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Unit 1

INVESTIGATING MATTER
MATTER:
Anything with mass AND volume. MASS: Amount of matter in a substance measured in grams (g) OR JUST AMOUNT OF STUFF. Elements that compose a unified body. VOLUME: Amount of space a substance occupies measured in litres. (L). DENSITY: Compares the mass of a substance to its volume. D = mass volume = g mL or g cm3

LIQUID VS. SOLID


D = mass volume = g mL or g cm3

Density of a non solid : g/ml

Density of a solid: g/cm3 Where cm to the power of 3 is the area.

Change in Matter
If there is a chemical change then we get new matter. Fuel + oxygen (from the air) = combustion products (mainly
CO2 + H2O) + heat energy.

If there is a physical change we DO NOT get new matter. The weathering and breakdown of
rocks does not change its matter; you just have smaller rocks.

Chemical Changes
A change in matter is when substances combine (or separate) to form new substances. These new substances have new properties. Things to observe when witnessing a chemical change:
Bubbles forming Color changes Difference in smell Sounds that occur

Change in Matter
Physical Change: Change of State The substance may have a different appearance but the properties or chemistry is the same. No new chemical bonds are formed or changed or destroyed in a physical change. Changes of state between a solid, liquid and gas do not produce a new substance and are physical changes. Ice and water are simply physical changes as nothing new chemically is introduced. More on this in the next slide.

Change in Matter :

Physical Change

Co

at

io n

Gas
ion
Ev

sa en nd n tio

Su bl im

De po sit

a or ap n tio

Melting

Solidification

Solid

Liquid

The Particle Model of Matter


All matter is made up of very small particles There are spaces between the particles The particles are always moving The particles are attracted to each other Gas particles move around faster than solid particles. From this basic model, a theory can be built to explain how energy and matter can interact to produce changes of state.

Kinetic Molecular Theory


Kinetic Energy Energy of motion All particles are moving and have kinetic energy The more energy the particles have, the faster they move and the farther apart they get

ENERGY

Kinetic Molecular Theory


The Kinetic Molecular Theory states: 1. All matter is made up of tiny particles 2. Different substances have different particles 3. The particles are in constant motion 4. Energy makes particles move. Some of the ways you can have particles move faster is by increasing the mass or using heat.

Kinetic Molecular Theory


Constant Motion

Solid:
Particles are close together and can only vibrate. More structured, less movement.

Liquid:
Particles are further apart and slide by each other

Gas:
Particles are very far apart and move quickly

Kinetic Molecular Theory


Constant Motion

Water is H2O, 2 atoms of hydrogen bonded to 1 atom of oxygen.


A change of state happens when energy is added or removed Solids have the least amount of energy Gases have the most amount of energy

Temperature and Changes of State


Melting point:
Temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid

Freezing point:
Temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid

Boiling point:
Temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas

Condensing point:
Temperature at which a gas changes to a liquid

Temperature and Changes of State Example: Water

Describing Matter
Physical properties of matter can be classified as:
Qualitative properties: descriptions that are not measured with a number visuals. Quantitative properties: descriptions that are measured with a number numerals.
Quantitative Properties Melting/Freezing point (temperature of melting/freezing) Boiling/Condensing point (temperature of boiling/condensing) Qualitative Properties State Colour (solid, liquid, gas) (colour)

Describing Matter
Melted Mercury Melting /freezing point, -38.83 degrees Celsius. Boiling/condensing point, 356.73 degrees celsius.

Qualitative Properties State Colour liquid mostly silver

Substances
All substances can be classified as pure substances or mixtures. Matter Mixtures Pure substance Elements Compounds

Substances
PURE SUBSTANCES
Substance: a pure substance is made up of one type of matter. Gold, water, oxygen are all substances.

Elements: cannot be broken down further


Eg: Oxygen (O), Hydrogen (H) Compounds: made of two or more elements combined in a specific way
Eg: Water (H2O), Salt (NaCl)

Atoms
Atoms: composed of protons, neutrons and electrons. Nucleus (middle), has neutrons and electrons. Neutral atom has the same number of protons and electrons. Surrounding the atom is one or more electrons.

Atom
Electrons occupy specific energy levels in the space around the nucleus. Number of protons in an atom is atomic number.

HISTORY
Aristotle thought matter was made up of earth, air and fire, this was 2500 years ago. Everyone believed him. Asians believed the world was made of earth, water, fire, metal and wood only.

John Dalton
1766-1844, British school teacher. He studied carbon dioxide, water and nitrogen oxide. Realized matter is made of small particles hard spheres with different elements.

