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MathCAD


2007

681.3
33
32.973
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M33

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MathCAD : / . . , . .
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2007. 154 .
ISBN 9785802108406
MathCAD.
.


.

681.3
32.973

ISBN 9785802108406

. .,
. .,
. .,
. ., 2007

, 2007

MathCAD ........................................................................... 5
MathCAD? ............................................................................................................ 5
1. MathCAD ............................................................... 7

1.1. MathCAD ......................................................................................... 7


1.2. ................................................................. 8
1.3. ................................................................................................ 8
1.4. Math () .................................. 9
1.5. MathCAD- ..................................................................... 11
1.6. ................................................................................... 11
1.7. ............................................ 12
1.8. MathCAD ..................................................................... 12
1.8.1. ............................................................................................................... 13
1.8.2. ................................................................................................... 13
1.8.3. ..................................................................................... 14
1.8.4. ..................................................................................................... 15
1.9. ................................................................................................ 17
1.10. ( ) ................... 17
1.11. ( ) ...................... 19
1.12. ..................................................................... 20
1.13. .......................................................................... 27
1.14. ....................................................................... 28
2. . ......................................... 29

2.1. : File () ..................................................


2.2. , ...............................................................
2.3. . if ..........................................................
2.4. ( ) ......................................

29
29
31
33

3. .................................................................................................. 36

3.1. X-Y- ...................................................................................... 37


3.1.1. .................................................................................. 41
3.1.2. ................. 43
3.1.3. ......................... 47
3.2. ....................................................................... 48
3.2.1. ................................................................................. 49
3.2.2. ................................................................. 51
3.2.3. .......................................................... 53
3.2.4. .......................................................................... 54
3.3. .......................................... 55
4. .

............................................................................................................. 60
4.1. ............................................................................ 60
4.2. ............... 62
4.3. ................................................................. 65
5. . .

............................................................................... 71
5.1. .................................................................. 71
5.2.

.............................................................. 74

4
5.3. ( ) .................................................................. 79
5.4. ................................................................... 81
5.5. .......................................................................... 84
6. .................................................................................... 89

6.1. ASCII- MathCAD................................................................... 89


6.2. ASCII- MathCAD ....................................................................... 92
7. ......................................................................... 95
8. MathCAD .................................................................. 100

8.1. ........................................................................ 100


8.2. Symbolics ().
...................................................................................................................... 100
8.3. ................................... 103
8.4. .............................................................................................................. 113
8.5. . ................... 114
8.6. ................................................................................................................... 116
9. MathCAD ........................................................................... 123

9.1. ..................................................................................... 124


9.2. ......................................................................................... 126
9.3. (if, otherwise)........................................................................ 126
9.4. (for, while, continue, break)........................................................ 127
9.5. (return) ........................................................................................ 131
9.6. (on error) ..................................................................................... 133
9.7. ........................................................ 133
1. MathCAD- ........................................................ 135

........................................................................ 135
, ............................... 136
...................................... 138

........................................................................................................ 139
............................................... 144

2. ......... 145

.............................................................................................................. 153

MathCAD

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1.6 1.7
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Math

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acot(x), asec(x), acsc(x)
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log(x)
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MathCAD

floor(x)
ceil(x)

floor(5.6)=5,
floor(-3.56)=-4
ceil(5.6)=6,
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angle(x,y)

angle(1,1)=0.785

mod(m,n)

mod(45,7)=3

1.6 1.7
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18


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1. MathCAD

21


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28

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2.1. File

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3.

36

3.

MathCAD . Insert, Graph (,


) (. 3.1).

. 3.1. Graph

XY Plot ( )
Polar Plot ( )

Surface Plot ( )
Contour Plot ( ,
)
3D Scatter Plot ( )
3D Bar Plot ( )
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, , , . , ( )
X-Y- (. 3.2, 3.3).
,
, .
. ,
MathCAD-.
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3.

37

10

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10

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:
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2.

Graph () (. 3.4).

. 3.4. Graph

3. Shift+2 ( @).
(. 3.5)
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3.

38

X Y. X () y=f(x),
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, , . .

3.

39

1.

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1

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3.

41

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), (. 3.9) x Y.
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3.

42

5. X

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3.

43

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10

15

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3.

44

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x sin( x)
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3.

45

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( ), , , .
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x, t, v (. 3.20),
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. 3.19

3.

46

. . 3.19
X.
. Y
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t 1 1.1 4

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10

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2

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:
2
if 2x ( x1 6x
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y ( x) 6x ( x 0) ( x 1) 2 ( x 1) ( x 4) 6 cos ( 7x) ( x 4) ( x 6)
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10
5

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0
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. 3.21

3.

47

,
y(x),
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2

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10

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:
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.
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10

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tco s( t)

10
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. 3.24.

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3.

48
x( t ) t cos ( t)

y ( t ) t sin ( t )

10

y( t )

10

10

10

. 3.25.
.
t; .

(
t).
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t 0 0.01 5
20

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20

10

10

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y( t )

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10

10

20

20

10

0
x( t)

10

20

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20

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10

0
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10

20
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, t x.

. 3.26.

y=2cosx
( ) , X
Y (
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3.2.
:
, , ;
;
/ ;
;
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3.

49


Formatting Currently Selected X-Y Plot ( ), :
.
Format / Graph / X-Y Plot ( / / X-Y ).
Format ().

X-Y-Axes ( X-Y),
Traces (), Labels () -

. , (
) , , , .
3.2.1.
X-Y Axes (. 3.27) , X Y:
Log Scale (
)
. , .
Grid Lines ( ) (. 3.28).
Numbered () .
Autoscale ( )

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.
. 3.27.
( X-Y-Axes)
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(. 12).
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3.

50

. 3.28

12. y

5x2
,
2
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. 3.29

Axes Style (, )
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3.

Equal Scales

51

( ) -

X Y.

. 3.30. Boxed
()

. 3.31. Crossed
()

. 3.32. None
( )

3.2.2.
Traces ()
Formatting Currently
Selected X-Y Plot (
, . 3.33)

, .
(
Y) ,

.
. 3.33. Traces

3.

52


3.1.
3.1

Legend Label
()

Symbol ()

Line ()

Color ()

Weight
()
()

, , (. 3.34)

( 63
)
None ()
, +s
( xs
)
box
dmnd
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solid ()

dot ()
dash ()
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blu ()
grn ()
cya ()
brn ()
blc ()
mag ()

19
lines ()

points ()
(. 3.35)
error ()
bar ()
step ()
draw ()
stem ()

(
)

. 3.34


( x-, y- )

3.

53

Lines

Points

sin( x)

sin( x)

Bar

Step
1

sin( x)

sin( x)

Stem

Error

1
sin( x)

sin( x)

0.5 cos( x)

2
x

. 3.35

error , ( ).
3.2.3.
Defaults ( ) Formatting Currently Selected X-Y Plot
( ) :
Change to Defaults ( ) , ;
Use for Defaults ( )

.

3.

54
3.2.4.
:
1. .
2. Formatting Currently
Selected X-Y Plot ( ) Labels ().
3. Title ()
.
4.

Show Title ( ).

5. Above
() Below (),


.
6. .
. 3.36

Labels . 3.36.

