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K's Art

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Putting Things in Perspective


Backgrounds/Crowds

HOWTO DRAW MANGA: Putting Things in Perspective

by K's Art Copyright

O 1 997

K's Art

Copyright @ 1997 Graphic-sha Publishing Co., Ltd.


First designed and published in 1997 by Graphic-sha Publishing Co., Ltd. This English edition was published in 2002 by

Graphic-sha Publishing Co., Ltd.


1

-1 4-1

7 Kudan-kita, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 1 02-0073 Japan KatsuyaYamakami Hikaru Hayashi Maguro


Nobuko Yuuki Hideyuki Amemura

Production Production

director: manager: Background aftist: Finishing work artist: English title logo design: English edition layout: editor:

Shinichi lshioka Motofumi Nakanish (Graphic-sha Publishing C0., Ltd.)

English translation management: Lingua frdnca, lnc. (an3y-skmt@asahi-net.or.ip)

Japanese edition

Foreign language edition project coordinator: Kumiko Sakamoto (Graphic-sha Publishing Co., Ltd.)

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission 0f the publisher Distributed

lNC. 4-3 Kanda Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 0 -871 0 Japan Tel: +81-(0)3-3233-4083 Fax +81-(0)3-3233-4106
NIPP0N SHUPPAN HANBAI
1
1

by

Distributed Exclusively ln North America by Digital Manga Distribution 1123 Dominguez St., Unit "K"
Carson, CA 90746, U.S.A. Tel: (310)- 604-9701 Fax: (310)- 604-1134

E-mail:

nippan@netlaputa.ne.ip

E-mail: distribution@emanga.com URL:http://www.emanga.com/dmd/

Hrst printing: october 2002

S&i: 4-7661 -1 256-3 P-n-ed ard bound in China

Backgrounds indicate where characters are. They are drawn to illustrate places and situations.

A cut with only the character

A cut with the background included

. Example without background

l'm leaving

tor schooll

Vx
: :i ,: :::
:i:

Ah.1omebody

juet, aVpeared trom around

1...1

can't etopl

lhe cornerl

Oelter Lake a
ehor\cuLl

PITTER-PATTER

fr

ln this scene, a girl in a hurry collides with someone at a corner. The scene is much easier to grasp with the background.

. Example with background

/'1 .o 9.

Table of Gontents
lntroduction:Why Draw

Backgrounds?......,s .
.

How to create height ditferences

Raising and lowering the head

Chapter 1 Basics: Standing on the Earth


Begin Drawing Backgrounds

An easier way to draw crowds

.........1r Creating Effects by Changing

the

Gomposition of a Picture...........................s0

with a Single Horizon Line.......................12 r Drawing upward views r Three-point perspective drawing . Drawing manga is just like filming a r Ariel view of scenery Bird's-eye r Presentation: Long shots and

movie. close-ups

Vanishing point Simple way to pick a vanishing point

view

Making a group of buildings


in the distance look cool

How to Draw in One-Point

Perspective:

Perspective when the ground is curved

Let's Try Drawing while


Looki
n

Let's Draw Outer


......... ..................23

Space

........65

g at a Photog raph

r Drawings suited to one-point perspective . when to use two-point perspective Chapter 3 Distance of natural obiects: Tree-Lined Roads/ .......67 Light and Ghapter 2 Howto DrawTrees.. ....................,08 Drawing the r Drawing roadside trees From Everyday to 0uter Space...... ..................2g r Drawing atree-lined road

Outdoors: Scenery

Shadow/Sky

How to Draw a Roof

.,.......... .........30 n Drawing shrubbery ..............,......34 . Leaves of roadside trees How to Draw Slopes .........36 How to Draw Shad0ws.....................................72 How to Draw Forked Roads . Sunlight Drawing Houses - When the Vanishing Point is Far Away .......38 ' Light from streetlights and indoor lights Drawing a Gymnasium .................40
How to Draw Characters and

Backgrounds.....42 Etfective Use of Backgrounds

r r

Placing multiple characters

Slide

method

Basic concepts and techniques..............74

How to draw groups of students going to

or coming home from school

Ghapter 4

Chapter 5 Drawing lndoor Scenes How to Draw Backgrounds Hallways/Stairs/Small 0bjects...........7e Learning by

Doing.

..............10e
1

How to Make a Narrow Hallway Look Wide.....80 Classroom: How to Draw Desks.......................83

Process of Drawing Manga Backgrounds.,....1

1. 2.

Drawing a residential area Drawing a school

Common chair/desk composition and the horizon

Distance Between Characters and Walls .........88 How to Draw lndoor Scenes (Living room) ......90 1. Drawing the opposite wall 2. Drawing a rough sketch 3. Drawing a couch. 4. Drawing a table.

3. Pen drawing 4. Erasing and white correction


6. Adding tone 2 - School

fluid

5. Adding tone 1 - Residential area


Gomparison of Characters and Objects .........122

5.DrawingaWstand.
Drawing Small lndoor Objects .........................95

Ghapter 6 Special Etfects and Character Representation Using Perspective..l


Drawing Special Effect Lines and

25

Small objects on tables and desks Drawing without using perspective

Sound Words Using Perspective............. .............126 2 Creating a Greater Sense of Existence

.
r r

Small objects on tables and desks Drawing using perspective

How to draw cups: Circles on tables

Techniques.. ................129 Drawing with Perspective Rulers ....130


Using Minor

Drawing small objects


Using cellular phones as an example

Special Effects Usin g Perspective Techniques.....


Various wide

32

angles.

.......................135

Beds............ Drawing D00rs..........


Drawing

.................100 .................102

Examples/Changing Camera Ang|es....................1 36

Structure of doors
Opening doors Examples of open doors

. . .
r

Drawing

Stairs..........

.................105

Looking down a flight of stairs


Side view of stairs

. Distinguishing features of stairs

10

Chapter

Basics

Stondirg on the Eorrh

When you want to draw a picture with the main

character standing in a wasteland, draw a dividing line between the earth and the sky (horizon). All backgrounds begin with drawing of the horizon.

/i\
The expanse of the earth differs depending on the position of the horizon.

I /t,

Column: ln Japanese class, the dividing line between the earth and the sky is called chiheisen (horizon) and the dividing line between oceans and the sky is called suiheisen (horizon), but both

12

are referred to as suiheisen in drawing.

I \.\]

When drawing the horizon, pretend like you are filming a movie and think about where you will hold the camera.

ln manga, the height of the camera is the horizon.

Column:Why is the horizon on land also called suiheisen in drawing? lt is called suiheisen because it is a horizontal (suihei) line (sen).

13

Drawinq the horizon below (foot level) a character

--/ -=-::=>
Drawing the horizon at foot level expresses the expanse of the wasteland. This is a low-angled composition.

//Wi
Filming conditions

The character will float in the air when the horizon is drawn below foot level.

@ Dig a hole to film from ground

D
\
@ The edqe of a cliff is the height of the horizon

Drawing the horizon above

a character

Drawing the horizon above the head of a character creates the sensation of looking down on the character. The so-called bird's-eye view. This is a high-angteo composition.