John Dalton Theory


Below is a gold bar and according to Dalton it is made of small identical particles. All matter is made of small particles called atoms. Atoms cannot be destroyed, created or divided into smaller particles. All atoms of the same element are identical in mass and size, these atoms would be different as compared to atoms of another element. Compounds are created when atoms of different elements link together. A chemical reaction is a rearrangmenet of atoms.

JJ Thomson
1856-1940, British physicist. 1897 determined there were currents made up of negatively charged particles called electrons. Did some experiments and hypothesized that atoms had smaller particles. Raisin bun model: positive bun with negatively charged particles imbedded.

Ernest Rutherford
1871-1937, New Zealand. 1909 designed an experiment to see the inside of an atom. He exposed a thin sheet of gold to positively charged alpha particles. Placed a detector screen around the gold to see which alpha particles would hit this. The screen lit up everytime an alpha particle hit it. Many alpha particles went through 1/8000 bounced back. What does this mean? Gold atoms have a lot of empty space, but theres a nucleus that if hit, the alpha particles bounced back.

Ernest Rutherfords Findings


He found that the alpha particles went through the gold atoms without being affected. And only a few rebounded from the foil. His conclusion? They hit the nucleus. He found that the nucleus is a tiny dense positively charged center of the atom. 1/8000 hit a nucleus. Positive hitting positive bounces back, think magnet. He concluded that an atom has a lot of empty space. 10 years later, found there was a proton (positive electric charge) and a neutron (no charge). The neutron had on electrical charge.

Neils Bohr
Danish, 1885-1962, worked for Rutherford. He studied the area around the nucleus. Other scientists had learned that there are negatively charged electrons surrounding the nucleus. Think magnet.

Neils Bhor
He looked at hydrogen. A gas. Passed an electric current through them and glowed. Found energy levels or shells. He found that electrons had different amounts of energy and circle around the nucleus to form an orbit. These orbits create a shell. The electron releases energy in the form of light when it falls to a lower energy level.

Niels Bohr
Electrons orbit the nucleus in orbits that have a set size and energy. The energy of the orbit is related to its size. The lowest energy is found in the smallest orbit. Electricity gives the electron extra energy to jump to a higher energy level. When the electron releases energy in the form of light it falls to a lower energy level. An electron loses photons of energy if it loses mass, heat, electric potential, light. Remember kinetic theory?

Inside an Atom
Not the smallest particle of an element has subatomic particles. Called protons, neutrons and electrons. Each of the 3 have mass, but only protons and electrons have electric charge. Neutrons have no charge. Protons have a positive charge, think P.P. electron negative charge. Neutron, think neutral no charge.

Inside Different Atoms


Mass: protons and neutrons have more mass than electrons. Approx. 1800x more mass. Protons and neutrons almost weight the same.

Electric Charge
Protons have a positive charge, electrons negative. These attract one another, think magnet. There is an equal number of protons and electrons. Each counts as +1 or -1. Total charge adds up to? The mass of an electron is 1/1800th of an proton or neutron.

The Nucleus
Center of the atom. You need 10,000 nuclei to fit across an atom. Its small. Its positively charged, why? Protons and neutrons are held in the nucleus and cannot enter or leave it. Hydrogen only has 1 proton, the others are more complex and have neutrons. Hydrogen Atom, would be known to have a nuclear charge of +1.

More Complex atoms


Uranium, a bit more complex than hydrogen: the green represents the spread out negative charge from an electron. Not fast movement. A nucleus with 92 protons. A charge of 92.

Electrons
Occupy energy cells that surround the nucleus. Electrons occupy 99.99 percent of the volume of an atom. An electron occupies one whole energy level at a time. Its not fast moving racing around, its spread out and exists in the whole region at once. You can have more than one electron per shell. This is dependent on the energy level. Energy level is measured in quantum Some can hold 2, others 14 or more. The further the shell is away from the nucleus the more electrons, the more negative. Why? Think magnets.

2.1 Elements
There are 92 of them. They occur naturally. Each made up of 1 kind of atom. Each is represented by a one or two letter symbol. 11 represents the atomic number. How many protons. 22.99 represents the atomic weight.

Elements
Cannot be broken down. Made up of one kind of atom. Is very simple. All atoms of an element have the same number of protons.

Chemical Symbols
Can have 1 -2 letters. The first is capitalized. These names are from Greek words. See page 44 in your textbook for more names. Hydrogen H hydros gene water forming. Helium He helios sun. Iron Fe Ferrum latin for iron.

