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2012
eurercx no peennm xept nrnncxoro xstx

nnte meronuecxne yxsnnx npensnuent nx


cryenron 3, 4 n 5 xypcon nrnncxoro orenennx xyntrer
pomno-repmncxo nnonornn xnpcxoro rocypcrnennoro
ynnnepcnrer. nn coepxr noronoe pyxonocrno x
nnncnnm xypcontx n nnnomntx por, rxxe rpeonnnx x
nx oopmnennm. meronuecxnx yxsnnxx npnnoxrcx opsnt
oopmnennx rnryntntx nncron, rxxe npnmept n nonesnte
pst n nrnncxom xstxe, xoropte cryenr moxer
ncnontsonrt nx nnncnnx nneennx x xypcono nnn
nnnomno pore.
2
ocrnnrent: x..n., on. psmeron ..

.....................................................................................3
pnmep oopmnennx rnryntnoro nncr xypcono port...........................4
M .................................................................................5
pnx ntnonnennx nnnomno port.......................................................5
rpyxryp nnnomno port........................................................................6
I. nryntnt nncr ...........................................................................................6
II. oepxnne / Contents................................................................................7
III. neenne/ Introduction...............................................................................7
IV. epnx rnn / Chapter I (snnne rnnt)............................................10
V. tnot no reopernuecxo rnne / Summary...........................................11
VI. ropx rnn / Chapter II (snnne rnnt)...........................................11
VII. tnot no nccneonrentcxo rnne / Summary.................................11
VIII. xnmuenne / Conclusion......................................................................11
peonnnx x oopmnennm nnnomno port:........................................15
mnr nnnomnoro npoexr........................................................................17
pnmep oopmnennx rnryntnoro nncr nnnomno port......................18
UseIul phrases and examples oI introduction: ...............................................19

ypconx por n rpertem xypce ntnonnxercx n pyccxom
xstxe. em xypcono port cocrnnxer 35-40 crpnnn.
nncox ncnontsonnno nnreprypt onxen nxnmurt 25-30
ncrounnxon.
ypconx por n uerneprom xypce ntnonnxercx n
nnocrpnnom xstxe n nocnr, n ocnonnom, oyummn xpxrep,
crnx nepe cryenrom cneymmne nenn n sun: 1) rnyoxo
ycnonrt onpeenennt psen reopnn no onomy ns yuentx
nnnrnncrnuecxnx xypcon, urot xopoo opnenrnponrtcx n ero
nponemrnxe; 2) onnert nntxmn port c nyuno
nnreprypo n nnns rexcronoro mrepnn; 3) ncnontsyx
ycnoennte snnnx n npnoperennte nntxn, rt
3
cmocroxrentnoe peenne nponemt, nornepxmmee ry nnn
nnym nnnrnncrnuecxym reopnm n pesyntrre nccneonnnx
cnnono cnonpno n rexcrono ntopxn; 4) npnopecrn
ocnonnte nntxn cmocroxrentno nyuno-nccneonrentcxo
port, neoxonmte n nnncnnn nnnomno port.
rpyxryp xypcono port rxx xe, xx n nnnomno
port. ypconx por onxn coepxrt: nneenne, necxontxo
rnn, sxnmuenne, cnncox nnreprypt, npnnoxennx (ecnn
neoxonmo). epnx rnn reopernuecxx, nropx rnn
+mnnpnuecxx, nccneonrentcxx. em xypcono port
cocrnnxer 40-50 crpnnn. nncox ncnontsonnno nnreprypt
onxen nxnmurt 35-40 ncrounnxon.
ocrntnom, rpeonnnx x nnncnnm n oopmnennm
xypcono port rxne xe, xx n x nnnomno pore (cm. crp. 6-
22).
ryenr npncryner x pore n xypcono poro n nune
yuenoro ro n smnmer ee n me. pnx ntnonnennx
xypcono port coornercrnyer rpnxy ntnonnennx nnnomno
port (cm. crp. 6)
pnmep oopmnennx rnryntnoro nncr xypcono port cm.
n crp. 5.