.".:\\.-!1,,

,rz

Viewing height

Filming from radio-controlled airplane or stepladder

-;:-:ally looking down on person (bird,s_eye view of character) Bird's-eye view ard the horizon
When yoti take::'ii piciiire from'*ie nonnat

15

the horizon in a character


You draw the horizon somewhere between

the head and feet. This will create the most ordinary view.

Filming conditions

@ Low angle

16

This is often used in scenes with dialogue. Draw the horizon at eye level when a character is moving in this direction or for close-ups of the face.

. ftis "

is often used for full-body

strots. Draw the horizon at bust reight when drawing the

artire body (down to feet).

. -lis

is often used for dramatic :nesentation.

.^-

. lnaw the horizon below the


*rnees of a character when you

rant to make a strong


rnpression or give the picture i sense of depth or vastness.

Here a character between a close-up of feet in the foreground and a character in the distance create a good sense of depth.

Presentation: Long shots and cl


Think of the difference between long shots and close-ups as a difference in camera

work (presentation).

A cut using a long outdoor shot There isn't much need to think about the perspective of

small objects in
scenes using long shots.

Long shot...zoom oul

Close-up...zoom in

18

,-llose-ups are used

:r present hands or .nall objects.

G
@
:
-se a long shot when to illustrate lil:-irsfhing with an :,,:-all view. Use a : :se-up when you want :nrphasize one part.
r,t-- lvdflt

brp

rtdce-xf
rnqnifed;i',ir

rGEtss

orapstda:: rXrgdemgst

.lfiire

fii*angle
I"nnumn: Technically, wide angle is a word used in photography. A thicker lens than usual is used

an impressive etfect by making a picture extremely distorted.

to make

Vanishing point
The vanishing point is the point where all perspective lines c0nverge. A drawing technique that uses one vanishing point is called one-point perspective. There are also two- and three-point perspectives, but let's learn about the vanishing point using one-point perspective f irst.

Vanishing point

Photograph used for reference

Changing the position of the vanishing point changes how the sides look.

20

Column: When you draw a building, for instance, think about whether you want to see the building from the right or from the left. lf you want to see the building from the right, place the vanishing point in tire position shown in the right frame.

lagine you are taking

: cture. lf you stand directly in *cnt of your subject, the *anishing point is in the middle. " iou move to the right, the ,-rrishing point moves to the -,::t as well.

l
1\
| ..t

C
!

oo "-------r'

30

Side view

--s

is taken from the right side of the road. You can see more of the wall on the left side.

This is taken from the left. You can see more of the right side of the road.

'way to pick a
When you want to draw a simple building roof or other

objects behind characters, use one-point perspective. The vanishing point could be in a variety of positions, depending on the diagonal lines of your outline. Pick a vanishing point by choosing an angle you like.

Subject Completed drawing

1. Draw outline
ll

2. Draw horizon

;*' 't :1 -"


:

'il 'l ..{


ll , I

'll ,*-\

:-" *l*,
-("
\l
'r

3. Pick vanishing point

Column: 0nce you have picked a vanishing point, draw a rough sketch. lgnore the
other perspective lines of the outline and draw all the lines in the direction of just the one vanishing point. Regarding background and perspective, once you get used to this, you can begin drawing a rough sketch
by first picking a horizon and a

vanishing point when drawing the outline of the image.

Extend diagonal line of outline. The point where it meets the horizon line becomes the vanishing point.

:Whil0:'..l0okingr,,
ien drawing backgrounds,

01,,

,:
:

sts often refer to -:tographs that they

have

"..en. Perspective drawing is -, most efficient way to : -Juce a good drawing, so s get comfortable with it.

Reference photograph

sketch of the background and choose a horizon and

,,,'
-'
:

-; :hotograph while
- l ngs and the
-:ortant to grasp
picture.

a rough drawing depth lines

: :re

t:

-- .,:'all

'. - :-..oso the road


*.

,," :"awing the

,,r r--.Jfld, simplify r"-:parts


, -,; tid needs (note " - *: chotograph is

- :r

: 'lg

0n y0ur

, ": ':'reference

: L-r':nr Horizon and vanishing points

ln photographs the vanishing point is often not clear. It is important that you choose a clear horizon and vanishing point for your drawing.

23
'lh

ffi

Completed rough sketch

ffi

Ren drawing

Draw thin lines.

Start with the foreground. Make foreground lines bold and lines in the distance thin. Leave windows and other details for last. Contour lines Drawing thin non-contour lines creates a threedimensional etfect.

24

ffi

Completion of pen drawing, erasing and applying white-out

Erase completely after finishing the pen drawing. Correct protruding lines and other anomalies after erasing.

'* . c'ht feeling. - - :',,,,,in9 is complete.


,

.'

-se solid colors if you wantto create an overallwhite drawing Lighfly apply tone to shaded areas.

, .:cut where the light (sun)and shadows are when applying tone. ,r' ; ! .,,, tone is applied under the eaves and to the sides of buildings.
25

Drawings suited to one-point perspective

One-point perspective is short for "one-point perspective drawing." This technique is suited to drawing indoor scenes and creating a sense of depth.

Road (main road and side roads, etc.)

Road with wall and buildings with windows, etc.

Vanishing point

ln a one-point drawing, you can only see the front of an object when the vanishing point comes from within the object,

27

When to use two-point perspective


Two-point perspective drawing is a technique suited to creating a three-dimensional effect or a demanding presence. Use twopoint perspective drawing when there are many building standing side by side or when you can see two sides of buildings.
0ffice buildings drawn with one-point perspective

Office buildings drawn with two-point perspective

Use a long shot when you want to illustrate something with an

overall view. Use a close-up when you want to emphasize one pafi.

vanishing point

28

2 DrqwingtheOffint
Chopter
Frcm hrerydoyScenety ilo Outer Spqce

Think of a roof as being on top of box.Anybody ciraw a roof as

a -71\ can R

li:iff',i:t<nowQffil
how the eaves
overhang.

ffi
The "center" of the wall

--.

ln the case of a square, the point where the two

diagonal lines

diagonal lines intersect is the center.

Roof height

Draw a vertical line from the center of the wall. lt can be whatever length you prefer (the longer it is, the steeper the angle of the roof will be). Slanted line

,r

Corner of wall

. Connect the slanted lines with the wall


GOrnerc.

and the ranishing point and then :rtend the line.

ink this corner

The line drawn straight to the side of the apex of the roof makes the roof look more realistic. Supplementary line

liwnsring point

line

parallelto

the slanted line on this side of the roof.

'

',I

Draw line @ from the point of intersection of lines @ and @.

Draw line @ right along the center.

,6@
Line @ can be drawn only after the supplementary line @ has been drawn.

Thickness lines are right angles to the slanted lines.

at

Judge the length witf

your eyes.

Ditferent types of roofs

1=

Draw shadows under the eaves.

/0u can draw these kinds of roofs with this technique.

urr-.ll

in the samurai house style.

Create a vanishing point for slopes in addition to the normal vanishing point on the horizon line. Buildings are drawn based on the normal vanishing point, while slopes are based on the slope vanishing point.

