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2005

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681.3.06
P69


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ISBN 5-7417-0144-2 (. 1)

69


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681.3.06



( 3- )

1.
.. . ..
16.12.2005. 60 X 84 Vie- .
. . . . 20,75. . -. . 20,0. 700 . -458.

- ( )
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141700, ., . , ., 9

ISBN 5-7417-0144-2 (. 1)
ISBN 5-7417-0145-0

.., 2005
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(6- )
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, , - .

A 1.

1.1.
,
.
, .
, *(/),
/(, ), , . .

x{t).

- .*(/),
,
(. 1.1.1).
( \

\/

()= A-( - v(/)

*('>/

k \i

(0 = /

y'i

r i

* 1
/

)
.
5

/
/

~\f

\t

(/)
*(/) y{t\

, At (. 1.1.1).

- (. 1.1.16).
:(:)
(. 1.1.2), . . ,
- mq, q , a w - ,
- 0, 1, 2,..., -1,

- 2",

4
\

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*1
-
''
*-

kV

. 1.1.2
,
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,

.
( ) X ( f )
, ,
/].

, , . .
,
.
,
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x (t) , *(/) = 0
/ < 0.

.
.
6

1.2.

, ,
S.
, . .
,
.
, ,
d(\, ),
.
, ,
.
. d(\, )

, :
) d (, ) > 0 d (, ) = 0, = ;
) d {x ,y ) = d ( , ) ();
) d (, z ) < d (, y ) + d (y , z) ( ).
S d
. ,
, .
.
, [,],

( 1.2 . 1)

( 1.2 .2)
</3(, y) = sup | x (/ )-v (0
[.

(1.2.3)

, N,
(1.2.4)

(1.2.5)
7

d 3(x, ) = max |x( k) - y ( k ) |.

(1.2.6)

-

* = (*-1
* 1 * ) = ( -, ))
:
4 x .y )= Z [* . ^ 3
/=0
2: 1+ 0 = 0 +1 = 1,

( L2-7)
0 + 0 = 1+1 =

. (1.2.7)
.


,
,

. [13].
.
,, 2,

, ,

,= 0
=!
, = 0.
N
S,
:

= 0

N -

.
S

{}

, S

. N { }
.
.


.
1. .
2.
(, ), ,
, .
:
(X.

= ( , ) ;

(, + ) = (, ) + (, z);

(1.2.9)

(, ) = (, ), (, ) = (, );
(, ) > ,
(, ) = 0 , = 0.
.
3. .

||||= V (X, ) > 0.

(1.2.10)

0
, :
(* > )

(*> )

.2.11)

V
*) (> )
II ! IIII


. ,
, . . (, ) = 0.
|cos0| < 1,
|(, )|<||||||

(1.2.12)

- -.

, , -.

{<}, .

X = Z C9 ..
/ = 0

(1.2.13)


. = % * .

(1.2.14)

4
(>) =

V 11
[,

/ * .

(1-2.15)


|| 1 = 7 ^ ) = 1 ,

0-2.16)

|| |2 = ( , > = -

- 2-17)

N1=J I h r
V =

(i- 2^ )

(1.2.17) . (1.2.13)
{}, -
.
,
{}

{} {} ,


(X, ) = ( . * * ) =
=0
=0
=0

(1.2.19)


( pw ),
:
S > A = Z X
=0
=0

( 1-2-20)

.

:
I w h J l k - b . r
V =0

(1-2-21)

, ,
,
. .

, , ,
, ,
.
1.2.1. N
, /7 = 1, 2,

N.

N
{ },
.V

Z < -

=I

,
-.

) ^ ^ , , , , || 11|= 1 ) , 2= 2(6 , ,+ 2), 6, ,

( , , + 2, () = 0.

|= ( 2, ,). 2 2.
) , 3= 3( ) 1+ 2 2+ 3).
, 2
,= - ( 3, ,) 2= - ( 3, 2)

3.
) , 4, 5 . .

1.2.2. (1.2.9) (1.2.19)

*, ) = ( z . z - > = z = z (*> >. . . )=0


=0
=0
=0

1.3.
L2
S
*(/), , .
, jt(f)

J|*(0|2 dt

<00.

, ,
*(/) - 1.
11

L 2 .
.
L 2 ,

d2(x t )
y{t) (/).
< < L 2

* ,

- .

(1.3.4)

(1.2.13) L 2

(1.3.5)

(1.3.6)
{<}.

12
S (
) = [(0), (1), (2),

(), ...^

|(&)|2 <0.

(1.3.7)


.
:
12

X + = W O ) + (0), 41) + ( 1),


= [(0), ax(l),

* ( * ) + (\ ...],
a (\ ...].

00

(1.3.8)

(1.3.9)

(1.3.10)
12,

(1.2.13) - (1.2.16).

(;)
. * (0 L 2,
( )

12. L 2 12
,
L 2 12 (1.2.18).

x = [jc(0), (1), jc(2),

(\

x (N -\ )]

12,
12. , 12 N

\|/.

.
12
{\|/}
(1.3.11)

13

(1.3.12)

m = n,
(1.3.13)

(Y . V ) =
m ^n.

0,

1.3.1. 12
() (. . 1.7):

, = 0,1,

N \, . .

. , ,
12.
() :
(1.3.15)

(1.3.16)

(1.3.17)
(1.3.16) (1.3.17)
(), 3.
,
N. ( ) { ) -
( N ) .
N- .
, :
N
( , N
, ).
N.
14

1.4. .

*(/), ,
,

* ( ') = ('),

{<(/)}

(1.4.1)

- ,

, {} - "" jc(f) ((/)}, . .


, ,
. , (/)
:
J | (0 \2dt <<&.
(1.4.2)


, .
(0 , . .
,
J<p (0< pL(0<* =

| f = JI >( < * . = -

(1)

(1.4.1)
. ,

*=7( ^- . ) =||
^ '> (^

(14)


:
* ( / ) * > (')-

(1-4.5)

. x (t)
{},
- , -
. ,
jc(0 ,
15

.
,
(1.4.5).

|(/)}
. 1.4.1.

. 1.4.1.


. {(/)}, .

. 1.4.2.
/ t uT

. 1.4.2.

%(t)

hn(t) = ( - / ).
t = :
jx (T )h n( T - x ) d x = |()()^ = ,

16

= 1, 2,

1.5. .

(1.4.1)
,
,
.
.
.
1)

. ,

2

(1.5.1)
2) , 2( N ) = 0. ?

(1.5.1) .
, .
, ,

(1.5.2)

, (1.5.2),
{ (0 }- ,
N - (1.4.5)
*(/) N -

{ (0 }- ,

(1.5.1) ,
, (1.5.2),
2{N ).
, N
.
,

.

= ^

-5-3)

a = \x {t)V (t)d t.

(1.5.4)

. (1.5.1)
( )=

(/ )][* ( - I

\ \ < N

* ; : (')]}< * .

I m\ S/V

s 2{ N

) = \ x 2( t ) d t - X
T

\a\2

(1.5.5)

M * *

| |2 < f x 2( 0 < *

||<^

(1-5.6)

. (1.5.6) , | 1= 0.
->001 *
lim 2( N ) = 0 *(/) , { (/)} -

N - *

L 2.
, e 2( N )
N .
:

\x \t)d t=

jr

\\2

(1.5.7)

!"1=

( = X
||>

(1-5-8)

. .
.
18

1.5.1.
. N

= ^ ,
* I

II * - II2 =
. , ,
, ,2-,
, . 1.5.1.

, I ,
, 2-.
X , 2. ,
. ,
:

1.6. L 2
:
.

.

.
19


,
/

* (

sin 2/1(/ :/)


/ ; - , ,
2nfe( t - k A t )

(1.6.1)


At, (~,):
*1 ,

*( ,(

|| 2

^
1
, ,
=/ = 2 ^ = /

( 1.6.2)


(. . 2.2).
, ,
,
t = kAt:
(1.6.3,
2nfe( t - k b t )


/
V"
.s m 2 n f(t-k A t)
x (t ) = X * ( * ' ) ~ .
, - ,
* =_
2nfe(t - k A t )

(1-6.4)

.
,
.
-
00

J k( t ) e - J2' f , dt = 2/ (f )e x p (- j2 n f k A t )

(1.6.5)

- kAt.
2/ ( / )
(. 1.6.1).
t - kAt
, 1.

20

/ = (//)/, / = 1, 2,

10.^

sin 2 f ( t ~ A t)
</\(0 = ;-------

2,/.(/-*/)

.\

( ~ 1) .\/ ' + 1)\/


. 1.6.1.


2/ = 1//. ,
[- / , /] 1//.

,
1

J * (0 dt = 2 (0) = - V = /.

( 1.6 .6)

L 2(-, )
, . L 2
.



fl, kAt < t < ( + l)At^
0,

/,

At - , | |= 0, 1, 2,

(1.6.7)

(/)

/. , ,

1 ).
I*i =
,
,
. 21



<(0 = ( j ^ n t ) ,

(-,).

(1.6.8)

(/) t . {<}

, L 2[0, 7].
,

,
,
( :( =
.
||2 _
(1.6.9)

{
= > = .

1|||

x (t) L 2[, ]
:
c = y j x ( O e ^ " 'd / .

(1.6.10)

, {<},
.
.
,
[/?,, 2], ,

:
r ,
, , * [ 0 , % ] ,
9.m ('b'i) = eXP J2n L + ,
R2

r2 e [0 ,R 2].

(1.6.11)


{wal(w, 0 )}, 0 = -^ -
/ [0, ), (Walsh) 1923 L 2[0, 1),
1 ,

22

00
c w a l(w ,0 ),

n=0

(1.6.12)

.n

| ,t(Q)wal(w, 0 ) c/0.

(1.6.13)

x(0)
N = 2V v - ,
[25].
, wal(, 0 )

[0 ,1)

wal(, 0).
wal(0, 0 ) = 1,
wal(>7, 0) = 1 .

, wal(, 0) ( ), ( - ) ,
0 = 1/2. , - ,
0 = 1/2 , - ,
.
- .
:

V1

- ^ rij 2', nj = 0, ni =1, = (wv_j... , 0).


/=0

. = 1,

ni = 0, .
, , wal(5, 0). . . - ,
0 = 1/2.
= (101). 2 - 1,
0 = 1/8, 3/8, 5/8, 7/8. wal(5, 0)
. 1.6.2.

23

1/8

1/4

3/8

1/2

5/8/

1
1

+1 1
1

3/4

7/8

1
1

1<
1

. 1.6.2. w al(5, 0 ) [0 ,1 )

1932 (Paley)
. 1(, 0). 1(, 0 )
:
(0) = 1,

^,(6)

i = 1, 2, 3,
.()

j i

,)

. 1.6.3

Ri (0) = sgn (sin 2' 0),


0 g [0,1).

(1.6.14)

. 1.6.3.

[0,1);
, . .

.
-

:
\(, 0 ) = ( 0)-

(1.6.15)

pi - \

= ^ pi 2 ', , =0, =1;


/=

P = (Pv-l---Pl
, = 2
1(2',0) = /+|(0),
. . .

. - wal(w, 0 ) .
- (wv_j ... , 0).
24

0)

p = (p v_\

Pi = , 0 ,
2.
[2V_I, 2V-1).
. 1.6.4.
- , .

. 1.6.4. :
- ; -

[0, 1).
.
, ,
2:
wal(w, 0 )w al(w , 0 ) = wal(/7 /, 0 ).

(1 .6 .1 6 )

had( /7,0 )
.

(
).
1.6.1.
25

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

001
010
011
100
101
110
111

000
001
011
010
110
111
101
100

0
1
3
2
6
7
5
4

1.6.1
h
h
. .
000
0
100
4
6
110
010
2
011
3
111
7
101
5
001
1

0
1.
-:
^ ( 9 ) = cwal(, 0),
*

(1.6.17)

= J x(9)wai(, eye.

N = 2V, v - , SN(Q)
-
1/N, ,
(0):
) =1 ^ (9 ),

(1.6.18)

*=

3ct = N J (0)^0,

fl, k / N < Q < (k + l)/ N ,


) = \
{ 0,
0.
-
:
26

e \ N ) = J [x (0 )- 5 W(0 )]2^ [7]


N - 2 V\

'(0) - .

:
wal w(0, ) = w al(, 0)wal(/w, ).
(1.6.20)
, 0 ;
0 [0,1), [0,1), . 1.6.5. ,

.
.

. 1 . 1

. 1.6.5.
27

1.7. 1,

, N.
TV-


iV-
N, . .
N x N .

, :
0 1 2
1 0 0

0 1 0

2 I

0 0 1

-1 0

1(, *)=

1(/?, ) =

1 - ,
[

* .

(1.7.1)

, 1:
g 1<,
jTo

" ' = [0 .

(1.7.2,

()
( ) :
.2 *

(1.7.3)
- , , = 0, 1,

N - 1, . .

. ,
28

,
1". (1.6.8) (1.7.3),
t - A t , t -
.
.
1. .
2. ||^*|| .
3. N .
4. :
- ,

(1.7.4)


(1.7.5)
=

(1.7.6)
(1.7.5) (1.7.6)
(),
3.
5. :
(1.7.7)
I = ( + w )modJV, . . N.
6. :
(1.7.8)
7.

- WNnk WN nk

N ,
,
w~n
k
w {N~n)k
rv N
- VVN
( N - n ) N
N

N >() - 2nrtk /N .

29


.
8. N
, . N
N
( - nn = N 12 ) (^" 0 "
- . N
( = 0 )
(N -\ )/ 2 - .
9.
(.
1.7.1).

,
,

*-1

------------------------- 1------- 1**0


k -N -l

2nn/N .
N

W k

2 , . .
N .
-

(N-n)Jt

N - .
. 1.7.1

n/N
(N -n )/ N

WfjN~n)k

W k

(1.6.8)
.
10.

:
Ank+m q)
N

(1.7.9)

-
. 1.6
0,
30

[0,1). -

* +

_N

\ = 0, 1, 2,

N - I ; N = 2\

0
, . .
wal(w, ) pal (/?, ) .
N = 2V
W^. /-
/- ( )
. N = 8
. 1.7.2.
1-

01.

-waico,*)
1 1 1-1-1-1-1 -*wal(l*)
-1-1-1 1 1 -*wal(2, k)

= = = 1:

1 _1_1 1 1-1-1
-waK3. k)

-
W8=

d=G

- 1 - 1 1 1 -1-1 1 4*wal(4.)
~1 -1 1 -1 1 1-1 -wal^A)

_______T

1-11 -1-1 1-1 1 -wal(6yk)

R e

1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 -*wal7,A:)


JL

1/4

1/2

3/4

-L .

a)

6)

. 1.7.2. , , N = 8:

- ; -
\ , . .
w ww ; = ^ i ,

(1.7.10)

I - ,
. 1, ,
.
-
-.
31

, .
N =
2:
1

-1

HL

HL

(1.7.11)

HL -H L

,
(. 1.7.3).
1 1 t Tt t t

hadft)
had&O)

-1 1-11-1I~1

had(2,0)

1-1-111-1-1

had(3.G)

- 1 - 1 1 1 -1-1 1

bad(4,0)

1 t 1-1-1-1-1

had&O)

.1 !-! 1-111
" U

i F

F
1.1.1 -11 1

had(6,0)

had(7,G)

= t = F
I___ L.

1/4

= b

-1-1 1-111-1

= b

___ I___ t. l. ,.<___ L.


1/a
3/4
a)

6)

. 1.7.3. , , N = 8:
- ; -
- had(/j, )

:
had(A, * ) = (-1 )\

=/= 0

<L7'12)

hf kt h .
had(A, ) :
X

had (, )had(g, ) =

N , h = g ,
, h g ,

:
had(/i, ) = had(&, h) ,
32

(1.7.13)

W- :
had(A, ) = had( h N , ) = had(, N ).


{har(r, m, 0 )}, Q = t/ T -
t [, ), 1910
L 2[0, 1). . \.1
.
1
1

1
1II 0
-1
.)
S'T

1t 1111 }
1II
\'ir
U
1

S
=

1
1

-1
0

-1
0

-1
0

-1
0
-V2

V2
0

-V2

-7 2
0

V2

V2

2
0

-2
0

-2

0
0

0
0

0
0

2
0

-2
0

0
0

0
0
-2

)
. 1.7.4. N = $:
- ; -

,
[29]:
har(0,0 ,0 ) = 1, 0 [ 0 , 1);

m - 1 m - 1/2
< 0 < v
2r
m -1 /2

har(r, w, 0) =

---------< 0 < 2r;


2r

'(1.7.14)

0, 0 e [0 ,1),

0 < r < log2 N 1< m < 2r


. 1.7.46.
3 .
33


,,, /? = log2N.
har(0,1, 0)
.
-
. , ,
.
-
(, ) -
, -.
- . 1.14.

, . 1.1-1.7
1.
,
.
2.
,
.
3.
.
4.
(1.14), (1.16).
5.
(1.17).
6.
L 2(T ). .
^ ). .
7

.
?
8.

{<;

/7= 1,2,..., /7j

L 2(7). ,
. ,

- (/ )= ( /)> >
I

ts T

.
9.

- |(, )| < ||||-||||,

,
:

34

y j x ( O d f < J y j x2(/)//.
10.
:

= 1 | (/ ) (/ - ) .
'

- |(, )| < ||||*||||,


,
|/()| < ,(0 ).
11.

x (t)

.
.
12. ,

x ( t ) ~ A cos(2tc/0/+ 0).
1
13. :
x (f )~ sin^- y (t) - AFJx(t), 0 </<7\
TIx(t) -
. ,
.
14. - ,
. ,

+ y f + | x - y f = 2 x f + 2 | y f
15.

16.

1". .

lj

17. .
.

35

18.

{;

/? = 1 , 2 , . . . } -

2(). 2( ) :

19. . .

( - 0 0 , ).
20.
.
21. . .
.
22. -.
23. .
- .
24. ().
.
25. 8x8
.
26. ,
.
27. jc( 0) = 0, 0 [0,1)
.

-.
28. jc(/)
2 . y (t)
. y (t),
.
(1.1), (1.2), (1.3).
29.

: ) ; ) , )
.
30. 16 .
31. , 16
.
36

1.8.

1.8.1. .
:

J M ' 22d t < .

(1.8.1)

, x (t) - ( ),
, ,
, .
jc(f) - .
[16],
:
) x (t) /(,-);
) jc(r) 0 ,-);
)

jc(/)

.
: (/ )-
, X ( f )
(/)

X ( f ) = l.i.m. \x(t)e~J2nfldl,

(1.8.2)

->

l.i.m. (limit in the mean):

lim J X ( f ) - j x ( t ) e - J2nf'dl
*

00

d f = 0.

(1.8.3)

-T

, X ( f ) -
, x (t )
X ( f )
w

* (0 = l.i.m. \ X ( f ) e i2' f 'd f


:
37

(1.8.4)

f|*(/)|2A = \ \ X (f)\ 2d f
-

(1.8.5)

-<

(/)
,
<>

( 1.8 .6 )

X {f)=
GO

X ( f ) ,

* (/ )= j X ( f ) e J2*J ,dt.

(1.8.7)

(1.8.6) (1.8.7)
( ) .
= 2 /

* ( ) = jx (()e ~ Jm,dt,

(1.8.8)

<

(0 =

[X { f b )e tMd<a.

(1.8.9)

2jti
(1.8.8) ,
(1.8.9) - .
x (t) ,
, , -
x(f).
,
,
. . .

(0 <> (<)9
x (t)+ X (f).
.


1) (( ) -
(>) = [( )]- y lm [*(a > )] = ( )~ jB (a ) = |()| e jv(a),

38

^(c o ) = R e [ A r( c o ) ] = J*x(/) cos /dt^


-00
00

(c o ) = I m [ ^ ( c o ) ] = J x ( / ) s i n c o / < # ,
-00

\X(a)\ = ^ 2() + 2()


- - ( ),
,

5 (co )

() = -arctg -

()

- ( )
.
2) A"(co). (
)
Z (

co )

* * ( -

cd ) .

, () |^()| , i?(co) () - .
*(/) - ,

Jf(co) = (-) = () = |()|,


. .
.
3) . x {t)

() = ] '() ejal d a = | JT(cd) |


2n

1^

=-j\X

da =

(co)| COS [ f + ()] rfco.

= 0 ^ (0 ) = J (/ ) - .
-

1 00

/ = 0 jc(0) = J X. () .
2

4) .
e J{* ,
.

-
:
x (t) = [ " '] = cos / =

Rc
\

cos-

+ e ia' ).


,

- (. 1.8.1).

, - , . ,

"+() > ,
^ ( ) <0,

. 1.8.1

, :

') = (), > 0 _ ((*) = * (-), < 0.


1) ( )

J [, (/) + 2(0 ] e-Jm' dt = X, ()+ 2().

(1.8.10)

2)

* t ((D )=

= ' ( ) .

(1 .8 .1 1 )

3) -
00
1 00
\x^t)x\{t)dt = fjr,((D)jr'(a>)</(tt.
-i
2 n Jo
, = 2 = ,

(1.8.12)

} x \ t)d t = - ] | * ( ) | 2dtt> = 2 \ \ X {f)\2df.


(1.8.13)
-a>
71

* (/ )- ( ),
,
V ,(/ ) = | * (/ )f = X { f ) - X \ f )
40

(1.8.14)


.
.
/.
4)
] , ( 0 2(0 1 dt = ] x2(t) i - ]

-y (c o -v )r

=^ W V)

e jvl dv

d t:

(1.8.15)

dt dv =

= ^ - ) x i (v)Z2(- v)rfv = Jf, () Jf2(),


. e. .
5) . :
= ^ ( 0 2 ( 0 = J * l(T) * 2 ( f - T) rfT

(1.8.16)

-00

:
00 00

( )= | J, ( x ) x 2 ( f - T ) ^ T

00

1*1 ( )

-ia ,d t =

00

dx.

|2

$ = t - ,

( )= J jc,(x )e^ V x |jc2 (9 ) ~1,V S = X, (>)2(),


00

(1.8.17)

00

. . .
.
, , * ( / ) - ,
h ( t ) - (

-) jc(f) <-> ^(), h(t)<r+H((>).


:

y ( t ) = j x ( T ) h ( t - T ) d t = x (t ) h (t )< + X (a )H ((0 ).

41

(1.8.18)

,
.
6)
.
(/) :
00

) = J x (0 x{t + x)dt.

(1.8.19)

00

,
.
. ( )- ,
.
(1.8.12), ,
jc (f) R x ( t )
\|/() =

|^()|2 :

Rx() ,().
1.8.2.

(1.8.20)


().


y(t) ,
. ,

,
.
, .
1.
( ).
2.
,
.
3.
,

.
8-.
:
^)
*(/) ;
42

# ( )
;
() = ( ) ()
;
{1)
() .
, ,
, (
) ,
,
t - q o t = . ,
, ,
, . .
().
,
, (
). :
-
;
-
.
,
, ,


.

.

1.8.3.



(. 1,8.2).

t/2

Jf(a>) =

[ 1 =
-* \ % =
-/2

'
43

tor

( 1. 8 .2 1 )

(. 1.8.26).

- /2

/2 t

. 1.8.2. -
, - ,

|"()|
4/ . ,
2

(2 + 1)

. 1.8.3

- 1, 2, 3,

. (. 1.8.2)
.
. 1.8.3
( )


= 1 = 1 .
. 1.8.3,

. 1.8.36.

.
44

, /2,
X ( f ) = Ex Sm ^ e~Jnf'
/
e~jnfx ,
. 1.8.3.
<(/) = - / , 0 < / < ;

(/) = -/-71, - < / < - ;

C p (/) = - 7 l / T - 2 j t , - < / < - .


. 1.8.4.
,
. (. 1.8.46)

. . E n fx sin2 ^
= 2 ~
, , \~2 = J2nf ( -

X (t)

2/

/2

' ' * )
0

...... /2
21

45

>1

( 1.8.22)

(. 1.8.4). .


