1; 1], x = 0. , g(x) =
= f (x) x 6= 0 [1; 1],
, g(x) [1; 1].

.
. f (x)

Z
|f (x)| dx = 0,

14

. . .

f (x) = 0 x , f .
, f x0
f (x0 ) 6= 0, O(x0 ) x0 ,
|f (x)| > 0,
Z
Z
|f (x)| dx >
|f (x)| dx > 0.

O(x0 )


. .
E
{M ; }
sup (x,y)
x,yE

E d(E).
, E ,
d(E) < .
2. {En } ,
En+1 En

n,

lim d(E) = 0.

. {Fn }
.
. Fn xn .
, {xn } ,
,
x0 .
x0 Fn . Fn , x0

1.

15

Fn . , , d(Fn ) 0 n .
.

.

1.
{M ; } , X M ,
{X; } .
, xn X, n N, x0 M ,
X.
X , x0 X.
2. {M ; } X M . {X; } , X .
, x0 X M . n N
xn X, O1/n (x0 ). , {xn } x0 M ,
{X; } , x0 X.
1.3.
{M ; } {M 0 ; 0 }
, f M M 0 ,
x y M
(x,y) = 0 (f (x),f (y)).
, (, ,
), , ,
. {M ; } -

16

. . .

{M ; }, ,
{M ; } {M ; }.
1. M 0
M M , M .
2. M M ,
M M .
. .
. {M ; } .
{M ; }, {M ; }.
{xn }, {yn } M ,
lim (xn ,yn ) = 0,
n

{xn } {yn }. , {xn } {yn }, {yn } {zn }, {xn } {zn }, M


. .
, {M ; }
, M
. {xn } x , , , {xn } x . M . ,
(xn ,yn ) 6 (xn ,xm ) + (xm ,ym ) + (ym ,yn )

1.

17

n m,
|(xn ,yn ) (xm ,ym )| 6 (xn ,xm ) + (ym ,yn ).
, {xn } {yn } , (xn ,yn ), n
N, , , .
{xn } x , {yn } y , x y

(x ,y ) = lim (xn ,yn ).
n

,
x y .
{x0n } x {yn0 } y . n N
(x0n ,yn0 ) 6 (x0n ,xn ) + (xn ,yn ) + (yn ,yn0 ),
(xn ,yn ) 6 (xn ,x0n ) + (x0n ,yn0 ) + (yn0 ,yn ),

|(x0n ,yn0 ) (xn ,yn )| 6 (xn ,x0n ) + (yn ,yn0 ).
,
lim (x0n ,yn0 ) = lim (xn ,yn ).

n
(x ,y )

, (x ,y ) > 0 (x ,y ) = (y ,x )
x y M . , (x ,y ) = 0, x y ,
, {xn } x , {yn } y , {xn }
{yn }. , {xn } x , {yn } y , {zn } z ,

(xn ,yn ) 6 (xn ,zn ) + (zn ,yn )


n
(x ,y ) 6 (x ,z ) + (z ,y ).
, {M ; }, M .

18

. . .

, {M ; } , {M ; }.
x M x M ,
xn = x, n N. , M
M 0 M . , , x y M 0 , x y
M , {x} x , {y} y ,
(x ,y ) = (x,y).
, M 0 M , ..
x M M 0 .
{xn } x . xk M 0 , xk M . , ,
(x ,xk ) = lim (xn ,xk ).
n

{xn } ,

> 0 N : n,k > N (xn ,xk ) < ,


2

k > N (x ,xk ) 6 < .


2
, lim (x ,xk ) = 0.
k

, {M ; } .
{xn }
M . n N yn M ,
1
(xn ; yn ) < ,
n

0
yn M , yn M .
{yn } .
,

(yn ,ym
) 6 (yn ,xn ) + (xn ,xm ) + (xm ,ym
)<

1.

19

1
1
+ (xn ,xm ) +
(1)
n
m
{xn }.
) = (y ,y ), (yn ,ym
n m
{yn }. y
, {yn }.
1
(y ,xn ) 6 (y ,yn ) + (yn ,xn ) < (y ,yn ) + =
n
1
= lim (yk ,yn ) + .
k
n

1
> 0 N : k,n > N (xk ,yn ) + < ,
n
2

n > N (y ,xn ) 6 < ,


2
, , lim (y ,xn ) = 0.
n
.
1.2 , CL1 ([a; b])
. L1 ([a; b]) [a; b] .
<

1.4.
Rn ,
X , A, S
{M ; } X M ,
X X . ,
.
1. X {M ; } ( ),
,
X.

20

. . .

, Rn
,
Rn (. 3 6). ,
. . Rn
.
2. X
{M ; }. B M - X,
x X

a B :

(x,a) .

3. X {M ; } ,
> 0 M -.
,
. ,
. ,
e1 = (1,0, . . .), e2 = (0,1,0, . . .), . . . , en = (0, . . . ,0,1, . . .), . . .
( en n- 1, ), (. 2
. 1.2) , , ,
-, , = 0,5.
, 1 3 , X = M . , ,
.
.
{M ; } , M . ,
{M ; } ,
M .

1.

21

. X
{M ; } ( ) ,
( ) {X; }.
. X M . , {X; } .
{X; } X ,
A, X. ,
{M ; },
- .
X M
X , -
X. X
{X; }.
{X; } . ,
X M {M ; }.
{M ; } G
M , A, M . ,
X = G X,

A,

{X; } X. {X; } G , X
X. X.
.
. .
.
1. ,
.

22

. . .

. , M , . .
, M , M
. M x , M . , O1/n (x ) 1/n x ,
O1/n (x ) .
Gn = M \O1/n (x ),

n N,

M . ,
O1/n (x ) M . , .
, M
, .
x M O (x) > 0.
M
x1 ,x2 , . . . ,xN ,
O (xj ),

j = 1,2, . . . ,N,

M . ,
- M .
1 .
2.
, .
.
M . ,
, ..
X , A, M ,

.

1.

23

, M , > 0 x1 ,x2 , . . . ,xN , O (xj ), j = 1,2, . . . ,N ,


M . ,
O1 (xj ) X . F1 .
, = 1/2 , 1/2
F1 . F2 F1 , 1/2
X .
,
Fn , n N, ,
2
Fn+1 Fn ,
d(Fn ) 6 ,
n
X .
, M Fn , n N, x0 M .
x0 X0 , O (x0 ), > 0.
2

n < , Fn O (x0 ). , n < ,


Fn X0 , .
2 .
, :
, ,
.

.
3.

24

. . .

, .
.
:
{M ; } , {xn }
.
, {xn },
. ,
x M ,
x O(x), {xn }.
M , ,
, {xn }, M .
.
:
{xn }
{M ; } , .
-, . , ,
. ,
{M ; } .
.
M , ..
> 0 , M
-. , , M
. {xn }
.
x1 M . ,
- M , x2 M

1.

25

, (x1 ,x2 ) > . x1 , x2 -


X, x3 , (x3 ,xj ) > ,
j = 1,2. x1 ,x2 ,x3 , i 6= j,
i,j = 1,2,3,
(xi ,xj ) > .

(1)

X x1 ,x2 , . . . ,xn ,
i 6= j, i,j = 1,2, . . . ,n, (1). - X,
xn+1 X ,
(xn+1 ,xi ) >

i = 1,2, . . . ,n.

, ,
{xn }, :
(xi ,xj ) >

i 6= j.

, .
3 .

( ) ,
, . 3 , .

, .
, , .
, .

26

. . .

1.5.


C[a; b],
.
1. S f ,
[a; b], ,
c :

f S

max |f (x)| 6 c.

(1)

x[a;b]

2. S f ,
[a; b], ,
> 0

> 0 :

f S, x,x0 [a; b] :

|x x0 | < |f (x) f (x0 )| < .

(2)

. S f , [a; b], C[a; b]


, .
. S .
, , S . S, , S C[a; b] , .
S C[a; b] ,
[a; b].
S C[a; b]
, > 0 C[a; b] S
-.

1.

27

> 0 -
f1 (x), . . . ,fN (x).
fj (x) [a; b].
> 0 :

j, x1 ,x2 [a; b] :

|x2 x1 | <

|fj (x2 ) fj (x1 )| < .


f S. -
j :

max |f (x) fj (x)| < .


x

|x1 x2 | < ,
|f (x1 ) f (x2 )| 6 |f (x1 ) fj (x1 )|+
+ |fj (x1 ) fj (x2 )| + |fj (x2 ) f (x2 )| <
< 3.
f S, , S .
: S , . C[a; b] , , S ,
[a; b].
, S f C[a; b]
(1) (2). > 0. > 0
[a; b] x1 ,x2 , . . . ,xn ,
a = x0 < x1 < . . . < xn = b,

xi xi1 <

i,

[c; c] y0 ,y1 , . . . ,ym ,


c = y0 < y1 < . . . < ym = c,

yj yj1 < j.