.i..*:-

Slope vanishing Point Drawn inconectly

t ar, ,<

(B 'l {

When you draw two vanishing points veftical to each other, make sure they are on a straight veftical line. Slope vanishing point

.&/

Draw buildings in one-point, perspective using the normal vanishing point.

Points where vertical building lines and the road (slope) intersect. The extended lines that link these points and the vanishing point become tht lines for the floors (foundations) of buildings.

Guardrails are located on the edges of roads, so their lines converge on the slope vanishing point.

Floor line of the building

Uphill slope vanishing point

----.Houses are not built slanted

Fiil Road line

ic'a,rhill slope

:rshing point

For downhill slopes, place the downhill slope vanishing point below the horizon.

is impoftant to draw a foundation so that the house will stand straight up. Express a slope by the difference between the road line and the floor line of the building.

)eate a vanishing point for slopes in addition to the normal


renishing point.

lrnurm: Characters on slopes

Draw characters above the horizon as if you were looking up at them and characters below the horizon as if you were looking down on them.

35

Think of a forked road as an intersection of two roads with differing vanishing points.
Aerial photograph

Vanishing point A of a

straight road
Vanishing points B
C

To vanishing point A

and

of branching

roads

To vanishing

Point B

Roads B and C intersect at a right angle

O Choose road vanishing points


@ Draw roads from each vanishing point

BA

hamnlinuation

The closer the road is to the horizon, the narrower it will look, so be careful not to make roads B and C too wide.

Buildings stand along the road, so the road vanishing point serves as the perspective.

Vanishing point

What do you do when the vanishing point of the building you want to draw is located off the paper? There are three things you can do.

Add paper 2. Use a copier 3. Draw guidelines


.

'1

4.'

D-Attach temporarily with masking tape, etc.

Draw a rough sketch in a size that is easy

@ Make an enlarged copy

to draw

Use a copier to enlarge the rough sketch to the desired size.

@ Trace

Put tracing paper or transparent PPC (copy) paper over the enlarged rough sketch and draw with pen.

JO

lte

3nce you have decided on the outer border of building, partition the vertical lines.

@ Link each partition point

@ Start drawing using the lines as a guide

gw

loilumn' One trick is to draw the partition lines using yellow or blue colored pencits (yellow and blue wiil not show up when printed). rt is usua[y on one side
or the other that the vanishing point becomes so far away that you cannot reach it with a ruler.

l i

3ei

When drawing a building, capture

the distinctive features of the


building. Draw wide

buildings like a
gymnasium using two-point perspective.

Distinctive features of gymnasiums Exterior: Many are wide and have a round roof. lnterior: Spacious. Try to present them in a way that makes them look spacious.

@ Find the apex of the arc

Give the gymnasium shape

@ Draw the roof using an oval template

When giving the gymnasium shape, enclose the roof portion in a box. How to align the oval template:
The type of oval you choose depends 0n your

preferences and the image you have of the roof.

,Mne

fie floor and wails big to express the spaciousness

and height of tne

nullng.

When you draw a scene close to a wall, create the atmosphere of a gymnasium by including windows near the floor, protective bars on windows and other distinctive objects.

You can present a wide-open space by putting the

floor lines higher and drawing windows smafler.


41

When drawing backgrounds, the size of characters is very impoftant. Here you will learn how to draw a background from the perspective of characters.

,,1

a
V

^/H

Sense of distance of characters standing in a straiqht line


Let's try figuring out the vanishing point and horizon from the wall drawn behind these characters standing in a straight line.

&
I

v
I

o. MI \)v
The three characters are Pretty

much in a straight line when seer

from above.

The horizon is the same height as the

-*

face of Girl A. These three characters are standing in a straight line, so even if there is
a height difference between the characters, the relationship of the other two characters is like that shown in the side view. When viewed from the side, GirlA is the only one that fits in with the background.

t
Vanishing poi

1. Link the feet of GirlA with the vanishing point. 2. Since the three characters are standing ir

straight line, move the other two character to the same line as GirlA.

42

Vanishing point

/
ff:
characters on the same perspective line in a straight line.

-\-

Perspective line

43

lacing multiple characters

Slide method

1. Draw the original character. 2. Choose an appropriate vanishing point, link it to the character and

draw characters in front of and behind the original character.

Note:All the characters are the same height

You can choose any number

of vanishing points for

placing characters.
Choose a vanishing point near the

original character.

0riginahharacter
Y
I

- - -1- - - - - -

,,t

--

-L - - - *- - - -- -

New vanishing

point

New vanishing point

Randomly choose vanishing points

lL

Column: Place multiple characters by slidint'one character. You can think of it as placement by
reproduction/movement.

oraw one character


Drawing groups of characters can be quite difficult. lf you don't draw them carefully, characters can look like they are floating or sinking or they will not fit in with the
background.
Process:

1. Draw a character around which the other characters will

be based. 2. Choose a horizon and vanishing point and draw a rough sketch of the background. 3. Based on the first character you drew, begin placing all the other characters from the vanishing point (this is called the slide method). 4. Lastly, draw the background.

fte

other characters will be drawn based

rn the first character.

Column: lt does not matter if the background changes a little later on. When drawing the first character, it is important to choose the horizon and vanishing point, which are the core of the picture.

Draw a short horizontal line where you want to put the character.

t_*w
View from above Supplementary line to lind the"

When you want to draw a character behind the first character

Column: Standing directly in front of or directly behind is the same as standing in a straight line. This is called "characters on the same line."

T-c

domly place characters

View from above

tu -:'r you want to place .:"-acters like this and not - . sfaight line, there are i,r : #0!S to do it.

0riginal character

Where you want to new Vanishing poinl


:

Lll
Camera

J=-

r, ::'zcter on this line will m with the lilTmiil?:?r in relation to the

'':

original ---{\

be

road.

',

Sliding backward and fonruard-Draw placement vanishing point

@ Parallel translation and sliding backward and fonruard-0n the basis of dummy

Draw a placement vanishing point a

little to the left of the originat

/& _--_FI]l-i:_
lt

vanishing point.

i{Y (l_---T_--i' \ l:4. '\i( l-/

*/"ry
i I

)t)
II
I}

j* -- ptacement
:

Sliding from the new vanishing point

Slide the original character into a parallel position (height is the same).

.'\t II f I
near the dummy.

vanishing

Point

-r--

Put a placement vanishing point

47

i1;,l}ttK-

Column: For scenes of students going to school, place blocks of two or three students walking side by side anc place a single student behind, in front of or beside them.

48

,-4

'':

rn;yl'il,H:iliT:iy,:f";t'rs

in tne

toiesr;nd,;;;

i;;; l;A;;;;;;i;i;i;;t|1;
49

How to create height ditferenceS


All the characters will be the same height if you just slide backward and
fonruard and use parallel

Raising and towering the head

A human head is about 30 cm (11.81 in.). Use a height of 160 cn (5.25 ft.).

+20 cm (+7.87 in.)

sliding. When you want to express height differences, do so by raising and lowering the head, leaving the feet as they are.

-30 cm
(-11.

Bl

in.)