13.

MathCAD-

. Q 100 ,
c

: Q av b ekv , v ( / ), a, b, c, k v

, .
a=0,21 /, b=18 /, c=760 /, k=0,005 / Q ( ) v (10 / v 100 /), 5 /.

MathCAD- . 3.37.
(. 3.36), , . 3.2.
3.2

X-Y-Axes
Traces

Labels

Number of Grids (X-Axes) -

18

Legend Label

Petrol consumption as a function of


car speed

Title

Petrol consumption

Axes Labels (X-Axes) X

car speed (v, km/h)

Axes Labels (Y-Axes) Y

Q(v), litrs/100 km


. 3.36.

3.

55

a 0.21 b 18

c 760

Q( v ) a v b

v0 10

k 0.005

k v
e

vk 100

vh 5

v v0 v0 vh vk
Petrol consumption
80

Q(v), litrs/100 km

60

40

20

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45 50 55 60 65
ca r sp eed (v, km /h)

70

75

80

85

90

95

10 0

Petrol consumption as a function of car speed

. 3.37
14. ,
x(t) = t sin t, y(t) = t cos t, T=4. , .

MathCAD- . 3.38.
x( t) t sin ( t)

y ( t) t cos ( t )

T 4

t 0 0.01 T

y( t)

y( 0)
y( T )

. 3.38
4

x( t) x( 0) x( T )

3.3.
R ,
R , , R=R( ).
:
1. Insert, Graph (. 3.1) Polar Plot ( ).
2. Ctrl+7.
3.

Graph (. 3.4).

56

3.

(. 3.38).

. 3.38.

:
(
), . 3.39;
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. 3.39.

3.

57

. 3.40.
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(. 3.41).

. 3.41.

58

3.

, (. . 3.1.4).
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:
( Labels, . 3.42);
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. 3.42. Labels

. 3.43.
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Polar Axes
. 3.44 3.45.

3.

59

x cos

10

20

30

. 3.44

x cos

90
120

60

150

30

180

0
0

10

20

210

30

330

240

300
270

. 3.45

4.

60

4.

4.1.
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. MathCAD .
y(x)=0 root.
x, y(x) 0
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root , , , , . .
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4.

61

3. x:

, , :

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x 1.5

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4.

62

, , r(x), , , .

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: f(x), :

f ( x) 5x 8 sin ( 2x) 1

x 5 4.9 3
40
20

f ( x)

20
40
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4.

63

4.3. :

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4.

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10

f ( x Y( x) )

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20

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y Y( x)
x y 15
2

3.581
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3.656
1.277

4.

65

, , . . , . , . ,
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x 4

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y Y( x)

x y 15
2

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Calculus

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66

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4.

67

4.5. f(x)=x3 + 5x2 -20x + 2

x0=3.

: MathCAD- :

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x 8 7.9 8
10 00

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50 0

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3

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40 0

20 0

f ( x)
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0
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4.

68

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x2 5

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x1 r ( x1)

y1 f ( x1)

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x2 3.47

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:
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g( x) x2 2x 4

r( x) root(f ( x) g( x) x)

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x 0 0.1 4
10

f ( x)
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4.

69

4) :
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x2

S f ( x) dx g( x) dx
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2
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0 t 2 ;

:
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2

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z = 0, z = x2 + y2, y = x2, y = 1.

4.

70
:
4.9
1

V
1

2
2
x y dy dx
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V 0.838
88

0.838

105

4.10. I xy z dxdydz , T , T
2
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I
1


x y z dz dy dx
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1

I0

, .

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y=sin(x) x=0.

sin ( x)


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sin ( x)


M
0 0

1 dy dx

sin ( x)


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0 0
xc

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Mx
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xc 1.571

yc 0.393

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2 2

a (a>0) ,

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a 3

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0
3

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5
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a 17.671
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5.

71

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i
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5.

72

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N 5
Pi

i 1 N
Fi

100
120
13.5
94
450

101
119
13
96
460

Di Pi Fi

Di
-1
1
0.5
-2
-10

5.2. Di, MI, Yi ,


i- , i=1,2,,N. N ( ) ,
, .

:

N 5
i 1 N

Di

Mi

5
14
17
2
12

7
10
5
3
12

Yi
1993
1989
1985
1980
1979

Day ( d m) 100 m d
:

Do 18

Mo 3

Si Yo Yi if Day Di Mi Day ( Do Mo) 1 0

Yo 2002
Si
8
12
16
22
22

5.3. 5x 8sin(2x)+1=0.
: 4 ( 4.2).
f(x)= 5x 8sin(2x)+1, , x
. MathCAD- :

5.

73

f ( x ) 5 x 8 sin ( 2x ) 1
x 5 4.9 3
r ( x ) root( f ( x ) x )
40

N 3

20

x i

i 1 N

x i r x i

1
0
1

0
20

xi
-1.224
0.092
1.098

40

y=f(x)

, ,
.
5.4. MathCAD- ,
, , , ( )
( ).

:

S0 100

:
:

p 16 %

( ):

N 7

i 1 N

1 - ,
0 -

Si 0

type 1

F0 S0

Fi Fi 1 ( 1 p ) Si if( type

Fi

Si
100
200
300
100
100

1 1 p 1)


FN

j 0 N

Fj

5.

74

5.2.

Shift+4
( $)

Calculus

xi

Ctrl+Shift+4

Calculus

Shift+3
( #)

Calculus

Ctrl+Shift+3

Calculus

(

)

(
)

(

)

(
)

x
i

, :

. , , . ,
10
i
N

2
cos ( 2 j)
j
j

i 1
j1
j i

,
,
.
5.5. N :
1
2 3

2
3 4

.....

N
( N 1) ( N 2)

:
N 100
N

n
( n 1) ( n 2)

S 3.217

5.6. , N , n-
sin(2n+1), .
.

5.

75

:
N 20
i 2 4 N

j 1 3 N

sin(2 i 1)
k

k 1.011

sin(2 j 1)
j


, 1. 5.2
:
N 20
N

sin ( 2 i 1) ( mod( i 2)

0)

1.011

sin ( 2 i 1) ( mod( i 2)

1)

5.7.
bi=i2sin(i) si=cos(2i).
:

b1+b2s1+b3s1s2+ +bNs1s2sN-1,

N 10
i 1 N
2

b i i sin ( i)

s i cos ( 2 i)

i 1

b1
bi
s j 1.791

i 2
j1

5.8.
N Ri, i=1,2,,N, :
R0

R1 R2 ....... RN
R2 R3 ....RN R1 R3 ....RN .... R1 R2 ....RN 1

:
N 5

i 1 N

Ri
10
2
4
5
4

j 1 N

R0

Ri

Rj

R0 0.769

5.

76

5.9. , : cn=n2sin(n+2), n=1,2,,N.

N 20

n 1 N

c n n sin ( n 2)

:
m

:
Sp

1
m

c n 0

Sp

5.10. ,
:
. .