'"(' %'(" "&! " $'# '+,
BASHKIR STATE UNIVERSITY
THE DEPARTMENT OF ROMANCE AND GERMANIC
PHILOLOGY
4
MEANS OF EXPRESSING REPROACH
AS A SPEECH ACT IN ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN
Course paper
by Shaymieva L.N.
4-th year student,
Chair oI the English Language
Assistant ProIessor
Urazmetova A.V.
UIa 2012

sxnmunrentno( -. +/" "'"
.'! ,."& ".(0 '+1
,." ".(# '+, .2
"("2"'& " 2$'."& '"/$" 2" .
"3"."4 !+"& ,$" (&# '+, "
& ("$(" "" .'" '*"" .'+(
2'!"(,5 ".(# '+4 $6 !+"&
,$" (&# '+, '2"/# .'/#
nnreprypo.
em nnnomno port cocrnnxer 70-80 crpnnn.
nncox ncnontsonnno nnreprypt onxen nxnmurt 70
ncrounnxon.
7'%"$ ,." ".(# '+,
1. epnx xoncyntrnnx c nyuntm pyxononrenem,
onpeenenne remt, nonyuenne cnncx nnreprypt no
cenrxpt
5
reme. snxomnenne c rpeonnnxmn no oopmnennm
nnnomno port.
2. pecrnnenne psnepnyroro nnn port. cenrxpt
3.
oop n nsyuenne nnreprypt no ntpnno reme.
or n nnnorexx n nnrepnere. op npnmepon.
oxrxpt-
noxpt
4.
nnns copnnoro mrepnn. nncnne
reopernuecxo rnnt.
expt-
xnnpt
5. or n nccneonrentcxo rnno.
enpnt-
mpr
6.
nepenne port. xonurentnt npnnr
reopernuecxo n nccneonrentcxo rnn.
npent
7. exrnponnne n oopmnenne port.
xonen
npenx
8.
pecrnnenne port n oxonurentnom nne n
xepy.
nuno
mx
9.
ororonx x smnre nnnomno port (cocrnnenne
oxn, nororonx psrounoro n rpnuecxoro
mrepnn, nonyuenne nnene penensnn n
nnnomnym pory).
m
'$' ".(# '+,
1. nryntnt nncr
2. oepxnne
3. neenne
4. eopernuecxx rnn nnn reopernuecxne rnnt
5. tnot no reopernuecxo rnne
6. ccneonrentcxx rnn nnn nccneonrentcxne rnnt
7. tnot no nccneonrentcxo rnne
8. xnmuenne
9. nncox nnreprypt
10. pnnoxenne (n cnyue neoxonmocrn)
81 "&,# "
nnnomnx por onxn nmert rnryntnt nncr, xoropt
oopmnxercx no opsny. rnryntnom nncre pcnnctnercx
sneymmn xepo, yrnepxmmn onycx x smnre
nnnomno port. psen oopmnennx rnryntnoro nncr
cmorpnre n crp. 19.
6
881 '6" 9 :;<=><=?
oepxnne nxnmuer nneenne, nnmenonnne ncex rnn,
nprpon, nynxron, sxnmuenne, cnncox ncnontsonnntx
ncrounnxon n nnmenonnne npnnoxenn c yxsnnem nomepon
crpnnn, c xoroptx nunnmrcx +rn +nemenrt port.
8881 "9 8<=@;ABC=D;<
neenne xnnxercx ouent nxno cocrnno ucrtm
nnnomno port. neenne pcxptner oocnonnne
neoxonmocrn nccneonnnx ntpnno cryenrom nponemt n
npecrnnxer cxemy nponeennx nnnomnoro nnn xypconoro
nccneonnnx.
neenne nnnomno port, xx npnnno, snnmer o 3
crpnnn neurnoro rexcr. o nneennn neoxonmo oocnonrt
xryntnocrt ntpnno remt, copmynnponrt nenn, sun4
'*" $',5 +5"( "6" .,5
3#4 .'"& +E$ " .'( ""4 $2&
(,4 ".&2(, """1 $3 "
".(# '+, +5"( '$',& '$' '+,1
'$' "F
:
crynnrentnoe cnono (oxsrentnx cocrnnxmmx
nmoro psen nnnomno port)
$&& 9 G;HDCIJD=K nnnomno port;
crenent pspornnocrn nccneyemo remt;
nponemt.