+15 cm (+5.91 i"

0ne.hef,d shorter Height about 130 cm

2i3 head longer


Height about 18,

\ll characters are the same height,

t,.6o

r*

lg*m ,'/

180 cm = 5,90 ft. 160 cm = 5.25 ft. 150 cm = 4.92 ft. 130 cm = 4.27 ft.

Not good

Good

"--"***^ z1
|

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"48' i

Y rTvl 1i:r
,.-.*

\/I *

r-***-r"I

.a

-.; - *.*-l*-.1
.L

'ii. :fii

.-i-

Raising and lowering the feet make a character float or sink.

50

Column: Give each person in a crowd a different direction and different clothes to make a picture come alive.

An easier

to draw crowds
Draw various sized heads

-:. Then draw the bodies using the heads :: a measure of each person,s height.
Cut with rough image of background

- '.,,v various sized heads on the horizon

r.

Horizon

ffi,.orno.

Measure the length of the head and multi to get the total length of the character. Multiply by five if the

headto-body ratio is 1:5 and multiply by six if the head-to-body ratio is 1:6.

Length of head

Reference: ln the case of a headto-body ratio of 1:ti

Note:Always multiply the head length by the same number for all characters.
All are multiplied by different number. ln this drawing, heights were determined using the same head-to-body ratio before individual differences in head-to-body ratio were added.

After the total length has been determined, balance the characters to taste.

All are multiplied by

five. Good

Characters drawn with a head-to-body

Head-to-body ratio of 1:5

Headto-body ratio of 1:6

3,ack

for bust shots of characters

,-:':
.

-=^ drawing backgrounds for bust shots of characters, draw the body of the character even if it won't all appear in the

--; ^eight

--'e.

of the building door and guardrail should be drawn in

Rough image

I i,.,
Edge of sidewalk (road side)

Drawing building on right inino heioht of

door

Perspective representing the edge of the building

line \

-----t ----'-l

I
I

Slide character horizontally (draw dummy)

Perspective line indicating height of door (2 m)

2m

\'

'

1.8 m

;, " rrrcnize the illlill,."= :f the


,":3ter
ll
I

*-*.t
door=2m(6,56ft,)
(adult male)

= 1,8 m (5.90 ft.)

The height 0, the door is about one head higher than the characler

lilll ,:

j'ound and
a dummy.

Column: Synchronize the scale of the character and the background. When drawing the
background, clearly show how high background parts are above the ground. When you

-: --lllllti

tf. 1

:fiaracter

try to do it by eye, you end up with doors that are too big or houses that are to small in relation to the character.

ng guardrail 1 nining height of guardrail

I\

I .ll

,'

t,a lt

'

l\

:
1

tl,t\

',;*'; {\
i l:

J: i1

t,
\
\

\
l
j

-'t

o Slide the character to the edge of the


I

The height of the guardrail is a little above the thighs

@ Draw a supplementary line horizontally


at a little above thigh height.

@ You get the right guardrail heig' in relation to the size of the character.

ng guardrail 2 rail poles at even intervals


@ Draw a supplementary line.

@ Determine the position of

,f

\,Third

pole

\
/The interval between
guardrail poles is uniform.
You are free to choose any

,ono*

or

second pole Divide at 1i2 the height Supplementary line in direction of vanishing point.

'll2 supplementary @ Determine positions


of remaining poles.

interval.

54

JJJ

==2,

Do not use perspective drawing

indiscrim inately when drawing long shots of buildings and upward and downward views, etc. Simple ideas can create large effects.

Drawing upward views


ical two-point perspective When drawing an upward view, assume the location from the

placement of buildings in a rough sketch. The technique you will use is veftical twopoint perspective.

Cut based on proposal 2

building

Character

ffi

tb
1,,fr,,1
Location proposal 2

G
D

E
Characl

er

Street

A
56

c
"*,1

_il
3$
i

k'edtbpotut
illt@s ranishing point:

illtlwvanishing

in

and drawings the vanishing point is always placed on the norizon and objects
tw_o-point perspective
perpe
nd

Generally, in one_point perspective

r@As
ffi&m

was vani

icu rai

are. placed near the top and picture

two-point perspective, tne vanisfrrng

iil;

iffi:T

i:TJ".J

ji ,'

Ootto*iiinu"

;inh

\
.

tr..'\

--xr
"r"'\ .,...."\ I
!\ ''...\"

\ . \\ \\\

\\X
\\/ \

two-point

/'.,, I .'r1..'{l,,.#rr, \
I

I lt 1 , /\ ,-, i il !11 ,l li-''*':'l b


it
/ '*

,,

'--i

g';g--r-:n
picture ispracedon

":-:.-:;:i{S{,::--

-ffi1 I

Fil)=Q';:".+f

itssiol"""'"

,y1;33,:il,i:{i.li;ffi;;;H::[#:?l,lHJ:,#T::, ano'oown-ai;;,Xffi,ffise ]/'u are stopping ano


lookins up

fu

Three-point perspective drawing


-,',0-point perspective is a technique for creating a cubic effect by giving a sense of - stance to the left and right of a picture.

- three-point perspective, a third vanishing point is added to give a sense of : stance to height. Unlike one-point and two-point perspectives, the usual vedical ,-i parallel lines are not present.ln addition, the horizon line and vertical lines
-

::rsect perpendicularly.

,fu w
j

Two-point perspective

Three-point perspective allows you to draw powedul pictures.

Aerial view of scenery


Bird's-eye view When drawing a bird's-eye view and the horizon is not visible, there is no perspective (vanishing point). Draw

buildings parallel lengthwise


and crosswise.

Do not think too much

about perspective in bird's-eye view pictures.

Skyscrapers

For placement o{ buildings,

try.drawing-a map
r:,:::::

terill0i!0llpqf$:$rtelpsiilaralr*Iei,g&d$-6_:i,]
:i:lgri{r.c$rt*ixll,ber::]r:,:l:::i:':iii::ii:
ti.;lrt: :!,:,::::r:i::,::r,;ii::rr:::,,,. -r'.1-.rr...-..,

:nOii'iielg$iiSgi:
!.ri&i?,0ii1&:::i:i::il

column: when drawing a bird's-eye view of scenery using one-point perspective, freely place the vanishing point in accordance with the objective of the piciure or the composition.

61

Making a qroup of buildinqs in the distance look cool


When drawing a group of buildings in the distance, reduce the of the buildi

Reducing the depth of buildings is effective when the main subject is in the foreground and the buildings are used for pure scenery in the background.

Reference:Town in the distance

This

ofa

an obiec't is the less thieK

When drawing a line of buildings using one-point perspective,

making the width (depth) of buildings narrower eliminates the cramped feeling.

6ct*
Draw objects far away with thin lines. For lines that run into characters, draw them thin as if they fade away and do not make contact with the character.

There is a big difference even then the frames are the same size and the vanishing points are in the same position. Buildings drawn with reduced width Buildings drawn with normal width

Column: When you want to avoid drawing a confusing group of buildings in a long, narrow frame, draw buildings as if they were in the distance using narrow depth lines.

when the
Distorted ground used for dramatic presentation can be used in a picture where you

is curved

are looking up from a low place. Place the vanishing point in

the middle directly above the picture.