:

N 10

i 1 N
(/ ) (.) :
vi
t i
60
65
50
43
60
65
70
75
70
60

10
12
15
6
10
5
10
15
9
6

:
S

vi

ti
60

S 102.133

5.11. ,
R=0,2 U1, U2,, Un,
I1, I2,, In:
k
U []
I []

1
25
121

2
30
144

3
35
182

D :

4
40
201

5
45
220

6
50
248

7
55
277

8
60
302

9
65
319

5.

77

1
n1

Ik Iok 2

1
Io1, Io2,, Ion , I=U/R.
k, U, I, Io.
k

:
n 9

k 1 n

R 0.2

Uk

Ik

25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65

1
n1

Iok

121
144
182
201
220
248
277
302
319

I Io
k

Uk

Iok

125
150
175
200
225
250
275
300
325

D 21.875

5.12. S N pi, I=1,2,,N.


N 5

S 2000
i 1 N

:
Pi
45
50
40
55
40

cost

" " :

round( x m) floor x 10 0.5 10


:

Zi round Pi cost 2

Zi
391.3
434.78
347.83
478.26
347.83

P
i

5.

78

5.13. N .
( , ,
, ). .


N 15

i 1 N

:
matemi
3
4
2
5
5
4
4
4
3
5
3
3
2
5
4

Sr

1
N

matem

Sr 3.733

"" , " ", " ", " "


o 2 5
N

Kolo

matemi

1
6

Kolo
2
4

4
Kolo

4
0

4
o

.

o Bar Type
( ) traces_1 Traces (. . 5.1).
, (
1) ( 6) , .

. 5.1.
(
Traces)

5.

79

5.3. ( )
MathCAD (,
) ( N M ).
Matrix Insert,
Ctrl+M, Matrix.
(.5.2), Rows Columns
.

. 5.2. Insert Matrix ( )

MathCAD - , .
OK
. , :
33

3x1

13

,
. ,
, . 11 20 23 21 10
24 18 17 ,
,
T

MathCAD, :
Rez 15.1 15.1 14.5 13.4 13.4 12.9 12.7 12.5

1
2
3
3
4
5
6
1
3.6 a b 12

sin ( x)
a
0
4

2
1.5 a 4 17
:
:=

5.

80

12
1 2 0
X 4
A 23 2.5 1
y ( 12 2 1 )

5
12 1 1
( -) ( ).
, . , , .
ORIGIN. 0, 0. , ORIGIN .
, X, A y :
ORIGIN 0

X0 12

A0 2 0

y 0 1 2

ORIGIN 1

X1 12

A1 3 0

y 1 2 2

, :
Value of subscript or superscript is too big (or too small) for this array

, .
5.14. N. , .

:
ORIGIN 1
N 6

4.5
12

9
1

0
2

0
12
3
0
14
2

i 1 N

z i if x i y i x i y i

12
12

9
14

2
2

. - - (. . 5.4):
T

x ( 2 4.5 12 9 1 0 )

y ( 0 12 3 0 14 2 )

z ( 2 12 12 9 14 2 )

5.15. N .
. ,
. 1.

5.

ORIGIN 1
x i

y i

1
3
0
1
4
6

0
2
3
0
6
1

N 6

i 1 N
Ri j

81

j 1 N

xi xj 2 yi yj 2

4.472 3.162

4.472

3.162 4.472 10.63 9.055

3.162 3.162
0

6.708 5.099

4.472 3.162

3.162 9.849 6.325

6.708 5.099

6.708 10.63 9.849 6.708

5.099 9.055 6.325 5.099 7.28

7.28
0

, , :
i 2 4 N 2
L

xi 2 xi 2 yi 2 yi 2

L 9.571

i i 2

L 9.571

5.4.
MathCAD : , , , .
5.1.

5.1.

AT

Ctrl+1

Matrix

A-1

Matrix

|A|

Matrix

A<n>
an
Ai,j

Ctrl+6
[
[

Matrix
Matrix
Matrix

5.16. A B:
2 3 2

A 1
2 4
1 5 2

1 4 0

B 2 3 1
2 0 4

: 3(A+B)(2B-1-A)+A2

5.

82
:

2 3 2
A 1 2 4

1 5 2

3 ( A B) 2 B

1 4 0
B 2 3 1

2 0 4
1.857 29.857 30.786
A A 7.714 85.286 60.429

3.571 85.429 71.643


2

1. , :

1 2 2
A 2 2 3

3
0
1

A 0

:
Matrix is singular.
Cannot compute its inverse.

2. ,
(, , ),
:
This matrix must be square. It should have
the same number of rows as columns.
( .
).

3. , , , :

1 2 2
A 2 2 3

3 0 1
:

1 4
B 6 3

6 5

BA
AB

The number of rows and/or columns


in these arrays do not match.

5.17. ( ) .
:

ORIGIN 1

N 4

1 4 1 0
2 2 3 1

0 2 1 1
1

6
7

3
2

5.

83

A X=B
m A

m 10

i 1 N
D1 A

D1i 1 Bi

1 D1

D2 A

D2i 2 Bi

2 D2

D3 A

D3i 3 Bi

3 D3

D4 A
i
x i
m

D4i 4 Bi

4 D4

x ( 2 1 0 1 )

AX =B
x A

x ( 2 1 0 1 )

1. D1, D2, D3 D4
, , :
D1

D2

D3

D4

2. , ,
A, :

T 2

A1 A

A1 ( 1 4 1 0 )

A1
, 0 1, ORIGIN.
5.18. A B.
:
ORIGIN 1

1 8 3 0
A 2 3 3 2

3 4 3 7
nc 3

ns 2

1 8 43 0
A 2 3 12 2

3 4 11 7

12 56 39

43 12 11

nc

ns

5.

84
5.5.

rows(A)
cols(A)
max(A)
min(A)
tr(A)
length(x)
last(x)
augment(A,B)
identity(n)
diag(x)
mean(A)
sort(x)
csort(A,n)

rsort(A,n)

reverse(A)

polyroots(v)





( , )


, A
B (
).

,
, 0

()
A n- (
)
A n- (
)
A , reverse(sort(x)) ,

, v. ,

5.19. xi+yi x1, x2,,xN y1,


y2,, yN.

:
ORIGIN 1 N 6
x i
y i
12
23
3
23
4
7

23
10
5
12
8
8

i 1 N
z i x i y i
max( z ) 35

5.20. B, A.

5.

85

2 0 7
4 12 6

4 5 12
2

Bi max A

N rows ( A)
i 1 N

B ( 4 2 12 12 )

5.21. A, B N ,
. ( 5)
( 4 5, 5). .

:
ORIGIN 1
: N 10
i 1 N
:


Ai
4
5
3
2
5
4
4
3
4
4

Bi
5
4
4
3
5
4
4
3
4
4


Ci
4
5
3
3
5
4
4
4
5
4

Sess augmentA
( B C)
"":
i

T
Kol1
min Sess

" ":
i

T
Kol2
min Sess

k 1 2

5
Kol k

5.22. , , . ,
, . B .
.

5.