A [a; b] ,

28

. . .

(xi ,yi ). , A
.
f S.
xi (xi ,yji ) (xi ,yj ),
(xi ,f (xi )). ,
|f (xi ) yji | < .
,
(x0 ,y0 ), (x1 ,yj1 ), . . . , (xn ,yjn ).
, i :
|(xi ) (xi1 )| 6 |(xi ) f (xi )| + |f (xi ) f (xi1 )|+
+ |f (xi1 ) (xi1 )| < 3.
, x [xi1 ; xi ]
|(x) (xi1 )| 6 |(xi ) (xi1 )| < 3.
(f,) C[a; b] , x [a; b] [xi1 ; xi ],

|f (x) (x)| 6 |f (x) f (xi1 )| + |f (xi1 ) (xi1 )|+
+ |(xi1 ) (x)| < + + 3 = 5.
, (f,) < 5.
, , S .
.

.

2.

29

2.
2.1.
{X; X },
{Y ; Y } G X.
f , x G y Y , , G X Y .
G X X , , ,
, G = X. .
, f : X Y ,
y Y , x X, x f
f (x), x X,
y Y , y.
y Y
y f 1 (y).
A X y = f (x), x
A, G f (A).
B Y x X ,
f (x) B, (
) B f 1 (B).
1. f : X Y x0 X,
> 0 > 0 :

x O (x0 ), f (x) O (y0 ),

(1)

y0 = f (x0 ).
(1) , -- .
, ,
x0 , x0

30

. . .

O(x0 ). , (1) :
O(y0 ) O(x0 ) :

f (O(x0 )) O(y0 ).

(2)

, .
2. f : X Y x0 X, {xn } X, x0 ,
yn = f (xn ), n N, y0 = f (x0 ).
1 2 .

.
1. f : X Y
x0 X, g : Y Z
y0 = f (x0 ), , z = g(f (x)),
x0 .
3. f : X Y X
Y , x X.
2. f X
Y , .
. f ,
G Y . x0 f 1 (G), G y0 = f (x0 ).
(. (2)), O(x0 ) , f (O(x0 )) G, , , O(x0 ) f 1 (G). ,

2.

31

f 1 (G) , .. f 1 (G) .
F , G ,
f 1 (G) . x0 X : O(y0 ) y0 =
= f (x0 ) U = f 1 (O(y0 )) , x0
U , U x0 . ,
O(y0 ) y0 U
x0 , f (U ) = O(y0 ). , f x0 .
2 .
. f
X Y
,
.

2, , , ,
.
2.2.
, , {X; X } {Y ; Y }
f X Y .
1. f X Y .
X , f (X)
.
. Y , A, f (X) Y . 2 , X =
= f 1 (Y ), X, . X , , -

32

. . .

X.
f (X).
1 .
:
.

4.2 6, Rn
Rm .
1. f {X; X } {Y ; Y }
, :
> 0

> 0 :

x,x0 X :

X (x,x0 ) <

Y (f (x),f (x0 )) < .


2. .
4 4.5 6.
2. , , , .
3. f X Y
. X , .
.
, ,
1 ,
.
, F X

2.

33

f (F ) . f 1
f (F ) F . ,
f 1 F
, (. .2.1) f 1 .
3 .
3. f X R .
4. f
X, X .
, X
f (X) R. , , .
2.3.
, Rn
. , X ,
G1 G2 , X X.
X .

{M ; }. ,
{M ; } , M
.
, {M ; } M . G1 G2 , M1 = G1 M , M2 =
= G2 M .

.

34

. . .

1. {M ; } , M
M1 M2 .
1. f X Y .
X , Y .
. . Y .
Y Y1 Y2 .
f X1 X2 ,
, X = X1 X2 .
, X .
.
:
.
,

. ,
, .
2.
.
1 .
. 2 :
.

2.

35

2.4.
.
1.
{X; } ,
q (0; 1) :

x,y X

(f (x),f (y)) 6 q(x,y).

(1)

(1) , f : X
X , , ,
X.
2. x X
f : X X, f (x) = x.
1. .
. f : X X
(1). x0
X
xn = f (xn1 ),

n N,

(2)

{xn }. . ,
(xn+1 ,xn ) = (f (xn ),f (xn1 )) 6 q(xn ,xn1 )
, ,
(xn+1 ,xn ) 6 q n (x1 ,x0 ) n N.

(xn ,xn+p ) 6 (xn ,xn+1 ) + (xn+1 ,xn+2 ) + . . . +


+(xn+p1 ,xn+p ) 6 (q n + q n+1 + . . . + q n+p1 )(x1 ,x0 ).

36

. . .


,
q
(xn ,xn+p ) 6
(x0 ,x1 )
(3)
1q
n p, , {xn } . X
, a X, . (2)
n , a = f (a), .. a X
f . , .
b X , f (b) = b.
(a; b) = (f (a),f (b)) 6 q(a; b),
q < 1, (a; b) = 0, , , a = b.
.
. .
{xn } (2)
.
, X , f : X X ,
f (x) = x , (2)
x0 .
(3) p
qn
(xn ,a) 6
(x0 ,f (x0 )),
1q
xn a
.

, -

2.

37

. f (x) = x,
.

.

.
Mn ,
n- Rn ,

(x,y) = max |i i |,
i

x = (1 ,2 , . . . ,n ), y = (1 ,2 , . . . ,n ).
, Mn . f Mn ,
f (x) = Ax + b,

(4)

A n, b = (b1 ,b2 , . . . ,bn ).


A = (aij ), x = (1 ,2 , . . . ,n ), x0 = (10 ,20 , . . . ,n0 ).


n

X


0
0
0

(f (x),f (x )) = (Ax,Ax ) = max
aij (j j ) 6
i

j=1
6 max
i

= max
i

n
X
j=1
n
X
j=1

|aij | max |j j0 | =
j

|aij | (x,x0 ).

38

. . .

,
n
X
max
|aij | < 1,
i

(5)

j=1

(4) .
, .
2. A (5),
x Ax = b
b.
.
, x0 f , n-
. .
3.
, .
. f : X X , n- , ..
f n = f f . . . f,

n > 1,

. 1, f n
, ..
a X :

f n (a) = a.

f (a) = f (f n (a)) = f n (f (a)), .. f (a) f n . f n


, f (a) = a.
f . ,
f f n .
3 .

3. ,

39

1.
Z t
x(t) =
K(t, )x( ) d + f (t),
a

, f (t)
[a; b], K(t, ) = [a; b] [a; b],
x(t) .
,
Z t
A(x) =
K(t, )x( ) d + f (t)
a

C[a; b] C[a; b]. :


Z t




K(t, )(x( ) y( )) d 6
|A(x)(t) A(y)(t)| =
a

6 || q (x,y) (t a),
q = max |K(t, )|, (t, ) . ,
|A2 (x)(t) A2 (y)(t)| 6 ||2 q 2 (x,y)

(t a)2
,
2

n- A :
(t a)n
.
n!
, q n ,
n q n (b a)n
< 1.
n!
n An .
3 ,
.
|An (x)(t) An (y)(t)| 6 ||n q n (x,y)

3. ,

3.1.
( ) R C -

40

. . .

. , ,
,
,
.. .
1. () L x,y,z, . . . ,

() , ..
1) x,y L
L, x,y x + y;
2) x L ()
L,
x x;
:
I. 1) x + y = y + x ( );
2) x + (y + z) = (x + y) + z ( );
3) , 0, ,
x + 0 = x x L;
4)
II. 5)
6)
7)

x L y L : x + y = 0;
1x = x x L;
(x) = ()x ( );
( + )x = x + x (
);

3. ,

41

8) (x + y) = x + y (
);
x L y L, x + y = 0, x x. ,
x + (x) = 0.
x + (y) x,y
x y.
,
.
2. L0
L, L0 L

L0 , L.
, , L, L0 , .. x,y L0 , x + y L0 , x L0
.
x1 , . . . ,xn
1 x1 + . . . + an xn ,
(1)
1 , . . . ,n .
(1) ,
1 ,2 , . . . ,n .
x1 ,x2 , . . . ,xn ,
(1), .
, x1 ,x2 , . . . ,xn .
3. -

42

. . .

, .
4. n, n , n + 1 .
,
n N n .
,
.
.
, .
5. L.
.
, L .
6. f
X Y ( ), x,y X ,
f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y).
, X
Y , L(X,Y ). ,

, .
7.
X -

3. ,

43

Y .
X, Y .
, . .
3.2.
,
, , , ()
.
1. X (
) , X kxk : x R ,

1) kxk > 0 x X;
2) kxk = || kxk

x X,

3) kx + yk 6 kxk + kyk

R ( C);

x,y X;

4) kxk = 0 x = 0.
X,
kxk x. 1)4) . , 2) . 3)
.
Rn x = (x1 , . . . ,xn )

q
kxk = x21 + . . . + x2n
(1)
n
C z = (z1 , . . . ,zn )
p
kzk = |z1 |2 + . . . + |zn |2 .