Chemical Properties
Describes the substance ability to react chemically with other substances to create new products. Reactivity is a property.

Metals and Non Metals


Metals hard, shiny, malleable, ductile and good conductors of heat and electricity. Non-metals usually gasses or brittle solids at room temperature. Both the above react.

Hydrogen
Lightest element. Highly flammable. Doesnt smell, no color and has not taste. Makes up for 90% of the atoms in the universe and reacts in a big way. Most hydrogen is combined with oxygen to make It is lighter than air and used to inflate weather balloons.

Iron
Strong metal. Mixed with carbon and makes steel. Is ductile, can be heated and drawn into wire. Rusts when exposed to water and oxygen.

Oxygen
We need it to breathe. 21% of the atmosphere is oxygen. Plants produce oxygen. Makes up water and rocks. Reactive.

Sodium
A soft metal. Melts at 98 degrees Celsius. Can it be used to build a pot for boiling water? If mixed with water could react violently releasing hydrogen and heat. Could also be toxic.

Chlorine
Yellow green gas. Kills bacteria. Deadly in high concentration.

Mercury
Liquid at room temperature. Used for switches. Therefore an excellent conductor of electricity. It is poison and toxic. Where are we needing a sparkless switcher?

Silver
BC had a silver rush. Made from Galena. White metallic. Can be polished, moulded and stretched, malleable and ductile. Is the best for conducting electricity and heat. Used in keyboards and musical instruments.

Silicon
Second most common element. Brittle, grey and has lustre but not a metal. A semi conductor, poor conductor of electricity at low temperatures, good at high. Used for computer chips, hardware and autos. Combined with oxygen makes opals and quartz. Also found in the spines of sea creatures.

Mendeleev
Mendeleevs Table Elements are organized based upon some important methods first introduced by Dmitri Mendeleev:
1. Did not arrange elements according to atomic mass. 2. Arranged elements by atomic number. 3. Made the assumption that some elements were still undiscovered, and left areas of the table blank.

Today, we call Mendeleevs Table the Periodic Table

Meet the Elements


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d0zION 8xjbM

The Periodic Table


A chart that organizes elements according to their chemical and physical properties. Each box in the periodic table gives the elements
Name Symbol Atomic number Atomic mass Common ion charge(s)

The Box

Ion Charge
Atoms lose and gain electrons due to energywhen they are lost they get a + charge, when gained a charge. How does this happen? Atoms that only have a few electrons on their outer (valence) shell and are blocked by other electrons in a closer shell are more likely to lose electrons in a colllision caused by energy. When an atom loses one electron it has too many protons, so losing an electron, causes the atom to become positive..

On the other side, gaining and electron makes it negative.

Multiple Ion charge


Loses more than one or gains more than one electron. See Ti and those with 2 or more charges. Remember when writing out a formula using one of these use a roman numeral!

More on the Box


Ionic Charges

Valence Electrons

The Periodic Table


Atomic number
number of protons in an atoms nucleus identifies the element Pattern: atomic number increases by 1 across rows

The Periodic Table


Atomic mass
average mass of all atoms of one element measured in atomic mass units (amu) Pattern: atomic mass tends to increase along with the atomic number

The Periodic Table


Ion charge
electric charge of the ion (atom gains/loses electrons) negative charge = gained electrons positive charge = lost electrons if more than one charge is written this means that an atom can gain/lose a different number of electrons

The Periodic Table


Pattern:

Ion charge

elements on the left (metals) tend to have positive ions elements on the right (non-metals) tend to have negative ions elements in same column form ions with the same charge

Using the Table

The Periodic Table


Metals, Metalloids, Non-Metals
Metalloids are elements that share some properties with metals and some properties with non-metals

The Periodic Table


Metals, Metalloids, Non-Metals
Properties of Metals, Non-metals, and Metalloids State at Appearance Conductivity room temp Metals
Solid (except mercuryliquid) Shiny Good conductor of heat and electricity May conduct electricity Poor conductor of heat

Malleability Location on and Periodic Table ductility


Malleable Ductile Brittle (likely to shatter when struck) Not ductile Left

Metalloids

Solid

Can be shiny or dull

Diagonal line between metals and non-metals

Non-metals

Gas Solid Liquid (Bromine)

Poor Brittle (likely conductors of to shatter Not very shiny when struck) heat and electricity Not ductile

Right

The Periodic Table


Periods & Families
Period: horizontal row numbered 1 to 7 Chemical family: a vertical row called a group elements in a group have similar physical and chemical properties numbered 1 to 18 Groups are 1 to 18 also.