86
:


ORIGIN 1
K 8

i 1 K
B - , :
Bi
5.6
5.4
5.7
5.6
5.3
5.7
5.4
5.7

Min_o min( B)

Min_o 5.3

Max_o max( B)

Max_o 5.7

B Min_o Max_o
i

zach_o

K2

zach_o 5.567

5.23. Prot .
Prot , . , , . ,
. .

:

ORIGIN 1

Prot

10 12.5

N rows ( Prot)

11

14
15
17
18
20
21
23
24

13.4

12.4
12.4

14.5
15.1

13.4

12.7

12.9

15.1

Rez_sort reverse( csort ( Prot 2) )


:
i 1 N
Placei 1

Placei if i

1 1 if Rez_sorti 1 2

Rez augmentRez_sort
(
Place)

24 18 17 11 20 23 21 10 14 15
Rez 15.1 15.1 14.5 13.4 13.4 12.9 12.7 12.5 12.4 12.4

1
2
3
3
4
5
6
7
7
1
T

Rez_sorti 2 Placei 1 Placei 1 1

5.

87

5.24. x3 + 5x2 -10x -6 = 0.


: :
1- . ,
, .
Matrix Ctll+
- (Ctrl ). MathCAD- :
3

f ( x ) x 5x 10x 6

:
r ( x ) root( f ( x ) x )
:

x 7 6.8 4

x ( 6 0 2 )
10 0

10

x r ( x )

(
)

x ( 6.413 0.491 1.905 )

10 0

r(x) , :
This is not a scalar. Press F1 for help.
( . F1 )

2- . 3- ,
polyroots,
:

6.413
polyroots( v) 0.491

1.905

v ( 6 10 5 1 )

polyroots , . - , - 0.
5.25. x5 + 5x3 + 10 = 0.
: :
5

f ( x ) x 5x 10
T

v ( 1 0 5 0 0 10 )

polyroots( v)

0.034 0.435i

0.034 0.435i
0.463 0.629i

0.463 0.629i
0.86

, .

5.

88

5.26. :
x 2 y 2 10,

y 3 sin x 0.2
:
2

y ( x ) 3 sin ( x ) 0.2

f ( x y ) x y 10

x 4 3.9 4

N 6

20

x i

3
2
1.5
1
2
3.5

10

f(x,y(x))

Given

ORIGIN 1

10

i 1 N

xi 2 yi 2

xi
Find x i y i
yi
Ans augmentx
( y)

10

yi

Ans

3 sin x i
3.162
2.368
1.294
1.294
2.368
3.162

2.096
2.886

2.886
2.096

0.06
0.06

y i y x i

6.

89

6.

ASCII-
( ). MathCAD READ, READPRN WRITE,
WRITEPRN, APPEND, APPENDPRN.
6.1. ASCII- MathCAD
,
:
, , , .
.
READ READPRN,
.
.
(, , , ) , , (. 6.1).
. 6.1.


READ. :
x::=READ(file),
x ,
. file
, , ,
( ). ,
a:=READ(Value.dat)
Name_f:=Temp.dat
i:=1 .. N
xi:=READ(Name_f)
, , - .
:
x:=READ(Interval.dat), READ(Interval.dat) .. READ(Interval.dat)

6.

90

x, Interval.dat
, .
:
file "Input.dat"

a READ( file)
b READ( file)
h READ( file)

a, b c , Input.dat.


(), , :
Cant understand something in this data file. If this file came from
A spreadsheet, make sure you save it as ASCII file text only.
Cant find the data file youre trying to use.

. ,
xi:=READ(z:\MCAD\Temp.dat)
6.1. Temp.dat .
, .

:
ORIGIN 1
N 31
i 1 N

Ti RE AD( "c:\Temp.dat" )
Tsr mean( T)

Tmin min( T)

Tmax max( T)

,
:
Tsr 18.871

Tmin 24

Tmax 15


,
. .
(. 6.2).
, ASCII- (
), .

READPRN:
A:=READPRN(file),

. 6.2.

A , file . , , (. ).

6.

91

6.2. , N . M . Expert.txt , (, ,
. 6.3).
. , .

. 6.3.

:

file "C :\data\expert.txt"
Exp_Ball RE ADP RN( file)
M rows ( Exp_Ball)

N cols( Exp_Ball) 1

ORIGIN 1
i 1 M
N 1

Sum_Bi

Exp_Balli j

Max_B max( Sum_B)

Rez augmentExp_Ball

i-

Sum_B
i

Max_B

Sum_B

-
K1

j 1 K
Rez reverse( csort ( Rez 2) )

:
Max_B 143

-
, -

Rezj 1
4

6.

92

6.2. ASCII- MathCAD


ASCII- WRITE
APPEND. :
WRITE(file):=x

APPEND(file):=x

, , ,
, .
, :
, WRITE
;
,
;
APPEND ,
;
MathCAD ;
, , :
This is not a scalar

6.3. 6.2 ,
, .

:
Itog_file "c:\Data\Itog.dat"
i 1 M

WRIT E( Itog_file
) Sum_Bi

APPEND( Itog_file
) Max_B
j 1 K

APPEND( Itog_file
) Rezj 1

,
. 6.4.

. 6.4.
Itog.dat

WRITEPRN
APPENDPRN. :
WRITEPRN(file):=A

APPENDPRN(file):=A,

A , ( ).
, :
, WRITEPRN
;
,
;

6.

93

APPENDPRN , .
A .
,
:
Cant have anything with units
Or dimensions here

, , ,
:
This file could not be opened. Make sure it exists

MathCAD . A
.
, :
PRNCOLWIDTH ,
8 ;
PRNPRECISION ( ).
( ) ,
MathCAD- ,
Math, Option (, ) ( Built-In Variables ()).
6.4. ,
(. 6.2).
.

:
Itog_file:=c:\Data\Itog_S.dat
WRITEPRN(Itog_file):=Rez

, . 6.5.
PRNCOLWIDTH:
PRNCOLWIDTH:=5
Itog_file:=c:\Data\Itog_A.dat
WRITEPRN(Itog_file):=Rez

, . 6.6
( , 5 ).

. 6.5. Itog_S.dat

. 6.6. Itog_A.dat

6.

94

6.5.

XVII 1994
OLIMP.TXT, :

-
.

IV

VI

.
:
1-
2-
3-

4-
5-
6-

7
5
4

3
2
1

MathCAD-,
:
1) - ;
2) , ;
3) , ;
4) , .
,
.

:
ORIGIN 1
j 1 6

Pl RE ADP RN( "c:\Data\OLIMP.txt")

Ochj

N rows ( Pl)

N 28
4

7
5
4
3
2
1

i 1 N

Medi

C_ochi

Pl
j

i j 1

Rez augmentPl

Med_all 183

Pli k

Med_all

Med
i

Ochj

C_och

Rez reverse( csort ( Rez 2) )

i 1 10

" " :
Pli 1

Medi

C_ochi

10

23

172

11

26

177

12

24

161

13

20

133

14

13

93

15

47

16

13

87

17

59

18

69

19

31

20 0

Rezi 2 10 0

6
i

10

11

7.

95

7.

MathCAD :
(Surface Plot), . 7.1;
(Contour Plot), . 7.1;
/ (3D Bar Plot), . 7.1;
(3D Scatter Plot), . 7.1;
(Vector Field Plot).

. 7.1.

,
Graph (. 7.2) -

7.