44

. . .

,
.
, Cn (
Rn )
kzk = sup |zj |.

(2)

C[a; b] [a; b] f
kf k = max |f (x)|.
(3)
x[a;b]

, [a; b] f
Z b
kf k1 =
|f (x)| dx
(4)
a

.
[a; b] (4) : 4).
CL1 [a; b],
RL1 [a; b].
2. kxk : X R,
1), 2), 3) , 4),
.
.
(4)
[a; b] .
f g, kf gk1 = 0, ,
(4) RL1 [a; b].
, f [a; b]
kf k = max |f 0 (x)|
x[a;b]

(5)

3. ,

45

. f g,
, ,
(5) .
, , ,
.
,
(x,y) = kx yk, x,y X,
. , , .
, E X ,
M > 0 :

x E

kxk 6 M.

{xn } X x0 ,
> 0 N :

n > N

kxn x0 k < .

{xn } ,

> 0 N : n,m > N kxn xm k < .


X ,

.
3. .
C[a; b].
4.
X1 X2 , -

46

. . .

f X1 X2 , kf (x)k2 =
= kxk1 .
X1 , X2 ,
,
X1 , X2 .
, . .
5. X
kxk kxk , c1 c2 ,
c1 kxk 6 kxk 6 c2 kxk

x X.

, Rn (1)
(2) . ,
q

sup |xj | 6 x21 + . . . + x2n 6 n sup |xj |.


j

, .
.
.
. X n-
, kxk
X. X -
e1 , . . . ,en , kxk
q
kxk2 = x21 + . . . + x2n ,
x1 , . . . ,xn x .

3. ,

47

,
n
n
X
X
kxk =
|xj |kej k 6 kxk2
kej k.
j=1

kxk 6 c2 kxk2 , c2 =

j=1
n
P

kej k.

j=1

kxk f (x) =
= kxk. n
x1 , . . . ,xn , Rn .





|f (x) f (y)| = kxk kyk 6 kx yk 6 c2 kx yk2
, Rn . , S1 Rn , kxk2 =
= 1, f (x) > 0. S1 , x0
S1 : inf f (x) = f (x0 ) > 0,
xS1

x S1

kxk > c1 ,

c1 = f (x0 ).


x

> kxk2 c1 .
x 6= 0 kxk = kxk2
kxk2
x = 0 kxk > c1 kxk2 .
, kxk kxk ,
kxk2 , .
, C[a; b]
(3) (4) .
, , , a = 0, b = .
fn (x) , fn (x) = sin nx, 0 6 nx 6 ,
fn (x) = 0 x. ,
Z
2
max |fn (x)| = 1,
|fn (x)| dx = ,
x
n
0
.

48

. . .

X
x ,

A,

(6)

A .
6. (6)
X, X, ..
x X :
> 0
x1 , . . . ,xn (6) 1 , . . . ,n ,




n
X


x
j xj
< .



j=1
7.
, ,
.

, C[a; b]
1,x,x2 , . . . ,xn , . . .
(7)
. , C[a; b] .
, Lp (), p > 1 =
= [a; b], .

8.

e1 ,e2 , . . . ,en , . . .
X X, x X
, ..

3. ,

49

n , n N, ,
x=

n en .

n=1

x X,
.. :


n


X


> 0 N : n > N x
)kek < .


k=1

, (7) C[a; b],


.
1, cos x, sin x, . . . , cos nx, sin nx, . . .
L2 [; ].
3.3.
X X, X X 0 ,
X X .
, X 0 X ,

x X :
> 0

x0 X 0 :

kx x0 k < ,

k . . . k X .
.
.
. X
(x,y) = kx yk.

50

. . .

X X , X,
, X 0 , , , X X .
X
, X 0 X
X.
x X y X . {xn } x , {yn } y ,
x + y , {xn + yn }, x , ,
, {xn }. , X , X 0
, .. X 0
.
X , , {xn } , {kxn k} ,




kxn k kxm k 6 kxn xm k n,m.



kx k = lim kxn k.
n

, {xn } X . , x X 0 {x} x ,

kx k = kxk.

3. ,

51

kx k X .
,
kx k = lim kxn k = kx k ,
n

kx + y k = lim kxn + yn k 6
n

6 lim (kxn + yn k) = kx k + ky k .
n

.

, X 0 ,
, X,
:

.
3.4.
3.2 Rn , C[a; b] CL1 [a; b].

.
1. , Rn ,
x = (x1 , . . . ,xn )

1/p
n
X
kxkp =
|xj |p ,
(1)
j=1

p > 1. , p = 1 p = 2, ,
(1) Rn .
,
.
.

52

. . .

1. a b
p > 1
ap bq
ab 6
+
,
(2)
p
q
1

q , p + q = 1.
.
y = xp1 ,

x > 0.

[0; +)
x = y q1 , y > 0.
, y
0aA (. 1)
1

q bq . ,
a > 0 b > 0 A
[0; a][0; b],
B
ab.
b
, a >
a
x > 0 b > 0 0
(2), . 1

, A
B , .. b = ap1 .
1 .
2. x = (x1 , . . . ,xn ) y = (y1 , . . . ,yn )
p > 1
n
X
|xj yj | 6 kxkp kykq ,
(3)
j=1

q , p + q = 1.

3. ,

53

. , kxkp = 0
kykq = 0, (3) . ,
kxkp 6= 0 kykq 6= 0, (2)
a=

|xj |
,
kxkp

b=

|yj |
.
kykq

|xj yj |
1 |xj |p
1 |yj |q
6

.
p +
kxkp kykq
p kxkp q kykqq
j 1 n.
:
n
P
|xj yj |
1 1
j=1
6 + = 1.
kxkp kykq
p q
2 .
(3)
. p = q = 2
.
, :
n
X

|xj + yj | 6

j=1

n
X

p1

|xj + yj |

|xj | +

j=1

n
X

n
X

|xj + yj |p1 |yj | 6

j=1

1/q
|xj + yj |(p1)q

(kxkp + kykp ) .

j=1

(p 1)q = p,
kx + ykpp 6 kx + ykp/q
p (kxkp + kykp ) ,
, ,
kx + ykp 6 kxkp + kykp .
(1) .

54

. . .

3. x = (x1 , . . . ,xn )

1/p
n
X
lim
|xj |p = max |xj |.
(4)
p+

j=1

, , ,
max |xj | = |x1 |,
j

x1 6= 0.

kxkp = |x1 | 1 +

n
X
|xj |p
j=2

|x1 |p

1/p

|x1 |

p +.
(4) :
kxk = max |xj |.
j

, p = 1
n
X
|xj yj | 6 kxk1 kyk ,
j=1

p > 1.
, p > 1
kxk 6 kxkp 6 n1/p kxk .
, Rn , , Rn
kxk2 , , Rn
.
2. X
{k }, {k },. . . . , x = {k },
y = {k },
x + y = {k + k },

x = {k },

3. ,

55

. , .

kxk = sup |k |.
(5)
k

, (5) X .

m . , .
{xn } m
, .. xn = {kn }, :
> 0

N :

n > N, p

sup |kn kn+p | < .

(6)

k {kn } , , .
lim kn = k .
n

|kn kn+p | < , (6), p .


k
|kn k | 6

n > N.

,
sup |kn k | 6

n > N,

.. {xn } x = {k }.
, , kxk < +.
,
kxk 6 kx xN k + kxN k 6 + kxN k < +.

56

. . .

, m
.
3. X {k }, {k },. . .
, m
. m. c . , .
{xn } c
. m , {xn } x = {k } m.
{k } . ,
> 0 N ,
N
|k+p k | 6 |k+p k+p
| + |k+p kN | + |kN k |+ 6
N
N
6 2kx xN k + |k+p
kN | < 2 + |k+p
kN |

k p. {kN } , , {k } , .
, c .
4. X {k }, {k },. . . ,

|k |p ,

p > 1,

k=1

.
, ,
2 3, X. -

3. ,

57

, x = {k } y = {k } X,
!1/p
!1/p
!1/p
n
n
n
X
X
X
|k |p
.
|k + k |p
6
|k |p
+
k=1

k=1

k=1

n
!1/p
!1/p
!1/p

X
X
X
|k + k |p
6
|k |p
+
|k |p
,
k=1

k=1

k=1

, X ,
!1/p,

X
kxkp =
|k |p
k=1

.

.
lp . , .
{xn } lp ,
p > 1, , ..
> 0 :

n,m > N

kxn xm kp < ,

(7)

, , xn = {kn },
|kn km | < k.
, k {kn } . kn k n ,
x = {k }.
(7) ,
M
X
k=1

|kn km |p < p

58

. . .