(. 1.8.5)

6)

-/ 2

tlA X C O )'

2F.T/7

/2

/ 5/ w

. 1.8.5

(0
, -( / )2,
(2/)5(/ + /2) (2/)8(/-/2).
,

-( / )2 (>)+(/)('2 + e 'J 2 ) = (/)2(),

(1.8.23)
,
. . 1.8.56.
46

. ^)

f e x p (- a O , t > ,
[ ,

mc(t)

t<

. 1.8.6

, a > 0

(. 1.8.6).
X ( f ) = \~'~ i2*f'dt = -----------------------1
---------- |+/2' ' (1.8.24)
1
+ jln f

- ( + /2/)
X { f ) = |(/)|[(/)],
( )

\(\ = -

(1.8.25)

y]a2+ ( 2 n f ) 2

( )
(/) = -arctg(2n//a),
. 1.8.66.

47

(1.8.26)

X ( f )
R e[.Y (/ )]

Im [Z (/ )],

. 1.8.6.
. |^()|
R e [J f(/ )]

(/)

1[(/ )] - .



x (t) = ',
. 1.8.7.

:,(/) :
x (t) = x ,(t) + x] ( - t ).

( ) = * , ( ) + * , ( ) =

( + j )

( - j )

= ------------- 1-------------- ;-----

(1.8.27)

. 1.8.76.
. 1.8.7


- :
x{t) = e m l

(1.8.28)

(. 1.8.8).
, ,
[~2(/2)2] = 0,1.
2 ^ - In 0,1

3,035

48

X(a>)= \ e ^ ' 1+jM)dt.

. 1.8.8. a - , -


.
p V + j a t = V + j(a t
4p

4p

= (/+-=^)2 + -^ 7 ,
2p
4p


A'(co) = e

/4p!) j e

dt.

4 = / dt = d^/
-) 2 /4 2

(>) = -

(1.8.29)

. .
(. 1.8.8).
.


*(/),
, = ,

49

/2

J (/)

^() =

/2

dt =

- /2

J x (t) dt = const = .
- /2

, eJb}xl2 = 1.
,
, ,
, .
, 7/2

/2 < 1 <& = .

:
,
,
, ,
.



,
.
,
90^99% .

, ,
.

,

= 0,9

1.8.1

/~ [19].
,
( );

( ). ,
,
50

x (t)
. ,

.
1.8.1

/,

1.8.2

0,9

5,1/

0,81 /

0,73

1.8.4

0,541

5,3/

0,84/

0,46

1.8.5

0,596

4,57/

0,73/

0,43

1.8.6

1,15/

6,16

0,98

1,13

1.8.8

0,83/(3

1,64(3

0,26

0,22


:
-/ > ,
(1.8.30)
- , /.
/,
.

00

\ { t - Q 2x \t)d t

J x \t)d t
-

00

t0 = j t x 2(t)dt

00

j x 2(t)dt - (-

), ^ - .
,
()2 = - ^ J ^ -c O o )2! ^ ) ! 2^ ^ ^ J|A"(to)|2dc,

0 = -!- | | ^ .
2 J
51


(1.8.31)
. .
.
^ =1/2 .
. .
x (t ) t , 1//,
^ ( )- , 1/, . .
. ,
.
,
, ,
.
- ,
.

1.8.4. -
- .
[5-7].
.
- ,
, - ,
. ,
(1.8.32)

/0 +

| 8 ( t - t 0)d t = \ > 0 .

(1.8.33)

, -
, .
,
:

5(/-/0) = 8(/0-0 ,

52

(1.8.34)

} 5( t - t a) d t =

j 5( t - t 0)d t = ^ , e > 0 .

(1.8.35)

/0 - e

, -
(-, 0 -
(1.8.36)

j 5 ( T - / 0 ) d T = y ( / - f 0 ),

(t -/0) - :
0
=

t < tQ,
^= ^0j

(1.8.37)

t > tQ.

,
-. :
=
(1.8.38)
)

~0

'

()]

'

'

. 1.8.9. - -, -

(. 1.8.10), ,
.
I )

-/2 2
. 1.8.10. , -,

:
(/) = 5(/);
-+0

53

1
t2
lim exp(~ ) = 5(?);
/2 T
2x
.

nt

sin
lim-----^ = 5(0*->0 Tit
()

. , -
, ,
.

, ,
/0 x (t)
x(t0) 9

J x (t ) 5 ( t - t 0)d t =

(1 /2)x(tQ),
0,

a < t0 <b,
t0=a t0=b,
< a,

(1.8.39)

tQ > b.

Jt(/) t = t0 ( ),

j x ( t ) 5( t - t 0)d t = ( l/ 2)[(/0+) + x(t0.)],


a

a < t 0 <b,

(1.8.40)

(/0+) x (t0_ ) - (/) .


(1.8.39) ,
8(/-/0)
(. 1.8.10), .
- ,
:

\ x { t )b { t - d )d t = x{a\

(1.8.41)

(/) 8 (/ - )= x ( t - a ) ,

(1.8.42)

(0 * 8 (^ - ) = ( )-8 (/ - ),

(1.8.43)

S [(f - f 0)/ a ] = |a|8(f-f0) 5 (a t- /0) = 7 8(/ - ).

54

(1.8.44)

(1.8.41) ,
00

J 5 (t)e -j2nfdt = e =1,

(1.8.45)

. . - .
( ):
00

6 (0 = \ e n%f'd f

(1.8.46)

, , 1 <- 6 (f ),

5 (/ ) = Je

^'dt,

(1.8.47)

00

8 (/ - / ) =

(1.8.48)
-

2,' 6 ( / - / ).

(1.8.49)

,
-, ,
e j2nfo - -,
/0. < = 2/ (1.8.49)

;)"' <-> 28(-0).

(1.8.50)

-
-
.
, , -
- :
8()(/) = lim I

-',22\.

(1.8.51)

-,
t 0. / = . ,
,

55

+ (/ = 0_) -

(/

= 0+). , t = 0

5 '(0 -1 It.
-
:

x ( t ) V n)( t - t 0)d t = ( - l ) " x M (t0).

(1.8.52)

() (!) ( )
t = t,

x ( t ) P \ t - t 0)d t = ^ [j S '> (t 0. ) + X**\t0_)].

(1-8-53)

-
(1.8.52)
|
I

J 8(n)( t - t 0)e-ja dt =

= ()" ~/'

(1.8.54)

, t0 = 0,
8()( 0 ^ 0 ' ) "

(1-8-55)

1.8.5.

(1.8.49), -!

(1.8.56)
A s m ln fy =

- e 'W
2

) ^ [ 5 ( / - / 0) - 5 ( / + /0)].
2j

,
/0

- ! 2, /0.
= 2/ (1.8.56)
A cos 0/ = ( ^ 0' + (0' )

[8( - 0) + 8( + 0)],
(1.8.57)

A sin 0/ = ( '/ -

[8( - 0) - 8( + 0)].


(/) (1.8.36) - (1.8.38).
y(t) = e~at -(/), > 0
, , . .
00

|| -/ - (0 | < .

( ) = - (+; ,' =
.
+ /
:
(/)

lim

-*1 +

, = 0.
,
(1 /2) <-> 5(), :
(/) <-> 5() + = 5 ( ) .
j

. 1.8.10
57

(1.8.58)


. 1.8.10.



sgn/ = ,

+1, t > 0,

1 -1, /<0.

. 1.8.11.
(i

Xl

1/ 2

sy s g n /

4
+

1/2

-------------- f

-
. 1.8.11

, sgnt = a (f)- 1 /2
2

= - j .

sgn / <-> = J

. 1

(1.8.59)

, .

1.8.6.

1.8.1.

t
y {t)=

00
:
00

(<) = | ( ) ( / - ) .
(1 .8.58)

( ) = 715(03)^(0)+-

58

(1.8.60)

1.8.2.

u(t) =

J ()</.
* t-T

> - .
: /, /:
( =

J x(x)dx =
~ y(t - )].
* t-
L
(1.8.60) ,
(/) = -

f x(x)dx

U(v>) =

(1 - e JmT) = ( )

^
77 2

"/2
(1.8.61)

<- .
, (1 - e~J<aT) .

^).


1.83. ,
:

fsin0/ , - /2 <t < /2,


Xit)

' 0,

|*| > /2,

X = NT0 = #2/0, N - . *(/)

s(t) = sin co0f , - < / < , a y ( t ) -


1. ,
v
v
sin /2
S(oo) = [5(0) 5( - )] Y(<o) = x------ .
J

/ 2


( ) = 5 ( ) () =

J 5()( - / =

sin(co - co0) /2
( - co0) t /2

sin(co + co0) /2

T-

(1.8.62)

( + co0) t /2

= 4/0 ( ) . 1.8.12
(-0) -( + 0)
|AXco)|.

. 1.8.12.
, ,
, ,
\()\ > 0 :
. , ,
.


1.8.4. .
N (. 1.8.13).

(N-1)T
. 1.8.13
60

. t

^ ( ) .
N

N- 1

* ( ) = ()[1 + + e~J" 2T + ... +e i<a{N- ])T ] = ()] e Jx

joikT

* =0

= 2 / , - ,
, :
JT( = 2 / ) = NX, ( = 2 /).

, ( = 2/ N
. ,
(0 = 2/
, 2.
N ,
|

p -j< b N T

jm N T /2 ja>NT/2

=x , () - j - p s r = x ,
= X - " - ]),2) S*n
1

- jcaNT1 2 -i

/2

sin 77 2

, = 2/ NT, m - ,

() = 0.


,(<) = 8/2-/
/2

,
N :
Jf(ca) = e-M(i*-i)r/2 +t/2 iET s*n /2 sin (oNT/2
cdt/2

( , 8 63)

sinco772

. 1.8.14
, . 1.8.145 - .
= .
.
^ ( ) N >
(. 1.9.2).

.
61

2/3 2/
i!X(u>

2 /

6)

2/4 2/

2-/

. 1.8.14. :
- , -


.
.


______________________________________________ 1.8. 2

*(/)

X ( f )

x {a t)< r > --X \


\

X ( f + f 0)

62

df
at

2 / ^ ( / )

< /)

~ j2 n

- U o *
i

-
j2 n f

/rt = <f l . ' > 0


ct(/)
[0, t < 0

J f

<->

^
2

1 + -511
( /Z)
-----jln f
2

O O

-x

. . . Z

II

sin 2 * / 0 ^ - L [ 8 ( / - / 0 ) - 8 ( / + / 0)]
^J

10

co s2 <

11

* * I [ 5 ( / - / 0 ) - 8 ( / + / 0) ]

e - ' a (t)

^----- , a > 0
a + j2 n f

12

63

13

14

15

**

nt

<->

t e~al a (t)

+ (2 /)

- y'Sgn/

<- ------------- r-, > 0


( + j2 n f )

16

2n
17

i [ 8 (/ + /0 ) - 5 ( / - / 0)]

18

7 s in 2 / / 0

x (/)c o s 2 / 0/ o i [ l ( / + / 0 ) + I ( / - / 0)]

19

1 *

k--co

20

k=-co

n=o

* )

. 8( / - ]
V
* /

Z * ( / - 7 ) = Z * ( W > y2" m
1 =
oo \
* J k=-00

64

1.9.


x(t) = e Jaiot

- </<,


0.
-, :
e Ja'

dt = 28( - (0).

(1.9.1)

cos 0/ <-> [5( -0) + 5( + 0)],

(1.9.2)

sin co0f <-> 4 [5( - 0 ) - 5( + 0 )].

(1.9.3)

-
:
x (t) = % j ? nl =
= -

Ae Jn',

(1.9.4)

- -


1 /2

=
1

J x (t)e -^ 'd t

- /2

, =

- . ,
(0 , . . x (t )
, [ - /2, /2],
.
65

-
,
.
x (t)= J

7' ' 2

{ ( - ).

(1.9.5)

= -

, -

-. 8-
,
= 2/.
,
.

,
^() ,
.

= *

00
X

00
I

J|*(0|

=-

--/2
/ ->

*1

J x (t)-x * W t =
_/->
-
/2

1 /2
,- J e ^ ' - e - ^ d t =

00
X

(1.9.6)

.
(1.9.6)
. (0:
(0,

-7 7 2 /<772,

|/|>772.


/2

() =

J xT( t ) e - ja'd t
-/2

-
:
= ).
66

(1.9.7)


-
=

(1.9.8)

- ).
-

.
- -
00

00

(1.9.9)

= -

* -

nt

= J 5(/ - /) 7 dt = .
^ -/2
^
-

- (0 =

8 (/ - ) = ^
- -

00

8(( - to) =

D ^(0

8 ( - ) =

= 00 * = -

().

^ ()

00
00
^ 5(f - &) <- ^ 5( - )

(1.9.10)

. 1.9.1,
-
- = 2/7\ ,
, ,
.

4Dr(')

f
( \() 1()

ft ) |0)
-

0)
ftd))
<HJ) iH1

- /

. 1.9.1

67

(>)

, - *(/)

5( t - k T )

= -

jcT(f) -
-

D T(t).

^ ( ^ ^
.
= ^

^ () 5(-) =

(1.9.11)

( ) 5( - ),

= -00

= 2/, a . () - ,
.



,
, .
(1.9.11)
sin * ( ) = - ^ - 5 ( - )
= -
2
. 1.9.2 = 3.

(1.9.12)

. 1.81.9
-20. (1-20) 1.8.2.
:
I. / = at .
- /
.
4. /
.
5. y (t) x (t) a (t)
.
6. (0 = lim e~at
>0

t > 0,

. / = 0.
7. sgn(0 = o ( t ) - < j ( - t ) .
&
.
910. ,
.
II. ,

00

12.

x (t) = e ata(t),

= * (/ ) + *(-/ ).
15-16.
/.
21. N
,
,

NT.
.
.
22.

69

a)

JTD ____IT C L

i_ T

21

23.
x(/) = sin2it/0f; - < t <\ = -^.
J
(
) .
24.
x (0 = cos2n/0n - T < t < T \ = - ^ r .
J
(
) .
25.
:
1
)

)
N
_

L V
) Re =
V

70

, = 0.

2
,1 = 0.

) Re , =

= ,

[ \

Im C = .

26.

-2 (
).

_
*>
.
.
:

/77

sin
R eC = 2

= -

27.
/ =
2

/.

/,
2 (/-:

.
28.
s m 2 n f ({( t - k A t )

1
At = 2 n f (1( t - k A t )
2

/.

(-,).
. * (0 , (/),
.
29.
2N + 1
-,
.
, .
. (2N + 1)

IV
S (2 N + 1) = ^

2'+] \

(1- )

, - , q - .
71

:
sin 7i/(2W+ 1)
,(/ )=

in

- NT

in

It\> N T

30. x (t ) X (/ ),
. . X ( f ) = 0 , , [ - / , /]
,
/ = 1/2/,,
* (0 = * ( 0 D { t ) = :(0 At Z
= / ^

8 ( - =

x(kAt)d(t - kAt).

**-00


X ( f ).
.
.
31. ,

At

.
X

h (t -k A t ) .

* -

32. ,

( - D* - 5

* -00

* = 00

12

S /

L
2

33.
31 32,
:

) { )
-

x { f ~
* =-

.
V/

34* ,
( * (" \ x ) = ( y , Z ) , Y ( f ) = ( j l n f ) " - X ( f ) .
35t :

* > )[ * $

> ](")*

36. , ,
1 -< + -2*1/1
----[

1+ 2

.
37. x (t)
w(t).
:
w(t) -
W ( f ) ,
.
:

>,

.
.
. .

73

1.10.
,
,
:
( 0 = - - ] ( < ) ' ,
. .
((). ,
x(t) = <E '
0,

t<0


(>) = ] x (t) dt = {/ ) (l - lim e jm )
-

, exp (-/) / >


.
*(/) (-/), -
,

(/) exp (~/)

.
( , )= ] [ * ( ? ) e ~ \ e in ,dt.
_

x{t)

, . . x(t) = 0 / < 0.

( , ) = Jx(0 eHP*Ja,) dt.


(() ~1 = f (, ) e JM d&.
2n _ i
(/)
= + .

{ ) = \{ t ) e - 'dt,

74

(1.10.1)

( 1.10.2)
p- j c o

,
:
(/ ) ( ).
jc(/) , ( ) -

, = 0.

(1.10.2)

( p - , + )
. 1,10.1). {

(3+j<a
/

,-

. 1.10.1

.1.10.2

X ( p ) e pt

(pj - j , Pj + j ) ,
(. 1.10.2).
1,10.2) :
v>
I

*(/) = - ! _

4 ( ) ' dp = Y j Res-

J 2 k abca

(1.10.3)

* " =A

( . :
.
75

1.10.1. x ( t ) = exp(p0t ) a ( t \ 0 =(30+ j 0 -


. (/)
x (t) = 0 / < 0. (1.10.1)
r(P ~ P )'

( ) = je~ip~Po) dt = -

t-

CO

P - P o /= 0
Re p = P > P0 t > .

ePoa (t)<?> .
-

(10

= 0.

1
^ (/ )
p+Pi
= -,

(Pj > 0).

1.10.2. x (t) = ~^2/cosco2/a(/) 2 >0.

/
1(
\

\ ^ ' (e j,,h' + ^ ' ) ' dt


0

/
1 >
1

&

- 2

, 2 = - 2 + j a 2.

. 1.10.3

( )
= 2 = - 2 + ;'w 2 = ' = - 2 -;' 2.

. 1.10.3.

1.10.1.

( ) ,
.
(
) ( ( ) ) ]
,
76

X(p) = O n P + a ^ P

+ " + *<)

p m + K - \ P m~ ' + ' " + K

a P "+ a -iP

+ -+ a < ,

( 1. 10.6)

( P - P l ) ( . P - P 2) " ( P - P m )
/>-/>,

P~Pm

JfcpAj, ... - ). . .

*,= R e s = [ * ( p ) ( - ) ,
(1.10.4)
(0 = , ' ,+ ' +...+' , t > 0.

(1.10.7)

1.10.3.
+3 _
( )

2+

/>+ 3

_ 0 | {

( + 1)

+ 1

*0 =

U = ^

= 3,

/>=0
, = [ ( + 1 ) 1- -~ \, =

(8.0

= - 2.

(1.10.7)
***'

x (t) = l - 2 e l

(,

( )

.
( (
,
.
1.10.4.
w
"

1
( p + \ f ( p + 2)

*1 ,
b
| *3
| *4
+ 1 ( + 1)2 (/? + 1)3 + 2

"fetlWr . , :
V I.

77

= ) ( / > + 2)]..2 = - 4 ^
( + 1 )
* = [ ( + 1)3]=., =

= -1,
~-

= 1.

+ 2

/>+ 1

+2

( + 1)2

( + 1)3

( + 1)3(/> + 2)

^ |( + 1)2( + 2 ) - ( + 1) + ^ ( + 1)( + 2 ) + ( + 2)
( + 1)3( + 2)
,
0 } = 1.

(2 2 + 1 2) - 3 2 + 2 2 - 0 2 = -1.

(

)=

1
(/> + 1)3(/> + 2)

1
, 1 ______ 1 _
( + 1)2 + 1 + 2

(p + l f

,
. x(t) ( ) .
tx (t)o -^ - ,
dp

(1.10.8


(1.10.1). ,
te~al <=> - ---- ^ = ---- ? ,
dp +
( + )

(1.10.9

( + ) " 1'

( 1. 10.10

*(/) = ^ t 2e4 - te~l + '( - e~2t, t > 0.


npi
,
. !
/ =
78

p lt o iix
.

,1,10.2.

^
(!

9 iit)
(

vit):

an

i'(,)

n 1 L
u i

a rr.

- V
0{t)

'('> ^

#0(

. 1.10.4

DOM.
:
V(0 = R i ( t ) \

i ( t ) ~ C - ~ -
at

v (t) = L ~ ^ -

/(/) -

v ( / )-- v(0)
v (l , =
v(/)

1( 0) =

1V

j- Jv (t)c /t;

% {# ) /(f) ; i0(t) v(t).



V (p ) = R I ( p ),
(1.10.11)
v(t)<=>V(p) /(/)<=>/(/?) - .

, .

79

? - ^ ( ).
at
:

(1..12)

Ji ^ l e -pdt = x (t )e -p'\* + p \ x ( t ) e ^ d t = ( ) - ( 0).

,
:
I ( p ) = C p V (p )-C v (0 )
(1.10.13)

F (p ) = - U ( / > ) + ,

(1.10.14)

V (p ) = p L I ( p ) - L i ( 0)

(1.10.15)

) = -\ - ( )+ pL

(1.10.16)

(1.10.14) ,
Z ( p ) = \l ,
v(0) / ,
. , (1.10.16) ,
Z ( p ) - pL
/(0)/ ,
.
. 1.10.5.

V(p^Rlip)

v w - ^-) + ^

v (p) s r

) ' - 1) + '

L_0_1

. 1.10.5
80

-------


(-)
,
|^ . .
{ 1.10.5. ,
& (. 10.6). v(t)
I
:
V'(p)

*{0)
p
[fc ) -ihM -

a)

6)

. 1.10.6.
(. 1.10.65) :
l s V (p)_
R

V (p )-

v(0)

, / (0 .

[ V (p ),

()= + .
p i p + d / R C ) )'
Sfr* : { - 0 - ~ \ ! RC. It^

= 1R 2 = v ( 0 ) - I R .

(1*10.6) (1.10.7),
v(/) = IR + (v(0) - IR)e' t/RC, t > 0.

(1.10.17)

. 1.10..

. 1.10.6. , . 1.10.6
81

1.10.6.
,
/(/) (. 1.10.7). v(/).

/(/)

Ll

/)

V{p)

r\ vL

. 1.10.7. () (
/(/) = /(/), 1() = / /*
:
- + +
R pL
t

IL
( ) =

P \-R+ T L + PC J
-( 1 ~
+2/? + 0)

{-R P + X+ P2LC)
0

LC

R
,
2L

V (p ) :
12 = - + yja2- ( o l = - jto, to = /2 - 2

I*\ L
( ) =

{P -P S K P -P i)

_ _ _ oil
: . =
2

/021

-2 7

(1.10.6) (1.10.7)
v(/) = .'' + , =
1

- ~<+>>') =

2 V

7
82

sin /.

w 0 ,
v(/) = I* /~sin 0t = 1~ sin 0

(1.10.18)

- .
. 1.10.8.
>0



1.10.1

, () + 2(/)<=> ( ) + 2{ )
x ( t - T ) u ( t - T ) < * X ( p ) e pT,

> 0

d X (p )
t x ( t ) < * ----dp

w f
ie

e-wx ( t ) ^ X ( p + )

x (a t)o -X ,
La J

* - ^ ( ) - ( 0)
at

> 0

1
Jx, () 2(t - ) dz <=> X, ( ) 2 ( )
0
83



______________________________________ 1.10.!
<=>
X (p )
(0
<=>

8(0

1
1

II

tT

<=>
p

1
<=>

-/

p +a
0

sin co01

P 2+u>l

C O S CD0t

<=>

e~a'cos co01

<=>

2
+ 0

p+a
{p + a f + ^ l

. 1.10
1.
0 .
x(t), t > 0
\ - e a'

a)

r)

e+a,sin(o0/ <=>

6)

cos ( 0/+ / 4 )

te

-a /

a
, Re [p ]> 0 ,
p (p + a)
0
, R e [p ]> a ,
( p - a ) +a>0

P
0
V 2 [ (p + a ) 2+ (o 2]

R e [p ]>

a,

(P + a ) 2 - 0
r 1
cosoi0t<=>r --------- :----- 4 -, Re [p ] > - a ,
[ ( p + a ) +co0J

I 1
1<f<2
<
[0,

1 =, /?,
-- p-------- -
84


*
2 -J ,

0</<1

- '
< / < 2 -------- , /?,

0,

cha/

'

2 ^ j-, Re / > a,
-a

-(+)
~' (( -1 ) <=>-------- , Re [/?] > - a ,
/? + a

1 (1 + a t)e

R e [p ]> 0 .