Family Groupings

The Periodic Table


Periods & Families
Group 1 Name Alkali metals Reactivity Other notes Elements included Highly reactive Low melting points Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr (NOT H) Reactivity increases down Very soft the group React with water and oxygen Produce bright flames when heated

Alkaline earth metals

17 18

Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Less reactive than Group Ba, Ra 1 Burns in air if heated React with water (not as violent as Group 1) Halogens F, Cl, Br, I, At Highly reactive Noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn Most stable and unreactive of all elements

Non-metals Non-metals Colourless, odourless at room temperature

Patterns of the Periodic Table


Metals on the right. Non metals on the left. Metalloids, are like metals and like non metals, are a zigzag toward right side of the table.

Chemical Family
Vertical columns have similar properties and are called a chemical family.

Alkali Metals
Metals that are reactive, soft and have low density. Alkaline earth metals, metallic elements that are reactive, again soft and have low density.

Alkali Metals
alkali metals are malleable, ductile, and are good conductors of heat and electricity. The alkali metals are softer than most other metals. Alkali metals can explode if they are exposed to water. http://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=uixxJtJPV Xk

Halogens
Non metallic and are strongly reactive also and are gases at room temperature. Bromine is the exception. http://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=BeUoocm rVco

Noble Gases
Unreactive, gases, colorless, odourless and stay gases at room temperature. http://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=QLrofyj6a 2s

Alkaline Earth Metals


Shiny, silvery white, kind of reactive at a standard pressure and temperature. Will lose two outermost electrons. Found in nature. Examples are beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, bariun, radium.

Transition Metals
Transition elements are both ductile and malleable, and conduct electricity and heat. Their valence electrons, or the electrons they use to combine with other elements, are present in more than one shell normally these valence electrons are found in one outer shell. This is why they often exhibit several common oxidation states. Main elements are iron, cobalt, and nickel, and produce a magnetic field. They have 2 or more charges! These are those roman numeral ones

Metaloids
Metalloids have properties of both metals and non-metals. Some are semiconductors and can carry an electrical charge under special conditions. This property makes metalloids useful in computers and calculators

Alkaline Earth Metals


The alkaline earth elements are metallic. Very reactive not as bad as Alkalie metals and because they are reactive not found free in nature. Found in earths crust. Oxidization # +2, which meanshave 2 valence electrons electrons that can leave and join another atom. Oxidize easily.

Non Metals

Other Metals
Are ductile and malleable, but not the same as the transition elements. Do not exhibit variable oxidation states, and their valence electrons are only present in their outer shell. Are solid, have a relatively high density, and are opaque. They have oxidation numbers of +3, 4, and -3. Think aluminumdoes it rust?

The Periodic Table and Atomic Theory Patterns in the periodic table occur as a result of regular changes in the structure of the atoms of elements Elements line up in columns because they are similar in the arrangement of their electrons

The Periodic Table and Atomic Theory Niels Niels Bohr: Bohr: Suggested Suggested that electrons move around the the that electrons move around nucleus atom inin orbits or or shells. nucleusof ofan an atom orbits shells Depending on the atom, there are a different number of electrons in each shell with different atoms.

Problems with RutherfordBhor found another way

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cn6v5y gyZHQ Please note the energy levels held are incorrect as this is an older video. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nv1_YB 1IedE 9minutes to 12:15 or 19:10

Periodic Table & Atomic Theory Bohr Model

A diagram that shows how many electrons are in each shell surrounding the nucleus of an atom

Periodic Table & Atomic Theory Electron Shells

regions surrounding the nucleus of an atom each shell is a certain distance from the nucleus Shell number 1 2 3 4 (or greater) Maximum number of electrons in each shell 2 8 8 18

Periodic Table & Atomic Theory Bohr Diagrams 3. Paying attention to how many electrons each shell can hold, figure out how many shells the atom has.

Periodic Table & Atomic Theory Electron Arrangements

Periodic Table & Atomic Theory Valence Electrons Valence = outer Valence electrons: electrons in the outermost shell

Valence shell: highest occupied energy level

Valence Shell Info


Lets look at sodium, it has 11 protons, lets assume it is in a neutral state. First shell can hold 2, next shell can hold 8, that is 10 in total, 11-10 is 1, we have 1 electron left, so that is in the 3rd shell. That is the valence electron as that 3rd shell can hold 8 electrons, it isnt full, and therefore sodium can react with other chemicals. Also note, sodium is located in the 3rd period. The periods tell you how many electron shells each atom has. More on that later
That single electron in the valence shell is used to bond with another atom

Periodic Table & Atomic Theory Valence Electrons Periodic Patterns Elements in the same family have the same number of valence electrons. This particular family has 1 valence electron. Known as the Alkali metals. Note the odd numbers.
http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=yADrWdNTWEc TED talks guy.