M N n,m > N ,
m + :
M
X

|kn k |p 6 p

n 6 N.

k=1

M + :

|kn k |p 6 p

n > N,

k=1

.. kxn xkp 6 n > N .


,
kxkp 6 kx xN kp + kxN kp 6 + kxN kp
, x lp .
, lp .
5. f , [a; b]. , .
Z b
1/p

p
kf kp =
|f (x)| dx
(8)
a

, p > 1 . , .
.
4. f g,
[a; b], p > 1

Z b
|f (x)g(x)| dx 6 kf kp kgkq ,
(9)
a

q , p + q = 1.

3. ,

59

. , kf kp = 0
kgkq = 0, (9) . ,
kf kp 6= 0 kgkq 6= 0, (2)
A=

|f (x)|
,
kf kp

B=

|g(x)|
.
kgkq

|f (x)g(x)|
1 |f (x)|p 1 |g(x)|q
+
.
6
kf kp kgkq
p kf kpp
p kgkqq
x a b.
:
Rb
|f (x)g(x)| dx
1 1
a
6 + = 1.
kf kp kgkq
p q
4 .
, , 2
, :
Z b
Z b
p
|f (x) + g(x)| dx 6
|f (x) + g(x)|p1 |f (x)| dx+
a
a
Z b
+
|f (x)g(x)|p1 |g(x)| dx 6 kf + gkp/q
p (kf kp + kgkq )
a

, ,
kf + gkp 6 kf kp + kgkp
p > 1. p = 1 .

.
, ,
[a; b],
(8). CLp [a; b] Lcp [a; b].
p = 1 (. . 1.2), , CLp [a; b] . Lp [a; b]
, p- .

60

. . .

4.

4.1.
,
. , 2 ,
.
.
f , X
Y . Df D(f ), , f , Rf R(f )
. ,
Df = X Rf = Y .
f F , X Y .
, Df = DF f (x) = F (x)
x Df . Df DF f (x) = F (x)
x Df , F f ,
f F .
, .
1. f , X Y , , M Df ,
X, f (M ), Y .
, f ,
Df .
, y = ax + b, a 6= 0, , R R,

4.

61

. y = x2 ,
x R, .
2. fn , X Y ,
D X, D Dfn , D Df fn (x) f (x) n
x D.
, fn n
D f .
, fn f n D,
lim kfn (x) f (x)k = 0 x D.


lim sup kfn (x) f (x)k = 0,

n xD

, fn f D.

.
X Y (
).
3. f , X Y , , Df ,
f (1 x1 + 2 x2 ) = 1 f (x1 ) + 2 f (x2 )
x1 ,x2 Df 1 ,2 .
,
.
, A,B .. y = Ax,
y = Bx ..
, A,
X Y , X,
, ..
X.

62

. . .


, , ,
, X Y , x X.
X ,
, X.
, , ,
X.

, , , X Y ,
X.
L(X; Y ) , X Y .
4.2.
X Y .
, A
DA X,
x = 0. , x0 DA x DA ,
x x0 DA
Ax Ax0 = A(x x0 ).
A x = 0, A(x
x0 ) 0 x x0 , , , Ax Ax0 x x0 ,
x DA .
1. A,
X Y , , ..
C > 0 ,
kAk 6 C

x DA , kxk 6 1,

DA .
, M DA ,
R > 0 : kxk 6 R

x M,

4.

63


 x 


kAxk = R A
6 RC.
R
, A
M DA
Y.
x M

1. A, X Y ,
kAk = sup kAxk,

x DA ,

kxk61

A.
, kAk > 0. , kAk =
= 0, A . kAk = +, A
.
1 ,
, .
1. A, X
Y , , C > 0 ,
kAxk 6 Ckxk

x DA .

,
sup kAxk 6 kAk.
kxk=1

, 0 < kxk 6 1,

 



x
x



6 sup kAyk,
kAxk = kxk A
6 A
kxk
kxk kyk=1

kAk 6 sup kAxk.
kxk=1

64

. . .

, A
kAxk
kAk = sup
, x DA .
x6=0 kxk
2. A, X Y ,
kAxk 6 kAk kxk

x DA .

3. A ,
x0 DA .
,
kAx Ax0 k 6 kAk kx x0 k,
Ax Ax0 x x0 .
A, DA = X, , , .
2. A : X
Y , ,
x = 0.
. , A
, .
.
, A x = 0, X.
n N xn X ,
kxn k 6 1, kAxn k > n, , ,
 x 

n
A
> 1 n N.
n
,
x 1
n
6 0 n ,
n
n

4.

65

A x = 0,
 x 

n
A
0 n .
n
, .
2 .
.
A , DA X. , , Y .
3. A ,
X
Y . DA X,
A : x Y , Ax =
= Ax x DA kAk = kAk.
. x X, x 6 DA .
DA X
xn DA , xn x n .

kAxn Axm k 6 kAk kxn xm k
A , Axn , n N, .
Y , .
Ax = lim Axn
n
, .
x0n DA x0n x n ,
y = lim Axn ,
n

y 0 = lim Ax0n .
n

ky y 0 k 6 ky Axn k + kAxn Ax0n k + kAx0n y 0 k 0

66

. . .

n ,
kAxn Ax0n k 6 kAk kxn x0n k 0
n . , y = y 0 .
A A .
, , kAk 6 kAk. ,

kAxn k 6 kAk kxn k


n ,
kAxk 6 kAk kxk

x X,

kAk 6 kAk.
3 .
4.3.
, ,
Rn Rn ,
y = Ax, x Rn ,

(1)

A n, x y
n- :
x = (x1 ,x2 , . . . ,xn ),

y = (y1 ,y2 , . . . ,yn ).

aij A, (1)
:
n
X
yi =
aij xj , i = 1,2, . . . ,n.
(2)
j=1

Rn


,
(1) (2)
.
.
1. Rn

kxkc = max |xj |


j

4.

67

cn .
A , cn cn .
(2) ,
|yi | 6

n
X

|aij | kxkc ,

i = 1,2, . . . ,n,

j=1


kykc 6 max
i

n
X

|aij | kxkc

x Rn .

j=1

, A : cn cn ,
kAk 6 max
i

n
X

|aij |.

(3)

j=1

, .
, ,
(3) i = 1. x xj =
= sgn aij
kykc = y1 =

n
X

|aij |.

j=1

(3) ,
kAk = max
i

n
X

|aij |.

j=1

2. lpn , p > 1, Rn

1/p
n
X
kxkp =
|xj |p
j=1

68

. . .

A , lpn
1

lqn , p + q = 1.


q 1/q

n X
X
n


kykq =
aij xj .


j=1 j=1

, ,


1/q
1/p
n

n
n
X
X
X



aij xj 6
|aij |q
|xj |p ,

j=1

j=1
j=1

kykq 6

n
X

(4)

1/q
|aij |q

kxkp .

i,j=1

, A : lpn lqn ,

1/q
n
X
kAk 6
|aij |q .
(5)
i,j=1

, .
, , A 6= 0. x 6= 0 (4) , , (5),

1/q
n
X
kAk =
|aij |q .
i,j=1

3. A lpn lpn , p > 1.




p 1/p


n X
n
X


kykp =
aij xj


i=1 j=1

4.

69

(4) ,

p/q 1/p
n
n
X X

kykp 6
|aij |q kxkp .
i=1

j=1

, A : lpn lpn ,

p/q 1/p
n
n
X
X

|aij |q .
kAk 6
i=1

j=1

, .
Rn Rn ,

X
yi =
aij xj , i = 1,2, . . . ,
(6)
j=1


.
A aij .
4. m ,
A : m m, (6), ,
= sup
i

|aij | < +.

j=1

(6) ,
i |yi | 6

|aij | kxkm 6 kxkm ,

j=1


kykm 6 kxkm .

70

. . .

, A : m m , kAk 6
6 .
, kAk = .
5. lp , p > 1,

1/p

X
kxkp =
|xj |p
j=1

, A : lp lq , (6),
,

1/q
n
X
=
|aij |q < +.
i,j=1

2, :


1/q

X

X

|aij |q kxkp ,
|aij |xj 6


j=1
j=1
kykq 6 kxkp .
, A : lp lq , kAk 6
6 .
, kAk = .
,

p/q 1/p

X
X

=
|aij |q < +,
i=1

j=1

A : lp lp , p > 1, (6),
,
kAk = .

4.

71

6.
Z b
K(x,)u() d,
(7)
v(x) =
a

K(x,) 2 = ,
= [a; b].
,
K(x,) . (7) , .
, K : C() C() ,

Z b



|K(x,)| d
kvkC 6
kukC .
a

K : CLp () CLq () . ,
2, ,
kvkLq 6 kKkLq kukLp ,

ZZ
kKkq =

|K(x,)|q dx d

(8)
1/q
.