Groupff:huildinge

; Wfien,dnwin

usins,

vertieal'hrrro.pint perspective

View from above

The amount of distortion of the curved surface depends on ndividual sensitivity. Draw freely. ln fie case of a group of buildings, rse vertical two-point perspective.

,'lhen depicting outer space in manga, compose pictures r a way that creates a sense of distance.

" Paft of a large planet


foreground

in the

Many small stars in the distance ln the middle, place planets ihat are just big enough for ,,ou to can discern their :atterns.

splatter white conection fruid for the dots representing very sma, stars.

How to splatter correction fluid

Dots will be large if you do it away from the paper.

Dots

will

be

a7o
a

a
Put oil-based correction fluid on tip of pen

small if you do it close to the


paper.

@ Ftick with brush column: correction fruid wi, spratter in the generar vicinity, so put tape around the manuscript and frame to mask;;;.'

65

Making planets realistic

Use a template for

planet circles.

otE
( )-:

03E
(-)o3
,--, (J 3 ! : !-r-, /--\ 3
Give planets a touch of color and apply tone to make them round

Representation of outer space


Present the depth and

ooi

and to make them look heavy.

mysteriousness of outer space using special tone patterns and applying layers of tone.

Chqpter 3 Disiqnce of Notu rul


Oblects
Tree-lined Roqd slljght ond Shodow/Sly

Drawinq roadside trees


To draw roadside trees

planted at even intervals, choose the positions of the first and second trees and use the technique to an even interval. Think of tree trunks as poles,

Side view

Draw one tree

@ Draw supplementary
line.

) Choose interval
between trees.

lir,

ta....
Draw vanishing point and
Place on sidewalk slightly

away from road line.

@ Draw "pole" for


second tree.

supplementary lines connecting it with tip of the tree and the base.

Mark the spot where you want to plant the next tree.

@ Turn into trees.

.i
Second tree

,;' ,',
a

@ Determine where to plant the


rest of the trees.

.I
Fourth tree

Draw trees by fleshing out the poles.

Column:When drawing roadside trees and tree-lined roads, first clearly sketch the road and sidewalk. (Needless to say, you need a vanishing point and horizon.)

lraw a line of trees on ,re side of the treered road and slide it to

@ Draw a perspective line where the trees will


be placed.

::e opposite side.

Draw a line of trees on one side of the road.

Perspective line where trees will be placed

7
Perspective line for road

tl
1' ---'-'

@ Slide to the opposite side.

The trick is to raise veftical lines from the rerspective line where trees will be placed.

Golumn:This technique can also be used for drawing opposiig doors in condominiums and hotels and opposing windows on trains.

69

.w.

Drawing shrubbery
Shrubbery can be round or square. lt is best to

simplify it.

Square type

ooo
Round type

r
:

Think of square shrubbery as a rectangular parallelepiped in perspective.

Like tree-lined roads, round shrubbery is often planted at even intervals.

l
6't
A tree consists of leaves and a trunk.

''s.

shrubbery, think about how

light is hitting them.

There is no need to draw everything. ln the case of both trunks and leaves, do not draw the parts with light hitting them. Think about the direction of the light and draw the shadowed parts. Give the trunk the feel of a trunk and leaves the feel of a leaf.

kEler@-L@tesE

:;:, nese

parasol/Maple

i'-\)44 : Y/
!^ \v//

$.

1--l-**
Sycamore

iN)N'\ \( \N)
t\

CherrylZelkova

ffiffi
AurNS,
@

g"
Example: Roadside trees drawn close together

Chinaberry/False acacia

Example: Boadside trees drawn far apaft

T-

l{ow, ..hi
1;. r:urself the following
: - :S-rrons when drawing

had6illlsii.,iiii.....i

Shining from directly above: Shadow is short (around noon).


Shadows could be various shapes depending on the shape of the ground and the presentation.

:-n qlt coming from?"

:* j[o''vS. 'What is the light -: -'ae?" "What direction is

Shining from an angle: Shadow is somewhai long.


[0rcr']-rng

or evening:

SiirEi,ow is long.

--:
: :

-,,r8I the sun is, the

:" :te shadow will

be.

qI

Evening sun

\-t

++
East 18:00 16:00
14:00

-.*=
West 6:00

The lengths of shadows created bY sunlight are t:4^-^-r different depending on the

time of day.
When drawing shadows in manga, choose the length and direction of shadows
by thinking about what time of the day it is.

Shadows

Sunlight

below eaves

solid.
summer

Make them
't,:,',',,,,.',,t'.,'.,

Rays are weak in spring and fall. so shadows are also

kht

dagnnal lines.

Use tone and

Tle rays of the sun reach

Shadows are in line with the rays of the sun.

te

ea'tir as oarallel lines.

Shadows formed by small objects

Perspective is
used for

shadows created by artificial light.


Dlace the
When light source is above, shadow is short.

ranishing point r the center of a streetlight and


determine the shape of the shadow by

lonnecting it ,,rith the object

:eing Iit.

When light source is above and to the side, shadow is long.

Shadow formed by florescent light is faint.

When there are two sources of light, two shadows appear.

The candle is emitting light in alt

directions. Shadows are formed in perspective to the center of the flame.


The shadows are faint since the light

itself is not very bright.

At the heafi of this matter is how to place objects. Draw objects in the foreground bigger and objects in the
background smaller,

and place mid-size objects between


them.

For rain in t-own,'diaw

buildings and shadows in


a free-hand using shorl Iines.

t"-- i,i
flwfl$rlj'

lur,l_lr,,"ll
rl

l'

Technique for solid parts

Gradate parts in the distance. Use slanted lines

Draw trees and other objects using slanted lines.


:i#r-*_.li=lr_-

drawn free hand.

Add rain lines using white correction fluid on solid pafts.

Rivers
Draw rivers using the techniques for drawing
roads. Choose a
Vanishing point

Horizon

vanishing point and draw free hand.

Normal river
(use technique for straight road)

Use two vanishing points for

meandering river.

1;-*:'-

Technique for river surface

Add touches with pen in

accordance with the direction and skength of &e current.

)epending on the clouds, keep perspective in mind when drawing them.

Perspective and natural objects


You can use the concept of perspective without alteration

for drawing rivers, rnountalns and other foreground objeets tlmt move ofi into the distance.

'

with a sense of distance or any object you want to give a sense of distance.

77

Various

Scratch with the tip of a cutter.

Cumulonimbus Blur by cutting out, erasing with


a sand eraser and shaving.

Setting

sun

Apply layers of tone and shave.


iii:,,ti1ll|;tiiltl:iiitii,iiiitit

78

Chopter 4 Drcrwing Indoor Scenes


Ho I lwoys/Silo

its/ Smq ll Obiects

There are two ways to make a hallway in a narrow frame look wide.

Draw using irregular two-point perspective.

"

';,:",11

\:4..'l rrlt

t,,,,,,fi,tr ::,lil.

s#
|Z/Y'

\i.,,/,f \
:l

.l

I ,.lli tl:1:::I1
t+:....:l:::!l

\i:{:i}/
l:/r';Altl

,T,1,,/

t:i,H

0.Y."E)

m
Hallway drawn using regular one-point perspective

@ Widen hallway

Method to widen hallway

Vanishing point for right

wall

Vanishing point for left wall

[Jse rregular two-point


cerspective when the ,',,'rr of the hallway is fued due to the setting.