96

Insert, Graph (, ) Ctrl+2 ( Surface Plot) Ctrl+5 ( Contour Plot) .

. 7.2. Graph

. , 3D Plot Wizard ( 3D )
Insert, Graph (, ).
(.
7.3) .
( ) , , . ,
.

. 7.3.

:
.
7.1. , z=x2 + y2 x sin x.
:
1- ( ). :
1. :
2

z( x y) x y x sin( x)

7.

97

2. ,
Graph.
3. , z.
4. Enter.
:
2

z( x y ) x y x sin ( x)

2- ( ).
, , x y ( y ) xi yj
( i j ). :
2

z( x y ) x y x sin ( x)
ORIGIN 1
N 35

i 1 N

j 1 N

x0 5

y0 5

hx 0.3

xi x0 ( i 1) hx

hy 0.3

y j y0 ( j 1) hy

M i j zxi y j

, , .
, (. 7.4).

,
, . , x y, , :
x0 4

y0 5

xi x0 (i 1) hx

hx 0.3

hy 0.2

y j y0 ( j 1) hy

98

7.

, . 7.5. .

. 7.4. ,
M
( 1)

. 7.5. ,
M
( 1)
M

, ,
XY ( ) . MathCAD
, ,
.
7.2. temper.txt, Data C:, . . 7.6. .

7.

99

. 7.6. temper.txt ( 2)

: MathCAD-, :
1. temper.txt, T
READPRN:

T READPRN"c:\data\temper.txt"
2. ,
Graph.

3. , T.
4. Enter.
:

7.1. , 1,
.

8. MathCAD

100

8. MathCAD

() . ,
. , , .
MathCAD Maple Waterloo Maple Software,
MathSoft ( MathCAD)
MathCAD. MathCAD
5. ,
, - MathCAD
.

8.1.

MathCAD :
.
, (
).
, . ,

MathCAD (
).

8.2.

Symbolics ().

Symbolics (), , MathCAD


(. 8.1).
, :
1) ,
, ;
2) ,
, ( Evaluate Style ( ) Symbolics). . 8.2
.

. MathCAD 8/2000: . .: - , 2000. . 261.

8. MathCAD

101

. 8.1. Symbolics ()

. 8.2.

, , .
, .
8.18.3 Symbolics ()6, , .
. 8.3.
8.1.

Evaluation, Symbolically
8.1
,
Evaluation, Floating Point
,

8.2

MaathCAD.
, .

8. MathCAD

102

Evaluation, Complex
,

8.3

Simplify

, , ,
. .

8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7

Expand

8.8

Factor


,
,
( , )

,

Collect

Polynomial Coefficients

8.9

8.10

8.11

8.2.

Variable, Solve
,

8.12

Variable, Substitute
,

, . .

8.17

Variable, Differentiate
,

, ,
( )

8.13

Variable, Integrate
,

8.14

Variable, Expand to Series


,

8.15

Variable, Convert to Partial


Fraction
,

8.16

8. MathCAD

103

8.3.

Matrix, Transpose
,

8.18

Matrix, Invert
,

Matrix, Determinant
,

8.19
8.21
8.20
8.21
8.22

. Transform (), ,
Z- ( ).

,
(. 8.3) .
, , (,
,
).

. 8.3.

8.3.


. Evaluate Style ( ) . 8.4.

. 8.4.

8.1 ( ).

Evaluate, Symbolically .

104

8. MathCAD

8.2 (
). Evaluate, Float
.
( 1 4000).

. , .

8.3.

Evaluate, Complex .

8. MathCAD

105

8.4 ( ).

,
( ), :

8.5 ( , ). Simplify .

8.6 ( ).
Simplify .

106

8. MathCAD

8.7 ( ).

Simplify .

.
8.8 ( ). Expand .

8.9

( ). Factor .

8. MathCAD

107

8.10 ( ).

Collect ( ),
.

8.11 ( ). Polynomial Coefficients ( ), .



x, .


ex.

8.12 ( ). Variable, Solve ( ),


.

108

8. MathCAD

. x3 x=3. : (; 1) {3}.

8.13 ( ).

Variable, Differentiate ( ),
.
1) :

2) :

8. MathCAD

109

8.14 ( ). Variable,
Integrate ( ),
.
1) :

2) :

8.15 ( ). Variable,
Expand to Series ( ), .
.
1) :

2) :

8. MathCAD

110

8.16 ( ).
Variable, Convert to Partial Fraction , .
1) :

2) :

8.17 ( ). Variable, Substitute , .

8.18 ( ). Matrix,
Transpose .

8.19 ( ).
.

Matrix, Invert -

8. MathCAD

111

8.20 ( ).

Matrix, Determinant .

8.21 ( ).

8.22 ( ).

8.23.

(. 8.5). , S,
h?

a
:

. 8.5.

8. MathCAD

112

" " :
P a

2h

sin

, " " :

a h cot h

Variable, Solv e

a:

S h2 cot
h
:
a

2 h

Variable, Substitute

sin

S h2 cot 2
h

Variable, Differentiate

sin

, :

h 1 cot

h
sin

cos

Simplify

:
h

1 2 cos

1 cos

Variable, Solv e

, :
1
3

,
/2),
(0;
:
f

1 2 cos

1 cos 2

0.1 0.2

2

f
"-" "+"


, P
3
.

f ( )

8. MathCAD

8.4.

8.1.

43 24 3 43 24 3;

1)

1
x3 8
4
;
2
x 4 2x
x2

8.2.

x 5x 4
;
x4 5x2 4

1) 2 3x 2

2 2 3

:
2)

x2 5x 4
;
x4 5x2 4

3) 2015 1.

2)

8.4.

2 2 3

2 3

4)

1) 3x2 10 xy 8 y 2 8x 10 y 3;

8.3.

2 3

2)

x2 y 2 x2 y 2 x2 y 2

x y 2 xy
x y

3)

1)

113

x
1
; 3) 2 ;
2
x 1
( x 1)

4)

1
.
x( x 3x 2)
2

1
x2
5x 2
;
x2
x 4

2)

x3 3x 12 x 2 3x 16

1;
x
x 1

3) x5 5x4 6 x3 44 x 2 8x 96 0;

4) | x 1| | x 3| 2 x 4;

5) | x2 3x 2 | | x2 5 x 6 | 2;

6) | x3 x 1 | 3 x3 x 1 7;

7)

1 x 2x x2

1 2 x x

;
8 2 x x
1 x 2x x

8)

8.5.

x 1 3 x 1 64 x


.
x 1
x 1 73 x 2 1

1) ( x2 x 1)( x 2 x 7) 5;

2)

1
2
3
4

0;
2 x 1 2 3x 3 4 x 4 5 x

3) | x 1| | x 2 || 2 x 3|;

4)

| x 4 | | x 1| | x 3 | | x 2 |

;
| x 3| | x 2|
| x4|

5) | x 3 | 6 3 1 x ;

6)

7)

2
2
2 1;
x 1
x

8.6.

1) 1 2 ;
n
n2

4 3x x 2

8) x3 7 x 6 x3 3x 2 4(1 x).

:
n

1
2)
;
k 1 (4k 3)(4k 1)

8.7.