,
K : Lp () Lq () (8).
4.4.
L(X; Y ) , X Y ,
,
.
, A B , X Y , C =
= A + B,
Cx = Ax + Bx x X,

72

. . .

,
C(1 x1 + 2 x2 ) = (1 Ax1 + 2 Ax2 ) + (1 Bx1 + 2 Bx2 ) =
= 1 (Ax1 + Bx1 ) + 2 (Ax2 + Bx2 ) =
= 1 Cx1 + 2 Cx2 .
, A B , A + B
A ,
kA + Bk = sup kAx + Bxk 6 sup (kAxk + kBxk) 6
kxk61

kxk61

6 kAk + kBk,
kAk = sup kAxk = || sup kAxk = || kAk.
kxk61

kxk61

, , ,
kA + Bk 6 kAk + kBk, kAk = || kAk.
, kAk > 0 A L(X; Y ), , kAk = 0,
Ax = 0 x X. , .
, L(X; Y ) .
An L(X; Y ) A L(X; Y ).
sup kAn x Axk = kAn Ak
kxk61

, L(X; Y ) kxk 6 1. kAn Ak 0 n , , An , n N,


A.
1. X , Y , L(X; Y ) .

4.

73

. An L(X; Y ), n N, .
kAn+p x An xk 6 kAn+p An k kxk
, x X {An x}
. Y ,
.
y = lim An x.
n

y = Ax. , .
|kAn+p kAn k| 6 kAn+p An k ,
{kAn k} ,
, .
kAn k 6 C

n.

kAn xk 6 kAn k kxk 6 Ckxk n N.


n
kAxk 6 Ckxk,
x X.
1 .

L(X; Y ) .
, An A n , An
A n . ,
.
.
l2 x =
= {x1 ,x2 ,, . . . ,xn , . . .}
!1/2

X
kxk =
|xk |2
k=1

74

. . .

y = Pn x, x
y = {x1 ,x2 , . . . ,xn ,0, . . .}.
kPn x xk2 =

|xk |2 0

k=n+1

n x l2 . , Pn I n , I
l2 . .
, kxk = 1 Pn x = 0, kPn xxk = kxk = 1.
,
kPn Ik = sup kPn x xk > 1.
kxk61

n N.
4.5.
X Y ,
f , X Y ,
Df X.
1. f ,
x Df ,
x,
A : X Y ,
lim

h0

f (x + h) f (x) Ah
= 0.
khk

(1)

A f x Df ,
, Df (x).
,
(h) =

f (x + h) f (x) Ah
,
khk

4.

75

h = 0,
. , (0) = 0. (1) :
f (x + h) = f (x) + Ah + (h)khk,
(h) 0 h 0.
,
o-.
2. , X Y , x x0 , x0 D ,
lim k(x)k = 0.

xx0


(x) = o(1) x x0 .
(x) = (x)kx x0 k, (x) = o(1) x x0 , ,
,
(x) = o(x x0 ) x x0 .
,
.
10 . f x Df , A : X Y ,
f (x + h) f (x) Ah = o(h)

(2)

h 0.
(2), , :
f (x + h) = f (x) + Ah + o(h)
h 0.

76

. . .

, f
x Df ,
f (x + h) f (x) = Df (x)h + o(h)
h 0.
:
1. f g, X Y , x,
f + g x
D(f + g) = Df + Dg.
2. f , X Y ,
x, g, Y Z, y = f (x),
g f ,
z = g(f (x)),
x
D(g f ) = Dg Df.
.
3. f x Df h,
f (x + th) f (x)
lim
.
t+0
t
h
f x Dh f Dh f (x).
, ,
f (x + th) = f (x) + tDh f (x) + o(th)
t +0.
, x Df
L(X; Y ),
Y .

5.

77

, x f
( ), h,

Dh f (x) = Df (x)h.
, f
x,
f (x + th) = f (x) + tDf (x)h + o(th)
t +0.

5.
5.1.

. ,
, ,
.
.
1. E
R . ( , ) : E E R,
x,y E
,
(x,y), :
1) (x,x) > 0 x E;
(1)
2) (x,y) = (x,y) x,y E, R;
(2)
3) (x + y,z) = (x,z) + (y,z) x,y,z E;
(3)
4) (x,y) = (y,x) x,y E,
(4)
E.
(2) (4) ,
(x,y) = (x,y) x,y E, R,
(3) x = y = 0 ,
(0,z) = 0

z E.

78

. . .

. E,
,
p
kxk = (x,x), x E,
(5)
.
. ,
kxk > 0

x E, kxk = || kxk

R.

:
kx + yk 6 kxk + kyk.

(6)


.
. x y E
|(x,y)| 6 kxk kyk.

(7)

. ,
0 6 (x y,x y) = 2 kxk2 2(x,y) + kyk2
R. kxk = 0, (x,y) = 0, , , (7) .
kxk > 0, , =
06

(x,y)
,
kxk2

(x,y)2
+ kyk2 ,
kxk2

(7), kxk =
6 0.
.
(6) (7).
,
kx + yk2 = kxk2 + 2(x,y) + kyk2 6
6 kxk2 + 2kxk kyk + kyk2 = (kxk + kyk)2 .
.

5.

79

2. E
R . ( , ) : E E R
E, ,
, :

(x,x) = 0, x = 0.

(8)

(x,y) () x y, x y , .
, (1) (8),
,
(4) , ,
(2) (3), ( ).
,
.
, ,
(5).
(5) ,
.
,
,
.
, xn x yn y n ,
|(xn ,yn ) (x,y)| 6 |(xn ,yn ) (x,yn )| + |(x,yn ) (x,y)| 6
6 kxn xk kyn k + kxk kyn yk 0
n , .. lim (xn ,yn ) = (x,y).
n

, , x,y E, kx yk = 0, ,

80

. . .

. ,
, .
3. , , .
4. .
.
, n- Rn , x =
= (x1 , . . . ,xn ) y = (y1 , . . . ,yn )
(x,y) = x1 y1 + . . . + xn yn ,
.
, . , R , .
.
1. l2
, x = (x1 ,x2 , . . .) y = (y1 ,y2 , . . .)

X
(x,y) =
xk yk ,
k=1

. .

5.

81

2. , = [a; b],
f (x) g(x)
Z
f (x)g(x) dx,
(f,g) =

, .
CL2 (). , .
, RL2 () ,
= [a; b], (8),
. ,
, .
f (x) g(x) ,
Z
|f (x) g(x)|2 dx = 0.

5.2. ()
E C .
1. ( , ) : E E C
E,
:
1) (x,x) > 0 x E, (x,x) = 0, x = 0;
2) (x,y) = (x,y) x,y E, C;
3) (x + y,z) = (x,z) + (y,z) x,y,z E;
4) (x,y) = (y,x) x,y E,
.
2) 4) ,
(x,y) = (x,y) x,y E, C.
,
(x,y) = (y,x) = (y,x) = (x,y).

82

. . .

,
(z,x + y) = (z,x) + (z,y).
. E
p
kxk = (x,x), x E,
(5)
.
, , , . 5.1,
.
,
0 6 (x y,x y) = ||2 kxk2 (x,y) (y,x) + kyk2
C. kxk = 0, (x,y) = 0, ,
, (x,y) = kxk kyk y E.
kxk > 0, =

(y,x)
,
kxk2

|(x,y)|2 (y,x)
(x,y)
|(x,y)|2
2
06

(x,y)

(y,x)+kyk
=

+kyk2.
kxk2
kxk2
kxk2
kxk2
,
|(x,y)| 6 kxk kyk

x,y E.

, , (5).
2. ,
, ( ) .
.

5.

83

, n- Cn , x = (x1 , . . . ,xn ) y = (y1 , . . . ,yn )


(x,y) = x1 y1 + . . . + xn yn ,
.
, C
(x,y) = xy.
1. l2 x = (x1 ,x2 , . . .) y = (y1 ,y2 , . . .), . . . ,

X
(x,y) =
xk yk .
k=1

2. f :
C, = [a; b],
f (x) g(x)

Z
(f,g) =
f (x)g(x) dx,

. CL2 ().
RL2 ().
E ( ).
3. ,
.
4. ,
. , ,
, .

84

. . .

, .
14.
E xn , n N. ,
E yn , y N, , n yn
x1 , . . . ,xn .
y1 = x1 , y2 = 21 y1 x2 21
(y2 ,y1 ) = 0.
21 ky1 k2 = (x2 ,y1 ).
{xn } , ky1 k =
6 0,

(x2 ,y1 )
21 =
.
ky1 k2
, y3 = 31 y1 + 32 y2 x3 , 31 32
(y3 ,y1 ) = (y3 ,y2 ) = 0. ,
31 =

(x3 ,y1 )
,
ky1 k2

32 =

(x3 ,y2 )
.
ky2 k2


yk 6= 0, k = 1,2, . . . ,n, , yk
1
x1 , . . . ,xk . yn+1 = n+1
y1 +
n
k
+ . . . + n+1 yn xn+1 n+1 (yn+1 ,yk ) = 0,
k = 1, . . . ,n.
k
n+1
=

(xn+1 ,yk )
,
kyk k2

k = 1, . . . ,n.

