GATE
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Multiple Choice Questions GATE Mechanical Engineering Vol 2, 1e Copyright By Publishers ISBN 9-788192-27629-8
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PREFACE
This book doesnt make promise but provide complete satisfaction to the readers. The market scenario is confusing and readers dont find the optimum quality books. This book provides complete set of problems appeared in competition exam as well as fresh set of problems. The book is categorized into units which are sub-divided into chapters. The aim of the book is to avoid the unnecessary elaboration and highlights only those concepts are techniques which are absolutely necessary. Again time is crucial factor both from the point of view of preparation duration and time taken for solving each problem in the book are those which take the least distance to the solution. But however to make a comment that the book is absolute for GATE preparation will be an inappropriate one. The theory for the preparation of the examination should be followed from the standard books.
Authors
SYLLABUS
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS
Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors. Calculus: Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Greens theorems. Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchys and Eulers equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation. Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchys integral theorem, Taylor and Laurent series. Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson,Normal and Binomial distributions. Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations Integration by trapezoidal and Simpsons rule, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.
convective heat transfer, various correlations for heat transfer in flow over flat plates and through pipes; thermal boundary layer; effect of turbulence; radiative heat transfer, black and grey surfaces, shape factors, network analysis; heat exchanger performance, LMTD and NTU methods. Thermodynamics: Zeroth, First and Second laws of thermodynamics; thermodynamic system and processes; Carnot cycle. irreversibility and availability; behaviour of ideal and real gases, properties of pure substances, calculation of work and heat in ideal processes; analysis of thermodynamic cycles related to energy conversion. Applications: Power Engineering: Steam Tables, Rankine, Brayton cycles with regeneration and reheat. I.C. Engines: air-standard Otto, Diesel cycles. Refrigeration and air-conditioning: Vapour refrigeration cycle, heat pumps, gas refrigeration, Reverse Brayton cycle; moist air: psychrometric chart, basic psychrometric processes. Turbomachinery: Pelton-wheel, Francis and Kaplan turbines impulse and reaction principles, velocity diagrams.
GENERAL APTITUDE
Verbal Ability: English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups, instructions, critical reasoning and verbal deduction. Numerical Ability: Numerical computation, numerical estimation, numerical reasoning and data interpretation.
CONTENTS
FLUID MECHANICS FM 1 FM 2 FM 3 FM 4 FM 5 FM 6 FM 7 FM 8 FM 9 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids Pressure and Fluid Statics Fluid Kinematics & Bernouli Equation Flow Analysis Using Control Volumes Flow Analysis Using Differential Method Internal Flow External Flow Open Channel Flow Turbo Machinery FM 3 FM 33 FM 80 FM 124 FM 172 FM 211 FM 253 FM 289 FM 328
HEAT TRANSFER HT 1 HT 2 HT 3 HT 4 HT 5 HT 6 HT 7 HT 8 Basic Concepts & Modes of Heat-Transfer Fundamentals of Conduction Steady Heat Conduction Transient Heat Conduction Fundamentals of Convection Free and Force Convection Radiation Heat Transfer Heat Exchangers HT 3 HT 34 HT 63 HT 94 HT 114 HT 129 HT 155 HT 181
THERMODYNAMICS TD 1 TD 2 TD 3 TD 4 TD 5 TD 6 TD 7 TD 8 TD 9 Basic Concepts and Energy Analysis Properties of Pure Substances Energy Analysis of Closed System Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volume Second Law of Thermodynamics Entropy Gas Power Cycles Vapor and Combined Power Cycles Refrigeration and Air Conditioning TD 3 TD 28 TD 52 TD 76 TD 106 TD 136 TD 166 TD 199 TD 226
***********
FM 1
BASIC CONCEPTS AND PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS
Common Data For Q. 1 and 2
In an automobile tire the pressure is 245 kPa and the air temperature is 298 K . The volume of tire is 0.050 m3 and gas constant of air is 0.287 kPa - m3 /kgK .