6 1
;
5 2

3)

2
k 1

8. MathCAD

114

(1 x)5 (1 5 x)
;
x 0
x 2 x5

1) lim

2) lim
x 1

x 4 3x 2
;
x5 4 x 3

x 13 2 x 1
;
x2 9

3) lim
x 3

1 x 1 x
4) lim
;
x 0 3 1 x 3 1 x

(2k 1)

1
5) lim
;
n
k 1 k ( k 1)

6) lim

k 1
n

(2k )

;
2

k 1

cos(t

ln(1 x x )
8) lim
;
x ln(1 3 x 4 x )

cos( x) cos(a)
7) lim
;
x a
xa

9) lim

)dt

x 0

8.8.

x :

x
cx 4 ;
e 1

1) e2 x cos( x) cx5 ;

2)

sin( x)
6
3) ln
cx ;
x

(1 x)100
4)
cx 2 .
40
60
(1 2 x) (1 2 x)

8.9.
1)

1 x2 1
ln
;
4 x2 1

8.9.
d x
1)

;
dx8 1 x
8

4)

8.5.

(x a )
2

2)

2 2

dx;

d
1
3)
dt .

dx x2 1 t 4
3

x2 1 x2 1
x4 1
1
2

x
2

6) x 1 x 2 arccos x.

d 50 2
2)
x sin(2 x) ;
dx50

x
1 x2 dx;

4) e x 1 ctg ;

3) ln(ln(ln( x)));

8.10.
1)

cos( x)
;
2sin 2 ( x)

2)

x 1 ln(1 x 1);

5)

5)

12

3)
2

1
1 x

dx;

dx;

6)

1 cos x dx;

2
dx;
2 cos x

ln 2

7)

e x 1dx.

. MathCAD, (, Calculator, Evaluation . .), ,

8. MathCAD

115


Symbolic Keyword ToolBar ( ) Math (). Symbolic ()
, (. 8.6). Symbolic 8.4.
. 8.6.

. 8.6. Symbolic ()

float

8.4. Symbolic


8.24

float,

8.31

complex

complex

8.31

solve

solve,

8.34

simplify

simplify

8.33

substitute
factor
expand
coeffs
collect
series
parfac

substitute

8.30

factor,

8.27

expand,

8.28

coeffs,

8.26

collect,

8.29

series, ,

8.32

convert, parfrac,

8.25

8. MathCAD

116

MT

M-1

-1

|M|

||


:
1) ().
2) . , .
3) .
4) .
5) .

8.6.

8.24 ( ).

8.25 ( ).

8. MathCAD

117

8.26 ( ).

8.27 ( ).

8.28 ( ). ,
.

118

8. MathCAD

8.29 ( ).

8.30 (

).

. = .
= , :

:
1) :
2) ;
3) .

8.31 ( ).

8. MathCAD

119

8.32 ( ). series
: ( ) ,
. , . , series
.
, x=0:

(, ) :

8.33 ( ).

120

8. MathCAD

8.34 ( , ).

f(x)=0,
:

Im(x)=0 -,
:

8. MathCAD

, :

, :

8.35 ( ).

121

122

8. MathCAD

. 8.30.

8.36 (
Given-Find).

9. MathCAD

123

9. MathCAD

MathCAD Professional , -. , , .
( ) -,
MathCAD- ( ,
). -
, ( ), , . . 9.1 - .
f ( a b c) ORIGIN 1
2

D b 4a c
return "Not a quadratic equation"

if a

return "no real roots" if D 0


if D 0
x
1

x
2

b
2a

2 a
b D
2a
if D

. 9.1

. 9.1, MathCAD
, .
, , , . . 9.2
f(a,b,c).
f ( 2 5 6) "no real roots"
f ( 1 2 1)
f ( 1 2 7)
f ( 0 3 4)

. 9.2

9. MathCAD

124
9.1.

MathCAD-
Programming (),
Math (), . 9.3.

. 9.3

. 9.4


Programming (), , (. . 9.4).
,
MathCAD .
9.1.

Add Line

If

otherwise

9.1.

/ (
)

( ). if, ,
,
, if.
,
, if

]
{

if

Ctrl+}

for

for. for -,

. ,
,

Ctrl+

while

while.
( ) , -

Ctrl+]

otherwise

for

while

9. MathCAD

125

,
while

break

, , ,

Ctrl+{

break

continue

Ctrl+[

continue

return

Ctrl+|

return

on error

, on error,
, ,
on error

Ctrl+

on error

.
.
, . , , .
,
. ,
if :
if

:
if

, , .
, for
while, :
for

while

, .
, , , .

9. MathCAD

126
9.2.

MathCAD , , ,
.
,
Programming ().

:=, = .

MathCAD-, . 9.5.

. , , , . 9.1,
ORIGIN.

. 9.5

9.3.

(if, otherwise)

if .
() . , if. , , . . . 2.3. otherwise
if , , .
9.1. :
x 2 2,
0 x 2,

y ( x) sin( x 1), 2 x 5,
0,
.

:
2

y ( x) x 2 if ( x 0) ( x 2)
sin ( x 1) if ( x 2) ( x 5)
0 otherwise
y ( 6)

y ( 1)

y ( 4)

y ( 3)


( 2.2).

9. MathCAD

127

9.2. , , x1 , x2 , x3 -

a0 x3 a1 x 2 a2 x a3 0 , a0 , a1 , a2 , a3 .

: :
a
a
a
x1 x2 x3 1 , x1 x2 x1 x3 x2 x3 2 , x1 x2 x3 3 .
a0
a0
a0
MathCAD-, Cub(x) , a0 1.
Cub( x) a 1
0

a x x x a
1

a x x x x x x a
2

a x x x a
3

a
x 1
1

x 2
3

Cub( x)

Dmin

, Dmin,
Dmax, b n (. 9.6). :

9.1. Dmax

x 3

0, 08D 2 n2
,
3D 9b 10C

D 0,5( D max D min),

C 0,5( D max D min).


. 9.5

9.4.

(for, while, continue, break)

MathCAD : for while.


,
. .
, continue.
for
(. . 2.4), .
for:
1) for i 1 .. N
2) for i 2,4 .. N
3) for i (1 2 3)
4) M (2 4 6)
for m M

9. MathCAD

128

9.3. A .
A. ,
.
:
Neyd ( A ) k 0
for a A
k k 1 if a

continue
k

9.4. N x N , :

ai

x i 1
.
i2 1

: ,
for, while:
R( N x)

R( N x)

for i 1 N
a x
i

i1
while i N

i 1
2

i 1

i 1

a x
i

continue

i 1

ii 1

a
a

R(N,x):
x 4

N 5

a R( N x)

i 1 N
a
i

a R( N 3)

a
i

9.5.

N, x0, y0 xn
yn (n=1,2,,N), :

xn 1 xn yn ,

yn 1 cos( xn 2) yn .

9. MathCAD

129

:
Ru( x0 y0 N) x x0
0

y y0
0

for n 0 N
x

n 1

n 1

cos x 2 y

continue
augment ( x y )

Ru(x0,y0,N) , xn, yn. 0. Ru(x0,y0,N):


0
x Ru( 1 2 6)

1
y Ru( 1 2 6)

x
T

9.6. x, (x 0, 0).