, {yn } . , , .

5.

85

5.3.
,

.
1. , , , .
, .
,
, .
,
.
H .
2. E1
E2 ,
f : E1 E2 E1 E2 ,
(f (x),f (y))2 = (x,y)1

x,y E1 ,

( , )1 ( , )2 E1 E2 .
3. H E, H E 0 ,
E H.
. .
. E
. , E -

86

. . .

, E , E.
E 0
, . x E x0 E 0 , x,x,x, . . ., , , kx0 k = kxk.
, E 0 E , .. x E
x0n E 0 ,
x0n x n .
x y E
(x ,y ) = lim (xn ,yn ),
n

(1)

{xn } x , {yn } y .
,
|(xm ,ym ) (xn ,yn )| 6 kxm xn k kym k + kxn k|ym yn k
m n,
(xn ,yn ), n N, , , .
, (1) {xn } x {yn } y (x ,y )
E E .

l2 L2 (), . ,
L2 () CL2 ().

5.

87

5.4.
E
e1 ,e2 , . . . ,en , . . .

(1)

,
.
E
. . E , .
1. E (1). x E

ak = (x,ek ), k N,
x (1),

X
ak ek
k=1

x .
1. ak , k N,
P
x E ,
|ak |2
k=1

|ak |2 6 kxk2 .

(2)

k=1

. ,

2
n
n


X
X


2
ak ek = kxk
|ak |2 ,
x


k=1

k=1

(3)

88

. . .

n
X

|ak |2 6 kxk2

k=1

n N. ,
|ak |2 , (2).
(2) .
(3), n N, ,
x E x, ..
x=

ak ek ,

k=1

|ak |2 = kxk2 .

(4)

k=1

2. (1) E , x E (4).
,
, ,
.
. , ,



n
n



X
X



ak ek ,
(5)
inf x
k ek = x
1 ,...,n


k=1

k=1

ak x E (1),
e1 ,e2 , . . . ,en (1).

5.

89

,

2
n
n
n


X
X
X


k ek = kxk2
|ak |2 +
|ak k |2 .
x


k=1

k=1

k=1

, ,
k = ak , (5).
, X X, X.
2. (1)
E, x E .
. (1) E, x E
:


N


X


k ek < .
> 0 1 , . . . ,N : x


k=1


ak = (x,ek ) ,


N


X


k ek <
x


k=1

, (3),


n


X


k ek < n > N .
x


k=1

, x

k ek .

k=1

2 .
E . , E , ..
E H.

90

. . .

3.

|ak |2 , -

k=1

(1) H

ak ek k=1

x H.
.
n+p
2
n+p
X

X


ak ek =
|ak |2 ,



k=n+1

k=n+1

n p, ,

ak ek -

k=1

. H
x H:
x=

ak ek .

k=1

,
ak = (x,ek ). ,

n
X
(x,ek ) = lim
aj ej ,ek = ak .
n

j=1

3 .
4. H (1) , H
.
. , (1)
H, x H
. (x,ek ) = 0 k, x = 0.
(1) , H ek . x H ,

5.

ak ek

91

(6)

k=1

x,
P x. 2
,
k=1 |ak | , , 3, (6) x0 , (6)
. , (x x0 ,ek ) = 0 k, x x0 =
= 0.
4 .
. 4 (1) H . . , E, E
. 4 ,
.
5.5.

, X
, X . , X
, .
.
{ek } X X, x X
k , k N,
,

X
x=
k ek .
k=1

92

. . .

1. E .
. E , , :
x1 ,x2 , . . . ,xn , . . .

e1 ,e2 , . . . ,en .
, E,
x E .
1 .
2. H l2
.
. 1, H e1 ,e2 , . . . ,en , . . . . x H {ak } .
, {ak } l2 .
3 , {ak }
l2 , ak , k N
H.
, H l2
. , x {ak }, y {bk }, x+y {ak +bk } x {sk }
. ,
kxk =

X
k=1

|ak | ,

kyk =

X
k=1

|bk |2 ,

5.

93

,
(x,y) =

ak bk .

k=1

2 .
, l2 , 2 .
3. .
. H H 0 .
1, H H 0

P
ak ek
{ek } {e0k }. x =

x0

P
k=1

k=1

ak e0k .

, -


H H 0.
3 .
, {ek }
E, ,

P
ak ek , {ak } l2 , k=1

:
x=

ak ek ,

y=

k=1

k=1

(x,y) =

X
k=1

ak bk .

bk ek ,

94

. . .

5.6.
L
E.
1. y0 L x0 E L,
(x0 y0 ,y) = 0

y L.

(1)

, x E
L. ,

(x y1 ,y) = 0, (x y2 ,y) = 0 y.

ky1 y2 k2 = (y1 y2 ,y1 x + x y2 ) = 0


, , y1 = y2 .
1. y0 L x0 E L,
,
kx0 y0 k = inf kx0 yk.
yL

(2)

. y0
(1), , ,
kx0 yk2 = ((x0 y0 ) + (y0 y),(x0 y0 ) + (y0 y)) =
= kx0 y0 k2 + ky0 yk2
y L, (2).
(2).
f (t) = kx0 y0 + tyk2 , t R,
y L.
E ,
f (t) = kx0 y0 k2 + 2t(x0 y0 ,y) + t2 kyk2 .

5.

95


t = 0, f 0 (0) = 0,
(x0 y0 ,y) = 0

y L.

E ,
f (t) = kx0 y0 k2 + 2t Re(x0 y0 ,y) + t2 kyk2 ,

Re(x0 y0 ,y) = 0 y L.
,
f1 (t) = kx0 y0 + ityk2 ,

Im(x0 y0 ,y) = 0 y L.
, (1).
1 .
2. L E , x E L.
. 1 ,
,
x0 E

y0 L :

kx0 y0 k = inf kx0 yk.


yL

x0 E
d = inf kx0 yk2 .
yL

{yn } L ,
lim kx0 yn k2 = d.
(3)
n

, .
,

2

y m + yn
2
2
2


kyn ym k = 2kyn x0 k + 2kym x0 k 4 x0

2

96

. . .
1

n m. 2 (ym + yn ) L,

2


1
x0 (ym + yn ) > d,


2

kyn ym k2 6 2kx0 yn k2 + 2kx0 ym k2 4d.
(3) ,
2

N :

n > N

kx0 yn k2 < d +

2
.
4

(4) :
kyn ym k2 < 2

n,m > N.

L ,
y0 L , yn y0 n .
,
lim kx0 yn k = kx0 y0 k.

2 .
5.7.
E (
).
1. a E
f (x) = (x,a), x E,
(1)
,
kf k = kak.
. .
|f (x)| 6 kak kxk
f (a) = kak2 , kf k = kak.

x E.

5.

97

1 .
2. f
(1), a .
,
f (x) = (x,a) f (x) = (x,b) x E,
(x,a b) = 0 x E, , , (a b,a b) = 0,
a = b.
. f
H (1).
. L f , .. x H , f (x) = 0.
, L . f , L .
, xn L xn x n ,
f (x) = lim f (xn ) = 0.
n

H , L
.
L = H, .. f (x) = 0 x H, , ,
f (x) = (0,x) x H.
L 6= H, .. x0 H ,
f (x0 ) 6= 0. y0
x0 L
z0 = x0 y0 .

f (z0 ) = f (x0 ) 6= 0 (z0 ,y) = 0 y L.





f (x)
f x
z0 = 0 x H,
f (z0 )
x H

f (x)
z0 L,
f (z0 )

98

. . .

f (x)
z0 ,z0
x
f (z0 )
,


= 0 x H.

(x,z0 ) = f (x)

kz0 k2
.
f (z0 )

(2)

, f (z0 ) 6= 0, kz0 k =
6 0, (2)

f (x) = (x,a),
a =

f (z0 )
z .
kz0 k2 0

.
( )
( ) . , X,
, X X .
, H H
.

6.
6.1.
5.1 15 , ,

A, E(t)
(t) t = 0. , , -

6.

99

A f (t)
f (t) E(t):
Z
Af =
f ( )E(t ) d.
R

, (t) h:
( 0,
t < 0,
h (t) = 1/h, 0 6 t < h,
0,
t > h,
h 0, , E(t) A
(t) Eh (t) h (t) h 0. (t)
, :
h (t) (t) Eh (t) E(t) h 0,
(t).
. , ,
. , ,
.
, R f (x)

C R (x)

, C

Z
(f,) =
f (x)(x) dx.
(1)
R

100

. . .