FM 1.1
The pressure in the tire at air temperature of 322 K when volume of tire is constant, will be (A) 336 kPa (B) 26 kPa (C) 310 kPa (D) 1854.02 kPa What amount of air should be come out to obtain pressure to its original value at same temperature ? (A) 0.1812 kg (B) 0.1672 kg (C) 0.0140 kg (D) 0.3484 kg Consider Carbon dioxide at 12 atm and 400cC . What will be the density of Carbon dioxide and c p at this state and the new pressure when the gas is cooled isentropically to 150cC ? (For Carbon dioxide k = . and R = m2 s2 ) (A) = 0.797 kg/m3 , c p = 4 . (B) = 1.3 # 10-4 kg/m3 , c p = (C) = 7.97 kg/m3 , c p = (D) = 7.97 kg/m3 , c p = kg , p2 = kg , p2 = , p2 = kPa 5.5 kPa
FM 1.2
FM 1.3
kg
5.5 kPa
FM 1.4
, p2 = 5.5 Pa kg A Cane of beverage contains 455 ml of liquid. The mass of cane with liquid is 0.369 kg while an empty cane weighs 0.193 N . What will be the specific weight, density and specific gravity of liquid respectively ? (A) 0.977 kN/m3 , 99.6 kg/m3 , 0.0996 (B) 9.77 kN/m3 , 996 kg/m3 , 0.996 (C) 9.77 N/m3 , 996 kg/m3 , 9.96 (D) 97.7 kN/m3 , 996 kg/m3 , 0.996 The specific gravity of a gas contained in a tank at the temperature of 25cC is 2 # 103 . If the atmospheric pressure is 10.1 kPa , the gage pressure is (A) 70 kPa (B) 7 kPa (C) 0.7 kPa (D) 70 kPa Consider steam at state near the saturation line : (p1, T1)= (1.31 MPa, 250cC), Rsteam = 4 m2 s2 and k = . ). If the steam expands isentropically to a new pressure of 414 kPa , what will be the density 1 and the density 2 ? (A) 1 = 5.44 kg/m3, 2 = 5.04 kg/m3 (B) 1 = 2.28 kg/m3, 2 = 5.44 kg/m3 (C) 1 = 5.44 kg/m3, 2 = 2.28 kg/m3 (D) 1 = 5.04 kg/m3, 2 = 5.44 kg/m3 A 30 m3 cylinder contains Hydrogen at 25cC and 200 kPa What amount of
FM 1.5
FM 1.6
FM 1.7
Demo Ebook
Page 4 FM 1
Hydrogen must be bled off to maintain the Hydrogen in cylinder at 20cC and 600 kPa ? (R = 0.2968 kPa.m3 /kg.K) (A) 271.35 kg (B) 206.99 kg (C) 478.34 kg (D) 64.36 kg
FM 1.8
Wet air with 100% relative humidity, is at 30cC and 1 atm . If Rair = m s 2 2 , Rwater = 461 m /s K and vapor pressure of saturated water at 30cC is 4242 Pa, what will be the density of this wet air using Daltons law of partial Pressures ? (A) 1.12 kg/m3 (B) 1.09 kg/m3 (C) 0.03 kg/m3 (D) 1.147 kg/m3 In a formula one race, at the start of the race the absolute pressure of a car tire is 362.5 kPa and at the end of the race the absolute pressure of car tire is measured to be 387.5 kPa . If the volume of the tire remains constant at 0.022 m3 then percentage increase in the absolute temperature of the air in the tire is (A) 6.9% (B) 69% (C) 0.69% (D) Not increased A compressed air tank contains 24 kg of air at a temperature of 80cC . If the reading of gage mounted on the tank is 300 kPa , what will be the volume of tank in m3 ? (A) 404 (B) 4.04 (C) 0.404 (D) 40.4 A small submersible moves in 30cC water ( pv = 4.242 kPa ) at 2-m depth, where ambient pressure is 133 kPa. Its critical cavitation number is Ca . 0.2 . At what velocity will cavitation bubbles form ? (A) 22.72 m/s (B) 32.66 m/s (C) Zero (D) 32.13 m/s What will be the speed of sound of steam at 150cC and 400 kpa ? (k = 1.33, R = 461 m2 /s2K ) (A) 50.9 m/s (B) 509 m/s (C) 30.3 m/s (D) 303 m/s A liquid has a weight density of 9268 N/m3 and dynamic viscosity of 131.5 N s/m2 . What will be the kinematic viscosity of the liquid in m2/sec ? (A) 0.0139 (B) 1.39 (C) 0.139 (D) 13.9
FM 1.9
FM 1.10
FM 1.11
FM 1.12
FM 1.13
FM 1.14
A 72 m long and 30 m diameter blimp is approximated by a prolate spheroid whose volume is given by v = 2 pLR2 . The weight of 20cC gas within the blimp 3 for (a) helium at 1.1 atm and (b) air at 1.0 atm, is ( RHe = 2077m2 /s2 , Rair = 287 m2 /s2K ) (A) WHe = 60.97kN , Wair = 401.1kN (B) WHe = 401.1kN , Wair = 6.97kN (C) WHe = 6.2kN , Wair = 40.9kN (D) WHe = 40.9kN , Wair = 6.2kN The oil having viscosity of 4.56 # 102 N s/m2 , is contained between two parallel plates. The bottom plate is fixed and upper plate moves when a force F is applied. If the distance between the stationary and moving plates is 2.54 mm and the area of the upper plate is 0.129 m2 , what value of F is required to translate
FM 1.15
Demo Ebook
Page 5 FM 5
A thin moving plate is separated from two fixed plates by two fluids of different viscosity as shown in figure below. If the contact area is A , the force required for the flow to be steady laminar viscous flow, is
(A) F = ; h + h2 E VA m m2 (C) F = ; h2 h E VA m2 m
FM 1.17
(B) F = :
m2 m VA h2 h D m m + 2 D VA h h2
(D) F = :
A large movable plate is located between two large fixed plates. Two fluids having the different viscosities are contained between the plates. If the moving plate has a velocity of 6 m/sec , what will be the magnitude of the shearing stresses on plate 1 and plate 2 respectively, that act on the fixed plates ?
