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Drama specific mode of fiction represented in

performance. The term comes from a Greek word meaning "action", which is derived from the verb meaning "to do" or "to act".
Dramatist also known as a playwright. It is a

person who writes dramatic literature or drama. These works may be written specifically to be performed by actors, or they may be closet dramas - simple literary works - written using dramatic forms, but not meant for performance.

Rizal is a dramatist because he had wrote different

dramas when he was still a student. When he was in Ateneo, he wrote a drama based on the prose story of St. Eustace the Martyr and finished it on June 2, 1876 during the opening of classes. Another drama that he wrote is the The Council of Gods in which he won the first prize in the literary contest opened by the Artistic-Literary Lyceum. He also wrote the Junto Al Pasig which was staged by the Ateneans during the annual celebration of the Feast of the Immaculate Conception and the Patroness of Ateneo.

The Council of the Gods Junto Al Pasig

Saint Eustache the Martyr

The original manuscript of this early work of Rizal no

longer exists and may have been destroyed in the bombardment of the Second World War. It had, however, been published in installments in a magazine, Cultura Social of Ateneo University. Rizal produced this play in Spanish poetic verse in 1876 from a Spanish prose translation of an original Italian work when he was fourteen years old as an exercise in composition given by Father Francisco de Paula Snchez.


Hadrian . . . . . Emperor

Eustache . . . . Roman General

Titus . . . . . . . Younger Son of Eustache Flavius . . . . . Older Son of Eustache Claudius . . . . Friend of Flavius Cornelius . . . Favorite of the emperor and rival of Eustache. Metellus . . . . Friend of Eustache

Junto Al Pasig (Beside the Pasig) a one-act zarzuela

in Spanish written by the Philippine national hero, Jose Rizal. It was staged by the Academy of Spanish Literature members on December 8, 1880. Rizal wrote it to honor Nuestra Senora dela Paz y Buenviaje de Antipolo (Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage).

Even when Rizal already graduated from the Ateneo, and while he is already studying medicine in the University of Santo Tomas , he remained close to the Jesuits. As president of the Academy of Spanish Literature and through his skills in writing he was asked to contribute to the celebration of the feast of the Immaculate Conception, the colleges patroness. From there, he wrote Junto Al Pasig and it was staged during 1880s feast. A Spanish professor, Blas Echegoyen, wrote the music for the choruses while the members of the academy played the following characters:
Leonido Isidro Perez Candido Antoni Fuentes Pascual Aquiles R. de Luzulaga Satan Julio Llorente An Angel Pedro Carranceja

Novel a long prose narrative that describes fictional

characters and events, usually in the form of a sequential story. The genre has historical roots in antiquity and the fields of medieval and early modern romance and in the tradition of the noveLla.
Novelist a person who writes novels.


Sa mga Kababaihan sa Malolos

The Friars and the Filipinos

Noli Me Tangere
El Filibusterismo

Makamisa (English: After mass) is an unfinished novel written by Filipino patriot and writer Jos Rizal. The original manuscript was found by historian Ambeth Ocampo in 1987 while he was going through a 245-page collection of papers. This draft is written in pure, vernacular Lagunense Tagalog and has no written direct signature or date of inscription. The novel has only one chapter. It runs for only ten pages and is hand-written in the old orthographic ancillary glyphs. Although written in a different language, its style, characterization and setting mirror those of Rizal's two previous works, Noli me tangere and El filibusterismo which he wrote in Spanish. The chapter ends with a short unfinished sentence:

Sapagkt nabalitang nasampl si aleng Anday ay wala mandin silng

which therefore satisfies the theory of it being unfinished. The novel explores the mysterious ill-temperament of the town curate Padre Agaton. Rizal later restarted work on Makamisa, using Spanish. However, the novel remained unfinished. The draft in Spanish was later translated to Filipino (under the name Etikang Tagalog: Ang Ikatlong Nobela ni Rizal) by Nilo S. Ocampo, of the University of the Philippines Diliman College of Arts and Letters. Seven characters are mentioned in this 10-page unfinished novel: Padre Agaton (Father Agaton) - the parochial curate of the fictitious town of Tulig, described as a cheerful, approachable and powerful man who loves the town and is not known for his bad temper. In the story, he has a sudden, unexpected display of anger, the reason for which is yet to be revealed.