, f g
, ..
Z
Z

f (x)(x) dx =
g(x)(x) dx C ,
R

f (x) = g(x) x R.
(1) f .
f , , f
x R, (1)
.

C ,
(1), . ,
, ,

C (0), ..

(,) = (0), C .
(2)
, (1)
( ) R .
(2) -, 20- .
, :
Z +
(x)(x) dx = (0) C.
(x) = 0 x 6= 0,

,
. , . , -
.
, - -

6.

101

.
6.2. D

C , R .
. .
1.

k (x) C , k N, (x)

C ,
1) [a; b] :

supp k [a; b] k;


(l)

2) lim sup k (x) (l) (x) = 0 l = 0,1,2, . . ..
k xR

, C , .

2. C
D
.

k C

C 1, ,
{k } D ,
:
k D k .
, supp k [a; b] k k k ,
supp [a; b].
, D -

102

. . .

. , .

1. {k }

C .
1) [a; b] : supp k [a; b] k;
(l)
2) l = 0,1,2, . . . {k } C(R),

C ,
k

D k .

. , {k } {0k } C(R) .
Z x
k (x) = k (0) +
0k (t) dt
0

k
Z x
(x) = (0) +
(t) dt,
0

, (x)
0 (x) = (x). , 0 (x)
00 (x) = lim 00k (x).
k

, , (x)
k D k .

, C , .. k k D
k ,
k + k + D k
. , (x)
R ,
k D k .

6.

103

y
1. ,
1
a > 0
(
x2
exp 2
, |x| < a,
(x) =
x a2
0,
|x| > a,

0
a x
a
(. 2), . 2
.
1
k (x) = (x; a), k N,
k
D.
1 x 
k (x) =
; a , k N,
k
k
R
, .. 2)
1, D,
1): [a; b],
k (x) .
6.3.
D . f
D (f,).
, f , D,
,
(f, + ) = (f,) + (f,)
, D.
f ,
: k 0 D, (f,k ) 0
k .
1. D .

104

. . .

D
. , f
g f +g ,
D
(f + g,) = (f,) + (g,).
, f +
+g , ..
D. ( .)
, D
.
D0 . , D.
1. R f
Z
(f,) =
f (x)(x) dx, D,
(1)
R

.
. (1) , .
k 0 k , supp k [a; b] k.
Z b
|(f,k )| 6
|f (x)| |k (x)| dx 6
a
Z b
6
|f (x)| dx sup |k (x)| 0
a

k 0.
1 .
2. , (1)

6.

105

f . .
2. ,
(,) = (0), D,

(2)

.
.
(2) . ,
(1).
, f ,
Z
(,) =
f (x)(x) dx.
R

(x) (x; a), .


Z a
Z a
Z
x2



f (x)(x; a) dx = f (x)e x2 a2 dx 6
|f (x)| dx 0



a

a +0. , (2),
Z
f (x)(x; a) dx = (0; a) = 1.
R

, .
2 .
3. , (2), -.
, f g R ,

. : , f g, , f (x) = g(x) x R.

106

. . .

, x0 , , , f (x0 ) < g(x0 ), , f


g x0 , > 0 ,
f (x) < g(x) x (x0 ; x0 + ).
(x) = (x x0 ; ), (x; ) , ,
Z x0 +
(f,) =
f (x)(x x0 ; ) dx <
x0

x0 +

g(x)(x x0 ; ) dx = (g,),

<
x0

,
f g, .
, , f g , f (x) = g(x) x R,
f g .
, f ,
x, f (x). , -, (2), (x), ,
(x) D
x0 (x x0 )
((x x0 ),(x)) = (x0 ).

(3)

(x x0 ) -.

, . ,
f (x) = x2 , f (x) = 3 x, f (x) = sin x, f (x) =
= |x|, f (x) = sgn x ..
.

6.

107

f (x), x R, x =
= ay + b, a 6= 0, D


Z
Z
xb 1
f (ay + b)(y) dy =
f (x)
dx,
a
a
R
R
..



1
xb
(f (ay + b),(y)) = f (x),
.
(4)
a
a
f (x) D0 (4)
f (ay + b), a 6= 0.
,
((x x0 ),(x)) = ((x),(x + x0 )) = (x0 ),
(3).
6.4.
D, ,
. , f (x) (x)
(x)f (x) D,
(f,) = (f,) D.

(1)

, f
D.
1.
(1 + x)(x) = (x).
, D

(2)

((1 + x)(x),(x)) = ((x),(1 + x)(x)) = (0) = ((x),(x)),


(2).
, (1) ,
(x)(x) = (0)(x)
R (x).

108

. . .

:
? ,
. ,
. , ,
1

P x
1

x .
1

2. P x ,
D
 Z +

(x) (x)
1
dx.
P ,(x) =
x
x
0

D. .
,
Z +
Z +
(x) (x)
dx =
(0 (x) + 0 (x)) ln x dx,
x
0
0



Z +
1
P ,(x) =
0 (x) ln |x| dx.
x

k D k . , D, [a; b] ,
[a; b] k = k . ,


Z b
1
P ,k =
k0 (x) ln |x| dx,
x
a


Z b





P 1 ,k 6 sup | 0 (x)|
ln
|x|

dx 0
k


x
xR
a
k .

6.

109

3.

1
= 1.
x
, D




1
1
xP ,(x) = P ,x(x) =
x
x
Z +
Z +
(x) dx = (1,),
=
((x) + (x)) dx, =
xP

(3)

(3).
.

 1
1
x(x) P = 0 P = 0,
x
x


1
(x) xP
= (x) 1 = (x)
x
1

, x, (x) P x , .
6.5.
. .
1. f g
G R, (f,) = (g,)
D, G.
f = g G. , f = 0 G,
(f,) = 0 D, supp G.
, -
, x = 0.
2. ,
f ,

110

. . .

f , R f supp f .

( , ),
. , - (; 0) (0; +
+), - x = 0.
, R f , f .
, , . , - .
6.6. D 0
D0 D
.
1. ,
fn , n N,
f ,
lim (fn ,) = (f,) D.

, ,
.
.
2. D, () , ,
D, D0 .
D0 . {fn }

6.

111

f 1, , fn f
D0
fn f D0 n .
1. ,

0, x < 0;

1
n, 0 6 x < n ;
fn (x) =
(1)

0, x > ,
n
D0 -.
fn (x)
R D
Z
(fn ,) =
fn (x)(x) dx, D,
R

.
, , (fn ,) (0) n
D. ,
Z 1/n
Z 1/n
(fn ,) =
n(x) dx = (0) + n
((x) (0)) dx,
0

n ,
Z 1/n
Z 1/n
0
n
|(x) (0)| dx 6 max | (x)|n
x dx =
0

1
=
max |0 (x)| 0
2n x
n .
, fn (x) (x) D0 n .
2. ,
(1) -
. , n (x), x R, -,

112

. . .

1)
2)

R n (x) dx = 1 n;
Rh
lim h n (x) dx = 1
n

h > 0.

, - n (x) D0 n (x).
(x) D. ,
Z
(n ,) =
n (x)(x) dx (0)
R

n .
M = sup |(x)|,
x

M1 = sup |0 (x)|.
x


Z


|(n ,) (0)| = n (x)((x) (0)) dx 6
R
Z h
Z h
Z +
n (x) dx + 2M1 h n (x) dx + 2M
n (x) dx
6 2M

h > 0. n (x) ,
n 1- 3- , 2- 2M1 h.

Z




lim n (x)((x) (0)) dx 6 2M1 h
n
R

h > 0, ,
n (x) (x) D0 n .
D0 . , .
. fn , n N, , D
(fn ,), n N, . f , D
(f,) = lim (fn ,),
n

6.

113

D, .. f D0 .
, ,
.. .
D0 .
3.
1
, |x| > 1 ,
x
n
fn (x) =
1
0,
|x| 6 n .
fn (x) :
Z 1/n
Z +
1
1
(fn ,) =
(x) dx +
(x) dx =
x
1/n x
Z +
(x) (x)
=
dx, D,
x
1/n
. ,
Z +
(x) (x)
lim (fn ,) =
dx D.
n
x
0



Z +
(x) (x)
1
dx = P , ,
x
x
0



1
lim (fn ,) = P ,
D.
n
x
,
1
fn (x) P , D0 n .
x
1

, fn (x) x n x 6= 0. , fn (x)

114

. . .
1

D0 f (x) = x ,
1
fn (x) D0 n .
x
1

P x x .
6.7.
, f R,
Z
Z
0
0
(f ,) =
f (x)(x) dx = f (x)0 (x) dx = (f,0 )
R

D.
, f D0
f 0 ,
(f 0 ,) = (f,0 ) D,

(1)

D, .. (1)
f 0 .
1. f f 0 , (1),
f .
f 0 .
n- f (n) :
(f (n) ,) = (1)n (f,(n) ),

D.