('

p (p + a )2

)
x(t), t > 0
fclM'f
*)
( + \ )( + 2 ) ^

* . L , ,
K fS

/?+3
2 "
( + + 2)

' 2',

1
1
------ sha/,
-

1
1 -,
-------------- - <=>
sinGV,
(/ > + )2+2
0

| I
.1
tf&n
*
> -

' 1,

0 < *< 1

1 </ < 2
- ( l - e * ' ) 2 <=> -1,

0, ,
*
+1

- ^ '
[0,

0 < / < 2
,

)
V

^ + 2 ( 1 + /)~',
(^ + 1)2

---- ' - ( 1 +/)

85

3.
(1
) h(t)
( )

( ) = \h{t)e"'dt.

R e[p] > (3,,


, - ,
h(t).
.
, , ,

, .

h[t)
~'((t)

()
1
+

R e [P ]> -a

h{t) = ~2 cos 2/, 2 > 0, t > 0.

h(t) = ~2 sin 2/, 2 > 0, t > 0.

h(t) = sin 3/, / > 0.

) h(t) = cos 3/, t

> 0.

4. R, L ,
, t = 0 !
.
.
5.
R L-.
6. , ,
L J
, /(/).

86

*: RLC t = 0
linn e(t) = sin ,/. i(t)

^9^-0 > .
taf&^tWpaamJibHO R L
( , R, / = 0
(1) = -* , > 0. / 0 )*0 . Inrtb /7-.
(*\ *
I

tx - t = 0
> 0 . ( 0 ) * 0 , ( RLC- t = 0

e(/) = cosco,/. /(/)


II > 0* .

<\* %Ah
jfflfoby, (). , . ,
> , .

^

-.

'

(.
; .

* (/ )\

/ 2/

. 1.11.1
87

*(/)
At ,
x (t)
(. 1.11.1).
, . . *(/) = 0 t < 0.
= x(kAt). , ,

jt(f) ( 0 ) (/) + (*| - x 0 ) * a ( f - /) + ( * 2 - * , ) (/-2 /) +


+... = X(0) () + ( . xk - xt_,) a (t - ,t).
(/ )- (1.8.35). At
,


(/) .
g(t).
()
g ( t ) (/ - ) g(t - ),

(0)(0 + ( * * - x ^ G i l - k A t ) =>x(0)g(/) + ( x t - x i 4 )g (/ -k A / ).
At - 0,
i
y (t) = x (0) g (t) + J x'(x )g ( t - x ) d x .
(1.11.2)
0
.
,
.

:
88

(0 = g (O )x(0 + \ g \ i )x ( t - t ) dx,
0

(1.11.3)

y{t) = x (0 )g (0 + Jx'[t - x) g (x) dx,


0

(1.11.4)

A t ) = g ( 0 ) x ( t ) + ) g \ t - x ) x ( x ) dx.
0

(1.11.5)

(1.11.2) - (1.11.5)
.

(0
(. 1.11.2). At,
(/).

. 1.11.2


x(kAt) [(/ - At) - o (t - At - /)].

:
* (/ )= ^ x{kAt)- [ ( j ( t - k A t ) - o ( t - A t - /)]/.
-
/
At
x ( t ) At ^ (kAt)b(t - At).
=-

(1.11.6)

(1.11.6)
8- x(kAt)At,
t = kAt (. 1.11.3). (1.11.6) ,
89

.
At > 0.
/>, A t -> d z ,

.
(1.8.32),
:

/^()-

.JU L

x (f)= J*(T )8 (f- = (0 8(0-

(1.11.7)

. 1.11.3

.
h(t). (1.11.7)
-:
= t :()

h(t) = 8(t). ,

.
, .
h(t)
5 (/ - ) ( - ),
<

At

jc(A:A/)5(/ - kAt) => At ^ x (k A t)h (t-k A t) y(t).


* =-00
* =-00

At > 0,

00

y ( t ) = ^ x (x )h (t -x )d x = x (t ) h {t \

( 1. 11.8)


.


. h(t) = 0 t < ,
. . .

90

, ,
Z ( p \
t = 0
*(/) ( ) . , ,
i ( t ) o I ( p ) = X (p )/ Z (p )
: ( )
l / Z (p ). *(/) = 5(/) <=> 1,
( )
,.( 1 / ,

(1.11.9)

. . .(/)
.


/

/ ( /)= | () /-)*/.

(1.11.10)

1.11.1. R L / = 0
x{t) = Ee~at t > 0.

1 -*/
.(/) = 1
L
R

r,

(1.11.10)
(

-0 -1 ^ _
e I
Hf) = E \ e ' " e L
dx =
d Z= L [ a - ( R / L ) \ V
> 0,
(
_R t \
1 - 1 , /> 0 .

\
,

t>0 .

*> -!

&- Ea{t).
1.11.2.
,
, . 1.11.4 .

91

,)

,. M t)

dt

J
kKn

v(0)
X(p)

(/7). 1.11.4


( ) = ~

, ,
( ) <=> h(t) = (/),
. 1.11.4 . (1.11.8)

x(t)\
I
i
t
(/) = Jx(t)h{t - )dx - Jx(x)a(/ - x)dx = Jx(x)dx.
o
o
o

y (t) = Jx(T)rfx+^(0),
0
.
1.11.3. - t - 0
/(/) = ~
v(f) .
:
V (p ) = 1 ( ) Z { p ) = 1 ( ) R^ l t ) .
R + (l/ p C )

(), )
Up)

\1

PKUSC)

, (. . 1.10)

92

RC

a)

6)

. 1.11.5. () ()
h(t),

, ,

-' = /( ).
(1.11.8),
v (0 = Ji(t)fc(/-T)rfx= )( - ' ) \ e-{' - ' )IRC\ d i =

vC
)
- ( e- " R
[ -(1 / )]

t > 0.

. 1.11.6.

. 1.11.6. , . 1.11.5
, > 0,
Aa(t):
v(t) = A R ( l - e ' " * c ), t >0.
AR
.
93

1.11.4. . 1.11.7. t = 0
x (t) ,
. 1.11.7. i(t)
t > t r

. 1.11.7
. 1.1 \.1. . . c ( t ) 1//?,

{R ip ) _

pL + R
( + )
= R /L. 0 2 = .
- \

2 = - 1.

(1.10.7)
R

g ( t ) = l - e - p = l - e ~ L>

(1.11.11)

(1.11.5)
( 0 = g (0) ( 0 + f g ' ( t ~ (" dr.

R
g (0 ) = 0, g \ t ) = j e

R
L g X t-x ) = j e

94

/(/) = y ( t ) l R

i(0 = j - e ' L' " * U t d x+ j - e ' ^ U . e ' a,t"') </t.


-L

., L

, t > ti

*-1

r-a L

. 1.11
1.


I.

R , -

0~
, t =
*(/) = kt.
y{t).
.
0 = RC
.
2.
R
,
,
*(/)

.
t > 2 T
3.

L,
,
t =
,
. t{ < t < t 2 t > t2
95

f(t)!

11i

4.

L ,

, / = 0 ~/

:

r-a L
5.

r ! L a = r/L.

-te

, te~

:
r-a L

-te

EL

-re
2L

-e

(r-a L f

6.
)
g (0 ,

h(t) .
) ,
, h(t) = g'(t).

I 2

) -
.
7.
] (/) - ] (t).
v

I 2 3 4 5 6
) .
) 2(t) 2( t).
8.

u2(t) z/,(/) = k(t + T)<3{t\

= RC.

9.

.
96

1.12.

,
]/) [/0 - / /0 + / J , /0

2/ (. 1.12.1).

x(r) = A(t)cos[2nf01+ (0]>

(1.12.1)

A(t) (/) -
. (
/0 0)
. ,

.
-
.

,

:
97

Acos[2 nf0/+ 0] = R e ( ^ V 2n/o'),


As\n[2n /0/+ 0] = Im(A e j(?0ej2i:fnt).

Aem

.
(1.12.1)
,
/0 ,
.
. (1.12.1)
* ( 0 = ( 0 cos 2n f 0 1- ( 0 sin 2/01.

(1.12.2)

(0 = A(t) cos (/) xs( t) = A(t) sin (/)

(1.12.3)


x(t), (0 - , /) -
.

.
2f ti.

.
cos2;rf j

s in lx fj
. 1.12.2.

,

(0 cos 2nf01 = (1 /2)[ (/) cos 22 f 0t - x s(/) sin 22/0 /] +1 /2( t).
98

2/0
( )
xc(t).
xs(/).

,
, 90

.
x{t)
. (1.12.3)
Ait) = 4 * (0

+*,2(0 .

*,(/)
(7) = arctg
.

<u 2 -4>

* (0
, cp(f)
.

7(0 = * + > , ( ' ) =

(1-12.5)


.
( 0 = |(0|
\ |/( 0 = 2 / 0/ + (/),


:
/.

/.

1 dy

1 d

xs

0 = / + = / + - r - a r c t g ^ -

2 dt

,
1 X X - X X.

-/ +

2 dt

( 12-6)

I + 2


,
, , (. 1.12.3).
99

:(/)
(/)
x(t) = R e [y (t)e J2nfo'].

(1.12.7)

,


.

*(0

. 1.12.3


*(/)

(1.12.1)

X ( f ) = } x(t)e~J2nf,dt = \X(f)\ ej *A f ) ,

I*(/ )| = \x (-/)| > * ( " / ) =

(/)>

. e. ,
- (. 1.12.1).

= ) W ) e - j2nf'dt = |(/)| ej ^ f )

/.

|/>

(1.12.7)

* ( =!

/ - / ) + ^ - ( / + /0)].

(1-12.8)

. 1.12.4
* +( = ^ / - / ) ,
(1.12.9)
*

( = | - (/ + / )]-

100

( / ) ((/ )
(/)

. 1.12.4.


[ - / , / ].

.

.

xA(t) = Re [*,(/ )] +

Im f-].


Re [*,(/ )] = *(/)>

/> ,

( 1. 12. 10)

/ < ,
. . ,
. ,

X ( / ) = X ( / ) + X ( / ) Sign/,

( 1. 12. 11)

/ > 0,
/ < 0.
, [Sign/] = j l n t , (1.12.11)
) = [ * ] = [X ( / ) ] + [ X (/)Sign / ] =
= () + 7 [ (0 (1 / 0 ].

( 1. 12. 12)
*(/).
, (1.12.10)
101

x A(t) = x{t) + j x r {t),

(1.12.13)

(/) (1.12.12), . .
xr {t) =

< X r ( f ) = - y ^ (/ )S ig n / .

(1.12.14)

(1.12.15)
/ - *

. (1.12.12) (1.12.15)
= ty
, . .



,
(1.12.12) (1.12.15).
(1.12.12) :


If n t ( - j S ig n / )
(. 1.12.5).
90.

x(t)
>

= 1/7

//(/ ) = - /Sign/

. 1.12.5.
102

, ,

x(t) = cos ln ft

(0 = sin2/7, x(t) = s in ln f t xr (t) = - c o s l n f t .


,
cos l n f nt + sin 2 f n,

( = Z

sin

1 - cos 2 -

.

, . . .

/0, h(t) t = - t 0
t = t0 h(t) tQ. ,
,
. , t0
.

, - / 1
.
, , . .
/0 > 2/.
(1.12.2) (1.12.7)
* (0 = (t) cos l n f Qt - xs(t) sin 2rc/01 = Re[y(/)eJ2/' ].
(/) e j2nfo1 (/)
/0. (t ) e J2nfot

.

xr {t) = 1[(/)'2" '] = xc(/)sin2n/01+ xs(t)c o s 2 n f at =
= xc(/)cos(2tt f Qt - n / l ) - x s(t)s in (ln f t - n i l ) .
x(t) xr {t\ ,
c o s l n f t sin2rc^/,
xc(t) ,(/) .
103


= , ,
, :
, 1 const ,

xr (t) = -------d x - 0.
71-1

: () - = t, xr (t)
.
,
:

( = ( / + / 0).

(1.12.16)

( = * ( ') ( - / 2 / 0,

*(/) :

,( /) = (/) ( 2 /0

(1.12.17)

x(t) = Re [(0 '2/0/) ].

(1.12.18)

/0 . ,
(1.12.1) /0
.
\xA( t ) \ = j x 1(t) + x r2(t)

A (t) = J x 2
c (t) + x 2(t).
/0 ,
( / ) . /0
|J^(/)|2 /0

104

- f o ) 2\XA( f i [ df

. 1.12.6

,
.

. 1.12.6.

- ; - ;
-

1.12.1.

x (t) X ( f \

* ,(/ ) =

'2 X +( f ) ,

/ > ,

/ < 0,

/
,(0

2 f e J2nftdt
oJ

! L ( e J2lzf -1).
Jnt

x(t) = R e [^ (0 ] = x 02f sin 2/// 2n f et,


xr (t) = lm [^ (0 ] = X 02 f, sin2( n f at) /(nfet).
. 1.12.7 ,
. , ,
.
105

0.4

0.6

. 1.12.7.

. 1.12
1.

, /) x ,(t) -

,
x(t),
.
2.
x (t)
x(t) =

cosoy + 2 cosco2/.

, , ,
, .
3.
x(t)

0)

^(),

.
.

4.

x (f) = Asin2nf0t, t > 0.
5.

xA{t\
,

-
aw **
/ < / < / 2 />0.

6.
,
;(/)
xA(t) - *(/) + j x r (t) :
(/) = (0 cos 2n f0t + (0 sin 2/0/,
xs(t) = (/) cos 2nf0t - x(t) sin 2n f0t.
7.

x'A{t\ (()

- 5.
() ,
() f Q= (/ + / 2)/2.
8.

xr (t) - *(/).

, xr (t) * (0 , . .
00

^x{t)x'r (t)dt = 0,
.
9.
, ,
sin (oet
x ) = ------5-.
.
10. x(t) = A sin 2nf0t Signt,

.
11. (0 t < 0, t > 0
. t = 0
.
.
12. xA(t)
x'A(t).
13.

, ( / )

y(t) /0
X A( f ) xA(t\ . .
r ( f ) = X A( f + f 0).
107

14.
,
,
( )= \xA{ t )x A{t + -z)dt,
.
?
15.
.
16.

.
17. -
.
18. ,
.
19. :
) :() = c o s l n f y ; - < / < ,
.
)
20.

, .

) (/) =

sin2rc/er
fl,
x (t) ------ -; - < t < , ) *(/) = <
2n f t t
|0;

- < t < ,

, ,

>

y(t) (()

eJnl4
() = -------- .
j
*(/), , 0
21.

x,(f) 2(/) -

, (/) 2(0- ,
(X,, x2) = ^ R e (y ,,y 2) (x I ) x2r) = ^Im (Y l,Y 2 ) 2 - 2.
22.

(/) xA{t)

108

p j * /4
() = -------- e~J(*'
cl

ja y

x ( t ) , ,
0

23. ,
*(/) (/) *(/),

_
(t)e > = j y ( t ).
24.

)/ (* ) = --.
1+

)/ (,)- ^ .
X

25. ,
( ) Q ()

* ( ) = ( ) + ( )
.

1.13.


.

, .

,
. . [33].
,
j ,

.
cas (cosine-and-sine).

109

. x (f) - ,
.
:

( / ) = jx(f)cas2n ffdtr

(1.13.1)

-tr

cas2n f t = cos2rc/Y + sin 2nft.

(1.13.2)

x (t)
:

x ( t ) = J K(/)cas2it/tdf,

(1.13.3)

(/ )
X ( f ) \
(/ ) = Re X ( f ) - Im X ( f ) .

(1.13.4)

(/ ) = (/ ) + <?(/),

(1.13.5)

E ( f ) O ( f ) -
(/ ).
00

( / ) = jx(t)c o s 2 n ftd t,
-

(1.13.6)
00

O ( f ) = J x(t) sm2nftdt,

X (f) = E (f)-jO (f).

(1.13.7)

(1.13.4)
,
(1.13.6) (1.13.7).


.
(/), . 1.13.1 .

110

X ( f ) = Ax

sin / __infz = ^ sin /


/

sinit/t .
c o s n / x - --------- SinH/x =
n f*

,4_sin2 n f t

_ ^ _ sin 2 n /T

'

JA T

2 /

(1.13.4)

^ sin2rc/

. sin2 /

( / ) = -f-2/

(1.13.8)

(/ ) .
1.13.1 , .
)

.it)

. 1.13.1

( / )
Q ( f ).

[ (- , t > 0 , a > 0 ,

*(/) = <
lo ,

/<0.


() =

( + )

2 + 2

ill

(
J 2 + 2

(1.13.4)

() = - ^

- + ^ .

" +~

(1.13.9)

. 1.13.2. () ()


1.13.1.
___________________________________________________ 1.13.1
x (t)

X (f)

K (/ )

x (t/ )

a X (a f)

a H (af)

x ,(t) + x2(t)

X , ( f ) + X 2( f )

K , (/ )+ K 2( / )

x (-t)

X (-f)

* (- / )

x ( t - )

X { f ) e x p ( - j 2 n f x)

x (l) cos 2nfBl

(1/2 ) X ( f - f 0) +

(l/ 2 )K (/ - / 0) +

+(1/2 / + / 0)

+ (l/ 2 )K (/ + /0)

K (/ ) cos 2nf + ( - / ) sin 2nf

1/2[K,(/)K2( / )
*i ( 0 * ( 0

- K , ( - / ) K 2( - / ) +

X t( f ) X 2( f )

+ H ,(/ )K 2( - / ) +
+ K , ( - / )^ 2(/ )]

x (f) x (t)

l/ 2 {[K (/ )]2+ [ K ( - / ) ] 2}

|X ( f f

112

1 / 2 [ ,(/ )* 2( / ) *,(0 *2 (0

- , ( " / ) * 2 ( / ) +
< ( * 2(

+ , ( * 2( - +

* '(0

J 2 n f X (f )

-2 / (- / )

X n( t )

-4 n 2f 2X ( f )

- 4 2/ 2 (/ )

. 1.13
1.

*(/) - - .


,2

x (t) =

/2

J x (t)

, = -

.2

7 r " dt,

- /2

, x (t)
x (t ) =

[] c a s ^ -n t,

00

1 772
2
K[w] = | *(f)c a s n td t,
_Til

2
2
. 2
cas n t= cos w/ + sin /,

2
2
,[ ,
cas /cas mtdt
J f2

[0, .

/ = ,

[] .
2. :
a) cos2n ft, ) sin2//, ) 5(/-/0), ) (/), ) 1/f, ) /(/), ) /2,

) [-2/2](), ) sign/, ) ^ b (t~ k T ).


- -

1.14. -

.
. , ,
(1.14.1)

. -,
,
: . , ,
. ,
,


,
. ,
,

.
.
( )
.
-
,
, .

-
(0 2[, ]
,

114

x(o=

n= -00

(1.14.2)

An e


(1.14.3)
(1.14.2).
, *(/)

j~zrnt

,
{}

(t) = e Jr
, ( / ) = ( /) .
, , -,
.2 71,
J t
(0 =

.
(1.14.4)
. { } /2, /2
:
00

-- 00
115

2[, ] /2
.
L2(R ) ,
R,

I2
dt < .

, 2[, ] L2(R )
. L2(R )
t > , () cpn(t)
Z2(R ). , ,
L2(R ), t - ,
.
, , L2(R ). ,
^
,
( 2 ^
L2[0, ], (0 = j t
\ )
,
L2(R ) .
. \|/
, , R,
\|/ .
(..
). ,
\\f(t)
(6) ():
V - (0 = 4 T v f

(1-14.5)

1/]\\
.
.

116


.

(1.14.6)
, .. ,
, - Sxv(/ )
/ = 0 .

.
,
, :
(1.14.7)
/w-
,
.
. ,
. , :
|/(/)|</(1 + ||+ | ^ (/ )| < / (1 + |/|),+%

>0.

.
:
= J k c o l 2 < .
, \\/(/),

( ) ().

117



(0) = (-02 /2), 0 , 0 =

,
( v = /.).
(1.8.29).
. 1.14.1-1.14.6
() ().

. 1.14.1. WAVE-

\|/(0) = ( l - 0 2)e x p (-6 2 /2)

<->

(v) = (y v )2V 2 n ex p (-v2 /2)

. 1.14.2. - ( )

118

- .
, W A V E -. ,

. ,
,
.
- :

V(0) =)" -^[(-2/2)1 <->

5 (V ) = ( - 1 )

( y v r /2^ exp(-v2 /2)

-
()
.
1

2
1.8

0.8

0.6

1.6
1 .4

1.2

1
0.8

0.6
0 .4

0.2

1 0 8
,- /2 _ ~0 /8
(0 ) =

- 6 ^ - 2

10

^(v) = /2 [ !/2 e~2v! ]

. 1.14.3. DOG- (difference o f gaussians)

2
1.8
1.6

10.6
Q.8

0 .4

1 .4

02

1
//.
-0.20/1/
V V
-0.6

1,2
0.81
0.6

-0 .4

-1 0 -8 - 6 - 4

-2

0 .4

(0) (sin 20 - sin 0)

10

-1 0 -8

<->

-6 ^ 4

-2

1, 7t<|v|<27t,
^ (v) = i
[, 0.

. 1.14.4. LP- (Littlewood & Paley)


119

10

[, ]
, 0 = t /

[, 1].
.
[0, 1] :

0 < 0 < 1/2,

\|/(0) = <-1,

1/2 0 < 1,

(1.14.8)

, 0.
v = :
. -/v/ sin (v /4)
S(v) = je
v/4
. 1.14.5.
1 -

(1.14.9)

0.5

. 1.14.5. HAAR-

1.5

1
0.5

-0.5

-1.5
-1.5

-0 .5

0.5

1.5

. 1.14.6. FH AT- ( )

120

FHAT- (. 1.14.6 )

1,

||<1 /,

\|/(0) = -1 / 2 ,

1/3 <|0| <1,

0,

(1.14.10)

|0| >1.

(1.14.11)

v/3

. 1.14.6 .
W H A T-
,
, 1/v.
LP-, , v -.

.

- ()
2(R )

( )
(6) :
/

(* - ,

a ,b e R,

\|/eZ,2(R ).

(1.14.12)

(0
Wx (, ) = ] xCOVa (')<* = 4 = } * V * ^

dt,

(1.14.13)


,
\|/((/ - ) /) (- ).

a ,b e R , 0:

121

Wx (a,b ) = - = j x i f W

(1.14.14)

- Wx(a ,b ) (- )
- :
( ) , b -
.

.
, Wx{aQ,b )
( = 0), Wx ( , 0) -
( = ).

x (t)

, f0
, -

- , 6 = f0 ab.
-
(1.14.12), [37]:
,
1 * , , L4
/ dadb
* ( ') =
Wx( a>) ( ~
cv i i

J J

? = J|^(co)|2 |<|_' </<

(1.14.15)

, 2
, () - -
\|/(f). * = 1.

\|/(f) L2(R ),
. , , - ()

= 0.
00
, . .
\|f(t)dt = 0.

122


.
(1.14.13):
^ o * m n ( a^

aWA o 9b) + W y(a 9b).

(1.14.16)

. 0
- 0:
Wx^

}(a ,b ) = Wx(a , b - b 0).

(1.14.17)

. ()
() :

;(- .- )
0 0

(1-14.18)

W<x (, ) = (-1 )

J x (t)d r

[ * (/)] ,

(1.14.19)

d? = d m[...]/dtm, >1.
,
x (t)
,
.
.

-
,
- .

. ,
, ,
(
) - . ,
,
( )
123

.
( ,
..) -
,
.
,
, .
- ?

L2(R ) /.
:
(1.14.20)

(1.14.21)
(1.14.13)
x (t)
(1.14.22)

.

() - - Y|/(r).
, - ()
. ,,. ,
|() = ( + .),

(1.14.24)

- | , ^.

(, \|/) = (X, ) /2,

(1.14.23) (1.14.24)
(1.14.13)
124

W ,(a,b) = - j = } * ( / ) V

1 =

2nJ\a\

-)d t = jX {o > )e Ja% J,(o>)da =


J
2nJ\a\

f ()' {aa)d(a = ^ =

2nJ\a\

f X { (o )e ^ r\ [a (< o -^ -)]d (o .

(1.14.25)
.

, - r|[fl(ca - ) ] = t|(aG) * >.) = 0* )


, - /.