Valence Electrons
Alkaline metals has 2 valence electrons. Note the even numbers. The rows or periods will tell you how many shells these electrons are found. This starts with 2 as hydrogen is period 1.

Valence Electrons
Noble gases have 8 valence electrons. Again note the even numberswhy is that? Valence electrons help atoms react, why do you think the noble gas outer shells are full?

The Table
alkali metals. Dark blue In reactions, these elements all tend to lose a single electron. alkaline earth metals. Light blue All these elements tend to lose two electrons. Transition metals pink. have one or two valence electrons. Boron family column 13, grey and yellow, has three valence electrons. We skip the transition metals as those are more complicated. Carbon, column 14, has four valence electrons.

Nitrogen family, 15, has five valence electrons. Oxygen family, 16, has six valence electrons. Halogen red has seven and tend to gain one. Noble gases black gases have a full outer energy level dont react.

The Table
Periods repeated. H, has 1 proton, if neutral, 1 electron, will be found in the first shell. Na, has 11 protons, if neutral has 11 electrons, it is located in period 3, so should have 3 shells. Remember the shell order? 2-8-8, 2+8 is 10, we have one left over for Na, and that extra one is found in shell 3. Ca, has 20 protons, valence electrons should be found in shell 4 as its in period 4.look at the numbers, 2 8 8 then in shell 4, we have 2 valence electrons, 2 valence electrons are found in column 2 or family 2.do you see how this works!

The Table
On another note, lets look at radium, it has 88 protons, found in family 2, so the valence shell should have 2 electrons. Lets look at the numbers, it has 18 in level 3.then 32then 18 againwe end up with 2 in the valence shell so theres something more to this. For now we are looking at those with a max. of 4 electron shells!

Periodic Table & Atomic Theory Valence Electrons Important patterns: Elements in the same family have the same number of valence electrons Elements in the same period have valence electrons in the same shell Period number indicates the number of shells that contain electrons

Side Note
Please note, this Bhor model works with the first 3 periods, the others, beyond that we note that some of the shells contain sub shells and more than just 8 electrons for energy levels 3. But lets just go with what you are expected to learn for grade 9 for now!

Periodic Table & Atomic Theory


How Atoms Become Ions Ion: atom that gained or lost electrons, and as a result has a charge Positive Ion:
If an atom loses electrons (loses negative charges) then the atom becomes positively charged Atoms of metals want to lose their valence electrons and thus become positive ions

Periodic Table & Atomic Theory


How Atoms Become Ions
Ion: atom that gained or lost electrons, and as a result has a charge

Negative Ion:
If an atom gains electrons (gains negative charges) then the atom becomes negatively charged Atoms of non-metals want to gain their valence electrons and thus become negative ions

How atoms become Ions


An atom of any metal can lose electrons to form positive ions. An atom of any non metal except noble gas can gain electrons and form a negative ion. Note page 67, open your books, the numbers in table 2.3 correspond with the energy shells. Lets look at Mg, note the positive, compare the protons to electrons.

Noble Gases Revisited


Bartlett found that a certain Noble gas did react platinum flourine with xenon. So much for the unreactive theory. Other scientists found the same thing with other Noble Gases! Still a family though due to outer valence shell! Now some of these compounds are used to fight cancer.

Helium
Helium is used in balloons, why? It is used in MRIs, acting like a cool magnet to see the images inside our bodies and in arc welding. How is it made? It is the radioactive decay of uranium and thorium. Also found in rocks and in natural gas. We are running out of it and the next source could be the Moon or Neptune.

Compounds
Compound:
a pure substance made up of two or more kinds of elements that are held together by chemical bonds

Chemical bond:
a link between two or more atoms that holds the atoms together

Covalent Compounds
Covalent compound:
atoms are combined by sharing electrons to form a molecule

Molecule:
two or more atoms joined together by sharing one or more pairs of electrons

Covalent bond:
the type of chemical bond when atoms are bound together by the sharing of electrons Covalent, means to share.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IOXxFaHbIXg Repeated here but more complicated.: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QqjcCvzWwww

What is a Molecule?
Made up of atoms. A chemical element or compound. These molecules are made up of atoms that are held together by chemical bonds.