A thin flat plate of area A is moved horizontally between two plates, one stationary and one moving with a constant velocity Vm as shown in figure below. If velocity of flat plate is Vp and dynamic viscosity of oil is , the force must be applied on the plate to manage this motion is
A Newtonian fluid having the specific gravity of 0.91 and Kinematic viscosity of 4 # 104 m2 / sec , flows over a fixed surface. The velocity profile near the surface
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Demo Ebook
Page 6 FM 1
is given by the relation: u = sin py a 2d k U What will be the magnitude of the shearing stress developed on the plate in term of U and ? (B) 5.71 N/m2 (A) 0.571U N/m2 U (C) 5.71U N/m2 (D) 0.571 N/m2 U
FM 1.20
A 50 cm # 30 cm # 20 cm block of 15 kg mass is to be moving at a constant velocity of 0.8 m/s on an inclined plane. If a 0.8 mm thick oil film with a dynamic viscosity of 0.006 Pa s is there between the block and inclined plane, what amount of force is required in x -direction ? (g = 10 m/s2)
A closed rectangular container is half filled with water at 45cC . If the air in remaining half section of container is completely escaped. The absolute pressure in the escaped space at same temperature (saturation pressure of water at 45cC is 9.593 kPa ) is (A) P > Psaturation (B) P < Psaturation (C) P = Psaturation (D) Not determined Consider two parallel plates as shown in figure below. If the fluid is glycerin ( = 1264 kg/m3 , = 1.5 Ns/m2 ) and the distance between plates is 9 mm. What will be the shear stress required to move the upper plate at V = m s and the Reynolds number respectively ?
FM 1.22
The velocity profile in a pipe flow is given by u = u ( rn Rn), where r is the radial distance from the centre. If the viscosity of the fluid is then the drag force applied by the fluid on the pipe wall in the direction of flow across length L
Demo Ebook
Page 7 FM 7
Consider air at 20cC with = 1.8 # 10-5 Pa - s . Its viscosity at 400C by (a) The Power-law (n=0.7) (b) the sutherland law (S = 110 K) respectively, are - s, s = 1. # 10 -s (A) p = . 1 # 10- s, s = -s (B) p = . 1 # 10. # 10 - s, s = -s (C) p = . . 1 # 10 # 10 - s, s = -s (D) p = 1. # 10. 1 # 10Consider a block of mass m slides down on an inclined plane of a thin oil film as shown in figure below. The film contact area is A and its thickness is h . The terminal velocity V of the block is
FM 1.25
A thin layer of glycerin flows down on an inclined plate of unit width with the velocity distribution: u = y y U h h If the plate is inclined at an angle with the horizontal, the expression for the surface velocity U will be
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Page 8 FM 1
(B) U = (D)U =
gh m sin a gh m sin a
gh sin a m
A shaft of 8.0 cm diameter and 30 cm length is pulled steadily at V = m s through a sleeve of 8.02 cm diameter. The clearance is filled with oil of = 0.003 m2 /s and S.G. = . , the force required to pull the shaft is (w = 998 kg/m3) (A) 793 N (B) 795 N (C) 79.3 N (D) 7.95 N Match List I (Properties of fluids) with List II (Definition/ Result) and select the correct answer using the codes given below : List-I a. Ideal fluid b. Newtonian fluid c. / d. Mercury in glass 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Codes (A) (B) (C) (D) a 1 1 2 2 b 2 2 1 1 c 4 3 3 5 d 6 4 6 4 List-II Viscosity does not vary with rate of deformation Fluid of zero viscosity Dynamic viscosity Capillary depression Kinematic viscosity Capillary rise
FM 1.28
FM 1.29
Match List I (Fluid properties) with List II (Related terms) and select the correct answer using the codes given below : List-I a. Capillarity b. Vapour pressure c. Viscosity d. Specific gravity Codes (A) (B) (C) (D) a 1 1 4 4 b 4 4 1 1 c 2 3 2 3 d 3 2 3 2 1. 2. 3. 4. List-II Cavitation Density of water Shear forces Surfaces Tension
FM 1.30