L& 9 MDN
O/" 9 GI?P?
'" 9 QIC=BIJ NI=>@DIJ
, 9 R>=S;A?
'$' '+, 9 T=@BC=B@> ;U V;@P
:
7
+E$ " .'( 9 WXY>C=4 ?BXY>C= (ne
oxsrentno)
/ "2 '+, (ne oxsrentno)
'"/$ " .'$"/$ 2/"(& (ne
oxsrentno)
non: xryntnocrt, nenn, sun, oexr, npemer, merot
nccneonnnx, reopernuecxx n npxrnuecxx snunmocrt,
rxxe crpyxryp port ntenxmrcx n rexcre xnpntm pnrom,
xypcnnom nnn nouepxnnnnem.
Z[ $&& (, ".(# '+, xpxrepnsyer
ee conpemennocrt, xnsnennocrt, ncymnocrt, nxnocrt,
snunrentnocrt. ntmn cnonmn +ro prymenrnnx
neoxonmocrn nccneonnnx remt nnnomno port,
pcxptrne pentno norpenocrn n ee nsyuennn.
xryntnocrt xypcono port otuno snnmer uyrt
mente crpnnnt neurnoro rexcr.
\[ L& port +ro xoneunt nprmrnuecxn pesyntrr
port, uero xouer ocrnut cryenr cnoe nccneonrentcxo
exrentnocrtm.
][ O/" pcxptnmr nyrt x ocrnxennm nenn. xo
sue, xx npnnno, nocnxmen rnn (nno nprp)
nnnomno port. un moryr nnonrtcx cnonmn:
ntxnnrt;
pcxptrt;
nsyunrt;
psporrt;
nccneonrt;
nponnnsnponrt;
cncremrnsnponrt;
yrounnrt;
8
ycrnonnrt;
xnccnnnnponrt n r..
onnuecrno su onxno trt 4-5. un oxsrentno
onxnt trt orpxent n sxnmuennn. Moxno nurt rx:
ocrnxenne nocrnnenno nenn npenonrer peenne
cneymmnx nccneonrentcxnx su... nnn nx ocrnxennx
yxsnno nenn nocrnnent cneymmne sun... n r..
^[ '" "". xstnercx rounoe
xonnuecrno ntxnnenntx nnnsnpyemtx ennnn, rxxe
ncrounnxn nonyuennx xrnuecxoro mrepnn (oreuecrnennte n
spyexnte ronxonte n nepenonte cnonpn c yxsnnem
xonnuecrn).
_[ , ""1 Merot nccneonnnx
oycnonnent nentm, sumn n mrepnnom nccneonnnx,
nnpnmep: onncrentnt mero, mero conocrnnrentnoro,
xomnonenrnoro, xonnuecrnennoro, nnnrnoxyntryponornuecxoro
nnns n r..
`[ '$' '+,1 rpyxrypno nnnomnx por
cocronr ns nneennx, nyx nnn rpex rnn, sxnmuennx, cnncx
ncnontsonnno nnreprypt ns ...... nnmenonnn n cnncx
ncnontsonnno nnreprypt ns ..... nnmenonnnx.
o "" oocnontnercx ntop remt n xryntnocrt
ntpnno nx nccneonnnx nponemt, onpeenxmrcx oexr n
npemer, nent, sun n merot nccneonnnx, pcxptnmrcx
nyunx nonnsn, reopernuecxx n npxrnuecxx nennocrt
nonyuenntx pesyntrron.
.'# rnne ( ) pccmrpnnmrcx ...,
npnnoxrcx ... (n onom npenoxennn).
' rnn ( ) nocnxmen ..., n ne
npnnonrcx ..., onpeenxercx ..., pccmrpnnercx ...,
nnnsnpyercx ... n r.. (n onom npenoxennn).
9
'& rnn ( ) /ecnn rxx nmeercx/
nocnxmen ... (n onom npenoxennn).