Covalent Compounds
Water is a covalent compound One molecule of water has 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom The hydrogen atoms are joined to the oxygen atom by a covalent bond (sharing of electrons) Note below the green is shared completing the outer valence shells for all 3 atoms.

Ionic Compounds
Ions:
atoms that have lost or gained electrons usually between metals and non metals. Metals tend to lose electrons and non metals gain.

Ionic compounds: atoms are combined by one atom donating its


electron(s) to another atom The atom that donates its electron(s) becomes a positive ion The atom that gains the electron(s) becomes a negative ion These two ions have opposite charges and attract they just lose and take then because one atom is now positive and the other is negativethey attract. No covalent bonding, note the difference.

Ionic Compounds
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=brf5WJ UVauc
Stop motion example. What did we learn from this? What is the difference between Ionic bonding and Covalent bonding?

Ionic Compounds

Figure 3.3 An ionic compound forms when an electron on a metal atom transfers to a non-metal atom, creating an oppositely charged ion Metals donate stability, non metals gain both want outer valence shells filled somehow.

Why the bonding? Ionic way


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qf078Jhhpc Ted Talks guy.

Ionic Compounds
Ionic lattice: a repeating pattern of positive and negative
ions Ionic compounds exist as a solid in the form of an ionic lattice

Molecules, Ions, & Polyatomic Ions


Polyatomic ion:
A molecule (atoms held together by covalent bonds) that has lost or gained one or more electrons A group of atoms that have a charge. Poly means many. So ions made up of many atoms.

Polyatomic Ion
Ions that contain more than one atom. NO3- has nitrogen and oxygen. This atom is together through a covalent bond and has a total charge.

Again the difference

Many Kinds of Polyatomic Ions


Carbonate (CO32-): forms a very hard compound found in your tooth enamel

Phosphate (PO43-): major component of bones and DNA

Ammonium nitrate (NH4+ and NO3-): important fertilizer

Do we eat poison?
Sodium: an silver-coloured metal that reacts so violently with water that flames are produced when sodium gets wet

Chlorine: a greenish-colored gas that is so poisonous that it was used as a weapon in World War I.

When chemically bonded together, these two dangerous substances form the compound sodium chloride which is common table salt.

Polyatomic Ions
Covalent and ionic bonds can be found in the same compound. Molecules can gain or lose one or more electrons as their atoms combine to form a molecule. Checking for alcohol. Usage of potassium dichromate, has two atoms of chromium and seven atoms of oxygen and two atoms of potassium. Formula is K2Cr2O72 The atoms are connected by a covalent bond. In the dichromate ion the atoms are elements oxygen and chromium these are negative ions which connect by ionic bonds to positive potassium.

Compound
A Name and a Formula

Chemical Name:
Identifies the element in the compound with words

Chemical Formula:
Uses symbols to identify each element Shows the number of atoms of each element (subscript numbers) in a compound

IUPAC
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC):

A group that represents chemists around the world and is responsible for the rules for naming compounds

Compound
Steps for Writing the Chemical Names of Ionic Compounds

Name the metal ion (name in the periodic table) first. Name the non-metal ion by ending the element name (from periodic table) with the suffix ide Examples:
aluminum and chlorine = aluminum chloride sodium and sulfur = sodium sulfide potassium and oxygen = potassium oxide magnesium and hydrogen = magnesium hydride

Compound
Rules for Writing the Chemical Formulas of Ionic Compounds

In ionic compounds: positive and negative charges balance this balance helps you find the ratio of positive and negative ions the subscripts in formulas tell you how many of each ion is present

Example

Zn N

Zinc and nitrogen.

Example
2+ 3-

Zn

Zinc and nitrogen find their charges. In the periodic table you will note Zinc charge is 2+, Nitrogen is 3-.

Example
Write out the ionic charges. Take note zinc has a positive ionic charge of 2, and nitrogen has a negative ion charge of 3.

Example
We need to balance them out. What is a common multiple that can be evenly divided by both 2 and 3? 2,4,6,8,10,12for Zn 3,6,9,12,15for N. 6 seems to be the soonest and in common.

Example
2,4,6,8,10,12for Zn 3,6,9,12,15for N. For Zn, 2x3 = 6 so if we have 3 Zn, then the total ionic charge for that is +6. For N, 3x2=6 so if we have 2 N, then the total ionic charge for that is -6. This balances out.