-re farther

apart the two points are, the wider the space will be.

Narrow space
When you reverse the points the

Wide space

walls are drawn from, it


becomes narrower than

one-point
perspective (when the two points are close together).

Draw the right wall from the right point and the E left wall from the left

The closer the two points are, the closer it will be to one-point perspective.

: rr *

point.

I
-se when you want to create tension or . :'3SSUre.

E.

lrregular two-point perspective is a technique used to emphasize buildings in the foreground.


Use this technique when drawing dead ends and T-shaped junctions.

o This technique is often used

for drawing the background when you want to put the character in the center.
should end before and after the vanishing points. (unique to this technique)
Example: Dead ends, three-forked roads,

When drawing scenery alone, buildings

insides of cars and airplanes, etc., that serve as a background to characters.

When using this technique for T-shaped junctions, draw a wall or house directly ahead (on the horizon).

Character background/Town

Example: T-shaped junction

82

lrregular two-point perspective comes in handy when you want to make a narrow space (hallway, etc.) look wide or make a scene in a narrow frame Iook wide.

i:i.iii

83

A character sitting at a desk in class. First imagine the composition you want and

draw a rough sketch.

View from above

Rough sketch Find the vanishing point from the shoulder line of the character and the desk line.

Vanishing point
\]"'J*xqa !\.

\
r..

Shoulder

The horizon is determined after the vanishing point

has been determined.


After finding the vanishing point, draw a line directly to the side.

A character sitting at a desk. The character, chair and desk are usually parallel to each other.

Not drawn in perspective

You may draw round c,mers free hand, but trey will lmk sharper you I use an ovartemprate.

(6) \__/-.
be visible.

]0,

:1.0.r,0

arso draw the parts that

wiil not

The height of the

chair is about half that of the


desk.

i
t
Draw straight from around this

.L
t_egs angle oui

Side view

slightly.

85

Common chair/desk composition and the horizon

Vanishing point

rii:.

Horizon

The distance

between a character and a wall is represented


by the relationship between the position of the

character's feet
and that of the floor line.

Near the wall

{<
.')/, //,

R
lndicate the presence of a wall by drawing a shadow.

lraw

a line separating the ceiling and walls.

Give the wall a sense of presence by drawing shadows on both the floor and wall.

lraw a window

or bookshelf behind a character.

Use shadows and the room layout to create a

sense of distance between characters and walls.

89

When you want to draw a room with a person sitting on the couch

watching TV as seen from one wall, staft by drawing an outline of the


r00m. Draw the opposite wall and draw a door, the ceiling, the floor and walls on either side. Then draw furniture and the person.

You are standing

Room plan

here with camera

in hand.
Ceiling height

240-270cm

-*

270 cm 240 cm

160 cm 150 cm

80 cm

Side VIEW

Relationship between person, camera and ceiling


270 cm = 8.86 ft. 240 cm =7.87 fi. 160 cm = 5.25 ft. 150 cm = 4.92 tt. 80 cm = 2.63 ft.

Staft by drawing this wall

1. Drawinq the

ite wall

Draw shape of wall.

Draw wall lines from four corners.

@ Draw door so it
looks natural relative to the ceiling.

The room may be any width you choose.


Since the view is that of a standing person, draw the horizon at about j50 cm. Placing the vanishing point a little to the left or right of center will make the

picture look better.

I'l

o The ceiling, floor and sidewalls are drawn using lines coming from the vanishing

point and passing through the corners.

. Draw a perspective line on the left and right walls that are the same height as
@ Determine horizon
and vanishing point based on the height of the door.

column:The perspective line that is the same height as the door acts as a guide for
determining the height of furniture. Drawing a perspective line with a distinct height is the key to drawing backgrounds in both indoor and outdoor pictures

the door.

90

2. Drawino a rouoh sketch

I
,,

l'aw the interior

on the basis of the plan.

Reference: Completed drawing with character

Draw a projection.

80 cm = 31.5 in. 40 cm = 15.75 in. 25 cm = 9.84 in. 15 cm = 5.90 in.

@ Draw thickness.

@ Draw shape.
Vanishing point

Determine the height of the couch based on the 150-cm wall line (same as height of horizon in this drawing). Determine the thickness from this,

Create the overall shape of the couch by connecting the

vanishing point and the top of each vefiical line.

150 cm = 59.06 in. 80 cm = 31.5 in. 70 cm = 27.56 in.

Make corners and edges round to make it look like a couch.

92

l:al'r a projection.
Vanishing point

Determine height.

Height is about half that of the couch.


80 cm = 31.5 in. 40 cm = 15.75 in.

/, th the table against the wall, :;lermine the height of the table -:m the height of the couch.

@ Add thickness.

When drawing the legs, also draw the portions that will not be visible.

93

5. Drawinq a TV stand

Like the couch and table, start by drawing a projection.

Determine the thickness and width in relation to the couch drawn earlier (they do not have to be as exact as the depth and height).

Looking at the floor plan, draw it in Iine with the table, for instance. Completed drawing

Column:Draw indoor scenes using one-point perspective. (Two-point perspective is not used very often.)

Small objects on tables and desks


-.erspective

)rawing without using

not show this portion.


1

/)

,,,

a scene where one side (or o corners) of a table is not

, s ble, draw without using


:

"'spective.

Show this part of the table.

Small objects on tables and desks

2 Drawing using perspective

Use perspective for drawing objects when the edges of the table or desk visible.

Small objects on a table drawn using onepoint perspective each have their own vanishing point on the horizon line (they all share the same horizon line).

Tables are often drawn using one-point

perspective, but objects on a table seldom use the same vanishing point as the table.

How to draw cups


Circles on tables
Horizon

lncorrectly drawn When the top of the table and the horizon line are close, use an oval that looks like this.

Thin ovals Iook like are often used for long shots. Long shots are used for explanatory scenes with almost the entire body of a character and background.
lncorrectly drawn

When the top of the table and the horizon line are far apaft, use an oval that looks like .

Horizon

B@
0vals that are almost circles are often used for close-ups. Close-ups are used when you want to make a strong impression or you want to magnify something.
The farther away the circle is from the horizon line, the closer it becomes to being a perfect circle. Draw the bottom oval of cans, etc., round.

K/ \7

BB
98

Drawing small

,bfits--_l
I

Using cellular phones as an example


Drawn using one-point perspective

When drawing small objects made up of squares, simply draw all vertical and horizontal lines parallel to each other.
Drawn using two-point perspective

ffi
ff$

The shapes of small objects will not look good if the vanishing point is not pretty far
away.

Use one-point perspective when perspective is

used from the standpoint of presentation.

99

You do not normally think very much about

perspective when drawing beds. When drawing a character sleeping on a bed, think of the cubic effect of the person's
body.

\tN -1-r,rr ;/ //lll\ l_< ll, r/


l[,

,,9 "

Build a simple model when it is difficult to come up with the cubic effect of the mattress and person.