2$0/"" pesmmnpymrcx ocnonnte nrorn
nccneonnnx, npnnoxrcx rnnnte nonoxennx n ntnot,
nmeumrcx nepcnexrnnt ntneero nsyuennx nponemt.
a[ +E$ "" (ne oxsrentno) nponecc nnn
xnnenne, nopoxmmee nponemnym cnrynnm n nspnnoe nx
nsyuennx. exr r ucrt pentnocrn, n xoropym nnpnneno
nnnmnne nccneonrenx. '( "" ro, uro
nxonrcx n rpnnnx oexr. pemer nccneonnnx
onpeenxer remy nccneonnnx. ro ucrnocrt pentnocrn, n
xoropym nnpnneno nnnmnne nccneonrenx. exr ncer
npe, uem ero npemer. cnn oexr +ro oncrt exrentnocrn,
ro npemer +ro nsyuemt nponecc n pmxx oexr
nnnomno port. pemer no nneennn x nnnomno pore
yxstnercx nocne onpeenennx oexr.
b[ / "2 ".(# '+, (ne
oxsrentno). ect yxstnercx, uro nmenno ornnuer y
pory or ocrntntx ncrounnxon no +ro nponeme. ro
onncnne nxn, cennnoro e poro n nnnrnncrnxy.
c[ '"/$ "" .'$"/$ 2/"(&
'+, (ne oxsrentno) pcxptrne nno reopernuecxoro, nno
npxrnuecxoro snuennx port, onncnne roro, xx n re moryr
npnmenxrtcx nonyuennte pesyntrrt.
onesnte pst n npnmept nx oopmnennx nneennx cm.
crp. 20.
8d1 ' ! 9 :SIH=>@ 8 e2" !,[
pexe uem npncrynnrt x nnncnnm nepno rnnt,
neoxonmo nponecrn osop nnreprypt no ntpnno reme:
nnnoreunte xrnorn, nnrepnerncrounnxn, nepnonuecxne
10
nsnnx, yuennxn, yueno-meronuecxne noconx, monorpnn
n r.
epnx rnn port npecrnnxer coo osop nnrepry-
pt no ntpnno reme (osopno-reopernuecxx rnn). sop
nnreprypt nopsymener ne peepnponnne, yrnynennt
nnns n cncremrnsnnm nmemmnxcx noxoon nccneonnnx.
nrop onxen npoemoncrpnponrt cnoe nonnmnne psnnrnx
nponemt. xx ! 6 "(& 2"1 +E(
.'# !, 6 & ]f)]_ '"31
V1 ,, . '"/$# ! 9 TBNNI@K
neprt nnreprypnt osop pexomenyercx uerxo
copmynnponnntm pesmme, coepxmnm xprxne ntnot.
em onxen cocrnnxrt 0,5-1,5 crpnnn,1
V81 ' ! 9 :SIH=>@ 88 e2" !,[
cnonnoe mecro n nnnomno pore onxn snnmrt
nropx e-(."'"/$[ !4 $'4 $$ .'"4 "
""/$"# 5'$'1 -# /" '+,
5'$'""$ "(! +E$4 ('"5
$'! ,. ".( '+, npnnonrcx
onncnne nponeennoro nccneonnnx. r ucrt port onxn
ntnonnxrtcx n xonxperntx mrepnnx. em nropo rnnt
onxen cocrnnxrt 3f)]_ '"31
eopernuecxx n +mnnpnuecxx ucrn port (nmemmne
xxx cnoe nsnnne) onxnt trt npnmepno pnntmn no
oemy. onycrnmo npeonnne +mnnpnuecxo ucrn n
reopernuecxo n 5-7 crpnnn. pne nexenrenen ontn
oem reopernuecxo ucrn.