Example
And we get

Zn3N2
This would be an ionic compound. There is an easier waybut wanted to explain the WHY before we get into convenience

Compound
Steps for Writing the Chemical Formulas of Ionic Compounds a quick way

1. Write the metal and non-metal elements in their ion form (example: aluminum sulfide)

3+

2-

Compound
Steps for Writing the Chemical Formulas of Ionic Compounds
2. Below them, write the metal and nonmetal elements again, without the ion charges

3+

2-

Compound
Steps for Writing the Chemical Formulas of Ionic Compounds
3. Bring the number above the metal element down to the subscript of the non-metal, and vice versa (Flip-Flop & Drop)

3+ 2

23

Compounds
Steps for Writing the Chemical Formulas of Ionic Compounds
4. Simplify the ratio (reduce subscripts by the common factor).

Al2S3 is already reduced Mn2O4 would be reduced to MnO2


In the above, divide both numbers by 2.

Note: 1 is not shown in subscript.

Compounds
Compounds Containing a Multivalent Metal

Multivalent metal: a metal that can form two or more different positive ions
multi means many valent refers to capacity to bond

The periodic table lists the different possible ion charges for each metal, with the most 26 common ion charge first 3+ Example: 2+
An iron ion can have a charge of +3 or +2 55.8

Compounds
Steps for Writing the Chemical Formulas of Ionic Compounds Containing a Multivalent Metal

1. Identify each ion and its charge (hint: the Roman numeral tells you the charge of the metal)
Write the metal and non-metal elements in their ion form (example: iron(III) sulphide)

3+

2-

Steps for Writing the Chemical Formulas of Ionic Compounds Containing a Multivalent Metal

Compounds

2. Below them, write the metal and non-metal elements again, without the ion charges.

3+

2-

Compounds
Steps for Writing the Chemical Formulas of Ionic Compounds Containing a Multivalent Metal

3. Flip-Flop and Drop

3+
2

2-

Compounds
Steps for Writing the Chemical Formulas of Ionic Compounds Containing a Multivalent Metal
4. Simplify the ratio (reduce subscripts by the common factor).

Fe2S3 is already reduced Pb2O4 would be reduced to PbO2


Note: 1 is not shown in subscript

Compounds
Steps for Writing the Chemical Names of Ionic Compounds Containing a Multivalent Metal 1. Name the metal ion (name in the periodic table) 2. Below is Cu2O because a charge for Cu is 1+ and for O is 2-, so we need 2 Cus to offset the -2

(example: Cu2O)

Copper

Compounds
Steps for Writing the Chemical Names of Ionic Compounds Containing a Multivalent Metal
2. Determine the charge of the metal (reverse flip-flop & drop)

-2

Compounds
Steps for Writing the Chemical Names of Ionic Compounds Containing a Multivalent Metal

3. Write the charge of the metal ion in Roman numerals in brackets after the metal.

+1

Compounds
Steps for Writing the Chemical Names of Ionic Compounds Containing a Multivalent Metal
4. Name the non-metal ion by ending the element name (from periodic table) with the suffix ide.

ide

Roman Numerals
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 I II III IV V VI VII VIII

Polyatomic Ions
Steps for Writing the Chemical Formula of a Compound with Polyatomic Ions

1. Identify each ion and its charge (hint: the Roman Numeral tells you the charge of the positive ion). Write the positive and negative ions. Hydroxide is hydrogen and oxygen and has a total ionic power of -1. (example: iron(III) hydroxide)

3+ Fe

1OH

Polyatomic Ions
Steps for Writing the Chemical Formula of a Compound with Polyatomic Ions

2. Below them, write the metal and nonmetal elements again, without the ion charges

3+

1-

Polyatomic Ions
Steps for Writing the Chemical Formula of a Compound with Polyatomic Ions

3. Flip-Flop & Drop

3+ 1 3

1-

Polyatomic Ions
Steps for Writing the Chemical Formula of a Compound with Polyatomic Ions

4. Use brackets around the polyatomic ion. Why??? Simplify the ratio (reduce subscripts by the common factor).

3
Note: 1 is not shown in subscript.

Polyatomic Ions
Steps for Writing the Chemical Formula of a Compound with Polyatomic Ions

Examples: lead(II) hydroxide: Pb2+ and OH= Pb(OH)2 ammonium carbonate: NH4+ and CO32=(NH4)2CO3

Polyatomic Ions
Common Polyatomic Ions: There are several polyatomic ions Refer to pg. 92 for a list of common polyatomic ions These do NOT have to be memorized!

How to Write Ionic Formulas


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=URc75h oKGLY To 6:10 min.