(1) x
k

2 k 1

k !(2k 1)

. ,

k 0

,
, ,
.

:
S x S 0

S( 2 0.001)

k0
S( 3 0.00001)

ax
while a
SS a
kk 1
k

2k 1

( 1) x

k ( 2k 1)

, . . , . break.

9.7. A .
A. ,
.

9. MathCAD

130
:
S45( A ) OR IGIN 1
n rows ( A )
m cols ( A )
k0
for i 1 n
kk 1
for j 1 m
if A

i j

kk1
break
continue
continue
k

9.8.

-
1703 . H ,
() .
x=160 . H:
1852
1854
1854
1854
1857

1.11
5.09
5.10
27.10
8.12

161
183
194
196
168

, ,
.

: x ( ). :
God( H x) OR IGIN 1
n rows ( H)
g "Th e level was n ot reached"
for i 1 n
if H

i 3

gH

i 1

break
continue
g

God:

9. MathCAD

131

God( H 300)
God( H 260)

9.2. B,

, . , , Tmin .

9.3.

1 1
.
2
2

1 k
k 2

, .

9.4. x 3 a

a, -

1
a
xn 1 xn 2

3
xn
xn a. , xn1 xn ?

9.5.

(return)

,

. ,
. .
,
(, ).
(,
) , return.
, return, , .

9.9. , ,
AX=B .
X, .
:

9. MathCAD

132
SLE (A,B)

- AX=B

SLE( A B) OR IGIN 1
D A
N rows ( A )
for i 1 N
HA
i
H B
d H
i

sd

i1

if D

return "T here is no solution(s)" if ( sd 0)


return "Infinite set of solution(s)"

if ( sd

0)

for i 1 N
d
x
i

continue
x

AX=B SLE:
1 2 0
A 4 0 3

4 4 0

1
B 2

0

SLE( A B)

1 2 0
A 4 0 3

4 0 3

1
B 2

0

SLE( A B)

1 2 0
A 1 0 2

2 0 4

1
B 2

4

SLE( A B)

9.5. H . . 9.8.
:
1)
?
2) ?
3) ?
4) ?

9. MathCAD

9.6.

133

(on error)

MathCAD . , - (, ),
on error. , .
, , . on error:
f ( x)

2
( x 2) x 6

g ( x f ) return "not defined"


return "not defined"

on error f ( x)
if Im( f ( x) ) 0

f ( x)

g( 2 f )

g ( 10 f )

g ( 6 f )

g( 3 f )

g(x,f) f(x)
x, .

9.7.

9.10.


() .

: , :
NOD(a,b)

- a b:

NOD( a b )

z if( a b a b )
y if( a b a b )
while mod( y z) 0
h mod( y z)
yz
zh
z

9. MathCAD

134

NODarray(A) - A :
NODarray( A)

d A1
for i 1 last ( A)

d NOD d Ai

NOD NODarray:
NOD( 48 144)
i 1 5

NOD( 60 156)
C
i

12
3
144
36
14

NODarray ( C)

NODarray ( 45 18 81 27 72 )

1. MathCAD-

135

1. MathCAD-

,

v ),
o (/
:
g t

- , .
2
vo , P, vo cos ( ) t ,

vo sin ( ) t

, g=9.8/ , t

R H.
:
vo 15
60

/
.

g 9.8 / 2
:
,
P 5
, H 4
R 10

:
rad( )
:
x ( t) vo cos ( rad( ) ) t

y ( t ) vo sin ( rad( ) ) t

g t

180

T, x=R:
T

T 1.333

vo cos ( rad( ) )

"y" :
yR y ( T)
, H yR H P . , :
usl ( yR H) ( yR H P)
: c ( u) R

if ( usl "da" "no" ) "da"


u P P H

:
10
y( t )
u

:
if ( usl yR "no" ) 8.609
0

5
x( t) c( u )

10

1. MathCAD-

136
nod 25

,
- B,

A.
.

C , . ;
, .
, , :
x(t)=(A-B)cos t + C cos ,

y(t)=(A-B)sin t - C sin ,

=(A/B )t, C<B<A .

t 0 n,
2 n B, ()
A B.
A , B, C (C<B<A ). .
:
:A 120

B 55

C 50

(A ,B):
D1 max( A B)
N 10

D2 min( A B)

i 3 N

Di if Di 1

0 0 mod Di 2 Di 1

NOD

i 1

Di

NOD 5

B
NOD

n 11

A
t
B

x ( t) ( A B) cos ( t) C cos

A
t
B

y ( t) ( A B) sin ( t) C sin

t 0 0.1 2 n
, :
A 120

B 55

C 50

1. MathCAD-

137

, :
A

, :
A

, :
A

1. MathCAD-

138

,
9a y 2 x (3a x) 2 .
:
:
x
y2
(3a x) 2
9a
, , .
( y 0 y < 0), : y1() y2() .

(. . ). x 0 .
a 2

y1( x)

x ( 3a x)

y2( x) y1( x)

3 a
2

root ( y1( x) y2( x) x 0 1) 0


y 1( x)
0

y 2( x)

root ( y1( x) y2( x) x 2 7) 6

2
x

, =2 0
6.
, y =
y(x) :
b
S 2 y ( x) 1 ( y ( x)) 2 dx

a
, , y1( x) 0 .
6

S 2 y1( x) 1 y1( x) d x
dx

S 37.699
4

: S 3a 2 ,
:
2

3a 37.699

y 1( x) y 2( x)

0
0

. MathCAD .
2
Format, Result (, ).
1 0 1 2 3 4
x

1. MathCAD-

139




( .) 50 .
0.05 .
:
i : 0..n 1

n : 50

ORIGIN 0 ,
.
, xi 50
( ):

j
j
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

0 15

16 31

xj

xk

29
31
25
26.5
24
33
40
22.5
30.5
35.5
38.5
30
28
30.5
27
36

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

28
36
37
44.5
39.5
34
35
33.5
30
40
37
31
24.5
40.5
36.5
33.5

32 49

g
g
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49

xg
24.5
39.5
23
21.5
20
34
30.5
32
27
30.5
36.5
32
42.5
38.5
27
22.5
40
26


hist. , ,
.

1. MathCAD-

140

: hist(L, x)
L , ;
x .
L:
:
min( x ) 20

max( x)

max( x) 44.5

min( x) 24.5

[20; 44.5] 9 h:
j 0 9

Lj

max( x) min( x)
9

h 2.722

Lj min( x) h j

20
22.722
25.444
28.167
30.889
33.611
36.333
39.056
41.778
44.5

5
7
7
hist( L x)

7
6
6
6
1


F hist( L x)

, ,
.

1. MathCAD-

141



.
xsr, S.
, :

xi
i

xsr

xsr 31.9

, :

xi
S

xsr

S 6.106

n 1

:
( x xsr)

f( x)

1
S 2

2
2 S


nh:

( x xsr)

Y ( x)

n h
S 2

2
2 S

Y (L) Y (L) (. 5.24


. 87).