A doll made with a marble,

ballpoint pens and an eraser was laid down on a handkerchief mattress. Tissue paper was used for the covers.

Column: Use perspective when you want to create an impressive effect.

100

101

When drawing open doors, place separate vanishing points for the frame and the
door.

When viewed from above, draw a circle with the axis


as the center.

/ffi
,'

\_v
@,,

The doorknob is in the center.

The doorknob is on the left.

l"
V
I

-\

\l+

r\, l /f-'+
I

#
I

l,'re 1\i
\

ing height i40 cm

240 cm = 7.87 fi. 180 cm = 5.90 ft. 160 cm = 5.25 ft. 80 cm = 2.63 ft.

Determining door width . Start drawing the width ol the door from the side with the doorknob. o Make the width of a door drawn in
perspective slightly nanow.

_t
:Make the distance between the top of the door and the ceiling about B0 cm, which is about half the height of the character.

Draw the door as seen from straight on.

@ Draw the door open at 1B0o


angle.

of the height and draw the door as seen from straight on.

No matter what the perspective of the door you want to draw is, make it look like this when you draw an open door.

O Draw an oval (locus of

door).

@ 0pen the door.

Draw an oval that passes through the apexes representing the corner of the door. (l-he oval path the door travels when opened.)

Draw the bottom door line indicating how far the door is
open.

Top of axis

@ You get an open

door drawn in perspective. Vanishing point of

opendoor

Door locus

Door

vanishing

,,'

f/

lil

Horizon

I
I

@
Vanishing point of open door

Vanishing point of open door

-r_

/=
The door vanishing

Upper vanishing

point

point is far
away.

Move the vanishing point to the left when you want to

--l

make it look like


you are up from the left.

^ ,rrhlL

Draw supplementary line for inclination.

lnclination vanishing point

//

toinctinatidon vantshing point

@ Draw width.

Like slopes, draw stairs using two vanishing points. ffhe normal eyelevel vanishing point and a vanishing

Determine step height.

point for determining the inclination of the


stairs.)

Vanishing point

line for determining step width. Width line comes from here

Stairs are drawn in one-point perspective using two vanishing points and two supplementary lines.

105

:Vanishing point (eye-level ; vanishing point)

Always draw the width line from the eye-level vanishing


point. Draw the parts that will not visible as well.

Loddng down a

-- .x

-: -orizon when you

of there being

:-, r, stairs from the


coking down. -'.,,, them using two-point

:::

t, i. i
-I

,"-.1L /t* *&.

.' f}

/,

'.::'ral :* "r:eCtive.

l''0'iurnn You cannot see the horizon in a picture looking down a flight of stairs because of the composition of the picture.

107

When drawing a side

view of stairs, there is no need for an inclination vanishing point. Just pay attention to the eye-level vanishing point and
horizon.

The angle of inclination of the handrail and that of the stairs are the same.

Difference in appearance depending on viewing location in relation to vanishing point Left of vanishing point

Difference in appearance depending on viewing location in relation to horizon Right of vanishing point

Above Vanishing point

horizon . Cannot see


upper surface

Above horizon

Below horizon Right of vanishing point . Can see height of steps

Left of vanishing point

Can see width of steps

Below horizon . Can see upper surface

Chopter 5

Howto Drqvn
Bockgrounds
leoming by Doing

-1"

Let's say you have a name and a character for your manga. All that is left to do is draw the backgrounds. Let's take a look at the actual process of drawing manga backgrounds using perspective.

Draw town scene here (residential area).

Proposal draft ('neemu' in Japanese)

Draw school here.

1'10

- ihe case of manga, you

-::er *-

-:_rally draw the frame at the left or the top row first. s helps keep the page from

:;:ring messy.

Reference photograph

Determine horizon and vanishing point.

Vanishing point

= Draw

road.

lolumn: when drawing, mask the frames you are not working on with paper to keep them as possible. clean
as

111

Draw buildings on the left.

Determine the height of the show window and other buildings by sliding the character over.

Raise the character to the level of the

sidewalk. .*.- 240 cm


----

240 cm = 7.87 ll. 220 cm =7.2211. 200 cm = 6.56 ft. 190 cm = 6.23 ft. 180 cm = 5.90 ft. 160 cm = 5.25 ft.

200

cm

190 cm

220cn
180 cm 160 cm

Think of the street entrance of the building as being 2 meters high and the show window as being 2.4 meters high. Use the character as a guide when determining the size of the building, i.e., the height of the character plus number of heads.

The height of the show window is between 200 and 240 cm

r-

@ Draw buildings on the right

Slide the character to the right and determine the height of the vending machine, which will be used as the basis for

Height of yending machine

When there is a sidewalk, raise ffie dummy to the level of tie sidewalk.

180 cm

y,l?t,i:H[i :3'Jffi 111,.,

t--i ** -'-\- ....\


180 cm = 5.90 175 cm =5.74fL 160 cm = 5.25 ft. lfi) cm = 3.28 fi80 cm = 2.63 ft.

ft

180 cm

Comparison of character and vending machine

Reference photograph

m
Next is a school. There

will be no character in the


scene, but start by dr'awing the foundation and a dummy character.

Draw a character next to the school and determine the horizon and vanishing point.

O-t

Draw horizon at eye level (middle of ground{loor window). O-2 Extend sloping line in rough sketch to get vanishing point (point of intersection with horizon line).

300 cm = 9.84 ft. 280 cm = 9.19 ft. 180 cm = 5.90 ft. 1 60 cm = 5.25 ft. 120 cm = 3.94 ft. 100 cm = 3.28 tt. 90 cm = 2.95 ft.

/_y*,*
cm

will not appear In the picture, clearly draw the sudace where the character and the school come into contact to make sure they are balanced conectly.
Even if it

@ Draw contour

,, .&,. s ,r1 t8': .l

,i ;j

:
,

irjYi

i1 ;,

'3-._ I11

-*t"' i . -.."-{:"1a
I' I ai ll

1'

li

i. tti

I'i

@-2 Divide eachfloor.,

./

@-1 Determine each floor by dividing


into four parts.

ffi
I I t

ffi

H
ffi

-..-..-_.-il

---"'t.

The eaves, window and wall ratios of schools and other buildings are the same for each floor.

Side view

into four parts starting from the first-floor contact surface that is not visible.

Draw windows.

Clearly draw the overall window border (including parts not visible).

@-t

Find center by drawing diagonal lines.

Draw remaining windows.

@-g Draw
supplemenThe depth ratio of windows is the same for every floor as long as the perspective is not from above. Thus, for the remaining windows all you have

tary lines.

to do is extend the window lines from


another floor.

@-4 Divide
each into

two (to
divide

window

116

into four).

Pen

drawing

Do not bring background lines

Tape a thumbtack over the

into contact with characters.

vanishing point.

Masking tape

Thumbtack

4
fi

Lir

1./' ';r tr;3*|nn lines in the direction of the


-:,:gh sketches and in pen.

;:- i.- r"rg point, tape a thumbtack over the ;r-:il' ng point. Using a ruler with the '" - -:-ack as the axis makes it easier to draw

:::*

Erasinq and white correction fluid

0mit intricate parts. Represent


them by making use of shadows.