2
eJM , (1.14.25)
^()
] =

(1.14.26)

. 1.14.7. - , < 2.
. /
2^ /. ,
,

125

<.
2

= [ + at, - A v , b + at. + A V]

<fK_

(1.14.27)

4AVA^,
. / .
, - (1.14.27) (
t ) . /
. / (. . 14.7);
- , 4AVA *.
- .

-
-
,
.

.
,
= 2 ", = 2 \ Vro^ / ) = ^ v | / ^ j = - i r vK(2 -"'/ -fc )) (1.14.28)
- . ab
.
. b - 2 ,
,
= 0.

= ( x ( 0 . V r f (0 ) =
126

J x(tyifmk(t)dt,

(1.14.29)

(1.14.30)

Wx(a, b):
(1.14.31)

= w x(2 \ k 2 " ).

(1.14.30) , x (t)

(1.14.30) ,
, . ,
,
v ( 0 = M,oo(0 (* 1.14.8).

/ o i(0
2.

7 V ib (0

\
i
\

' V 07 (
*

V n(0

V i2 W p i n

J
l.

!____ !
1

1
n

v 2i (0

v 2o(0

0.5

0. 5 *

*6

(0

. 1.14.8.

127

,
, . .
1, -

- q\

, .
-
, .
,
- .

-
,
, .

( ), . 2.3.
N = 2V ( v - ),
:

w = 0,1, 2 , ..., v;

: = 0,1, 2

, 2V~W-1.

, = 0 (. . = 1)

2V-1 = N - 1 .

/(1, 2,3,...) \|fmk(t) ,

. / = v

= 0, . . \\tm 0(t)

(. 1.14.8; N=8).

I
2
. 1.14.9 .
- (. 1.14.2).
Wx (, ).
(, )
128


-. Wx(a ,b)
(. 1.14.9 ).
. 1.14.10
Wx(a,b) (, ) ;
, - (
).

. 1.14.9.
129

10

20

30

40

. 1.14.10.

, -
Wx(ayb);
Wx (, ).
(
)

. (
Wx (, ) )

,
.

130

A 2.

, -
*(/) -
-
.

()
.
(
), . 1.7

2.1.
.


,
.

. 2.1.1.

*(0 = * (0 \ 0

1111
kAt

-------- ^

. 2.1.1. -
131


.

At.
y (t) (. 2.1.1)
(. . 1.9):
71

At
I
* '> = * I

S i n w -- -

. 2


At
,

, , ( A r - A t ) T^ 0,
lim [M ')] = A v ( 0 =

S ^ '
= 30

-,
/, . .
D ^ {t) = At S (t-k A t).
=-

k\i

-'(') = A r ^ x (h \ r )S (r -k M )
- -
, N
/
/

\/

I
I

. 2.1.2


.


Da,{()
x (t ):

1 \

(2.1.1)

(/) = (0-> =

= / x(k/\t)S(! - At),

(2 .1.2)

. 2.1.2.


(2.1.2) .
.
(/)
-:
132

( /) =

J *(/) 5(/

= ^ x (t)b (k A t-t)d t.

(2.1.3)

. ,
,
x(kAt), ()
. ,
x(kA t) ,
.
(2.1.2) ;

.,(

.
(. 1.11):
(2.1.4)

= /

( = 0, 1, 2, ...), (2.1.4)
, a d r /,

'(/) = / ^

x(kA t)-S{t - kAt)

k=-

= *(/)!

( t - k A t )

x ( t ) D f (t).

(2.1.5)

, , . .
(/) xA(t) '(/)
:

-,

At, .
(2.1.2) (2.1.5)
A t-x(kA t).
tk = kAt,
. 2.1.2.

133

= 0, 1, 2, 3 ......

x\(t)
(2.1.2) .
.
(/),
, .
- .

2.2.
(2,1.1).
-
:
>*(/) = /
-

5(/ - At ) = At
-

b { t - k b )e - j^ d t = -

2
.

>/ (/) = / X

8 (/-* /)= X

2 /

(2 .2. 1)

'

= -

it =

(1.9.10)

(2 .2 .2)
/ = / = 1// . ,

-,
.
/-1
/)

-\/

fit.

(/)

111

. 2.2.1.
134

( )


(0 = At

8(/ - /) > ( / ) = X

= -

5 ( / - n f A)

(2.2.3)

= -

. 2.2.1.
* (/).
X (/ ) - x(t).
(2.1.5) -
,
( = (

X
=

5 ( / - / ) =

J X (J -v )b (y -n fJ d v .

= _*

-0 0

-
* , ( / ) = Z X ( f - n f > ) = X ( f ) + ' X ( f nf i ).
-
= I

(2.2.4)

,
At
, / = A f = 1/At.
. 2.2.2 ,
,
.
J.IVJI

/
* Df m

(U

<\\

-7

. 2.2.2.
135


, ,
(, /7 = 0),
.
.

2.3.
1933 .. ,
[18].
*(/)
,
.
.


, ,

1^(/)1
(-, ),
[ - / , f e] (. 2.3.1). *(/)
X ( f )
*

(1.6.1):

. 2.3.1
(2.3.1)

(*,<

(*,*)

1 "f ,.m s i n 2 n f ' 0 -

Az/ i

(2.3.2)

- )

At = 1/2/.

J <pk( t ) e - J2*f , dt = n 2/e( f ) c x p ( - j 2 n f k A t )


- kAt.
2^ (/ )
.
136


(2.3.3)

* = ^

] ( 2/ ( f ) e J2* fkAldf.


( 2/ (/ ) =

= X (f)M ,
/

= x(kAt).

(2.3.4)

: ,
[- / , /] / = 1/2/, /
* (/)
x{kAt) *(/)
:
(2.3.5)
(2.3.5)

:

( *(0 = Y j :(* | (? - )5 ( - : ^ =
(2.3.6)

(2,3.6)


A tx (k A t). (2.3.6)
-

2/. 2 ( )* . (/ ) = 2/.2/#(/ ) , X ( f ~ ) = (=-

, , (2.3.5).
,
x (t)
.
. , (2.3.5)
.



. , ,
(/) ,
:

(/), = , 1, 2, 3,


&tx(k&t)\

[- / , /]
,
.




, . . (. 2.3,2).
/
. At = \ l2 fe
(2.2.2) (/ ), . 2.3.26.
,
,
, ( aliasing )
" 138


At ( A t).

<*)

. 2.3.2
X n( f ) [~/, /],
/ = f a l 2 = 1/2At - .
X ( f ), -, ,

f c = f R /2,

-,

"" .
= N At.

* (0 =

Z
=-/

x(kAt)

N12

I x(kAt)
=-N/2

sin 271f c( t - k A t )
2 n fc( t - k A t )
sin n fn( t - k A t )
K fb (t-k A t)

x(t).

:

LJ*)
139

sin7t/a(r - M Q
%fR( t - h b t )

dt

(2.3.7)

(/). ,
(2.3.7) (2.3.3),

* = ?) ( / )

{/) / < =

X { f ) e J2nfkA'd f = x,(kA t),

~ fc

. . jc, (/),

i - I T
{

/.


(2.3.8)
*(/)
""
|/| > / :

6-

00

/ 0 - * 1 ( 0 = \ \ X ( f ) - X < ( f )\ 2d f
-fc

J \ X { f t f d f + J IX ( f ) f d f .

&

(2.3.9)

fc

ck (2.3.8) x(kAt), (2.3.9)


:
_2

8min

. _2
>

-fc

X i f + n fJ

- 1

d f+

* (/ + / ,)

(2.3.10)

\\ = 1

|/|> /.

140

/ = /2 = 1/ 2/,
[- / , f c ].

, (2.3.5)
:

*<)

*(/)

x,(t) x rx -4,(0

. |>|

;

;

;
5-;
.
.

2.4.


A ]j(f)
00

00

5(f- kA t)dt-

x{kAt) = Jx (t)
-OO

Jx(/)-8(kAt - t)dt,
-0

. e. x (t)
8(/)

, h(t)


0 < /(. 2.4.1).

kAt

x(kA t) =

kAt-

x(t)h(kA t - t)dt =

. 2.4.1

J x(t)h (kA t - t)dt =[jt(f)h(t)] t_ ,


-o o

. e. / = kAt.
141

(2.1.2)

(/) = At ^

x(/:Af) 5(~^)=

=-

(2.4.1)

= [ (/ ) (/ )]- *

5(/-;/)

(2.4.1) , ( f )

(/) = [ (/ ) (/ )]
h(t).
(2.4.1) ,

(/ ) = / ) - ( / ) ] (/ )

(2.4.2)

D f (/ ) =

5 ( / ~ n f a) - ,
- -

X (/ ) = [(0 ]

, (/ ) = [/*(/)] -

. (2.4.2)

. , (2.4.2)
. 2.4.2
\(<

/.

J L

\\xM i

/ \

-*/

. 2.4.2.

,

[ (/ ) # (/ )].
h(j), 142

|#(/)| const,

0(/ ) = 2/ , 2 (/ ) = 1

(/).
,


{( =

0(

. 2.4.3

/)

, 1(/ )
,
h(t) (. 2.4.3).
.
h (t )= 0 ^<0, - H ( f )
h(t) . ,
X ( f ) # ( / ) .
2.4.1.

n ^ (t - At),
(. 2.4.4).

)
. 2.4.4.
, ,
().
143


.

. 2.4.46
= ( ; - 0 / 2 )

/ )= ^ .^ 8
n jv

(2.4.3)

*/

(&/) = J x (t )d t = f x (t )h (k A t - t )d t =
9 -
9 -

, ,

(/) = At

x(A:Af)5(/-/:A/) =
- -

(2.4.4)

= i [ x ( f ) ( /) ] /J

8 (/- ).

-,
Xa = [ X ( f ) - H ( f ) ] D /t( f ) =

(2-4.5)

^ 1( / ) = ^ ( / ) 7 ^ e - jn/e
7l/0

(2.4.6)

, 0
sin 71 / 0
it 0

(/) = -7/0.

0 = /; < 1; At = \/2f e. ,
1% /,
S in T ia-


7ia

/. > 0.99. a < 0,15, . .

' 2/.

15% At. / = f a
= -13,5.
144

2.4.2.
,
. 2.4.5.

*(/).
;
At = \!2fe. . 2.4.5
- ( ).

. 2.4.5.
At x(t)
!.
At = / t.
< 1. , X ( f )

|/|^ /-


,
x(t).
145

At

x(kAt)b(t - k A t ) k= ->

h(t ) ,

y( t) = At

x (kAt ) IIz( t - k A t ) ,

(2.4.7)

fl

= (0 =

0 < / < I,
(2.4.8)

t.

j2nfkAt ^ Tlf g- jnf _


(/ ) = / (* /)':
/

(2.4.9)

X if-n fJ -x

s m n f x e- Jnfi
/

. 2.4.6 X ( f ) Y( / ).

; '(

/, i t,
. 2.4.6.
,

sin /

----------

X { f - n f a)

/
Y { f )

= ( / At) = 1/4. ,

sin / / / -.
146

00
(/) = / ^ x(kAt)b{t - kAt)
= -

(2.4.10)

Z * (/ - / * )
= -
.
(2.4.7) .
Y { f ) / > .
(2.4.7)
(2.4.10)
(2.4.8),
. 2.4.7. , -

*(0

b (t)

. 2.4.7
, ( / ) ,

sin /
n fx
.
x(t)

00
At ^
ITx(t kAt)
= -

147

s(t) = x (t)- X

Il^ t-k A t),

(2.4.11)

* =-00

1 - /2 < / < /2,


(/) =

(2.4.12)


-

(1.9.12)

sin(rcw c/ At)

At fla,

6(f-n/At).

(2.4.13)

( / At)

(2.4.11)

S(f) = X ( f ) P (f ) =
sin(rcwx/ At)
= Z
A t.tU

( nnz/At)

00 sin(nnt/ At)

At

a, ( nnz/A t)

\ X (f-f,)b (f,-n lA t)d f,=

(2.4.14)

oo

X(f-n/At).

, S ( f )
X ( f )

f A 1 / At

sin(rc/7x/A/)

(nnz/At)
(. 2.4.8).
. . 2.4.8 S ( f )
= ( / At) = 1/4.

. 2.4.8.

148

2.5.

(2.3.5) ,
x (t)
{At) sin 2//
- , . 2.5.1.
2n f,t
sin 2 f J

7\

'" -- "/' - /

_/0^/t

. 2.5.1.

. 2.3,
x (t)
( )

At

2n fe t

(. 2.5.2).

At ^

x(k A t) 6(t - At)

= -

5- A tx(kAt) (. 2.5.2).
(2.3.5)

*(/') = ' }

x (k A t)8 (t-k A t)h 0( t '- l ) d t .

- =-

-,
149

VO
(*08((-*/)
.0
*
. 2.5.2. -
; -

x(kAt)h0( t ' - k A t ) = j T x(kAt)

=-0

* ( 0 = / ^

sin2 nfa( t r- k A t )

2nfe( t ' - k A t )

'

/0(/) * t < 0, ,
.
. tQ9
hQ( t - t 0) t < ,

/=1/2/

H'M L
\

.
*<)

y n m rv

- f t 0 / / / - 0 /

-/ 0 /

. 2.5.3.

. 2.5.3.
|#0(/)| = 0
[ />/] :
150

, ,
() .
-
, .
-,
, h(t)
,
*f ln|tf(/)|
i

J .~ 7 ^
1+ /

<0

(2'5)

, |(/)| ,
(2.5.1) , h(t) = 0
t <
arg # ( / ) .

- :

|(/)|,
(2.5.1), a r g # (/ ), ,
( / ) = | (/) |eyarg" (/)
/?(/).



, At
fc = /2 = 1/2At > f a.

(. 2.5.4).
-----

/
-/

/ /

. 2.5.4

( f e, f a - f )
, . .
|#(/)| (. 2.5.4).
At ,
151

/ ,= (2 + 5 )/ ..

const

| (/ )| = '

!/|s/ e,

/, <|/| < / , - / , ,

(2.5.2)

|/| > / , - /

X (/ ), x(Y),
. -
(2.5.2) , . . |#(/ )| ^ 0
\f\> f R ~/-
f a - f e
. ,
|#(/)|
g # ( / )

[ - / e, /]

(. 2.5.5). ,

2
/

, . . (/ ) # ( / ) * X (/ ),
x{t). . 2.5.5
1, 2.


2.5.1.
(. 2.5.6).

. 2.5.6.

152

0 < t <2 9
(2.5.3)

t.

h { t ) hQ( t )
2

/ < , ,

, . 2.5.6.
,
/ / (/ ) h ( t )

,
. 2.5.66.

/ = + f e .
, . 2.5.7,

00

(2.5.4)

(/ )=

H 0( f ] )

"(>
(2.5.5)
.

h(t),
,
,
.

. 2.5.7.
153

2.5.2.

\ \ ~ \

* (0 =

sin 2nf e (t - )

n(t-T)

0 < t <2,

(2.5.6)

\ (/) w (/ )
. w (/ ) W{ f )
. 2.5.8.

. 2.5.8

) =

sin /

(2.5.7)

. */ 7
. ,
(2.5.5)
, . (2.5.4)
H ( f )

, (2.5.6),


(. 2.5.9).

I\
/

* "

* *

os
07

06
L i ___ 1___ 1

1___ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I | I

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

. 2.5.9
154



.
/ < / , /
.
.

:
/ = / , / 2 .


- .
| # ( / ) |2 = ( / ) - (/ ).

.

.
.
(2.5.8)
- , .
. 2.5.10.

I I

I I I

I I I

I 111 i 1 1 11 1 > 1 1

. 2.5.10
155

f c .

(. 2.5.11).
1
1
1+ 2
1+
/

1+

\2
J2

2
X

2
= 2

= 2-1 .
Jej
J 'S
(2.5.9) ,
f \2
2

J\

(2.5.9)

2 - 1

\ fl J
,
lg

V 2-1

(2.5.10)

l8( f
(2.5.9)

=-^~f~ a

(2.5.11)

, |i/(/)|2

1
1
----- "~
1+ 2
2
[/[, /2].
156

:
f = f c , ,
10 lg 0,5 = - \
|#(/)|2 /
, , / = 0;

(2 -\ ) |#(/)|2

;
9

/ = 0;

(. 2.5.10);
/
v = 1
fc
|(|2 * v - 2"

, , 10 lg( v '2w) = -20 lg v .


,
-20 0,3 = -6 ;

---------------------- = 6 /7.

= 10 / -60 /.
.

,
.
v = ^~

|tf(v)|2 = ----- - ---- .


1
1+ (v )

(2.5.12)

8 < 1- ,
, (v ) - - ,

157

f cos( arccos v), Ivl < 1,


() = \
[cosh( arccos hv), |v| > 1.

(2.5.13)

r(v) = 2v7;.l(v)-r.2(v),

(2.5.14)

>2,

0(v ) = 1 7] (v ) = v.
. 2.5.12
-1 < v < 1. v > 1
( v). v l ( v ) 2~] v

,

(v )
- 1 < v < 1 .

v = l
v=l

(f = f j

( 1) = 1

(v )

. 2.5.13



8.
. 2.5.13
158


.
2.5.3. 3-
f c .
, 3f c.
v = 1 (1) = 1 .
|//(V)|2 = ----- 1 _ = ,5
1
'
1+22(1)
6 = 1. 3- (2.5.14)

3(v ) = 2v2(v ) - 7J(v ) = 2v[2v7J (v ) - 0(v )] - 7J(v ) = 4v3 - 3v.
, v = 1,

10 lg[l /(1+992) ] -40 .



-,
.
.
.
.
,
.

, , . .
.
.
.

(/) = / x (k A t) 5 (t-k A t).

(2.5.15)

*=-

.
,
159

\ ( 0 = * ]C x (k A t) q ( t- k A t) =

(2.5.16)

Jt=-oo

00

= ^ x(A/)J 8(x kA t)q(t - x)d = <7 () ().


=-

_<*>

#(/) - . q (t) ,
. (2.5.16)

q (), (2.5.15).
. 2.5.14 - .

1 V

(0

./ 4

19(0
- X

.(

. 2.5.14

, (/ )

, ( / ) ( / ) = //(/), Q ( f ) = [?()],
# ( / ) - , ,
( / ) - ( / ) = ( / ) . S

X ( f - m f a) = X ( f ) .

= -

, //(/) (2.5.2).
# ,(/ ) =

/)

QU)

2.5.4.
q(x) =

0 < t < 0,

t < 0.

n sin /" p-jnfb

(2.5.2),

,( / ) = -
0 sin /0
, / 0

1, ,

----------- 1 +
sin - /31
6

\\
11

1,

(. 2.5.15).

g(t)

'(|

O f ,

<)

/.

|*.</)|
^
\

<)

ft

<* ( ( |

>

ft

fx ~ f*

. 2.5.15

2.6.


, *(/) ,
.
(0
, *:(/) t - At,
161

= 0, 1, 2, ...

, x{t) kAt
(

1)/

x (t) = x(kA t) + x '(k A t)(t - kAt) + X ^ ^ ^ ~

(2.6.1)

dx(t)
dt

x "(k A l) =
t = /

'd 2x(0~
dt2

* (/ )-
,
:
x(kAt) = [jc(ArAr) - jc((At - 1 ) / )];
At
x "(k A t) = [x (k A t) - '(( -1 ) ] =
At
-

!-r [ x ( k A t ) At2

2 x ( ( k - 1) A t )

x((k - 2) A t ) ] .

, ,
. ,
,
x[n)(kAt), . ,
, ,
.
. , ,
.
,

.
(2.6.1).



(2.6.1).

At (. 2.6.1).

162


, ,
(. 2.4.5). At
,
(. 2.6.1).

. 2.6.1.

(2.6.1):
(t) = x(kAt) , At < t < ( k + 1)
h{t)
(). ,
,
( f ) = l t sinnf At - ' = _ L . sin( Jt/ /A ) .

*///


. 2.6.26, . ,
.
-
/ = /
, / = / /2.

//(/) .
,
, -
RC = At /.
163


>*

|
1

\t

|(|

. 2.6.2.

164


, / / (/ ) :

j2nfdkt -
At, (1/ '2/ ) - .
,
At,
, . 2.6.3.

(0=/
*>-<
------ +

>

At
. 2.6.3. -



(. 2.6.4).
(2.6.1):
k(t) = x(kA t) + x\kAt){t - A t) = ( ) + [jc(*A/) - (( - l)A f)](f - kAt).
, ,
. x(kA t)
, .
()
,
2t (. 2.6.4).
At.
h(t) # ( / )
. 2.6.46, .
165

a *c o

2/

-1 /At 1

. 2.6.4.
,
:

. 2.6.5. -
,
. ,
, ,
.
[4],
x (t) = sin 2nfQt

/ > / 0( 2,2//7),

8=

(2.6.2)

1 *(0 -*(0 |

K o L
, , = 0,01, / > 22/0,
10 ,
.
2.6.1. ,
()
, f c -

f A, . . f c = / / 2. ,

= (/ /f c) > 1 (. . 2.5)
\()\ * - 2

20 . (2.6.2 )
f c f e = 1 0 f c
f A > 0, \fe(2 ,2 / /). = 0,01, f a > 2 , 2 f ei . .
, f e 10^..

2.7.

, , [- , ]. , (0
.

X (f)=

j x ( t ) e - J2p/,dt.
-

*(/) 2 (
) :

Af = \12

= (1/2) | ^)~]2^ 1dt = A f X ( n A f ) .


-

X ( f ) = | ] / ( / ) 2," ^ '

= / * ( / ) \ e j2n(n&f~f ) , dt.

167

e~j2 p f'dt =


1( c i2itlnbf-f)tjt
i

c i 2 x(nbf-f)t I7' _ 2 sin 2nT{nAf - f )

j2 n (n b f - f )

l-r

2rr(nAf - f )

X (/ )

* (/ )=

2 n T (f-n A f)

A f = l/2T

(2.7.1)

( )
. X ( f ) /
,
/ - 2
/ = 1/27

2
,
.
, , t [- , ],
X ( f \ [(/)].


,
,
, :
00

J>(0|2<*=

00

or,

|^(/)|2

.
[- , ].
|"(/)|2

|X ( f f = X ( f ) X * (/ ) x(t) *(-/).
168

(/)

(/ ) (-/ ) 4

2,

\ X ( f ) \ 2 / <1/47


, x(t)
At = T/N.
(2.7.1)
/ = \/ = \/ NAt = f a/N.
/ = 2f e , f e- .
, f e
, , ""
/ .
X ( f )
2 f J A f = 2 fe - N ! f a = N .
, x(t),
X ( f \

[- f e, /], ,
7V = 77 / = 2f eT

(2.7.2)

.

N - . N = 2f aT
,
, .
-
:
x (t)=

x (t-m T )*

m = -

]2^ '
= - N /2

x(t)e~j M f , dt = A f X ( n A f ) ,

* - / 2

a Af = - ,
.
169

:

, , ,
.
, ,
(. 3.3).

2.8.
, |/| [/0

/0 + / ], /0

2/ (. 2.8.1).

(.
)

V"
j >
o
-**

----------------- 1-1-1
0

- j ;>

X )

'

, :

i
/

iy y

(
. 2.8.1
170


* (0 = cos[2 /0 /+ (/)],

(2.8.1)

A(t) (0 -
.
. (
/0 0)
. ,


.
-
.


= 2 (/ + )
( ).
At = 1/2/ , . . +( / )
_ (/ ) / = 2/
,

.
2/,
,
.
, . 1.12.

.



X _ ( f ) .

(/) = jt(/) + yjtr (/),


* (/)

(/ )- ,


171

( ( / ) = -y s ig n / ).
. 1.12,
,
[/ - /, / + /].

X ( / ) = 2+ ( / )
.

( f )

At = 1/ 2 f e
2 + ( / ) / = 2 / (. 2.8.1).
2 + ( / nfA) ,
(/) ^ ( kAt).
. 2.8.2
. , (^)
.

.
( ),
.

. 2.8.2.
(/) ( kAt)

(2 .8 .2 )

172

h ( t ) = Sm27lfet e J2nfl>'
'
nt

(2.8.3)

, ,
.