VII1 ,, . "&$# ! 9 TBNNI@K
neprt +mnnpnuecxym ucrt pexomenyercx uerxo
copmynnponnntm pesmme, coepxmnm xprxne ntnot.
em onxen cocrnnxrt 0,5-1,5 crpnnn,1
d8881 O$0/" 9 :;<CJB?D;<
11
xnmuenne nnnomno port xnnxercx ee nxnee
ucrtm. xnmuenne nnnomno nononr nror npoennnomy
nccneonnnm n ro nnn nno oncrn. ntmn cnonmn
sxnmuenne nnnomno port +ro ee nornuecxoe snepenne.
sxnmuennn enmrcx xprxne, no emxne ntnot no
nnncnnomy mrepnny.
crynnrentnoe cnono oxsrentnx cocrnnxmmx
nmoro psen nnnomno port n sxnmuenne sect ne
ncxnmuenne. ontnm mnnycom xnnxercx ncnontsonnne
reopernuecxnx ntepxex ns yuennxon, rxxe npocrpnntx
ntnoon ns psnnuntx ncrounnxon nnreprypt. em onxen
cocrnnxrt 2-3 crpnnnt.
8g1 ."$ "'', 9 hD?= ;U @>U>@><C>? 9
iDXJD;j@IHSK n nnnomno pore coepxnr yxsnne n nce
ncrounnxn, xoropte ncnontsonnnct n nponecce nnncnnx
nnnomno port.
nncox nnreprypt opmnpyercx n nnnrnom nopxxe n
coepxnr nonnoe nsnnne ncnontsyemtx ncrounnxon
nnreprypt n nx ntxonte nnte. cnncxe nnreprypt
onxnt trt npecrnnent xx sonte, crnne
xnccnuecxnmn n nno oncrn port, rx n cnexne
nynnxnnn, orpxmmne conpemennt yponent psporxn
peemo nponemt (s nocnenne 10 ner).
nun npnnonrcx cnncox nnreprypt oreuecrnenntx
nropon, srem, npoonxx nymepnnm, nnrepryp spyexntx
nropon. nncox ncnontsonnntx cnonpe / kDC=D;<I@D>?
npnnonrcx orentno.
'"(', %'(" "'',F

. snnne xnnrn.
opo, o. onnuecrno crpnnn.
.. cnont nrnncxo pseonornn. ., 1963.
12
206 c.

. snnne crrtn //
snnne copnnx. opo, o. rpnnnt, n xoroptx
nxonrcx crrtx.
.. nnonntno-xyntrypnx cnennnx
meponnmnuecxnx pseonornsmon // pseonornx n
xonrexcre xyntrypt. M., 1999. . 260-267.

. snnne crrtn //
onnoe nsnnne xypnn. o. om. omep. epnx n
nocnenxx crpnnnt crrtn.
.., .. men cocrnennte n cocrne
pseonornuecxnx ennnn // nocrpnnte xstxn n xone.
2003. 4. .73-78.

. snnne oxn /
es.oxn. snnne xonepennnn. Mecro nponeennx. r
nponeennx. opo, o. epnx n nocnenxx crpnnnt.
.. omnonenrt-cnmnont no pseonornsmx
xx nocnrenn nmnnnnnrno nprmrnuecxo nnopmnnn /
es. oxn. ommynnxrnnno-nprmrnuecxne cnexrt
pseonornn. onrorp. 28-29 cenr. 1999 r. onrorp,
1999. . 54.
!"
! . snnne: nc. ... -p nnon.
nyx. opo, o. onnuecrno crpnnn.
" ".#. excnxo-cemnrnuecxne n ynxnnonntnte
npmerpt nrpononnm n cocrne pseonornuecxo
ennnnt n nrnncxom xstxe (n conocrnnennn c
pnnyscxnm, pyccxnm n rrpcxnm): nc. ... xn. nnon.
13
nyx. , 2003. 215 c.
#
'", %'(" ,$ -$',
'',F
1) !$% &.. $%. cnonnoe srnnne
nexrpon. pecypc: rounxmmee srnnne. - Mecro nsnnx,
r. URL: http://...
ocne +nexrponnoro pec n xpyrntx cxoxx npnnoxr
cneennx o re opmennx x +nexrponnomy cerenomy pecypcy:
nocne cnon r opmennx yxstnmr uncno, mecxn n ro,
.&. snnrne mernnonponsnocrn n +noxy
pnnero mernn nexrponnt pecypc: cocroxnne nponemt n
nepcnexrnnt nccneonnn // ecrn. . 1997. 2. URL:
http://.rIbr.ru/pics/22394reI/Iile.pdI (r opmennx:
19.09.2007).