1. MathCAD-

142

10

8.771592
F

Y( L)

1
20

30
L

17

40
44.6

Histogram
Normal distribution

nti n Pi , Pi
X i - , , X
.
:
l min( x) min( x) h max( x) h
:

nt( l)

l h
nt( l)

f( x) d x

2.038
3.94
6.263
8.189
8.805
7.787
5.664
3.388
1.667

0 8

nj

hist( L x) j

1. MathCAD-

ntj

nj

2.038
3.94
6.263
8.189
8.805
7.787
5.664
3.338
1.667

4
5
7
7
7
6
6
6
1

nj

nab
j

ntj
ntj

143

2:

nab 5.623

, , s 9 :
k 6.

k : s 3 ,

2

( , k ) 0.05 :
2

(0.05, 6) : 12.6

2
2
.
, . ,
. , .

1. MathCAD-

144


W ,
,
: P; Q;
n ; V; R; S;
L; i - ,
1000.
:
P 250
Q 2000
n 15
V 45
R 1
S 1
L 0.5
i 77

, :
, :
- :
, /:
, :
, :
, :
:

W1 1.9 0.01V 0.0003V P

W1 739.375

:
Q
q0
4n

:
W2

8 0.1V 0.0025V
0.7

W2 1.227

q0

700 if L S 1 S
W3 ( P Q ) i

R
L

:
W W1 W2 W3

W 1.749 10

2.

145

2.
1
A Find or Minerr must be preceded by a matching Given

find minerr
Given
Arguments in function definitions must be names

.
Cant converge to a solution.

.
,
, ,
, root, find minerr.
, TOL ( ) (), () .
Cant define the same variable more than once in the same expression


.
Can't evaluate this expression. It may have resulte in an owerflow or an infinite loop
.
.
Cant evaluate this function when its argument is zero

.
Cant find a solution to this system of equations. Try a different guess value or check that a solution really exists

.
(
TOL) , , , , .
Cant find the data file youre trying to use

.
Cant perform this operation on the entire array at once. Try using vectorize to perform it element by element

.
.
Cant plot this many points

.
Cant put a := inside a solve block. Use the = button on the Inequalities toolbar instead
1

, . , , , , .

2.

146

:= ()
. Boolean.
Cant solve a system with this many equations

.
Cant understand something in this data file. If this file came from a spreadsheet, make sure you
saved it as ASCII text only

- .
Excel,
ASCII.
Cant understand the name of this function. If youre trying to multiply, use *

. , *.
Cant understand the way this range variable is defined

(,
x:=1,3 .. 5, 3-1=2, ).
Cant understand this number

(, 12.01.2002).
Cant use a range variable in a solve block

.
Cannot evaluate this accurately at one or more of the values you specified


(, sin(10100)).
Cross product is defined only for vectors having exactly three elements

, 3
.
Degree of the polynomial must be between 1 and 99

1 99.
Dimensions must be 4

4 4 .
End of file

Equation too large

.
.
Found a number with a magnitude greater than 10^307 while trying to evaluate this expression

,
10307.
Found a singularity while evaluating this expression. You may be dividing by zero

. ,
0.
Illegal constraint

. , , .

2.

147

Illegal context. Press F1 for Help

.
. F1 .
:
- ; ( ) ;
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f(x):=x
a:=4

f+2=
a(4)+4=

- ,
( :=), .
, : p:=0 .. 4,
: f:=p+2
:
f(p):=p+2 fp:=p+2
Illegal dimensions

. ,
. = .
Integer too large

7.

Integer too small

1.

Invalid format

. , 1.

Invalid matrix dimension

.
List too long

C . , .
Matrix is singular. Cannot compute its inverse

. .
, 0.
Matrix must be positive definite

.
Must be <=10000 10000.

, F1
.

, F1 .
7

2.

148
Must be = 10^-16

10-16.
, F1
.

Must be function

1.
Must be increasing

.
, =.
Must be positive

Must be real

Must be real scalar

.
Must be real vector

.
Must be square

Must have more than three observations

, 4 .
Must have 3 vectors or one matrix

.
, , . (, ).
No solution found

. , F1 .
Non-positive definite

.
Not enough memory for this operation

. , . (MathCAD
8 .)
Only positive values are allowed here

.
ORIGIN should be an integer whose magnitude is less than 16 million

ORIGIN ,
16 .
(Rows 1) must be power of 2

2n .
Singular matrix

. ( , 0).

2.

149

Stack overflow . , -

( )
. , .
The expression to the left of the equal sign cannot be defined

, ":=",
. :
- ,
- ,
- ( ).
- ,
Insert, Matrix ( ), .
The function values on the two bracket end points must be of opposite signs

.
The number of rows or columns do not match

.
The number of rows and/or columns in these arrays do not match

. ,
.
.
The unit placeholder can only have real, non-zero scalars put into it

( ).
sin ( 34) 0.529
There is an extra comma in this expression

.
:
- ,
- ,
- ,
- ,
- .
.
This array must have more than one row or column

, . ,

, .
This expression has a ( without a matching )

(
) .
This expression is incomplete. You must fill in the placeholders

. , .

2.

150

This expression is incomplete. You must provide an operator

. .

.
This file could not be opened. Make sure it exists

. , .
, , , ,
, ,
.
, , , .
This function has too many arguments

.
This function is undefined at one or more of the points you specified

, .
, , ln(0).
This function needs more arguments
(
).
This is not a valid interval

. , .
This matrix must be square. It should have the same number of rows as columns

. .
This must be an integer. The expression you used appears to have a fractional part

. , , .
This must be a variable

.
This must be the name of a function or variable

.
This operation can only be performed an a function

.
This operation can only be performed an an array. It cant be performed on a number

,
.
This operation can only be performed on a number or an array

.
This operation can only be performed on a strong

, .

2.

151

This subscript is too large

( 8 ).
This system of equations has more unknowns than there are equations

,
.
.
This value must be a matrix

. (
.)
This value must be a vector. It can be neither a matrix nor a scalar

( ).
, .
This value must be an integer greater than 1

, 1.
This value must be real. Its imaginary part must be zero

.
0.
This variable must be a range variable

.
, .
This variable or function is not defined above

.
(:),
.
, . ,
, .
Underflow

.
,
, .
, ,
, .

Unequal array dimensions

. ,
, , .
Value of subscript or superscript is too big (or too small) for this array


. , ORIGIN, ( ). ORIGIN,
=.
Vector elements cannot all be the same

152

2.
. ,
F1, , .

You are trying to use an array or range as a scalar. Press F1 for help

( ) , . F1 .
You have one solve block inside another. Every Given must have a matching Find or Minerr

.
Given
Find Minerr.
You interrupted calculation. To resume, click here and choose Calculate from the Math menu

[Esc] , .
,
Calculate Math ( F9).
,
MathCAD - , , (Automatic Calculation) Math.

153


1. . MathCAD 2001: . .: - , 2002.
831 .
2. . . MathCAD 2001. .: , 2001. 544 .
3. . ., . . MathCAD 2000: . .:
, 2002. 655 .
4. ., . MathCAD 2000: . : .
BHV, 2000. 416 c.


,
,
,

MathCAD

. .
. .

20.06.2007.
60 90 1/8. .
14,0 .-.. 1000 .
. 105.





185910, , . , 33

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