.
^ ( / )

. 2.8.1

. , /0/ 2/ - ,
- . /0,
(
).
(t) = (/) + jx s (/) = A (t)eJ^ n ,
.
, + ( / ) ,
* (/) = x ( t ) ~ j x r (/).
\ ( t ) At = 1/2/
2_ ( / )
/ = 2 / (. 2.8.1 ). \ (/)
\ [ At)

V_8in2ltf et
}

e - j 2nf0,

nt



jc(/) = ,4(/)cos[2rc/01+ (0] = (,(08 2// - xs(t)s in 2/01 (2.8.4)
(/) = ,4(/)cosq>(0 xs(/) = A (t) sin (/)
,
2/, 173

| (&/)} {5(&/)}, At = \/2fe (. . 1.12).


, -

cos2xfj
* |*/|
'

jA'A/j

At = 1/2 fe
(. 2.8.26).

sin2Jtfj
. 2.8.25.

) /0

, . . .
( f )
xs (/) -
. ,


.

f f l = 2 f e ( 4 /
).
/ = 2(/0 + /), .
Jt(f)
|jcc (/)} {&/)},
(/) u x s (/), * (/ ),

cos2nf0t -

(0 =

(2 .8 .5 )

sin 2 n f 0t.

174



,
100 ,

,
.

(/) .
(/)
/ = 2 + 1
4/0
/0

(2.8.6)
,

, . . = 2, 4, 6,... ( ).
(2.8.6) (/) -
/0.
(2.8.4)
x ( k A t ) = ( kAt)co$2nf0k A t - x s (kAt)sir\2nf0kAt =
=

jcc (A/)cosrc(w

+ l/ 2 )-jts (A/)simt(w + l/2).


x(2 k A t) = (2/)*(1)^

:[(2/ + 1)] = xs [(2 + l) A / ]* (- l)* +

( 2kAt) = jc(2A;A/)-(-1)*
xs [(2 * +1) /] = [(2 * +1) /] (- 1 )* +

(2.8.7)

,
:(/)

(. 2.8.3). ,
/,
, . .
t = kAt
(k A t) xs [kA t).
175

( , .
2.8.3 )
().
,
, . 2.8.4.

| ( ~ \ " \
*,[(2 '+1) / j

\
|

I,()

(2)

>f

(-

. 2.8.4.

:(/) *

- ( ) (. 2.4.5). :(/)
- ( )
.

(). ,
.

.
,
, (/) = (2/), -
, ,
(*) + *5 (5/)
. (4 /) = '
2

/. .
,
.
.

* (/ ),
At :

( ) 0

*2

*3

*4

*5

*6

*7

*i

*9

>()

*0

0 ~*

*4

(* )

-X j

*5

*9

X,

. .

jc

-* *
0

0
*7

(:/)


.
>>,(&) 2 {)

{ k ) + j y 2 (* )

,
177

( 2-8-8)

y ( k ) = xc (2 k ) + j x s ( 2 k + 1).
y { t ) x ( f ) ,
( ) ( ) ,
y ( t ) = x ( t ) e x p j 2 n ^ - t , f a = l / At.
:
/ ) = * ( / - / /4).
X ( / ) ( / ) . 2.8.5 . 2.8.56.
)

1^001

CJ

-/

IKC01

~/ '
-./*//4

0 //4

'/./*/

r f i r i

0 / - /4

. h

. 2.8.5
,()
Y ( / ) /

U / )=

( + >

. 2.8.5 / = /0.
,
( )
:
/0 + ^ = / ,
178

/ = 1 , 2 , 3 , . . . ,

f . = - ----------------------------- = - ^ ~ ,
- (1 / 4 )
4-1

n = 1 ,2 ,3 , (2.8.9)

,
,
- / 0 + = - / ,

/7= 0, 1, 2,

4/7+ 1
(2.8.9) (2.8.10) :
/ = ^ .

2+ 1

= 0 ,1 ,2 ,

(2.8.11)


4
, - . {) / = / 0, = 3
. 2.8.5.
( t )
* (/ ), ,
/,

/ ~ />

,
(/)
( ) , .
(2.8.11)
,
- - 0, / = 4/0,
(. )

'.-(ffff

/ * 4 /..

(2.8.12)

2/ - , . 2.8.5.
179

,
(2.8.11)
. ,
/0

. , (2.8.11)

.


:
x'tdp < 1/N.
(. 2.8.6)
sin 2n fe t 2 f e t,
1
dp

(2.8.13)

N n fe

N - .
, ,
.

,
. . .
2.8.1. ,
.
( ):

* (/ )= ;(/ ),
( / ) - (7 ) (t).
180

(2.8.11) ( -
) (2.8.12),
(& ),

( ) . . . ( f )

(0, 1, 2, . . . ) / ,

{)

, -^-, ,

, ,

( ) .



,
x{kAt)
x ( k A t - x ) .
At

1
,
At = ---- < ----- ; - 1, 2, 3,

2 /0

2/

(2.8.14)

= - I-XAt\ X - ,
4/0
(2.8.7)
(/:/) = (-1 )* - (k A t),
x ( k A t - x ) - ( - l ) w(*

-xs ( k A t - ) .

(. 2.8.7)

.

2/

kisJ

-l^ x J k A t)

- i
_____ \ ----- (-1 )**)*,(/-)

A t = - L + X A / . X -

2/

. 2.8.7.
181

2.9.
-
. 2.9.1

,

(/ 0 + /),

2/.
. .
/0 - / /0 + /
2/, . .
/ - = ^ ( 2 / ),

= 0, 1, 2,

(2.9.1)


/ = 4

fe-

,
, . 2.9.2.

. 2.9.2

(/ )

X _{f)

, . . (2.9.1)
. ,
- .
1 82


/
, +1 _ ( / )
+ ( / ) . , .
, (. 2.9.3):
- / + / , + ' / < /

(2.9.2)

~ f o ~ f e + ( m + D / > / + /

( + 1 )/ ----------------------------- |

(")/ ---------------- >\---- / ----- >\

. 2.9.3
(2.9.2) / < 2(/0 - / , ) , ( + !) / > 2 (/ 0 + / , )

(2.9.3)
+1
,

"

/77

( + / ) , /
+1

. .
/

(2.9.4)

'2 / .
m .
(2.9.3)
/
fJe + l J / _7 4- 1
m
m + 1 2/

v 0 =

183

(2.9.5)

-1

11

13

15

. 2.9.4.

(2.9.5)
v +1
v n-1

17

,
v 0 = /0 /f e, ,
= / /2/ (. 2.9.4).
X _ ( f ) X + ( f )
4/,

/ > 4 / >2.

(2.9.7)

.
(1, 2), (3, 2), (5j 2 ), (7, 2),

(0, -1 ) (0, 1).


v R v 0 .

.

= 2. , v 0 = 8

= 3. (2.9.6) v 0

9
7
< v n < 2 ,2 5 <v_ <2,33.

.
4f
(2.8.6) / = ---- .
2 + 1

_ _ /

2f e

/ 2+ \

- . X + ( f )

V 2 + \

_ ( / )

,
.

2.9.1.

f
2/ =104 /0 =106 . v 0 = = 200. fe
, ,

/ = 2 ( + / ) = 2 /e (0 +1) = 204 .
185

(2.9.4) : < 9 9 ,5 . = 99,

2 ,2 0 8 < < 2 ,2 1 1 .

/ = 2 2 0 9 0 .

, f a
,
. , /,
.


* ( 0 = Z ( kAt) 5 ( ' - kAt)

, .
2 .9 .5

|*(/)|

. 2.9.5

h ( ' ) = 2 - ~ 7 7 ~ 2 / 0/.

(2 .9 .8 )

,
. . 2.5.

186

2
1.

(/) = =-
Z * ( / - /) = *( /) + Z * ( / /)>

=1


X ( f ) ,
/ = 1/At. ( / ) .
2.


2 n f e( t - k A t )

(-, ).
L2?
3.

,(/)=
S t

4.

2 it/ (- t,V)

-\ .

jc(/) [ - f e9f e ]

.
?

5.
x(t) [~/, / ]
At -1 /2/ ?
6.

(/)

, At, .

, , ?
. ?
7.
At = 10 .
.
8 7
- 10 .

.
- ?

187

9.

jt(7) - x(t)

f a = N /.
.
10. ,

= ------------- J e \ --------

2 / > -,)
,

( / ) = { 1,
< ^*
[0 , /,
..
.
. :

, ( 0

]= \

,0)>

,,. - , ,
^, (0 ] ~
,(011. # ( / ) -
: # ( / ) = # ( / + /0)
/0 / h(t)
(/ ).
12. , *(/)

* (/ )= |()-5(*-)/.
-

5-. ,
inp i
S- *
'

*(/) .
13. x (t) ^(),
[-, ]. ,
188

At , cot. = /At > , (/)



/
/, sin , (/ - At)
* ( 0 = Y j x( kAt) ------- : 71- * - i ktZo
a c( t - k A t )

14.
(/)
2

()= j x ( t )e ~ j a dt.

,
.
.
15.

(0 = 1, t > 0, ,
, .
16. x (t)

, t [, 2 ].


.
:
X ( f ) ;
R e ^ f(/ );
\vaX(f)\
|^(/)|;
|/)|2
17. *(/)
:
(2 ) = 3 , (6 ) = 6 .
.
/ = 17 .
18.
,

, <<2, >0.
19.
x(t) = cos(2rcl 3/+ (0),
189

- < / < ,

.
.
,
.
.
20. At
2 = 100.
f e ,
f > f B
0,1 .
.
21.

() = ( 1+ 0,5 cos 2nfMt) cos
- oo < t < o o,
/ = 5 ,

/0 = 900 .

.
.
22. x (t) = coslnf^t, /0 = 500
/ = 2 .
v = / // |v| < 2

;
;

() = () (-1)*;

z(k) = ( ) 2 $( / 2).

23. *(/) ,
[,, 2],

> 0.

|(/)|2
24. y (t) ,
,

J - ( t)dt = A t y 2(kAt), At = 1/ 2 f .

190

/].

25. x(t) ^)
At = .
x(t) y(t).
. - *<0/'
) y(t)
(

A t )

< At
. )

-
y(t) = A t^Ti 8( t - k A t ) .

;~(/-* (/)-/5>-*0

kjM

At

*;(/)= {0 xJLt)-&l'Elx(kkto)6{t-kSn

fM h

JL
______
/
*/

6)


.
26.

/
. ,
, / = 3f c.

27.

t-kAt



At At/2,

y it)

.
/0 = 1
tmkAt+At/2

f a = 1/At = 5

v - f f f

< 2:

();

( t);
(t)

.
191

28. h ( t ____ ^ (/ )

'.1 ,)=.1
At - h{t). ,

= 1 ,
3% .
29. , ,
- ,
,
500 ;
650;
25 ;
.
30.
.


, 2
1//0. sin 2nf0t
,
1 //0 .
.
192

31.
: x(t) = cos , /+ cos 2/.
,
.
x(t) ?
32. (/) ,
[0, .].
|(/)|2
33. *(/)
X ( f ) .

, ,
/

At =

/. . ,

* (/ - }
*(/) X (/ ) - , a At -
.
34. :
(/)

tx <

<

t2, X ( f )

,
- .
X ( f ) . .
35.
y(t\

,

At,

*(/).
(/) = cos(co0/+ 0), - < t < , At
, 193

. ,
.
.
36. x (t) , |/|< f e.

00

, j* x(t)dt = At ]jT x(kAt),

oo
*=-

At = ---- .

37. (^)
8-.

. .

, X ( f )

|/|< f g9

.
38. (t) 1 ,
y (t) 2 .
:
)*(/), ) .. )^(5/), ) x (t) + y(t\ jx)x{t)y(t\ )x {t)*y {t).
39.
f e
,
, 1/10f H 5/,.
.
40. - ,
.

,
y (t) = x(at)4 < 1.

194

, X ( f )

|/| < / ,

(/ ) |/| < f y,
,
.

41. x(t) , t [- /2, / 2]


At , 2N +1 ,
t = 0.
2N + 1= 9,
.
. .
42.
x(t) = e~at

t > 0,

At = 10

= 2-104 ,

.
43.
,
/ = /5.
44. ()
x(t) = _(')2 At
, ,
, 10 .
195

45. At
= 100 . /
,
f > f e
0,1 .
.
46.

T7r { t ) - = 0,5
1, At = 2 - .
y (t ).
.
.

47.

, -

48.

49.

(2 N + 1) -,
.
, .
. ( 2 N + 1)

, - , a q - .
196

:
(/) =

sin n f(2 N + \)

ksNit)

(I)

*(

-/vr

50.

5 (/) = 0 ,

(!)

NT

()

\t\>NT

51.

(I) (1)

~ CD

2 1

(* * )-

J r f - i l.

{ =

.2

X /-

At

/ = -

=-00

(0 - (/ - * 0 - ^ - Z

= -00

= -00

/-

At

At ,

52.
,

M t )

* -

I 2 3 * N
197

53.
,
.

k x {t )

= I

* N
54.

x(t), X (/ ), ,
0U
X * - )

(I) (1)
-2

(I) (1) (1)

(!)

-I


h(t).
.
55.

, , ,
(

I
4-1)

rit)

U)

hit)

LM

(1)

(1)

3772

II/2)
I

. h(t)
.
. ?
56. (t) X ( f ),
.

198

[ ( ]

-zw

zw

A Jm fX m ]

* f

X[ f ) s o ,

>

ZW

y ( t ) - x{ t ) s ( t )

---- ---------------CD
li

'> !

-CD

'- )
X

, y (t) = 8 (/).
57.

# ( / ) . , # ( / ) :
H { f + W) = //(/)
W /.

(/)

y{t)
58.
-.
- /,
.

-* *

.
,
^ (0 x(t\ : 1) ;
2) - / = / /2.
59.

/ .
, ,

/ =/.
199

60.
: (/) = cos / + cos 2t
.
.
(t) ?
f

61.
= 100 , f c - 200

20 / = 0.
62. * (0.
x(kAt) x (t ) ,
A t '
- /At = 0,5.
.v(0 = cos(cof/ + 0 ).

- < t < .


{)
.
\t l\r
t
.
.
63. x {t) .
,
1 ,2
= lim x(t)dt =
J ;2

1 Nl2
lim
x(kAt).
->*'N k=t t , 2

64. ,

x (t) = (sin 62800 /6280
65. ,

x (f) = 10 cos( 1000^ + /3) + 20 cos(2000/ + /6).
66.
/ = 1000 .
-50
/ ,
\ f a = 2/?
200

A 3.

-

, ,

.

3.1.


,
x (k A t)4 = 0.1. 2....
,
( / 1/ /)
X ( f ) .
[ - / , / ], / = / /2 (. 3.1.1)

. 3.1.1

/ )=

Z
- -

* ( / - " ! /)

201

(3.1.1)

, - 0,
, f c - / !2.

sin27t/c ( t - k A t )
2nfc ( t - k A t )

. .
x (k A t) = x (k A t).

/>.

, (

(3.1.2)

! < ^
2nfc ( t - k A t )

- / ,

1 ( ) - ^ /' 2/( ,

(3 13)

= -

fl |/|</ = 1/2/,
[0

(3.1.3)

x ( k A t ) e - j2*/k&l

= -

(/ ). ,
-jln fk A t

'- (
= -

- = -

(3.1.2)
/'2
-*= (1 / / )

X a ( f ) e j2]zfkSl d f = A t x ( k A t ) = A t x ( k A t ) . (3.1.4)
-/*'2
,
* .(/ )=

A t x ( k A t ) e - j2*fkA'

(3.1.5)

= -


() {* ( )}.
(3.1.4).
. 3.1.1 X ( f )
X ( f ) ,
. , , 202

, , -,
f c =
/2 = \/2At, -,
,
.

|/| > /


eL = \ \ X { f )\ 2d f + ] \X{f)\2d f
fc

(. 2.3)

(/+ /)

) =1

/
d f+ \

I
X { f + nfa)
=1

df


[- / , /] ,
/ - / /2 = 1/2/.
2/ (/ )
.
X ( f ) X ( f ) .

.


* * (/ )=

N12
Z
A t x ( k A t ) e - ^ nfk&l, \ f \ < f c.

(3.1.6)

= - N 12

(/ )
.

( ) }

[0,|*|>/2.

(3.1.7)


Y (/ ) = A t

k= -N !2

e - j2nfk&t = A t siQn{N- + 1 ) f A t
sxnnfAt
203

(3.1.8)

N sin />
- .

-,
/

(3 .1 .9 )

-> Y (/ ) -> (/ )

X N (/ ) -> X ( f ) .

X { f ) , X ( f ) - X N (/ )

N. , X ( f ) ,
, / = f x, X ( f ) - X N (/ )
N ( ). N

(. 3.1.2). / = f } X ( f ) ,
/ = 2 / ,
.
1(/)1

f\

-W
/

. 3.1.2.

N X N (/ )
X ( f ) .
X ( f )
, . , ,

(3.1.10)


+ 1 :

204

1
* (* )=

{ n + \)

N/2

Z
' ) # - ' )
m= -N f 2

At

s in n (N + \)f At

k=-N

N +1

sin / At

(3.1.11)

,

/

*(/) = J

* (v )W - v )r fv

(3.1.12)

-fc

X ( f ) ,
. , N >
Y, (/ ) -> (/ ), a X 2N ( / ) -> * ( / ) .
(3.1.9) (3.1.12) X ( f )
. 3.1.2.

/ \ ( / )

'<

1 i t t i_1_1_1_1_1-1--1-L_11-1-1- *--------U_J-1J-1_1_1_L_l_1_ 1
/
. 3.1.2

3.2.
(3.1.4) (3.1.5).

205

* ( / ) = '
x ( k A t ) e - j2KfiA'
* =-
/V2
x (k A t)=
X ^ { f ) e J2/kA' d f

(3.2.1)

(3.2.2)


(). X A( f ) -
( /):
* (/ ) = Z

* (/ - / ,)

= -

(3.2.1) (3.2.2) / = 1
v = // /.
* ( v ) = x { k ) e - ^ vk,
* = -

(3.2.3)

1/2

J X ( v ) e J2nvk dv.

() =
-

(3.2.4)

1/2

:
{ ) X (v ).
, A '(v)
(

1),

* ( ) - .

. -

*(/) =

* ( / - )

X (n A f) e w

f ',

(3.2.5)

= -

/ = -

= f X ( n A f ) ,
/2

X (n A f) =

x (t )e ~ l2nnAf dt,

-/2

a A f - 1/ - .

206

(3.2.6)

:
, ,
,
.


3.2.1.
.2.1
()

X (v )

( -1 )

Ar(v )- e x p (- 7 ' 2 nv/)

( )
{) (2;&)
|
( )

{ ) (v )

X( k ) h ( i - k )

=-
( )

()

1/2

J X { y ' ) Y ( y - v )d\>'

() ( )

-1/

2 |()|2 =
| X (V )| 2
*=
-1/2
( )

i(* )4

1,

= 0,

[0 ,

&*0 .

207


5- (
1)

X 8 (v - )
- -

m =

1 1 1 11 21>\

- t2 - 1t

- 2 - 1 0

0 V1

41
, >
> V

X 8 (v - v -ri)
- -

exp(j2 nvtlk), - < <

5-
ML (
L
ML)

( 1 / I ) 5 ( v - W/L)

-m L )

= -

10

X iy L)

() 1 ( - mL)

=-<>


. , , 9.
( )
* ( V ) =
=-

Z
= -

\ ( k - m L ) e - ^ vk =

1 ( k - m L ) e - j2nvk =

e~jl1uLm

rrt=ao

( v)
8- 1/L, . .
JT(v) = ( l / I ) X 5 ( v - / I ) .
*-00

Z, = 3 . 3.2.3.

208

tw
W j t t J j W j W j W
0
w

-2.

. 3.2.3
10. *()<=> X (v)
. A"(v)
v , 1 (. 3.2.4)
I ( ) I
*1

_____/ \

1
. 3.2.4

( )

L- 1

* ( ):
[ ) =
m

Y (v) = J

y ( k )e ~ j2nvk <=
=

*= - 00

J
m = - oo

() j r

x ( m ) l ( k - m L ) e - J2nvi =

W - -

\ ( k - m L ) e - j2nvk =

= -ao

x (w ) <T'2nvmi = A'O'Z,).

m = -o o

y (v ) 1/L v I .
L = 2 . 3.2.5.
!<1/)1

-0,5

0,5

. 3.2.5
209

. ..

3.3.
(/)
* (/ )= X

c . e '- W

= -


/2
=(1/7) | x (t )e ~ Jn(2KlT)ldt.
-772

*(/) At - I N x (t)
N . At = 1.
()

x (k ) = x N ( k )

1( k - m N ) .

m - -

(* ( * ) ,

0 < < N -I,

[,

1 ( -/ 0 - -

m = -

N.
\Xs.(v)\

________. l l l l l l l ^
- V

I 1 (^ - w .V)
/
I
1

J___ I___ U
/V

tl t l . l t t.i t t . l t t .

'

-1/' 1/ N

X<//)

I) I

( )

>

I//V

. 3.3.1

210


X (y ) = X N (y) (1/

8(v-n/N)

(3.3.1)

(3.3.1) . 3.3.1
.
5- (3.3.1) v ~ n ! N
(). (3.2.3) (3.3.1)
( ) = (1/N ) X n (v = / N ) = (1/ N ) * () e~J(2'" ' N)'
*=0

(3.3.2)

( ) - N - .
(3.2.4) (3.3.1)
1/2

( )=

J X ( v ) e J2mkdv =
- 1/2

1 /2

[ [Jfw(v )(l/ iV ) S ( v - n / N ) ] e J2mkdv.


-1/2
w=-co
0 iV ~ l,

( ) = 2 ) X ( n ) e j(2nlN)nk
-

(3.3.3)

( ) N.

()
(3.3.2) (3.3.3)
( ) .

* (* )

( )

N
N .

( ) = ^ ( - ,
<3 -3 '4 )

x ( k ) = Y j X (n W Z k
-
211

IVjJk = e

nk

- .

( )
N . ,
(3.3.3) N - ,
( ) = 0 , . . .,N - 1 .
, ,

N. , :
N
( ,
N ,
).
N:
( - ) - [ ( - ) mod N ] = x ( k ~ m ) N

( - ) = [ ( - ) m odN ] = X { n - p ) N
( N ). , N = 64.
*(6 9 )64 =(5).


3.2.2 .
.2.2

* ( )

X * (N -n )

x (N -k )

X (N -n )

( ) = * ( )

X (n) = X * ( N - n )

3
4
5

,
( ) = - * ( )

X (n ) = - X * ( N - n )

x (k ) = x ( N - k )

X (n ) = X ( N - n )

x (k ) = - x ( N - )

( ) = * () = x ( N - k )

X (n ) = - X ( N - n )
X (n) = X ( N - n ) =

, -

= X * ( N - n ) = X *(n )
212

3.2.2
X (n ) = - X ( N - n ) =

( ) = * ( ) = - x ( N - )
8

= X * (N -n ) = -X * (n )

N =0


10

* [ ( * - / ) m odN ]

X ( n ) - W - nl

11

N-\

N * =0

[ ( / - ) m od#]

( )- ( )

:
1 [ ( * - / ) m odN ]
12

_L w -
N
N

3.1. 1*8 ,
.
3 . ,
N,
. , ( )

= , 1 ,..., N /2, X (ri)


X { n ) - X * { N - n ) .

, N

.
3.2.

{) {) N , k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , N - 1 .
() = () + jb(k).
() () () {)

{)

C(n) = A(n) + j B(n),


C ' ( N - ) - A * ( N - n ) ~ j B \ N - ).

213

()

{) = A * {N n) () = * ( N - ).
( ) = [ ( ) + * ( # - ) ] / 2 ,

B (n )=[C (n )-C '{N -n )]/2 j.


()
= , 1

()

, /72,

, .


(
11 3.2.).
( ) <=> ( ) h(k)<^> ( )
; = 0, 1, 2,

N - 1;

= 0, 1, 2, ..., N - 1 .