,
.
.
1. , .. f g
(f + g)0 = f 0 + g 0 .

(2)

6.

115

, D
((f + g)0 ,) = (f + g,0 ) = (,0 ) (g,0 ) =
= (f 0 ,) + (g 0 ,) = (f 0 + g 0 ,),
(2).
2. , .. fk f D0 , fk0 f 0 D0
k .
, D
(fk0 ,) = (fk ,0 ) (f,0 ) = (f 0 ,)
k , .
3. f D0 , C ,
(f )0 = 0 f + f 0 .

(3)

, D
((f )0 ,) = (f,0 ) = (f,0 ) =
= (f,()0 0 ) = (f,()0 )+(f, 0 ) =
= (f 0 ,) + ( 0 f,) = (f 0 + 0 f,),
(3).
.
1.

0, x < 0,
(x) =
1, x > 0.
,
(0 ,) = (,0 ),

D.

(x) ,
Z +
0
(, ) =
0 (x) dx = (0).
0

116

. . .

, (0 ,) = (0),
0 (x) = (x).
2. f (x) = x(x).
f , :
(x(x)) = (x) + x0 (x).
0 (x) = (x) x(x) = 0,
(x(x)) = (x).
3. x 0 (x) = (x).
,
x 0 (x) + (x) = (x(x))0 = 0,
x(x) = 0.
4. y = (x)ex y 0 + y = (x).
,
y 0 = ex (x) (x)ex = (x) y.

7.
7.1. S S 0

S 15 . 4.6.
, R ,
: ,
x
1/x.
.
,
S, .. D S. -

7.

117

S 6= D. , (x) = exp(x2 ) S, D.
S .
1. (x) S
S (x) S, k m :
(k)
lim sup |xm ((k)
n (x) (x))| = 0,

n xR

(k)

.. k m xm n (x) n
xm (k) (x) x R.
S
S, S S.
, n (x) D
D (x), n (x) (x) S.
2. S
S .
, S 0 S . , S 0 ( ) . , ,
fn f S 0 n ,
lim (fn ,) = (f,) S.

3. S 0 S S 0
.
S 0
,
Z
(f,) =
f (x)(x) dx, S,
(1)
R

118

. . .

f (x) , :
k :

f (x) = O(xk ) x .

(2)

,
S 0 .
. f (x), x R,
(1) S 0 .
. S (1) , x f (x)
x,
S 1/x. (1) , .
, .
f (x) (2),
n (x) 0 S n .
kn kk+2 = sup(1 + |x|k+2 )|n (x)|.
x

kn kk+2 0 n ,
Z
|f (x)|
Jk+2 (f ) =
dx < +.
k+2
R 1 + |x|

|(f,n )| 6 kn kk+2 Jk+2 (f ),
(f,n ) 0 n .
.
S 0 , , , . , , R f (x) S 0 . S 0 -:
(,) = (0),

S.

7.

119

.
f S 0 p(x) pf ,
(pf,) = (f,p) S.
, pf
S.
S 0
, D0 . , f 0
f
(f 0 ,) = (f,0 ), S.
,
1) S 0 S 0 , , ,
f S 0 ;
2) , .. f g
(f + g)0 = f 0 + g 0 ;
3) , .. fn f
S 0 , fn0 f S 0 n ;
4) f S 0 p(x)
(pf )0 = p0 f + pf 0 .
7.2. S

S
:
Z
1
()

=
(x)eix dx,
2 ZR
1
()

=
(x)eix dx.
2 R

120

. . .

15 (. . 4.6) , S, S
S,
F 1 [F []] = F [F 1 []] =

S.

, S S.
,
S S.
. S , .
n (x) 0 S n .
k
l
l
(k)
| k (l)
n ()| = | F [x n (x)]| = |F [(x n (x)) ]|
Z +
1
6
|(xl n (x))(k) | dx 6
2
Z +
1
dx
6 sup(1 + x2 )|(xl n (x))(k) |
=
2
2 x
1 + x
r

=
sup(1 + x2 )|(xl n (x))(k) | 0
2 x
n ,

lim sup | k (l)


n ()| = 0

k l. ,
n 0 S n .
, n 0 S n .
7.3.

, f R, S

Z

Z Z
Z
ix
ix
f (x)e
dx () d = f (x)
()e
d dx,
R

7.

, ,
Z

f()() d =

121

Z
f (x)(x)

dx.
R

.
1. f S 0
f ,
(f,) = (f,)
S,
f , F [f ] = f .
, ,
(F [f ],) = (f,F []) S.
, f ,
(f,) = (f,)
S,

f , F 1 [f ] = f .
1.
-.
,

(,)
= (,)
= (0),

(,)
= (,)
= (0).


1
(0)

=
2

1
(x) dx = (1,)
2
R

1
(0)

= (1,),
2

1
F [] = F 1 [] = .
2
2. (x).

122

. . .

,
Z + Z
1
dx ()eix d.
(F [],) = (,F []) =
2 0
R
,
Z Z
1
lim
dx ()eix d.
(F [],)
+
2
0
R

x.
Z
1
1 eix
(F [],)
d.
lim
()
i
2 + R
, R
Z +
Z +
1 ei
1 ei
()
d +
()
d,
i
i
0
0

Z +
i
() ()
(F [],) =
d+

2 0

Z + 
1
() i () i
+
lim
e
e
d.
i
i
2 + 0
,
Z +
() i
lim
e
d = 0,
+ 1
i
Z 1
() (0) i
lim
e
d = 0,
+ 0
i
,
Z +
i
() ()
(F [],) =
d +

2 0


Z 1
1
2 sin
+
lim (0)
d =

2 +
0
Z +
i
() ()

=
d + (0).

2 0
2

7.

123

,
i
1
F [] = P +
2
,

i
1
[] = P +
2

().
2

().
2

1. f S 0 f f S, ..
f S 0 f S 0 . , :
F 1 [F [f ]] = F [F 1 [f ]] = f.
. S
:
(f, + ) = (f, + ) =
= (f,) + (f,).
= (f,)
+ (f,)
f . .
n S n . ,
, n S n . ,
(f,n ) (f,)
n ,

lim (f,n ) = (f,).

n
f S 0 .

,
, f
0
S.
f S 0 S. ,
(F 1 [F [f ]],) = (F [f ],F 1 []) = (f,)
S. ,
F 1 [F [f ]] = f.

124

. . .

,
F [F 1 [f ]] = f.
1 .
3.

f (x) = 1.
1 ,

1 = 2F [],
1 = 2F 1 [].
:

F 1 [1] = 2, F [1] = 2.
2.
, S 0 S 0 .
. f g S 0

(F [f + g],) = (f + g,F []) =
= (f,F []) + (g,F []) =
= (F [f ],) + (F [g],) =
= (F [f ] + F [g],),

S.

,
F [f + g] = F [f ] + F [g].
F S 0 . .
fn f S 0 .
(F [fn ],) = (fn ,F []) (f,F []) = (F [f ],)
n S. ,
F [fn ] F [f ] S 0 n .
,

S0 S0.

7.

125

, F F 1 S 0 S 0 . , f S 0 f S 0 F
f S 0 F 1 .
2 .
.
() S :


dk
(k)
(k)
k
(F [f ],) = (f ,F []) = (1) f, k F [] =
dx
= (f,F [(i)k ()]) = (F [f ],(i)k ()).
,

F [f (k) ] = (i)k f().



F 1 [f (k) ] = (i)k f().

.
() S :
 k

d
f (),() = (1)k (f(),(k) ()) =
d k
= (1)k (f (x),F [(k) ()]) =
= (1)k (f (x),(ix)k F []) =
= (F [(ix)k f (x)],()).
,
dk
f () = F [(ix)k f (x)].
d k
,
dk
f () = F 1 [(ix)k f (x)].
d k

126

. . .

:
dk
f (x),
d k
dk
F 1 [xk f (x)] = (i)k k f(x).
d
F [xk f (x)] = ik

4.
f (x) = xk , k N.

dk
F [xk ] = F [xk 1] = ik k ( 2()) = 2ik (k) ();
d

1 k
F [x ] = 2(i)k (k) ().

1.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.

. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .
2. . .
2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2. . . . . . . .
2.3. . .
2.4. .
3. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2. . . . . . .
3.3.
3.4. .
4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3. . .
4.4.
4.5. . . . . . . . . . . .
5.
5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2. () . . . . . . .
5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3
3
9
15
19
26
29
29
31
33
35
39
39
43
49
51
60
60
62
66
71
74
77
77
81
85
127

5.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
5.5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
5.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
5.7. . . . . . . . . . 96
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
6.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
6.2. D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
6.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
6.4. . . . . . . . . . . 107
6.5. . . . . . . . . . . . 109
6.6. D0 . . . . . . 110
6.7. . . . . 114
7. 116
7.1. S
S 0 . . . . . . 116
7.2. S
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
7.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

128