2) es nrop, cmocroxrentnx nynnxnnx:
cnonnoe srnnne nexrpon. pecypc: neennx,
ornocxmnecx x srnnnm / neennx o ornercrnennocrn. - Mecro
nsnnx, r. - URL: http://...
3) crrtx ns copnnx nnn +nexrponnoro xypnn:
!$%&.. $%. rnnne // snnne xypnn
nnn copnnx nexrpon. pecypc o. om (ntnycx, nomep).
URL: http://...
' . entnecennt npnronop. pnce xe.
onono n npncrntno: rnnt ns xnnrn // nocrpnnx
nnrepryp. nexrpon. pecypc 2010. 5. URL:
http://magazines.russ.ru/inostran /2010/5/be12.html (r
opmennx: 01.07.2010).
(.). mepnxncxne nennocrn n conpemennom
mnpe// cropnx n M. nexrpon. pecypc 2004. URL:
http://.amstud.msu.ru/Iulltext/ texts/conI1995/batalov21/htm
(r opmennx: 14.01.2011)
14
4) cctnx n nnunt cr
mnrpn Meneen nnunt cr. URL:
http://medvedev.remlin.ru (r opmennx: 01.07.2010).
g1 '"6" 9 MHH><ADl xnnxmrcx cocrnno ucrtm
crpyxrypt nnnomno port. pnnoxenne moxer coepxrt
nonnt cnncox nnnsnpyemtx ennnn, rpnxn, pncynxn,
rnnnt, nrpmmt, n r.n. onnuecrno crpnnn n npnnoxennn
ne nxonr n omee xonnuecrno crpnnn n nnnomno pore.
'+" $ %'("0 ".(# '+,F
oem nnnomno port cocrnnxer 70-80 crpnnn;
nnnomnx por onxn trt oopmnen n ono
cropone nncr ymrn, npmerpt crpnnnt: opmr
4; opnenrnnx xnnxnx; nonx: nenoe - 30 mm, npnoe -
15 mm, nepxnee - 20 mm, nnxnee - 20 mm
pnr TimesNeRoman; psmep pnr 14 nr;
mexcrpount nnrepnn 1,5; orcryn (sn) 0.75 cm;
ntpnnnnnne: srononxn no nenrpy; ocnonno rexcr
no npnne;
nymepnnx crpnnn: pcxne nnpt (1, 2, 3), cxnosnx,
ntpnnnnnne no nenrpy nnxnero xpx crpnnnt,
rnryntno crpnnne npncnnnercx nomep 1, no ne
neurercx.
'" 5'*! %'(" /,5 '+F
xxt nont psen neenne, epnx rnn n r. .
onxen nunnrtcx c nono crpnnnt;
nsnnne xxo nono ucrn n nprp n rexcre
port cneyer nncrt onee xpynntm pnrom nnn ntenrt
onee xnpno;
srononxn crpyxrypntx +nemenron port pcnonrmr n
15
cepenne crpoxn es rouxn n xonne n neurmr srnnntmn
yxnmn es nouepxnnnnx. rononxn nprpon, nynxron n
nonynxron cneyer neurrt c snnoro orcryn c nponncno
yxnt es rouxn n xonne, ne nouepxnnx;
nomep nprp cocronr ns nomepon rnnt n nprp n
rnne, psenenntx rouxo. xonne nomep roux ne crnnrcx.
nnornuntm opsom nymepymrcx n nynxrt n nprpe
(nnpnmep: 2.4.2 nnns pesyntrron). nuox ne crnnrcx;
n nce rnnnt n rexcre onxnt trt cctnxn. nnn
onxn pcnonrrtcx nenocpecrnenno nocne rexcr, n xoropom
on ynomnnercx nnepnte, nnn n cneymme crpnnne.