*(&)

h(k)


X V = 77 Z x ^ h [ ~ *> mod4
/ * =

<3-3-5)

,
1 /-1
[ ( ) ( ) ] x ( j f c ) / [ ( / - ) modN\
N * =0

(3.3.6)

X (n )H {n W N
n = Z

= 0

N =0

7 7

7 7

H {n )W n
N{,- k) =

Z x ( k ) w ; kH ( n ) w y =
= Q

X (* ) [ ( / - * ) mod ],

^ * =0

. W 1 =

/
N
-

. ,
- .
11
-. () ( )
, a h(k) -
. , (3.3.5)
,
.
214

- ( ) # ( ),
().
,
.

. ,

,
(), .

2^- TV-
() 2N
( )

( \

2N.

() N - , () = (2)
2() = (2 +1) .
, () <=> X i ( ri)N 2 () <=> 2( ) - N -
. ( )

N ( = 0, 1, 2,

X x(n )N

N - 1)

= N, N + 1,2N -1
( ) = X ( 2 N - ).
,
. 3.7.

215


[W ] v N
2
W^k = ( ), , 0, 1, 2,
N - 1, ,
N

, .
N, . .

/ _ (mod N )
YV N

YY N

, - \ 1 , =1.
N- W ^ k .
N = 8
4

^8

wl

W?

W"

w '4

0
00

ni 0

1
2

00

4
5
6

W'i

w'j

W?

w l4

wf

W?

w 1

wf

wl6

Wt2

W?

w?

WT

w\2

7 w\

W;'

wl

Wl

Wl

Wt

W\

w\

wt

Wl

Wl

wl

wt

5
6

W\

Wl

Wl

7 wl

wl

Wl

Wl

Wl

Wl

3
4

w l1

00

1
2

> =
=

00

1
0 00

ni 0

216

00

-> 0


,

,
(3-3.7)
[/]^ - N x N ,

.
3.3.

wA w\

W\~

w4 w\

w\

w\

w\

w\

[w ]

w\

'i
l
=l
l

1
1
1

w\.

l
fv;'
4

'1

l'
w\

w\

w\

W\

w:4

w;3

wf

w\2

w -;_


X =

* - ,

x = [W ]N X - .
X - N - -:
X (0 )

'

'

X{1)

x=

* (0 )

'

x (l)

_ x (N - l)_

_ X ( N - 1)

217

3.4. ,

x (t ) - .
-

* (0 =

Z cn e J2* m" T
m= -

(3.4.1)

17
j x ( t ) e ~ J2n mtlT dt - .
^
(/) , N
C m

x (k A t) A t = /N.
{(^/1) }

N * =
= 0, 1, 2,

N -1 .

(3.4.1) t - k A t

( ),
* () = Cm
N _ _
* =0
exp ( j l n n k I N )
N,
J _ y e -n nm -n )kiu = |1 m = n + lN , 1= 0, 1, 2,
N * =

\0,.


= +/.

(3.4.2)

/= -

, (3.4.1)
N12, . . = - N /2,
-1, , 1,
N 1 2 (
N ).
( ) = ,

= 0, 1, 2, ..., ( N /2)-1,

X ( n ) = C_<N_n), n = N / 2 , ..., JV-1,


218

( )

. 3.4.1.
IC J

1 ( ) I

11. 11
-N/2

N12

N/2

N- 1

I-

I
. 3.4.1. :

- |,| N + 1
; - |()|; * -

, ,
.
,
.
-

. 3.4.2
(. 3.4.2). At
( ,
= 2 / At - N I tl/T)
(. 3.4.26).
- (3.4.3)
. At
,
.
219



/2

X(co)= J

x (t)e '^ 'd t ,

-TI2

= 2/,
( \ N

T I N :
()
() ]

"

(3.4.4)
* = N/2,

N - 1.


() - N - .

X ( v ) = * ( ) - -
=0

N -1

i nk

- = *=0
Z iZ
x w e J " ] e
=0

*Z=0
n=0

- ( - \

N :

^ v - i

s in n (y ~ )N
" i - e 42 ^

=e

,, s in n (v W
* )() _ _ _ _ A L _
sin 7t(v )

TV
-AT(v)

"

s in K (v --^ ) =
AT


( ) {). v = n / N
X ( v = n / N ) = NX(n), (3.3.2).
, ( )
(1 /N ) X ( v ) , Av = 1/N
.


X ( v )
. ()

( > N )

() .
- N :
(),
,

0< < N -\ 9
N < < -\ .

A '(v )
vm= m / ,

= 0, 1,

- 1,

Av = 1/ ,
-j2nmk /

(3.4.6)

1/
- , , ,
. ,
M = 2 N , ^ ( v ^ )
N .
^ ( v ) ,
,
(). . 3.4.3 .
.
0 < v < 0,5:

X(y = ) = NX(n), [, N-1],


N

221

N = 16.


( ) 16- *().

)
1.0

1 " 1 "

)
"

0.8 0.6 -

0.4 -

0.0

0,1

.L lt l.
0.2
0,3

.jifiittr
0^4
0,5

)
. 3.4.3.

. 3.4.36 (3.4.6)
= 2N = 32, . .
() .

X (v )

Av = (1//) = 1/32.
A/ = 8N = 128 (
) . . - Av - 0
\X(v)\ 16-
(. 3.4.3).

222




.
, At < 1/2 f e,
:
/\
v 4 /1 \ sin 2f J t - k A t )
x ( t ) = x (k A t)--------^
2 f e(t~ k A t )
^
--
,
N . ,
0 N A t,
.
,
.
, N
,

(. 3.4.4).
( )
N

. 3.4.46
N = 8. (r - l)A i
( ).

.
3.4.4 - 2.
rN
. 3.4.4.


().
. 3.5-3.8.

223




(), ()
.
[-, ] ,
() = 0 | |><>.
fV(co).
(/) At = n f
()

()

= 2/ At = 2.

^()
( )=

(3.4.7)

= -

. 3.1. .

N. ( N )
N12

() =

( ) ~ ](
= -N12

(3.4.8)

(3.4.7) (3.4.8)
w(/) - NAt.

= 2 / = 2 /N At = /N,

1 ^ ( ) = ^- X
x ( k A t ) e - J2nnk/N
1
N * =-

(3.4.9)


(), n = - N /2, ..., -1, , 1, 2, ..., N /2.
, ( ) N-
,
( )
.
224

(3.4.9)

( N/ 2)-1

-*> ) =Z
x ( k b t ) e - j2nnk/N
I
N = -N12
, .

()

() N12 .


X (n ) = 1 * { ) = 1 *

N * =

2" " * ' " (3.4.10)

, (3.4.4), = 0, 1, 2, .. .,N - 1 .

. 3.4.5.

. 3.4.5.

225

3,5.
()
.

, N ,

= (/ )^ ;*
=

(3.5.1)

W^k = (- ) - ,
N
= 0, 1, 2, ..., N - 1 .
1/N .
N (3.5.1)
N 2 .
, N
, N-
. , , N , N ( N /2)-
. N-

( N /2)2-2

, . .
.
.

( N /2)- ( N /4)- ,
.
,
. ,
2 N-
N log2 N ,
N /log2 N N .

Wnk
.

226

3,6.

(3.5.1) N 2
. .


. ,

N = N r N 2 -...-Np .

(3.6.1)

:
=

(3.6.2)

N N 2
N i (. 3.6.1).

( )

itml
I

'Vj

A'j

N~\

jV

0 1 2

:1

|
2

;Yr l

0
1
x(kr )

,=0,1,2.... -
AV -1

. 3.6.1.
, .
,

= N j2 + .
(3.6.3)
( 2) ,
,
, .

, 2:
227

,= 0 ,1 ,2 ,

N } - 1; n2 = 0, 1, 2,

N 2- 1.

(. 3.6.2)
1 2

'V 1

. 3.6.2

(3.6.4)

= N 2ri\+ 2.
W

(3.6.3) (3.6.4)

( \ ' + \ ) 7 { ' \ + )

,
r x f N - k \

nN

u / N ' ki n \
N

/ \ - 2 2

rrN

w N \k r n i
N

2 .

"X

u / N r k\ ' n \
N

u / N r k\'n \

\ \

\' 2
N

\' /2'
N {

VV N

VY N 2

(3.5.1),

( },

2) = ^ ' < ' '


*,= I

^ n^ f x ( k 2,

,)

(3.6.5)

fr2=0

- ^ 2 - |

, -

(3.6.5)
:

228

1)

N2- W^2'

[ (2 ) ] :

*2=0

< ;

[ (2, ,)] N,;


2)

* ',


Z ( * n2) = Y ( k 2) W ?*'-,
N, N 2;
3)

W ^ k'

[Z (* # i2) ] :
{ , * 2) = z ( *
,=0

2) Wf k'


M = N, - ( N 2f + N r N 2 + N 2 - (N) f = N r N 2 -(N, + N 2 + 1),
. e. , N 2 = (N , f *(N 2) 2 .
, N -
, N 2 N ,.
. 3.6.1.

N = 35 = 5-7.

= 5-7-(5 + 7 + 1) = 455 N 2 = 1225

(3.5.1).
N, N 2 , ^,
.2
. .
, (3.6.1),

N N N 2 = N N .
4-i '
/=| '

229

. 3.6.3 N = 6 = 2-3
(,= 2, N , = 3).

(0 )= (0 ,0 )

a :(0,0)= z

(0)

*<2>*(1,0)

m i)- x (i)

(4)-<2,0)

I ^ - / ' (0,2)-<2)

(1 )- (0 ,1 )
x (3 ) x ( i , i ) *

*( 5 ) = ( 2 ,1 )

\
.

* ^ (1 .0 )-X (3 )

X (l,2 )- X (5 )

_____/
.
.

. 3.6.3. N = 6

,
/2*'

3.7. 2
, N .
(3.6.2) JV, = 2, N 2 = N/ 2, ^-
N /2- :
1

: ) = Z W" ' k' >


*,=

(N /

2)-1

K i t 2 ( 2, ,).
*2=0

(3.7.1)


N /2- .
N /4- . .,
.
N = 8 . 3.7.1.

230

3-

2-

1-

N =2
N=4
. 3.7.1. N = 8


.
.
. 3.7.2. :

W , .

. 3.7.2.

N12
,
.
231

. 3.7.1 ,

, - .

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

-.

0
4
2
6
1
5
3
7

000
100
010
110
001
101
011
111

001
010
011
100
101
110
111

(3.6.2) N { = N /2,

N 2 = 2.

* ( 2 ) =

'
*,= 0

- *'

Z * (*2* *1
2= 0

(3-7-2)

N___ _______________/
.

____________ .________________________________

N I 2-

, N/ 2-.
N / 2- .
N = 8 . 3.7.3.

- .
(. 3.7.1)
.
(. 3.7.4)
, .

.
232

I -

2-

_ ____ /\_______
.

. \

-2

3-

.
.

JV-4
. 3.7.3. N = 8

(-*
. 3.7.4.

2 ,
, - ,
log2jV,

= (jV/2)log2jV.
2
N 1 2 N .
2
A = N\og2N
.
, N
233

N\og2N

N 2
(3.5.1). N
. , N = 2,0 =1024
N/\og2N 100.

:
-

* ( * ) = _ * 0 0 wV
=

ynjvv

(3.7.3)

_7 =


X* ( ),

- ^ ( ) ,


. (:) ,
, .
*(/:) ,
. (3.7.3) - Wk = e ~ J27rnklN

2,
,
,
. .
, . 3.7.1 . 3.7.2,
.
,
,
, , . .
,
, .
.
N = 8 -
. 3.7.5.
,
,
.

234

. 3.7.5.
,
-, -
(. 3.7.6).

. 3.7.6.
2
1965
.
(3.6.5) (1777-1855)
1865 .

3.8. 4
N 4.
N = 7V74-4 ( N = N r N 2; N { = N / 4, W2 = 4 ).
. 3.6
( ) N 2 = 4 2 =0, 1, 2, 3.
N } = N /4
=0, 1, 2,..., 7V74-1.
,
. 3.8.1.
235

N /4 4 .

:
k = ( N / 4 ) - k 2+ k r
12

0 12

-4-1

0
1
2
-i

. 3.8.2

. 3.8.1

.
(. 3.8.2)
, 2: , =0, 1, 2, ...,///4-1, 2 =0, 1, 2, 3.
= 4,+ 2,

= (4 , + n 2) [ ( N /4 ) ' 2 +&,] =
= N n } -2+4 , &, +(///4)- 2 -&2 +

2&,.

(3.5.1) ,
( ) = { n 2) = Nj r ' w 4n' k' W n>k' ] ( 2, k [ ) W <'NI4)" ' rk>
= 0
,= 0
:
1) 4- N14
[ ( 2, ,)] W n h = - j :
Y (k t, 2) = X

( 2, ^ 1 4)^ - ,

*2=

2) ;

Z ( * 2) = r,2) W ^ k ;
3)

///4-

[Z(&,, 2)\ W4
n.
N /4-
,
236

N 14 = ( N /\)-4
. .
, 4- .
16- (. 3.8.3).
* X(0,0>=*<0)

. Y (0 )- Y (0 , 0 ) *,

* * < l,0 )- * < 4 >

a'(1)- y(0,1)

*
*(2)='(0,2) *,

* X(2,0)=X(8)
* A (3 ,0 )- X (1 2 )

* ( 3 ) - ; ( 0 , 3 ) *,

* X(0,l)-*(1)

.y (4 )~ .y (1 ,0 ) *

* X ( l , l ) *< 5 )

* ( 5 ) * ( 1 ,1 ) *

.v(6)-.v(lt2) *

* A 4 2 ,1 > ~ X (9 )

x ( 7 )" . y ( 1 ,3 ) *

* (8 )

(2 ,0 ) *

* X(0,2)-*(2)

.y (9 ) a *(2 ,1 ) *

* A 4 1 ,2 )- X < 6 )

,y ( 1 0 ) =

X (3 ,1 )- * U 3 )

* ^(2,2)-X(10)

(2 ,2 )

jc (1 1 ) a ( 2 , 3 ) *

* * (3 ,2 )= :(1 4 )

:(1 2 )- * (3 ,0 ) *'

* X (0 ,3 )- X (3 )
* (l,3 )- * (7 )

a ( 1 3 ) ,y (3 ,1 )

.y (1 4 )- a (3 ,2 ) *'

* Xi2,3)=X(\\)

(1 5 ) (3,3) *'

* X (3 ,3 )"X (1 5)

N / 4-

4-

. 3.8.3. 16- 4

,
- -
.
4
(. 3.8.4). 1 j
.
=a+b+c+d
B=a + j b - c - j d
-* - a - b + c ~ d
* D - a - j b - + j d

. 3.8.4.
237

, . 3.8.3
.
4
(
2 - ), log4N (. .
),
/ = (3N /4) log4N,
, 2.
2 4 .
8, 16 . .,
.

3.9.

, .
, ,
,
.
.
-
625 , 625 ().

50 .

625-625-50 = 19 031 250 /,


2f a = 20 .
6 .
575.
12 .
,
.

200 /,
.
.
. .

738

64 = 8 8 .
64 ,
.

.
.
,
.
(),
(),
( ), .

()
. 1.13.
()
N :
(3.9.1)

(3.9.2)
, . 1.13, cas0 = cos0 + sin0,
. :
(3.9.3)
(3.9.4)
( ) = R e [X ( n ) ]~ J m [X (n )].

(3.9.5)

,
. 1.13 . ,
^/- .
,


.


,
239

.
( )
.
.

(,
/

. (3.3.2) (3.3.3) [30].


() = (1 /

x ( k ) e - m * /N)
=0

) = ) ' 1+* +)].


=0
(2nmr /N),

. , :
( ) = (1 / 0 x ( k ) e - J[(2n,N)in+r)k]
=

e -j2nnm/N

( 3 .9 .6 )

< ( ) e j2 * n(k+m)' N
w=

.

.
.

. I

xm_r { k ^ l N ) = x (k )e J ln,r

X m<r( n + P N ) = X mr( n ) e - J2^ m

(3.9.8)

(
) ,
.
:
-}2 [-

' ( - )

s > < - ^ - )

N}
(3.9.9)

240

:
^ +)0
%( + 0) < - 1 - + '( )
*. )

(3.9.10)

(*+)*
*
<- - + X n+no(m9r).

(3.9.11)

, , |i, q.

.
- (3.9.8).

, .

()

. [29]
^
/ 1 v'' //
nn(k + \!2)
^ i / 2 . o ( " ) = ^ - Z xW cos ^
;

= 1 2>

N ~ 1
(3.9.12)

* 1Q. o ( o ) = ^ i ; x w .
Jt=0
, 1/2 0
:
x (* ) = x ( 2 t f - l - * ) ;
x(k + 2Np) = x(k); k = 0, 1,

2 N -1 .

241

{ * ( * ) } <- -> { () = - ^
{) J2n

N (k + 1/2)
2N

(2N

= -1 )* * (* )

- ) = - JT,a (2JV + ) };

<- -> { * 1 0( + t f ) } .

(3.9.13)

= N = 0.
(3.9.12)
() = 2 * , () cos

* 172~; = 0 , 1 , -1.

(3.9.14)

[30] ,

.

3
1. x(t) X ( f ) At.
,

A t =

2.
| , 0 < k < N = 8,

() = <

fc.

3.

) () =

1 - ,
N

,
1 1
* (* ) =

1, - N < k < N ,
) () = \
[0, .

,
fc.

- N<k<N,

:.

fcos(7rifc/2iV) , - N < k < N ,


() = <
[
0, fc.

242

4.

- ( 1 - c o s ), 0 < < N - I ,
2
N

)=

5.

:
N

a)

Ar, (v )= ^

&( + );

) X 2( v ) = 1+ 2 ^ cos2nvk,

*=0

1- 2,() . ^
j a e J2m

X J v ) = --------------;
) X . ( v ) = +---------- - , <1.
jln v
1- ^ " v
4
( l - a e y2v)
'

6. x(k) -
() = {2

1 -1

-3

4 },

= 0,
X (v). X (v),
:
2

(0); ) *(1/2); ) J X(v)dv, ) J |*(v)| dv, ) J


-1/2

-1/2

d X (y )

-1/2

dv.

dv

7. 6
(* ) = {1

5 -2

1 3

5}

t * = 0.
8. ( > 0)
() = cos(27iv0A: + <),
A, a, v 0, - .
9.
:
) x,(/:) = sin(nA:/4), ) } () = 2sin(7i/4) + cos(7c/:/3).

243

10.

*,(&) ^ ( v ) .

^ ( v )

2(), 2(), (\

11.
,

( )= X

-m N ),

j**ik

/=-

12.
:
a) jc, (:) = sin(TrA: /4), ) 2() = 2 sin(nk /4) + cos(ti/: /3).
13. ()

( ) - //- , N - .

) () - N ,
. . *(/:) = x ( N - \ - k ) , , X ( N /2) = 0.
) () - N
, . . () = - x ( N - \ - ), , (0) = 0.
) () - ,
x (k) = - x ( k + R\
, ( 2 ) = 0 r = 0 ,1, 2,
244

R = N /2,

14.

{ )

()

() () .
)
X ( n ) = {(l + j ) (-2,1 + 2) (- 1 ,2 - 2,4) (0.9 + 1 ) (-0,3 + 1 ) }
{) = [( ~ 4 ) 6]. Y(n) .
) () = {4,1 3,5 1,2 5 2 3,3} () = [(*-3 )6].
{\ .
15.
( ) = Z xW e ' N" k
=

- 12- ()

(0) = 10, (\) = - 5 - j 4, ( 2 ) = 3 2, Jf(3) = l + A

*(4 ) = 2 +

*( 5 ) = 6 - 2 .

) (0), ) (6), ) ( ) , ) X
*=0

e J}k x(k), ) | (*)| 2

*=0

- 0

,
16. ()
() h(k\ 0 < < N -1.

N-]

!> (* ) =
*=0

( N -1

N-

* (* )
=

\ = 0

>

17. () MTV- iV-


:(&), ( - \ ) N

. ,

N- ( ) Y(n)
:
X ( n ) = Y(nM),
18.

0 < n < N -l.

( ) N -

(), N . N- Y{ri) N () = () cos(2nlk / N).


19. ( )
245

cos < ), 0 < k < N - l ,


* (* )=
,

0 < < N -1.


20. .
21. ( )< -> ( ) - , k , n e N .
N
(1) = (5/) , 0 < / < -1.
Y(m) ().
22. ( )< * ( ) - , k , n e 2 N .

g ( l ) = (21) <- G(m)


//(/) = (2/ + 1)<->(/), 0 < / < N - l ,

0< < N - I .

( ) G(m) ().
23. ()
() N ( = 0, 1, 2,

N -1).

() = () + jb(k).
() {) () ()
()
().
24. () 2N
()<=> (),

ne2N.

() N- jc, () = (2)
2() = (2 + \) .
, () ] (n)N 2 () 2( ) - N-
. { )

X }(n )N

n X 2(n)N.
25. X ( v ) N -
(&). /-
Y(m) = { = ! ) , = 0 ,1, 2,

Y(m) (). -
246

- {). .
, () (),
> N .
26. N -

()

N-

(). (1)
L N , 0 < < L N -1 :
(1 )= ^ ( )\ (!- ,
=0

f 1,
/ = kL,
1( l - k L ) = \
{ 0, /,
L - . , {1)
(&) (
() L -1 ). NL Y{m) {1) {).
27. N = 3 5.
28. (&), = 0,1,2, ...,15,
N = 16.
29.

, ()

= N /2
, . .

+ /j = -

- /

30. () <=> () - N -
(), , N.
)
().
) , [( - 0) mod N ]
E (h)

cos

'2
. ( 20
+,(-tf)sin
N
~n ~

) N- *[(-& ) mod N ].
31. N - .

247

A 4. Z -

Z-
-
.
,
.

4.1.
z-
. 1.10,

= (3+ , (3 - ,
, x (t )-e ~ /
/ > 0:
05

( )= Jx (/)e -*A < o o ,

(4.1.1)

(*) = ( 1/ )

j X { p ) e p dp.

(4.1.2)

-
.
(4.1.2)
(3 = const.
,
, . . (3 = 0.
(/) At.
(4.1.1) :
( f )

*(&/)8(/-:/),
* =

(4.1.2) t At. , ,

( )

248

, = 2 / /,

{ ) = ^ { )

" ^ ',

(4.1.3)

=0
+ /

x (k A t ) = (l/j2n )

X R( p ) e li ^dp.

(4.1.4)

-jn/ I

.. ,
. 4.1.1 = 0.

( )

. 4.1.1
(4.1.3) (4.1.4)
.
, z-.
z = exp(/?Af). ,
249

dz - /(/?/) dp = dz/zAt,

(4.1.5)

X ( z ) = / x ( k ) z ' k,
k =

(4.1.6)

jc (A:) = (1/J 2 n A t )( ^ X ( z ) z k~xdzy

z,
X ( z ) z k~l

(4.1.5) (4.1.6)

z - . * (& )

[, ), a X ( z )
z.
,
(4.1.5) ,

|()| < M - R k,
> > -
. (4.1.5)
z,
, |z| > R (. 4.1.2).
X (z )

z,

,
.
z = eptJt |z| = e p

argz = coA/. z

z,
, j ,
. j

(0

, ,
- /At //,
(. 4.1.36). =2//
250

z (.
4.1.3).
z-

/<>
0
)
jitlbl

,
, . 4.1 ;

( ),

ylmz

-jjtlto

= 2 //,

X (z )

(.

4.1.3d). (/?) (.
4.1.1)
X (z ) ,
( )


z (. 4.1.4). ,

jlmz

~

,

R cz

z "1
z.

. 4.1.3.
z

251

4.2. z-
z-,
. z-
( )< * X ( z ) , - { )- ,
. . * (& ) = 0 .
(4.1.5) (4.1.6) At = 1, z-

X (z )= f> (*)z - ,

(4.2.1)

=0

( )

X ( z ) z k' ]dz.

(4.2.2)

.
1)
jCj ( )< 2 > { ( z ) 2 (& )< 2 > 2 ( z ),
{ (A ) + Z?x2 ( ) < 2 ->} ( z ) + bX2 (z ).