Not joining the edge line to the corner better creates the mood of a building.

118

tr

Soft touch: Use little tone.

rard touch: Apply tone discriminatingly.

Z,
Think of perspective when determining tone cut.

-N
119

Scrape uniform curve using blade tip of cutter.

Adding tone

2- Residential area

+re
The page is complete after you have finished adding detailed tone! Soft touch: Use little tone.

124

Hard touch: Apply tone discriminatingly.

\,

that you see around yourself 270 every day can all be used in your drawings. lt will be very helpful when drawing manga if you know the size 240
of objects around you. Remember the size of objects relative to the size of human beings (yourself).

Ceiling line

210
180

160
150

120

90 60

30

Average adult male 180 cm

Average adult female 160 cm

Desk

70-80cm

330 (10.83 ft.) 300 (9.84 ft.) 270 (8.86 fr.) 240 (7.87 tt.) 210 (6.89 ft.)
180 (5.90 ft.)

t
Height of first-floor About 3 m

150 (4.92 ft.)


120 (3.94 ft.)

90 (2.e5 ft.)

_-,60
I

(1.97 ft.)

ffilg'eft.t

122

One interval = 30 cm (about one character head)

135 cm (4.43 ft.)

Chest of drawers

Mattress height

30-40cm

Low traffic signs and signals. The signs are 3 meters (9.84 ft.) and tall signals can be 5 meters (16.4 ft.)

0r more.

123

Adding reflection tone to windowpanes creates a more realistic atmosphere.

Shadow from opposite building

124

E.

Chopter

Speciol Efhcrs qnd Chorcclrer Rryresenlqlion Using


(n

Use of perspective

---- -'- 1-.t.


!L

is not limited to buildings and backgrounds. lt can be used for anything that is pafi of a picture. That includes special effect lines and sound words.

- -./ \l, ---.

il

il

J
H

E
U

Side

Front

The sword in this picture was drawn in perspective, but the sound word and special effect lines were not.

The special etfect lines (concentration lines) were drawn from the sword's vanishing point.

i,
^y

.:-t1

,l

rl

. Special effect lines .


when the vanishing point is in the picture Draw them toward the vanishing point.

This sword was drawn with a vanishing point farther away and the special effect lines were drawn accordingly.

. Special effect lines


when the vanishing point is outside the picture

Draw them away from the vanishing'point.

llo

fume of the contour lines of this sword were represented by ;anted lines pointed in the direction of the vanishing point.

SHHHHRRRRRR

perspective in
mind to make them look cool.

127

Special effect lines when the vanishing point is outside the picture. Draw them away from the vanishing point.

Design the word. Draw veftical lines

in general direction of vanishing point.

"BANG" was drawn with the inclination of thesldnted lines in

milld.

W
4t#

# wW
<*" ' *

Sound words do not have to be drawn perfecfly in perspective. Draw them in a deformed, perspective-like manner while thinking of depth and direction.

hating a Greater Sense,of ,rExbtBnceiusing,,,


-+-

Minor {eehniquer

t':
-

'

:icture strictly

Vanishing point

- !,vo-point

:::i::ve does not turn " .- : very interesting, - : :-: perSpeCtiVe


,.,, i"l3
,,-

'-\\

-; ,erlical lines
-rf existence and

6": , -. anted will create


.',i.=

:I-

Do not go to the trouble of marking a point. Draw a house assuming that the vanishing point is above

the house.

af,_

irianga and dratting techniques

'.^y drafting techniques are used to draw manga, but :-:;;ing manga is not dratting.lf it is effective to do so, use :",ting techniques flexibly. For instance, you do not have to
-.= three-point perspective just because the vanishing point is '-,:ve the picture.

129

Perspective rulers

fioo Corporation) are


transparent, platetype drawing tools with floor and wall perspective lines. ,They come in onepoint, two-point and three point perspective types. They allow you to easily draw objects with vanishing points

0ne-point perspective type

ffhe horizon line was added in this book.)


Two-point perspective type

far away, so use the type that matches the angle or image you want.

Dedicated ruler

Three-point perspective type

When you align the dedicated ruler that comes with it with the plate's curved surface, slanted lines and depth lines will converge on the vanishing point.

\.-\

lf you assume that one graduation is 20 cm, the graduations are designed so that the height of the horizon is 160 cm. Ceiling heights and room compositions are freely determined by choosing graduation positions.

t)

The two-point perspective ruler can be used as the basis of a one-point perspective background,

130

@ Align horizon of perspective ruler.

P
uil

----\

r: :. 3 graduations on

]tliirrcE

itive rulers to
Convenient tO

'tr'"r"'ill potential.
,,

i' : ,:(
.iut,r{

:El'spective rulers

,r*,1' :rawing a rough


ilr: ,

', "':ru
-r:-r

a horizon line on

@ Draw perspective liries

'rugh sketch when


:,0int perspective

..ril -,: ffie one-point and "ililr,{-

",:,r Serspective rulers.


Using a kacing box
Tracing paper is usually placed over a perspective ruler, but using a tracing box

will be more efficient.

131

The horizon line is two steps down from the top of the stairs. The horizon line is oblique relative to the picture.

lren if you draw a character normally, you will get a powerful


:,rmposition by tilting the horizon line,

Simple one-point perspectiveall the artist did was tilt the horizon line.

The ground has been tilted. The buildings were drawn using vertical two-point perspective.

Eo,lumn: 0veruse ol this technique of

tilting the horizon line relative


to the picture can result in a page that is confusing to look at. Save it for special situations.

133

Looking straight up. Simple one-point perspective.

rffi
',f, irr ur [a ril rrl lt na lra arr tta ltr lrr lll

One-point perspective where the horizon was tilted and curved. Draw perspective lines and special

effect lines using curved lines.

t
,/,

fr

@rc

us $1g.ee

PUTTING THINGS IN PERSPECTIVE lsBN4-7661 -1 256-3

MORE ABOUT PRETTY GALS tsBN4 7661-1242-3

PEN AND TONE TECHNIQUES

l5BN4-7661

-1

258-X

COSTUME ENCYCLOPEDIA
lsBN4-7661
-1

HOW TO DRAW ANIME & GAME

2s7-1

CHARACrERSVOL.I |SBN+7661 1120-6

HOW TO DRAW ANIME & GAME CHARACTERS VOL.2

tsBN4 7661-1 174-5

HOW TO DRAW ANIME & GAME CHARACTERS VOL.3

HOWTO DRAW ANIME & GAME


CHARACTERSVOL4

HOWrc

tsBN4-7661

75-3

tsBN4-7661

-1

254-7

DRAW AI{IME & GAME CHARICIIRSVOT.s lsBN+7661-',t 276-8

Gtr

-II[IflJil
'ililflffiIm|ilJt
1

II[il

ISBN t{ - thl-Ia5b-3

s7624099 HEALESVTLLE ........5962442s FTG ......._............... ... 9294 g2s4 g12O KNOX................_...... 9801 .1422 MONTBOSE ......... ... 9728 4224

BORONTA

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