nnnt nnnomno port onxnt trt nponymeponnt,
xxx rnnn onxn nmert uerxoe nsnnne, orpxmmee ee
coepxnne, cnono nnn ... nnercx cnpn n ee
nsnnnem. snnne cneyer nomemrt no nenrpy n
rnnne. oux n xonne nsnnnx ne crnnrcx;
nnnnnnt n rexcre crrtn npnnoxrcx nepe mnnne (n
ornnune or cnncx nnreprypt, re nnnnnnt yxstnmrcx nocne
mnnnn);
cneyer psnnurt enc (-) n rnpe (). enc ne
orenxercx npoenmn, nepe n nocne rnpe crnxrcx npoent.
epe snxom nynxrynnn npoen ne crnnrcx;
xntuxn rnn ncnontsymrcx n pyccxom rexcre, n
nnocrpnnom xntuxn rnn . ntuxn n cxoxn ne
orenxmrcx npoenmn or sxnmuenntx n nnx cnon;
npnmept cneyer ntenxrt xypcnnom, nx pyccxn
+xnnnnenr n xntuxx, nnpnmep: *+ ,-./0 123*/43 .5 672.5 mxnrt
nnnmsnxmn, crponrt nosynte smxn;
cctnxn n nnrnpyemte ncrounnxn npnnoxrcx n
xnprntx cxoxx mnnnx nrop nnrnpyemoro ncrounnx
ro nsnnx: crp, nnpnmep: ynepncxx 1973: 186 (mnnnn
n nrnncxn xstx ne nepenoxrcx). oux n npenoxennn
crnnrcx nocne cctnxn;
xstx nnnomno port onxen trt nyuntm; ne
onycxercx ncnontsonnne psronopntx ooporon, rxxe
16
mecronmennx 1-ro nnn, nx ntpxennx nropcxoro mnennx
ncnontsyercx mecronmenne mt.
mnr nnnomnoro npoexr
mnr nnnomnom port nponcxonr n orxptrom
scennn ocypcrnenno rrecrnnonno xomnccnn (), n
xoropo moryr npncyrcrnonrt, snrt nonpoct n ocyxrt
nnnomnym pory nce xenmmne.
nnnomnnx onxen nororonnrt oxn (o 10 mnnyr), n
xoropom uerxo n xprxo nsnrmrcx ocnonnte nonoxennx
nnnomno port, npn +rom nx onte nrnxnocrn
nenecoopsno nontsonrtcx psrountm mrepnnom nnn
npoexrnpymmnm nsopxenne nnprom, nororonnn
snronpemenno neoxonmt nx +roro mrepnn (rnnnt,
rpnxn), cornconnnt c pyxononrenem.
prxn oxn moxer trt nororonnen nnctmenno, no
ntcrynrt n smnre cneyer cnoono, cnonmn cnonmn, ne
sunrtnx rexcr.
o oxonunnn oxn nnnomnnxy smr nonpoct
npecerent, unent xomnccnn, npncyrcrnymmne. nnnomnnxy
pspeercx nontsonrtcx cnoe nnnomno poro. o
oxny n ornerm n nonpoct cynr o npore xpyrosop
nnnomnnx, ero +pynnnn, ymennn nynnuno ntcrynrt n
prymenrnponno orcrnnrt cnom rouxy spennx npn ornerx n
nonpoct.
nnnomnx por moxer nonyunrt onenxy ornnuno,
xopoo, yonnernopnrentno, neyonnernopnrentno.
eenne o onenxe npnnnmercx orxptrtm ronoconnnem,
npocrtm ontnncrnom ronocon unenon .
17
'"(' %'(" "&! " ".(# '+,
BASHKIR STATE UNIVERSITY
THE DEPARTMENT OF ROMANCE AND GERMANIC
PHILOLOGY
MEANS OF EXPRESSING REPROACH
AS A SPEECH ACT IN ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN
Admitted to be deIended
2012

Chair oI the English Language


ProIessor ShaIiov S.G.
Graduation paper
by Shaymieva L.N.
5-th year student,
Chair oI the English
Language
Assistant ProIessor
Urazmetova A.V.
18
UIa 2012
n?>UBJ HS@I?>? I<A >lINHJ>? ;U D<=@;ABC=D;<F
G;HDCIJD=K
GS> =;HDCIJD=K oI this research is connected ith the necessity
oI Iurther study oI contrastive analysis and its possibilities in the
language system.