(4.2.3)

2)
jc(A:)< 2 >Ar( z ) , { - ) < 2 >z~mX { z ) .

(4.2.4)

Y j x [ k - ) z~k = z~m
jc(: - m )z
k=0
k=0

= */=0
I = -

* (/ ), . . (/) = 0 1 = ~ < 0.
3)

x ( k ) < z >X ( z )

h(k)<r-Z-^> [z

( ) - x { m )h (k - m )
=0

(4.2.5)

z-

Y( z ) = X ( z ) H ( z ) ,
252

(4.2.6)

. . z-
z-.

00

x (m )h (k -m )
I
*=0[_/ = 0

(* )= 2 > (* ) Jt=0

- = 1.
Y ( z ) = X * ( ) z - 5 > ( / ) z - ' = J T (z )t f ( z ) ,
m= 0

/=

.
4)
[ ) - N .
jY-l

X [ z ) =

x [k )z ~
* =

z = e j2nnlN, . .

2 /N ,
X (z = e j2nnlN) = ^ j c ( k ) e - J2nnk/N
* =

(4.2.7)

1/N

X ( )

( ).

: z-
N , N
, (
1/N ) .
5)
z (4.2.1):
dX ( z )

,
j = ( - * ) * ( * ) * "
az
=0
- z :
z

[ * (* )] z dz

( )

- z ---- .
dz
253

(4.2.8)

6)
( ) e akAt (
):
[ ( ) ]

z-

x ( k ) ( e -+ * z ) - k = x [ z e ^ \

=0

,
x ( k ) e at < - ^ - > X [ z e * * ] .

(4.2.9)

z-.
7)
* ( )
" ^ (z ) = X x ( k ) z ~ = x (0 ) + x ( l ) z 1+ x ( 2 ) z 2 + ...
* =
(: + 1)
^ *(& + l) z~k = (1) + :(2 )z -1 + x (3 )z 2 + ... = z [ X ( z ) - x ( 0 ) ] .
* =o
,
x {k + \ ) < r - ^ z \ _ X ( z ) - x ( t i ) \ .

4.3. z-
.
1) { ) - , . .

[0, * 0 .

, X ( z ) = 1 z-.
2) * (& ) - , . .

V ' [0,

<

X (z ) = z ~ k
= 0

254

0,

(4.2.10)

z 1
:
X ( z ) - X ( z ) z "1 =1.

X (z ) = - =
V

'

1 Z

X (z ) z = 1 |z| > 1
(. 4.3.1).
()

12 3 4 5 6 7
. 4.3.1

3) ( ) - , . . ( ) = cfi

> 0.

x i z ) = Z a *z ~ * = Z
( a z ~')*
=0
=0
(
q = a z ~l ).

|az'| < l |z|>|a|. X (z ) z = 0


z ,
(. 4.3.2).

t
t

t 11 2I

1 -.I

I. I l - z + k

3 4 5 6 7

. 4.3.2

255

^
^

4) x ( k ) = kak, k > 0.

az

1
1- a z

(1 - a z - ' f

(z -a )2

X (z ) z = .
5) :{ ) - , . .
x ( k ) = e xp(p0kAt), > 0, = 0 +0.
Z- (4.1.5)

JTw = 4

* = * (

= 0

.
1

(z ) z = (/?0/).

, |(/?0/)| = (0At) < 1,


( 0 < 0 ). ,
, 0/. ,
exp (0At) , ,
. At.

. 4.3.3.

. 4.3.3

6) *(/) = cos /,

t > 0. 4 ,

. . At = /2.
{ ) = (1/2)[(':/2)-1-('-^/2)].
z-
256

x (z ) = (V2) Z [ exP U kn/2) + exP ( - / W 2) ] 2 '* =


= (1/2)

l - e J/2z ' 1

1
l - e /t/2z " 1

( z - y )(z + y )'

X ( z ) z = 0
= j7)

(/) = sin/,

t > 0. 4 , . .
e >kbt - - >

<aA t = n / 2 . x ( ) = sinA/ =
V

(z - y )(z + y )
^ (z )
Z

= 0

= j.
8)

x{t) = cos /+ sin /,

/ > 0. 4

, . . / = /2.

* -4 . 4.3.4.
/

I
- i ----/

^
1

'

V
.rfO - siiu o /

.\< /)= co sw /+ sin (t> /

. 4.3.4
, 1-8,
4.3.1.

257

4.3.1
Z-

Jt()
1

1( * ) { '
w
[0, * * 0

1,

- ,

'

[,

< , = { >-
v '
[0, < 0

\\, > ,
< ( - ) = {

|0, <

, i.0

z""

exp ( 0 At),
6

- , ' , .
1Z

> 0 , 0 = 0 + 0
|(0| = (?)<1

r kcos kQ > 0, 9 = At

r k sin kQ > 0, 0 = t

1- { CO S 0)2"'

L - /e _ -l|

2z '2 - (2 cos 0)z_l + '


( Sin 0)2-'

r 2z 2 - (2 r cos0)z 1+1 '

'

4.4. z-

z-

(. 1.10, 1.10.6).

l/ O -o z -1),
, > 0. (. 3 ).

258

4.4.1

X(z) =

30 z2
6z2 - z - l

1- | z - '- | z - 2

,
(1.10.6), . .
5 ( l - i r ,) _
z~' = 2

,
(l- l z - ')

^ - 2 ( z 1 = -3 ).

(1 + l z - ' )

z- ,

(* )-

(i) +2 ( - i f

4.4.2
( l - e ~ aA/) z
X (z ) = ^
------

( -1 )

ol>0.

( z - e- )


X (z )

I - * - *

( z - l ) ( z - e-* )'

z = 1 z = ~
1 -1 .

z
* (* )=

X (z )

z -1

z - /

1 z - e -/

259

l- z

-1

1 -e

-/


z- X ( z ) 9
:
( l - e - aA' ) z

1
* (* )=

z k~] dz,

j2kAt 7 ( z - l ) ( z - e - A' )

- ,

1 = 2 = /

x(fc) = ^ R e s ^ f ( z ) z k~1
/
:
( l - e ~ aai) z

,
= Res

* ( A) = Z Res
Z -

+ Res

Z = 1

= 1 -e
( z - l ) ( z - e ' aA' )

z -e

,
.


(4.2.1)
X ( z ) = (0) + (\)z 4 + x(2)z~2 + ... x(k)z~k + ...
, z
().
4.4.3. z-
( l - < f aA/) z
= I ---- ------ ------
z2 - ( l + eaA/)z + <raA/
X { z ) 4.4.2.
()
X ( z ) = (1 - </)z * + (1 -

2/)z"2 + ... (1 - <*/)z * + ...


260

,
* = 0,1,2,...
4.4.4. , ,
( ) =
(* * + )'
X ( z ) = 1- z 2 + z~* - z"6
,

: ( )

= c o s ( t i / 2).



(/ ) = cos , > 0,

, 4
, . . / = /2.
. 4.4.1.

. 4.4.1

4.5.
z-

Z- ,

.



h ( t ) . * (/ ), / ^ 0,

0 = \ x { t -T )h { \ )d \ .

y { k A t ) - A t ^ x [ ( & - / w ) / ] ( / ).
- 0
(),
261

( /) = / ^

[ ( - ) At~^h(mAt).

(4.5.1)

. ( )

* ( )
:

N-1

(4.5.2)
. [ )
( ),
.
( ), [ )
} , . .
,
.
(4.5.2)
z-.



(4.5.2). z-, ,

z " 1 - .
, . .
:

(4.5.3)
= I

( )
262

z~]
.
H ( z ) , . .

.
,

.
,

//(2 )

1. ,
( 2)= ------- -------7
V ' (z + 0 ,5 )(z - 0 ,4 )
, . . , z = - 0,5
z = 0,4, . ,
.
,
, . .
.
,
.
,

3>(*) = ( * ) + . (* - 1 ).
z-
Y { z ) = X ( z ) + z - 'Y ( z ) .

L_
v '

x (z )

-'

z = 1, .
,

, , 0 < < N - 1, , . .
.
263


h ( k ),
( )
:
1,

= ,

[ 0, .

() h ( k )
z-:
=

(4.5.4)

,
z- 1 z.

h ( k )
[ ) :
* ) = Z x (m )h (k -m ).
-

(4.5.5)


Y(z) = X ( z ) H (z ) .
. (0 ) 0, (4.5.5)
.
,
-,
, -.

N
.
, N + M + 1 .
,
+1 .
. z-

264

, . .
, .
, .
( )
, h { k )

, . .

ZIA(*)I<-

<4-56)

* (& ) , . . |(&)| ^

< ,

.
:

*)|=

x (m ) h (k - )

=0

# ( z )
:
() = [ z = (/)],
( )

(4.5.7)

z - (/).
- :
() =

| [ z = exp ( /)]|.

(4.5.8)

:
()= argH^z = (/)].

= 0,

1,2,

(4.5.9)
sincoA:A/,

()

() ().
-
z
. . 4.5.1
. = -
|()| = L0 /] 2,
265

a r g t f () = 0 - ( / + /;2) .

. 4.5.1.

, (4.5.3)
.
H ( z ) ,
N -i

. n , ( z - z 0 )
=
H {z) = H0

E ( z- v )
z0 - , a - (z ).
z = exp ( /)
e ^ - z 0n= L 0

) - z /m= Ljme i 'p"

# (c o ) = Z,(a>)eJ(|*w\
() = 0

( ) - ^ - ,.
=
=1

. 4.5.1, ()
= 2/ /. .
4.5.1

266

4.6.
-
, . 4.6.1, ,
z~' .
.

ill
xik)

I' t v ! * *

/3

0 / 2 3 4
. 4.6.1

(*) = *(*)+ (*-!)>

2 ( * + 1) = ( * ) + 2 ( ).
* ( ) = 1 (fc),

>'l()=1 ^|(1) = P. 7i (2) = P2.


( 0 ) = 0, ^ 2 ( 0 = 1> > ' ( 2 ) = --


/, .
( )
.
().

z- :
* ;(z ) = * ( z ) + p z - ^ ( z ) ,
z Y2( z )

= X { z ) + PY2( z ).

, ( z ) =

Yt ( z ) _

X(z)

1
1 -p 4

267

z
z-P

(4.6.1)


z - . # , ( z ) H 2( z ) |z| > ||.
, || <1, . .
.
.
, z = - . ||<1

, .

= 1 1
,
, ( * ) = (:) + ^|( - 1 )

(4.6.3)


,( ) =

1 ( * )

X (z )

1 - z '1

z - l'

,
. ,
, . . ,
.
, |(0)
,

, 0 < k < N -1,

}
, . .
!(*) d
j
.
dt = 1 2 \)

\<0 )

/
Ai\xk)=\ik+\)-\ik)

(. 4.6.26), ,
2 (& + 1) = ; ( & ) + >% (& ), (0) = 0.

. 4.6.2. () ()

268

(. 4.6.2), At = 1 ^ (0 ) = 0.


(/) -
,
:
\ ) = [x(kAt) - x((k -1 ) ].
At
At = 1,

:
.>>() = ( ) - ( & - 1 ) ,

(4.6.4)

-
(. 4.6.3).
:
t f (z ) = l - z - !

(4.6.5)

,
, .
. 4.6.3.

x(& ) = l(A :),

y ( k ) = h ( k ) .

:
(*) = 1 (* )- 1 (* - 1 ),

(4.6.6)

-.

|tf(o>)|= |l-e'y<,,iV|= 2 sin-/

(4.6.7)

. 4.6.4.

() = -(/ / 2) + / 2.

/
-27/

\
0

2//

. 4.6.4.


. 1.8 , x(t)
^() j . ,


269

[ / ( - 7 ) ,

- >

<< /2,

# ( ) =

(4.6.8)

- 7 0

1=

(0

/2

.

. 4.6.5.

. 4.6.5.


|| < /2

v
2

. v
2

---- cos-------sin----

t = kAt At,
:
(- 0 *
h(k )= T X T

k*

=,

(4.6.9)

, ,
.
. 4.6.6, -
/ = 1.

270

. 4.6.6.

, ,
*(/)
.
,
. ,
, .

(4.5.3)
.
(4-6.10)
=0

, ( ~ )>
(4.6.11)
*0
. . ,
( ) .
(4.6.10) hm - .

. 4.6.7.
jc(r)
. x(kAt)
aif)

. 4.6.7.

- ( ) (
) TV- ( ),
At
.

( - ), ,
hm (4.6.11)
( ) .
,
, () t = At
, . .
x ( k - N + 1), ( - N + 2),..., ( ) .
.
x(kAt) hm,

( )
.
272

4
1.

z-,
:
)

)
( ) = 9 > 0;
)
( ) = \ &>0;
)
( ) = exp(p0kAt), > 0, 0 =(30 +_/0;
) * (/ ) = cos ,

/ > 0;

4 ;
) * (/ ) = sin /, t > 0;
4 ;
) ,
jc(/) = cos f+sin f,

/>0,

;
)

* cos 0, > 0, 0 = /;

r k sin &0, > 0, 0 = /.

2. z- (0) = ~'26 cos 0


0.

z-

0 = /4, /2. ,
0 -> 0 = .
3. z-
(0 - a t ( t > 0),
- .
273

4. z-:
) 2 1(-1)

2z ' 1;

1+ 0/2)*

(,4 - 3)
2z - 3 z + l

z (z + l)
(z - 1 f
4 - z '

r) (1/2)* cos(*rc/3)

4 - 2 z 1+ z 2
5. z- X ( z )
x(k) = (cos kQ + a sin &0)a(A:),
a - , a(k) -
.
6.
() -I- {{ -1 ) + 2( - 2) = 0() -I- {( -1).

(z).

7.
z-
X ( z ) = l / ( l - a z - ') .

8
z-
= 1/(1-"1).
.
z " = 0.
9. X { z ) = 1/(1 - az4 )(1 - bz~').
) X ( z )
.
) (),
= 0,5 + 0,5 = *
10. z- *( )
X ( z ) - (z 2 + 2 z + l)/z.
.

274

.
{ ) - { - \ ) = ().

;<(&) = cos 0, 0 =
_
:

/J4 cos0-acos[(/: + l)0]


{) = ---------------- - ; -.
1-2 a co s0 + af
12.
() = 1,15() - 0,55 ( -1 ) + ,25{ - 2).
.
13. , H ( z ) h(k)

H (z )= ^ h (k )z -k
* =0
14. ,

H {z ) z = l.
15. ,
H ( z ) ,

.
16. H ( z ) z = a
.
. ?
,
z = 0? :

H ( z )
H(z).
17. H ( z ) z = -\
z = 0.
-

( /)

( /)

, =2/ At - .
18. -
, H ( z ),
275

z = (), ()
z = ?
19.

# (z )

z = 1 j.
H (z ) .
? ,
H (z )
z = 0? -
()?
20. h(k)
, . . = 0,1, 2,..., N - 1.
H (z )
( ) h(k). H (z )
- -.
21. h(k)
, . . = 0,1,2,..., N - 1.
( )
h(k)7
22.

t f (z )
.
. - .
- .
23.

{ +

2 ) - ( + 1 ) -

7 ( ) =

2().

() = 1, > 0
(0) = 0, ( 1) = 1.
. .

276

24.
:

{/>(*)} = (1, 0,5, 0,25).



.
25. /?- .
)
h(t).
?
\{t)

1
___ -

)
h(k) = h(kAt) / = 0,1 .
) z- h(k).

) h(k).
) h(k). )
, - .
26.
( ) = ( ) + 0,5 ( -1 ) - 0,15( - 2).
,
. .
27.

1- V
- *
28. ,

( ) = (1 /3 )[() + ( - \ ) + ( ~ 2)].
29.
(\

1 0 < < 4,
h(k) = <
[0 < 0 > 4 .
.
30.
,
(. 4.6.2).
277

A 5.

5.1.

( )

h (k ).
( \
)

y (k ) = Y Jx (m ) h (k - m ) .

N, = 7

. 5.1.1

* (& ), h (k )
.

,
. ,

111

(5.1.1)

.)

( ) h (/77)
N, N 2 ,
Nt + N z - l = 1 0

( )

= 0,1, 2,
. 5.1.1.

(N, + N 2 -1 ) , . .
+ N 2 -2 .

( ) - , ( ) - , a h (k )
,

!(* ) =

1, = ,
, 0.
278

(5.1.2)

,
:
.
. .
5.1.1. ( ) , .
5.1.26, * (& ) = ().
)

{)=()

()

-1

-3 -2 -I

1 2

3 4

<

. 5.1.2

,
(5.1.2) (. 5.1.3), . .
,
-.
(5.1.1), { ) h ( k - m )
. . 5.1.36
- 3.
()
h(3-m)

AI

/*4

.
|
,

0<<1

1 ! 11 , .
12 34 5 6 7
0 |

? ! I
-3 *2 -1 <) 1
")

2i

<i :7

19

)
I
1-

Q 9 9?

3 -2 -1 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10
. 5.1.3.
279


3
1 _ 4
(3 ) = ^ {m )h (b - ) - 13 +1 -2 +1 - + 1-1 = -----=
I
,
h (k ) = 0 < ,

(5 .1 .3 )

= 3
,
.
1*+|
() = - ------ , * > 0 .
1-

(5 .1 .4 )

( ) . 5.

5.2.
[ )

h (k ) - N-

.
*
(5 .2 .1 )

(5 .2 .2 )

( - )

/?()

( - ), [0, N - l ] ,
, . . (
) [ )
N (. 5.2.1).

N:
( - ) = [( - ) mod N ] = ( - m)N.
, N = 32, (35) = (3) = (-29).
280

(5.2.3)

( )
N ,
, , = 0, 1, 2,

N - 1.

(5.2.1) (5.2.2),
N,

( ) h (k ), N:
.V-I

y ( k ) = T x [ ( k ~ m) m o d N ]h (m ).
~0

(5.2.4)

h(m)

? ,

<

111
N-I

*(#,)

n l
-\

, (-/ 7 )

11

N -1

h (), (2 - )

% X X
!
!
1
f
i[
Y

X
1
i
T

*
!
i

><

<
X

% *

1-1

. 5.2.1.

281

. 5.2.1, ,
h{m), {) {- ),
. 5.2.1 ,
(5.2.4) = 2.
h(m) ( - )

< < N -1 .
( - ) , ( - )
= ,
= N -1.
. ,
(
, 0N - \) (5.2.4)
,
, N


(. ).


(5.2.4)
J = [/*]*

(5.2.5)

y = [x ]-h ,

(5.2.6)

>
>

, , - ^- (-)

'

*(0 )
->

X=

x (l)
;
x (N -l)

->
h=

A(0)
-

A(l)
;

y=

y(o) I
y{ 0

h ( N - 1)

a [h ] [ ] - N x N :

282

A(0)

/2(1)

h( 2)

h (N - \ )

h( 1)

(2)

(3)

(0)

/7(2)

/7(3)

/7(4)

/7(1)

/7(-2)

h (N -\ )

/;(0)

/7(N-3)

/7(N-1)

/7(0)

/7(1)

h (N -2 )

x(0)

jc(1)

x(2)

x ( N - 1)

x (l)

x(2 )

x(3)

()

x(2)

x(3)

jc(4)

jc(1)

x { N - 2)

x (N -\ )

x ( N - 1)

x(0)

*(0 )
x (l)

x (N - 3 )
x ( N - 2)

,
.
^-
:
(5.2.7)

(5.2.8)
=0
. . (
). (5.2.5) (5.2.6)
,
.

5.3.


,
-
. ,

. . 5.3.1,

283

{) h(k)

N 2

( ) N = N ] + N 2 -1.
3 , ,
,
,
. ( )
,
.

,
.
()
= ^, - ^2 1 ,
,
{) h(k) N = N { + N 2 -1 ,

.
)

(^()

lllim...111141JHim_

W,-l

/*>
1\,()

fflLjlIL-JIil

3
} ik )

. 5.3.1.

. 5.3.2.

284

N = (N, + N 2 -1)-
:

(") = 77 *I = 0

(W

(") =/V
77/ =Z0 h. W

,
N- :
* , ( * ) = ! [ * . ( ) ( )] w ?
0

=0

( (* - ) *

. W" =

71
/2

'

- .

. N


.
2 . 5.3.3.

. 5.3.3.

285

1)

N
\og2N

( ) ;
2)

N
log2N

( ) ;
3)

( ) ( ) , = , 1, 2,
4)

N - 1.

N
\og2N .


,
N + 3N \og2N N 2 .
5.3.1. N = 1024 = 210

3N \og2N
N. ( )
,

N2

*5 0 .

2N\og2N + N
, 3 . 3.7.1 3.7.3,
. . 3.7.3
, -. . 3.7.1 - .
, . 3.7.3,
- , 3.7.1,
,
, .
.

(),
(),
[ 9 ].

286

5.4.
,
* ( )
h (k ). ,
. . ,

. -, (N, + N 2 - I )
.

,
.
, [27].


h (k ) L (. 5.4.1),
() (
) (. 5.4.16). * ( ) N - (.
5.4.1 ). , , N > L
,
, (/:) (. 5.4.1).
h {k ) N ,

h x( ) (. 5.4.1),
, (/:) :
= ,( ),

= 0, 1, 2,

N - 1,

:= 7N 71= 0 *W

' (w)= 77 X= h

'{ p W ^

,
,( )= ^ [ '
=0
287

= 0 , 1 , ... .

N - 1.



*(/ :) N :
* ( * ) = Z * (* )
-

- < (w + l ) N - l ,

[, .
(& ) /, (&)

y{l)= 'L
h<{k)-'Lxn,{l -k) = =i h\(k)xm(k)=

/ = 0

(2N -\ )
, , ( N - 1) ,
- ( + 1)- ,
.
9 :

( =2>0=0

,
,
, .
,
,
, ,
,
.

290

( ) , ( ) ,

' h l( p ) x, ( m - p ) +
_ =

Y j h \ (p )x ,(N + - ) .

(5.4.1)

- +1

, N > L. , = L -1:
Y h t(p )x t( L - l - p ) + Y
_ = 0

h l(p )x i (N + L - l - p )

= L

, A, (L ) = A, (L +1) = ... = A, (N -1 ) = 0,

\ ( L - 0 =

h ,(p )x i (L -1 - ).
N

7 7

(Z, - 1)-
L
.
>>,(), y ,(L + l),
_, (^ 1) .
(L -1 ) .
,
(5.4.1),
. . 5.4.\.
, N- ,
(L - 1 )
( L - 1) (. 5.4.\).
, N-
(L - 1) , .
N - L + 1
, N - .


.

. 5.4.1 *.
N-
.

289



*(/ :) N :
x i k) = * ( * )
-

(lr\

~^

[, .
(& ) /, (&)

y{l)= 'L
h<{k)-'Lxn,{l -k) = =i h\(k)xm(k)=

/ =

(2JV-1)
, , ( N - 1) ,
- ( + 1)- ,
.
9 :

( =2>0=

,
,
, .
,
,
, ,
,
.

290

A 6.


,
,
,
, .

.
,
,
.


.
,
.

6.1.
,

. ,
(/) (
) / = /0:

= {(0, /=/0}-

(6.1.1)

,
,
:
F (x ) = ( < ),

(6.1.2)

. . ,
, .
291


( ) = -

(6.1.3)

(6.1.2)
X
F (x ) = { < ) = J piQdZ,.

(6.1.4)

,
(),

( ) = ^ x p (x )d x ~ .

(6.1.5)


.
- ,
= , 2,..., xN ( ),
N

( ) = 1,

= I

( ) = $ ^ ( ).

(6.1.6)

= 1


N
( ) = ^ ( - ).
(6.1.7)

- I

, ,
-

( ' ) = > ; / > (* * )
= I


00

{) = j x " p(x)dx
-,

.
= 2 :

/(2) = j p(x)dx = 1.