How to Write Polyatomic Ions


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p9iQ5Q n42DM Up until 4:10 min.

Naming Ionic Compounds containing a multivalent Metal


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLQUH mwB3dg To 5 min. or longer for naming which valent is used for a specific meta.

Physical Changes

Physical change: a change in matter when no new substance is formed


The appearance of the substance may change, but no chemical bonds are broken and no new bonds are formed During a physical change the properties of the substance do not change During a physical change there is a change in energy frozen water vs. liquid

Physical Change
Example: Heat energy is added to solid water (ice) in order for it to change to liquid water

Physical Changes
Examples of physical changes:
Ripping, cutting, grinding Dissolving Changes of state

Chemical Changes
Chemical change: a change in matter when
substances combine (or separate) to form new substances

These new substances have different properties as a result of the formation of new chemical bonds and/or the breaking of other chemical bonds During a chemical change there is a change in energy also.

Chemical Change
Evidence that a chemical change has occurred:
Color change Change in heat, light, sound Bubbles produced Precipitation produced

Chemical Changes
Examples:
explosions metal rusting

Energy Chemical and Physical Changes

Both chemical and physical changes are accompanied by changes in energy.


Two types of energy changes:

Exothermic: exo mean leaving


release energy of energy in the form of heat and/or light

Endothermic: endo mean entering


energy is absorbed

Chemical Reactions
Chemical reaction: a process that involves
chemical change

Chemical Reactions
in a chemical reaction one or more pure substances are changed into one or more new pure substances (reminder: elements and compounds are pure substances) this change is a chemical change (reminder: chemical bonds are broken or formed between atoms)

Example: iron + oxygen rust

Chemical Reactions
Chemical equation: uses chemical formulas to
describe the atoms/molecules that reacted and those that are produced Example: 2H2 + O2 2H2O plus sign (+) means react with arrow () means produces

Reactants: atoms/molecules present BEFORE the

Chemical Reactions

chemical reaction takes place and are on the LEFT side of the arrow in a chemical equation

Products: atoms/molecules present AFTER the

chemical reaction takes place and are on the RIGHT side of the arrow in chemical equation 2H2 + O2 2H2O Reactants Products

Chemical Reactions
Conservation of Mass and Atoms

Law of Conservation of Mass: what goes in must come out


Total mass of products equals total mass of reactants Number of atoms of elements that are reactants must equal the number of atoms of elements that are products Atoms of elements are conserved in a chemical reaction

Chemical Reactions
Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

Word equation: hydrogen + oxygen water Skeleton Equation:


chemical formula is correct but the number of atoms of elements that are reactants do NOT equal the number of atoms of elements that are products the below is incomplete and unbalanced it is a first step only.

H2 + O2 H__2__ O__2__

H20 H __2__ O__1__

Chemical Reactions
Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

Notice that the number of oxygen atoms is not equal on both sides we have 2 O on one side and 1 O on the other. This will not work out. In order to correct this we BALANCE equations

Balanced Equation: shows the number of each


atom/molecule in the chemical reaction

H2 + O2 H__2__ O__2__

H20 H __2__ O__1__

Chemical Reactions
How to Balance a Chemical Equation

1.

Begin with the SKELETON equation

H2 + O2 H2O (this is not balanced)

Chemical Reactions
How to Balance a Chemical Equation

2. Make a grocery list: list the atoms present on the reactants side and the products side

H2 H O

O2 ____ ____

H O

H20 ____ ____

Chemical Reactions
How to Balance a Chemical Equation

3. Count the number of each atom present and write this number beside the symbol

H2 H O

O2

H O

H20 __2__ __1__


Subscript: Small number to bottom right of an element symbol that tells you how many atoms of an element there are

Coefficient: Large number in front of the atom or molecule that tells you how many atoms or molecules there are

__2__ __2__

Chemical Reactions
How to Balance a Chemical Equation 4. Change the coefficients so that the number of atoms on the products side and reactants side equal (note: you can NEVER change the subscript number, only the coefficients)

__2__ H2 + ____ O2 H O 2x2=4 __2__

__2__ H20

H 2x2=4 O 2x1=2

Balancing Tips:
if O atoms appear in several different formulas then leave O until last if polyatomic atoms are on both sides, then leave as group dont count individual atoms

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q4WWi Am3nPM

Balancing Equations
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RnGu3xO2h74 until 4 min. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tz5SAGQZDj8 If at home and just cant figure this outheres another video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gskm-dfKv5g Still not getting it? Come see me M-F 7:45-8:30 or after school most days.