The interest in the maniIestation oI gender stereotypes in the
language and their comparative analysis in diIIerent languages
stipulate the =;HDCIJD=K oI the given or.
The interest to the subect may be explained by the
development oI the principally ne approach to explanation oI
linguistic phenomena ..... .
The =;HDCIJD=K oI the or is the analysis oI concepts in
linguocultural and linguocognitive paradigms that represents one oI
topical methods oI modern linguistics.
MDN
GS> IDN oI the or is to establish.....
The basic IDN oI the research is to compare nationally speciIic
Ieatures oI to languages ..... .
GI?P?
The aim oI the or deIined the Iolloing =I?P?:
In order to achieve this aim it is necessary to cope ith the
Iolloing =I?P?:
The maor aim oI the or and problems outlined deIined the
Iolloing =I?P?:
These aims are achieved by solving the Iolloing =I?P?:
The aim is achieved by accomplishing the =I?P? listed belo:
19
The present paper is to IulIill the Iolloing =I?P? submitted to
the above mentioned aim:
In the course oI the research the Iolloing =I?P? ere put
Iorard:
to deIine and describe
to study
to carry out
to establish peculiarities and similarity
to reveal
to or out
to analyse
to systematize
to speciIy
to Iind out
to sum up, etc.
QIC=BIJ NI=>@DIJ
GS> UIC=BIJ NI=>@DIJ includes 99 examples in English and 119
examples in Russian, taen out Irom various boos oI English,
American and Russian authors. For deIining and explaining concepts
oI reproach, e use diIIerent explanatory, contemporary,
encyclopedic, associative, bilingual and thesaurus dictionaries.
The sources oI =S> UIC=BIJ NI=>@DIJ are The English-Russian
phraseological dictionary by A.V. Kunin, Irom hich by the method
oI Irontal analysis 118 phraseological units have been selected and
The German-Russian phraseological dictionary by L.E. Binovich,
Irom hich 100 phraseological units have been singled out.
The sources oI our investigation are Iormed by theses and
methodological principles, ored out by the Iounders oI home
linguistic genderology. They are I.I. Kheleeva, S.G. Ter-Minasova
and many others.
As the sources oI our study, e used such ors as The picture
oI Dorian Gray by O. ilde, The Forsyte Sage by .Galsorthy,
20
Selected short stories by Sh. Anderson and their translations made
by M. Abina, N. Volpin and P.M. Gorpinel.
The sources oI the UIC=BIJ NI=>@DIJ are the Iolloing
dictionaries: ... .
R>=S;A?
The aim oI the present paper predetermines the N>=S;A? used:
The main N>=S;A? oI the research are contrastive, descriptive,
deIinition and ord Iormative analyses.
The obtained results ere processed ith the help oI the
Iolloing JD<jBD?=DC N>=S;A?: componential, contrastive, conceptual
associative, sociolinguistic, psycholinguistic, stylistic, syntactic
analyses.
In this research, descriptive and comparative methods oI
linguistic analysis are at or.
T=@BC=B@> ;U =S> V;@P
:;NH;?D=D;<IJJK the paper consists oI the Iolloing parts:
introduction, to chapters, conclusion, list oI reIerences, appendix.
The Iirst chapter (.......) is theoretical. This chapter treats ..... . It deals
ith ..... . The second chapter (.....) is empirical, it treats ..... . The
results oI investigation are summed up in the conclusion.
Bibliography includes 50 reIerences. The appendix includes the
English and German phraseological units ith toponymic
components.
GS> T=@BC=B@> ;U =S> V;@P includes Introduction, Chapter I,
Chapter II, Conclusions, List oI reIerences.
Introduction points at the maor aims, tass and methods oI the
or and speciIies hat material serve as the basis Ior our research.
In Chapter I (.....) brieI outline oI the theory oI nomination is
given.
In Chapter II (.....) the Iactual material is divided into lexico-
semantic groups and contrastive analyses oI game nominations is
carried out.
21
The results oI the research as ell as the Iurther perspectives oI
the or are summed up in the conclusion.
The List oI reIerences / bibliography includes / contains 50
sources / reIerences / items.
22