292

(6.1.8)

-
( - ) -
<2
:

; = /[( - )2] = ( 2) - 2() + [ ( ) 2],


. .
; = 7 - ( ) 2

(6.1.9)

-
. -
-
,

.
.
6.1.1

F (x )
( )


.
. 6.1.1

(||2)
(||>)< V A

( 6. 1. 10)

~
> 0. ,
[ || < ,
\>,
, , || > ^ (||2) > (^2) = (|| > \
(6.1.10).
(|| ) = 0,

= 0 .
293

( - )

/ > ( | - |> ) < - ^ - ,

(6.1.11)

]
, .

,

( ) = J J (, y)dxdy,

(6.1.12)

(, ) -
.
( - ) ( )
:
[( - )( - )] = ( ) - .

(6.1.13)

, , .
,
[<,] [ < 2] \ 2. ,
, ,
.

(,) = () - ( )
. (6.1.12) ,

( ) = () ( ) = .
,
. , , .
N .

6.2.

*(/).
,
.
,
.
294

X {t)
,
.
(. 6.2.1).


:
(, /), Q, t

Q
.
. t
/
. ( , /) -
. .
, Q, ( , /),
*(/), ,
*(/) Q.
( L 2 )
x (t) .

,
. X ( t ) ,

. x (t)
.

,
. 6.2.1, .
, , ,
295

*(/) = A sin(o>/ + <),


, >, ( - ,
(. 6.2.2).
,
, .

. 6.2.2. ,
- ; -
X { t )

(/,) = ,.

, /2, tz,

tN ,

N (/,), (/2), ..., (/).


,
()
, :

= {*(/);

teT).

- ( ), X (t ) , - ,
X ( t ) - .

/?(,, 2, ..., ^ ) N.

.
.
.
1. .
2. .
(, tk) -
\{tk\ 296

t = tk ( ).
(
) ,
/ ().
X ( t ) :

w v (0 = x (0 = A /[x(0]= \xp(x,t)d\\

(6.2.1)

00

c 2y( i) = M { [ x ( t ) - m y( t ) ]2}.

(6.2.2)


/.

t.

u(t)

'

. 6.2.3. :

- ; - , .

/?(,, 2;
/2),

(/,)

2 = (/2),

X (t ) /,
(. 6.2.1).
/, /2,
(
):
.(/,,/2) = [(/,)-(/2)].
(6.2.3)
297


X {t)
X (t )
ts /2. x (t)
'(/,)-*() .
,

,; /,, 2).
(\ { , 2; /,, t2)
(6.2.3)

J J x , x , p ( x , , ,; t, t 2) d \ td \ 2.

(6.2.4)

/,


/ = /,:
00

-. ' . ) = f

, = [ 2(0 ].

(6.2.5)

- :

. ( ( )
:

Rx (,, t2) = /[(/,) * (2)].

(6.2.6)


:
,.( / ,, /2) = /{[ /,) ) ][ ( ) *(^2 )]> =
_
= Rx (t,, /2) - ( ^ ) ( / 2).

~
(6.2.7)

, K x (t, /) .
, .
:
) :
X (^1 ^2) = K.V (^2 U )
) :

J J(/)v (/, 0)(0)0 > 0, (/) -
, [, ].
298

6.3.

.
.

( ),
(
:
rit)


tn
.



.
.
,
,
=
, ,
, (6.2.1) - (6.2.6)
:
(6.
] =

[ -

1>1. ]

(6.3.2)

. () = [ (/ )- (/ + )] =
(6.3.3)

- ;

tfv (0) = J * 2()/ =


( ) = [( (/) - v ) ( (/ + ) - )] = Rx ( )- \

(6.3.4)

(6.3.5)

( ) . *

X (t )
{1).
299

* ( )> 0 , X (t ,) X (t { + v )
, . Rx { r ) < ,
, ,
.

, .

.

, .
,
, . ,




(. 6.3.1).


.
. 6.3.1.
( ) u(t)
,
(6.3.1) - (6.3.5).

(6.3.6)
-/ /z
.

(6.3.7)
-/ /j.

(0) = lim f x 2(t)d t


v

> J

(6.3.9)

- .

( ) = ( [ * ( - ] [ * (* + 2

D=

! 2

(6.3.10)

-/2


[23]:
lim Rt { r ) = 0.
(6.3.11)
>QO


/ 2

(6.3.12)
- .
)

. 6.3.2.


(. 6.3.2). R x ( t )
. ( )
,
(. 6.3.26).
,
() = { ( X + )) = {* ( / ) ) ( * (0 ) = { x (t ) ) 2

(6.3.13)

. .
.
301


, ,
:
.
,
, ,

* " )

I 1 " ' <) | r f r = l < ) ^

< 6 , 3 ' 1 4 )

( ) =
(6.3.15)
,(0 )
- (
).

. -
,
. *(/)
x(t + ) .
, > 0
, | |>
|()|<.

(6.3.16)

. LT
, ,
,
.
,
,

lim P\Lr = l ] = l,

(6.3.17)

. . - LT
L .

/>[ ( ) = . ( )] = 1.
302

(6.3.18)


6.3.1. (/)
JIHB- h(t) (. 6.3.3).

. 6.3.3
(/) . -
= [ (/ + )* (/)] = { [ \ hit + - 0)x(0)rf0] X*(/)} =

J h(t+ x - 0)(0- t)dQ = J h(x- r|)^ (. . - ^ ( )

/ ^ ( )
(),
.

:

=M

J \h(t + x - 0 )x (0 )h " (t - ) (Ti)rf0rfri

Jh(t + T - Q)h' (t -

(0 - ))/0/|.


0-| = $ ()= |( + 1) (1.

(6.3.19)

303

. . R}y () R^ (.?)
. (6.3.19) :
(2
/ (/ )

(6.3.20)

G yy(f) = [ ,( )]

(6.3.21)

- ,
( = [ (5 )]

(6.3.22)

- ,
|(/)|2 = ( / ) - * ( / ) ,
( / ) = [()]

(6.3.23)
(6.3.24)

- .

6.4.

.

jc(/)
J^(oo) = J x ( t ) - e 'J(," d t
-

.
.
-, ^)

. "()
( /[(/)] = 0 ) -
.

304

, ,
, ^)
, . .
||(/)|<

(6.4.1)


. :
(,
* ( '

4<,

|,|>1.

(6 2 )

(t) (6.4.1),
X (t)
. (/)
:

J \(/) |2 dt < .

(6.4.3)

-00

, ( t) :
00

X (, ) = | ft) , dt, <.

(6.4.4)


, :
/Z

-/2

x \ { t )d t = (, )|2 da.
2 _
77

,
1
) \ (t) d t = ^ ~ ) \(, |2 day
(6.4.5).
* -TI2
* ^ -^
- *(/)
, - >
.
> .
, ( , ) 305

X (t).
(6.4.5), ,
-> ,


X (t). (6.4.6) G(co)
. *(/) , 1 , 2(/)
- , .
()
, 1

/ = .
2
(/)
(6.4.8)

.
G(co)
.

.

306

6.5. -

R ( ) G(co) ,

[22]:
G (m )=

J R ( i ) e ~ iu" d x,

(6.5.1)

OG

1 00

(6.5.2)

R ( ) = f G ( a > y wVco.
2 i

/?() - ,
G(co)
. , (6.5.1) (6.5.2)

G () = 2 ? () cos dx,

(6.5.3)

1 00
J

(6.5.4)

# ( ) = \G () cos d .

6.5.1. X (t)

[- , ]:
[ G0= const, ||< coti,
G () = || > .
,

~>
)

. 6.5.1. :
- , -
307

(6.5.4)
Gn
Gn a> sin
R () = fcoscoxJco = ------------------.
0
J

(6.5.5)

. 6.5.16 , , /, () = ,
. . , *(/), X
, . ,,

->

, .

* ( t) = (G0 / 2 ).5 ( t ).

(6.5.6)

(6.5.5), 5- . 1.8.10. , .

. ,

, , ,
,
.
6.5.2.
, 0 (. 6.5.2),
:
<W >

1
t
t
1
i
1

<?

\OJ

i
t
i
l

{,f

. 6.5.2. :

- , -
308

sin

* ( T ) . G >to

cos .

(6 .5 .7 )

. 6.5.26.
6.5.3. X (t )


R () = 2 ||,

> 0.

(6.5.8)

(6.5.1)
0

G(co) = 2 J - 1* ' d t + c 2 je~ ' e jm dx =

a-yco

a + ;co

=
cl

(o

2a o 2

a + y'co

cr+ c o

-(a+y'a))t


(. 6.5.3). ,
-
.

. 6.5.3. -
-

309

6.6.

,
(, /), a e Q , t .
Q
.
. t
t
.
(, t) - .
. ,
, (, /), (/),
, x (t)
Q.

.
L 2 ( ) ,
:

(6.6.1)

(6.6.2)
(6.6.3)
-
.

(6.6.4)

(6.6.5)

( 6.6.6)

. 310

*(/)
X (t).
{ (/)}, - 1, 2,3,...
x (t) = 1i.m (),

< t< T ,

(6.6.7)

(6 .6 .8 )

= \ x (t)-q n(t)d t

- , a l.i.m. (limit in the mean - )



lim =

,V
>00

dt

(6.6.9)

=I

.
1. , N
L 2 ().
2. , ,
, (6.6.9)?
. ,
. . M [x (t)] = = 0,
Rx(t,s ) = M [x (t)x (s )].

(6.6.10)

Rx(t, s) - .
2

. , 2

2( = \ J * ( ' ) - 1
* (
= I
= |(/, ( ) d t ~ Y

s ) 4 >(t)<?'(s)dsdt.

(6.6.11)

=]

(6.6.11) , (0 -

^(') =

s)q>(t)dt,

(6.6.12)


] 2 3,... > 0.
Rx (/, s)
(6.6.12)
0 < , s <
311

R.r(? y) = Z X .<P*(/>CP.(5>-

(6.6.13)

(6.6.13) (6.6.11),
(6.6.14)
- 1

(6.6.13) ,

(6.6.15)
x (t)
(6.6.12) Rx(t, s)
-
. . . .
(6.6.16)
:

( cl ,) = j J X

s) (t) * (s) dsdt.

(6.6.13), (6.6.16).
, ,
;
Rx(t, s) = Rx( t - s ) = Rx(x).
, | |>
,

()
"'

= 2

-
. , . .
(6.6.12) ,
,
. ,
.
3 12

6.7.
[23].



t

,
(6.7.1)
, t
, .

t
= 0. ,
lim Rx () = Rx (0) = [ 2(/)] < .
, .

:
lm P{|x(/ + q )-x (/ )| > e } = 0, >0 .
*(/) - ,
G {)
,
||<. ,
( )

,
,
, .

sin ( t - k A t )


313

x (k A t)y k(t) ]T x(mAt)q>m(t + x)

Z
Z ^[ ( ^ - " ) * (0<?m(t + x)
= -x>m= -oo
^
,
sin (x - nAt)
,
X , ( ----- ; - - - >: = ^ ( ) =

( - )
,
(/() | |< cott.
(6.7.2) ,


( ) = (/ ),
= 0, 1, 2,

.
.

6.8.

,
.



*(/) -
(M [x(t)\ = 0)

, () = / - ) ] .

(6.8.1)

- (
).
At
.

314

x (t ') =

(6.8.2)

x(kA t)h (t' -k A t),

t r = t - x } -
, h (t)~ .
- ,
- . 6.8.1.
) |/;(/)

,1*0

dt

-at

\ ^ )

at

. 6.8.1. :

- ; - ;
-

:
^(/) = * (/ )- ] x (k A t)-h (t-k A t).

(6.8.3)


.
,
,(/,) = [ ( / - )],

(6.8.4)

.
t . /, )
t ,

At,

R^(t, ) [, /]:
1 *
RA ) = R*(t,x)dt.
At n
J 4
315

(6.8.5)

/^()

Rx () *(/), At
h(t) .

= 0,

= /^(0).

(6.8.5) (6.8.1) - (6.8.4)


W = T At
- J0
J A/KW-S</- t > y ' =

= J _ ] M { [ x ( t ) ~ J x ( k A t )h ( t - kA t) ]At i
[x (t-

) -

x (lA t)- h (t- x - lA t)]}d t =

I - -oo

= + - Z Z

A tk=_ml=^

Kt-kAt)h(t-x-lAt)dt-

00 At

At k = -CO o
1

ao

At

---J (f- - kAt)h(t - kAt)dt.


At

t - k A t - s
k - 1 - m .
1

R^(x) = Rx(x) + Z [^ (w A /) Z
^=-

1 00
Z

1
j

*=-

( * + )/

( + 1)/

A (j)A (s-T -m A O Jufr*

^ x( s ) / i ( j - T ) r f s -

(* + 1)/

J y(s)ds= J ><*)<*>
At

316

(+ )/

,( 5 - ) / ( ^ ) .

1
/^() = ,() + ^

00
Rx(mAt) jh (s )h (s -T -m A t )d s -

] Rx(s )h (s - t ) d s 1 Rx(s - )h(s)ds.


At _i
At _
x = 0,
:
1

(0) = 2
+ ^ Rx(mAt) J h(s)h(s - mAt)ds----- j Rx(s)h(s)ds,
At m=-cc
^oo
At _

( 6.8.6)
2 = Rx (0) - .
(. 6.8.1)
a l = 2 [ a ; ~ \Rx(s)h(s)ds].
At
(. 6.8.1 )
^
1

2 = a l (/)----- ,(s ) ( l - )ds.


4 3 1 3 ' At 0
J '
/

(6.8.7)

(6.8.8)

(. 6.8.1 )

=2[* - /
5 * ( i )

2/. 5

2/

(6-8'9)

(6.8.9) ,
(-,).


.
,
.

.

.
,

.
317

6.9.


. *[&;/], i

i-

, - .
i [&].

( )
.
, [&]<,

F (tf, ) = ( [ ]< } .

d F (a , )
{ ; * ) = !-----
*[& ]:
[&] = { * [ ] }
.

/[*,,

2]

{ [ , ] } .

, . .
:
|. ] = { ( * [ ] - * [* ])(* *
=

. [

] - [2] ) } =

>


, .
*[& ]
[ ] ():
rA k\' * 2 ] = * { * [ * ] / [* 2]}
:
[*1 \ = \' - [ * \ ' ] 318


.

, ,
- - fc, :
[fc] = ,
[] = { [ + \* [fc]}

(6.9. 1)

- ( ).
:

(692)

' [ - ] = * >
<6-9-3)
.
( )
()

< U / ) = A 'Z

[| ] -'2* " * ,

(6.9.4)

7= -00

At - .
1/2/ . ,
/ =1// .
.

/ lA

rB [ m] =

J Ga { f y e JU(m df

(6.9.5)

~ /lA t

= 0
/ lA I

U ]=

] ' Ga ( f ) d f

<6-9-6)

~ )lA t

- .
(6.9.4) (6.9.5)

. rxx [~-] =

( ) ,

319

- ,

[- w ] = [ ] -

,
Gxt ( / ) = 2At ] rxx [w]cos 2n f mAt.

(6.9.7)

.
6.9.1.
v(Ar),

v(A) = 0,
' v v H = v -1

1[] =

1, = ,
[, ,

- a 2
v - , rvv

[].

0 .

G , A f ) = Atal
.
6.9.2.
h\k\.

= < *


[ ] .
[ ]
.

:
320

[\= {[ + \'' [ ^ = M \ X x[k + m - l ] h[l] x [] [- =

Z ~ 1\ }1[1\
. .
(6.9.8)

] = [m\h[m\,
- .

(6.9.9)

rv W = r* r M A* >
(

- =

* [ * + ] * [*]

(6.9.10)

z-
:
Gv ( z ) < - l - > r v ( m) ;
G >y

(z )

r>y ( m )

G >* (z ) <-

L -* r>* ( w )

( ) < ->(/).
z-
Gy, ( z ) ^ G { z ) - H { z ) ,

Gxy( z ) = G ( z ) . H '

G>y{z ) = G { z ) - H { z ) - H ' \ - \ ,

-> *

//[w ] - ,
* = f-1 .
)
Vz >

-:
G { f ) = b t - G {z)

= Gxx (/ )'| - (/ )| 2 .
= ) '
321

(6.9.11)

. .
-
.
6.9.3.
.

(*-*?
2oJ

~ < < .

/>(*) = /2

* [& ], Jt[ + l],

jc[& +

- = (*[/:] x[/: +

l]

N -1 ]
;c[ +

N-l])r


1
exp ~ ( - ) -*(-)

( ) = [(2 k )'v detCA, ]

( N x N ) :
c * = M |(x- x)(x[0]

c.

[1]
[0]

[1]

[ -2 ]

M
[N -l]

[* - 2 ]

[]

Cjct [1] = { ( * [ * + ] - *] - * ) }
- , N-
= /(). ,

C N .
.
6.9.4. L

.] = Y j At sin( 2Tt/ kAl + / )>

322


,
[- , ] .
L
1
"
1
= , . Jsin(2n/JkAt + <pf ) d , =0,
1

1
(k + m)At + , ] sin(2jt/ At + ,)

/'(/w) = Z 4 2 J

/- }
= '^ -r -c o s (2 n f i mAt).
/=i 2

6.10.

,
. ,
,
, ,

. ,
.
.
.

:
1
< ? ( / ) - 1 |

(27V + 1) At

At

[ \-

/ 2 / /

(6.10.1)


[/],
,
. (6.10.1) ( ). (6.10.1)
, :
2

( / ) = lim/-> (2jV + 1) At

At
323

[\

/2 f k & t

(6.10.2)


. . .
.
,
.
,

.
,

[ ].

6
6.1. :(/) -
Rx( ).
y (t) = (/)-*(/ + ).
, y (t).
6.2. x (t)

, sin2Tt/t
/? ( ) = ----------2/,

-00 < I < 00.

) x{t).
) x(t).
) (/)
~

< / < / / 4 ,

- f /4 < / < ,

(/ )=
.0 ,

|/|>/ /4.

.
.
6.3.
L
* [* ] = X 4 (2/ k & + >.)
/=1

, L ,
,
[- , ]
324

. ,

( ) = Z 2 (2/>/).
/=1

6.4. , ,
I] *. ,
[] = [] + v[k]
:
rxx( ) = Z ' (2/ {) + 1
/=1
6.5. (. . 4.6)
, At
,
.

(/) = [ ^ ( 0 X (t - A t)... X (t - N At)]T.

h = (h0 /, ... hN ) 7
)

w'U
) Y(/) .
) X (t) -
Rx ().
() Y(t).

325


1. .. . - .:
, 2000.
2. . . - .:
, 1986.
3. .. . - .: ,
1990.
4. .. . - .: ,
1972.
5. . ., .., . .
. - .: , 1990.
6. .. . - .: ,
1992.
7. .. .
.:
, 1981.
8. .. .
.: ,
1989.
9. .. , .
. - .: , 1988.
10. .., ..
. - .: , 1991.
11. .. . - .: ,
2003.
12. : /
.. . - .: -, 2003.

13. . . , ..
. - .: , 1972.
14. B.C. . - 5-
. - .: 1988.
15. .. . - .:
, 1989.
16. - .. . .
. - .: , 1997
17. .., .., . .
. - .: , 1989.

326


18. ..
.
, 1956.
19. .. . - .: . . .. .,
1962.
20. . : . . / . ..
. - .: , 1974.
21. .., ..
. - .: , 1971.
22. .. . - .:
, 1976.
23. .
. . - .: , 1974.
24. .., .
. . . / . P.JI. . - .: HJI,
1960.
25. ..
/ . . - .: , 1975.
26. . . . /
. . . . - .: , 1976.
27. ., .
. . . - .: , 1978.
28. .
/ . . - .: , 1980.
29. . .
. - .: , 1987.
30. .
. . . / . . . - .: , 1983.
31. .. , , / . . - .:
, 1988.
32. / . .
.:
, 1990.
33. .-. .
/ . . - .: , 1990.
34. Sanjit . Mittra. Digital Signal Processing. McGraw-Hill, 1998.
35. / . . - .: , 2001
36. . / . . - .: .
, 2003.
327

...............................................................................................3
1.
............................................................................ 5
1.1. ....................................................................5
1.2. ....................................................................... 7
.........................................................................7
..............................................................................8
..........................................................................9
1.3. .......................................................11

L2

11

12

12

1*

13

1.4. .
................................................................... 15
1.5. .
..................................................17
1.6. L 2 ............................. 19
.................................................................................... 20
............................................................... 21
............................................. 22
........................................................................................ 22
1.7. 12 ............................................ 28
................................................................28
( ).....................................28
- ........................................................................ 30
..........................................................................................33
, . 1.1-1.7...................................... 34
1.8. ......................... 37
1.8.1. . ..................................37
....................................................... 38
........................................................40
1.8.2. ............................42
1.8.3. ...................................................... 43
328

....................................43
..................................45
.................................................. 46
....................... 47
......................... 48
............................................................ 48
................................................49
........50
1.8.4. - ........................................................... 52
-..........................................................55
1.8.5. .......................... 56
.............................. 56
.................................................................. 57
...........................................................................58
1.8.6. ..................................................... 58
................................................58
....................................................................59
.......................................... 60
.............................................................. 62
1.9. ................................................. 65
........................................................... 65
- ....................................................... 65
-............ 67

.................................68
. 1 .8 -1 .9 ....................................................... 69
1.10. ....................... 74
1.10.1. ................................................... 76
....................................................................................... 77
1.10.2. ........... 79
............... 83
.............. 84
. 1.10............................................................... 84
1.11. ..................................... 87
. 1.11............................................................... 95
1.12. ..................... 97

97
........................................................... 100
. ..............................101
...................................102
. 1.12............................................................. 106
1.13. ............................................................... 109
....................................1
329

. 1.13.................................................... 113
1.14. - ...................................... 114
-
114
................................................................................... 117
...........................................................118
- ( )................................................................. 121
..........................................................123
- ..................................................... 123
-...........................................................................................126
-......................................................128
.............................................................128
2.

131

2.1. .
.................................................... 131
2.2. ............................................. 134
2.3. ....................................................................136
.............................................................. 136
.......................................................... 138
2.4. ...................... 141
2.5. ...................................149
........................................................................ 149
................................................................................... 151
........................................................ 152
.........................................................155
.................................................................................159
2.6.
................................................................................ 161
..................................................................... 162
.................................................................... 163
.......................................................................... 165
2.7. ............................................ 167
................................................168
............................................................................................ 169
2.8. ................................. 170
................................................. 171
.................................................................. 173

..............................................175
..............................................................181
2.9. ........................... 182
...............................................................183
2 ............................................................ 187
330

.....201
3. ^
0 ... 201
3.1.
.......................... 203
* ..................... 205
3.2.
......................... 207
................. ' ' ' ................. 210
3.3. " '........ .........................211
().......
...................... 212
.............................
........................ 214
.......................
......................... 215
27- jV-
..................... 2 1 ^
-..*...... ................... .....
3.4. ,
............... ^ j g
...............
........................ 1*................................................ 220
...................................... 221
.... 223
................ 224

3.5. ............................................. 226


3.6. ............................... 227
3.7. 2 ........................................... 230
3.8. 4 .............................................. 235
3.9. ...................................... 238
( ) ..................................... 239
................................. 239
( ) ................................241
3..................................................... 242
4. Z -
.................................................................................. 248
4.1. z-..................248
4.2. z-................................................... 252
4.3. z-................................................... 254
4.4. z-..............................258
............................................. 258
................................................ 260
................................................260
4.5. z-
................................................................... 261
............................................... 261
.................................. 262
....... 264
4.6. ............................267
-............................................................................................ 267
331

............................................................... 268
...........................................269
...................................... 269
.............................................................. 271
4.....................................................273
5. ....................... 278
5.1. ................................................278
5.2. ....................................... 280
.........................................282
5.3.
.......................................283
5.4. ....................................................287
................................................. 287
............................................. 290
6. ............... 291
6.1. .........................................291
, , ................................. 292
6.2. ............................................................. 294
6.3. ........................................... 299
................................................................... 302
................................................. 303
6.4. ...................................... 304
6.5. -.................................................... 307
6.6.
..............................................................310
6.7. ...................313
6.8.
..............................................................314

................................................................ 314
6.9. ........................................... 318
6.10. ................. 323
6............................................................................ 324
............................................................326

332