Kapitan Lucas (Town captain Lucas) - the

gobernadorcillo of Tulig and is in danger of losing his government position if he does not please Padre Agaton on the upcoming Easter fiesta. Aleng Anday (Miss Anday) - female friend of Padre Agaton and the only person whom the curate loves. She is an extremely disciplined woman whom everybody admires for her generosity Hanna Malonzo - Manila-raised daughter of Kapitan Lucas, who returned to Tulig for her aunt's funeral Tenyente Tato (Lieutenant Tato) - lieutenant-general of the guardia civil. Don Segundo - the Juez de paz or peace officer of the town. Kapitan Tibo - next-in-line to the gobernadorcillo office.

Ika-17 ng Pebrero 1889 nang isulat ni Jose Rizal gamit ang wikang Tagalog ang liham na ito habang ginagawa ang anotasyon sa aklat ni Morga. Isinulat niya ito sa London, limang araw matapos ipaalam sa kanya ni Marcelo H. del Pilar ang isang mahalagang pangyayari sa bayan ng Malolos. Ayon sa pagsasalaysay, ika-12 ng Disyembre 1888 nang may 20 kadalagahan ng Malolos ang naghain ng petisyon kay Gobernador-Heneral Weyler upang magtayo ng isang "panggabing paaralan." Layunin nila na mag-aral ng wikang Espaol sa ilalim ni Teodoro Sandiko, isang propesor sa Latin. Gayunpaman, hindi sinang-ayunan ni Padre Felipe Garcia, ang kura paroko, ang petisyon.

Naging dahilan ito upang hindi rin pumayag ang gobernador-heneral na maitatag ang paaralan. Sa kabila ng pagtutol, hindi dagliang sumuko ang mga kadalagahan sa kanilang layunin. Patuloy silang nanawagan at nang lumaon, pumayag na rin ang pamahalaan na maitatag ang paaralan, bagama't tumagal lamang ito ng tatlong buwan. Si Seora Guadalupe Reyes ang nagsilbing guro ng mga kadalagahan.

This unfinished manuscript of Rizal was not

given a title. It is sometimes also entitled The Lord Gazes at the Philippine Islands or The Divine Wrath. It is quite possibly the early draft of a novel that never came to completion.

Noli Me Tngere (Touch me Not / Don't touch me)

is a novel written by Jos Rizal, the national hero of the Philippines, during the colonization of the country by Spain to expose the inequities of the Spanish Catholic priests and the ruling government. The title, in Latin meaning Touch me not, refers to John 20:17 in the Bible (King James Version) as Mary Magdalene tried to touch the newly risen Jesus, He said "Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father."[1] Early English translations of the novel used titles like An Eagle Flight (1900) and The Social Cancer (1912), disregarding the symbolism of the title,

but the more recent translations were published using the original Latin title. It has also been noted by French writer D. Blumentritt that Noli me tangere was a name used by ophthalmologists for cancer of the eyelids. That as an ophthalmologist himself Rizal was influenced by this fact is suggested in his dedication, To My Country. Originally written in Spanish, the book is more commonly published and read in the Philippines in either Filipino or English. Together with its sequel, El Filibusterismo, the reading of Noli is obligatory for high school students throughout the archipelago.

El Filibusterismo (lit. Spanish for "The Filibustering"[1]), also known by its English alternate title The Reign of Greed,[2] is the second novel written by Philippine national hero Jos Rizal. It is the sequel to Noli Me Tngere and, like the first book, was written in Spanish. It was first published in 1891 in Ghent, Belgium. The novel's dark theme departs dramatically from the previous novel's hopeful and romantic atmosphere, signifying the character Ibarra's resort to solving his country's issues through violent means, after his previous attempt at reforming the country's system have made no effect and seemed impossible with the attitudes of the Spaniards towards the Filipinos.

The novel along with its predecessor were banned in

some parts of the Philippines as a result of their portrayals of the Spanish government's abuse and corruption. These novels along with Rizal's involvement in organizations that aim to address and reform the Spanish system and its issues led to Rizal's exile to Dapitan and eventual execution. Both the novel and its predecessor, along with Rizal's last poem, are now considered Rizal's literary masterpieces.