The hydrogen bubbles have diameter D - . 1 mm . Assume an air-water interface at 30cC and surface tension = 0.0712 N/m . What will be the excess pressure within the bubble ? (A) 1.42 kPa (B) 2.85 kPa (C) 28.5 kPa (D) 14.2 kPa The surface tension in a rain drop of 3 mm diameter is 7.3 # 102 N/m . The
FM 1.31
Demo Ebook
Page 9 FM 9
excess pressure inside the rain drop is (A) 973.3 Pa (C) 9.73 Pa
FM 1.32
A shower head emits a cylindrical water jet of diameter 0.73 mm into air. The pressure inside the jet is approximately 300 Pa greater than the air pressure. What will be the surface tension of water ? (A) 0.0365 N/m (B) 0.73 N/m (C) 0.365 N/m (D) 0.073 N/m A thin wire ring of 6 cm diameter is lifted from a 20cC water surface. How much lift force is required if = 0.0728 N/m ? (A) 0.274 N (B) 0.0274 N (C) 0.137 N (D) 0.0137 N A 4 mm diameter glass tube is immersed in water and mercury. The temperature of the liquid is 20cC and the values of the surface tension of water and mercury at 20cC in contact with air are 0.0734 N/m and 0.51 N/m , respectively. The angle of contact for water is zero and that for mercury is 128c. What will be the capillary effect for water and mercury in millimeters, respectively ? (A) 4.60, 3.82 (B) 2.35, 7.48 (C) 3.82, 4.60 (D) 7.48, 2.35 The system shown in figure below is used to estimate the pressure inside the tank by measuring the height of liquid in the 1 mm diameter tube. The fluid is at 60cC . What will be the capillary rise if the fluid is (a) water ( = 0.0662 N/m , = 983 kg/m2 , , 0c) and (b) Mercury ( = 0.47 N/m , = 13500 kg/m3 , , 130c) ?
FM 1.33
FM 1.34
FM 1.35
A glass tube of 4.6 mm diameter is inserted into milk and milk rises upto 3.5 mm in the tube. If the density of milk is 960 kg/m3 and contact angle is 15c, the surface tension of milk is (A) 0.2315 N/m (B) 0.025 N/m (C) 0.0236 N/m (D) 0.02315 N/m A liquid film suspended on a rectangle wire frame of one movable side of 12 cm . What amount of surface tension is required if the movable side of frame is to be moved with 0.018 N ? (A) 0.075 N/m (B) 0.00432 N/m (C) 0.055 N/m (D) 0.75 N/m
FM 1.37
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Page 10 FM 1
FM 1.38
In figure shown, a vertical concentric annulus with outer radius ro and inner radius ri is lowered into the fluid of surface tension and contact angle < 45c . If the gap is very narrow, what will be the expression for the capillary rise h in the annulus gap ?
FM 1.39
s cos q rg (ro ri) s cos q (D) h = rg (r o r i ) A solid cylindrical needle of diameter 1.6 mm and density 7824 kg/m3 may float on a liquid surface. Neglect buoyancy and assume a contact angle of 0c. What will be the surface tension ? (A) 0.0772 N/m (B) 0.154 N/m (C) 0.772 N/m (D) 0.0154 N/m s cos q rg (ro ri) (C) h = s cos q rg (ro ri) (A) h = (B) h =
FM 1.40
The power required at the top surface to maintain this motion is 2 D3 2 D 4 (B) (A) 24h 32h (C) 2 D 4 4h (D) 2 D 2 16h
FM 1.41
The reduction in power required at the top surface when oil viscosity is 0.0078 Pa s at 80cC , will be (A) 5.29 W (B) 67.824 W (C) 62.533 W (D) No reduction
Demo Ebook
Page 11 FM 11
FM 1.42
A fluid of surface tension = 0.0728 N/m and contact angle = 0c is filled between 0.75 mm apart two parallel plates as shown in figure. If the density of fluid is = 998 kg/m3 , the capillary height h will be
(A) 2 mm (C) 20 mm
FM 1.43
(B) 10 mm (D) 1 mm
A 56 kg block slides down on a smooth inclined plate. A gap of 0.1 mm between the block and plate contains oil having viscosity 0.4 N s/m2 . If the velocity distribution in the gap is linear and the area of the block in contact with the oil is 0.4 m2 , the terminal velocity of the block is (A) 0.03125 m/s (B) 0.3125 m/s (C) 3.125 m/s (D) 0.03125 mm/s
FM 1.44
Two 50 cm long concentric cylinders are mounted on a shaft. The inner cylinder is completely submerged in fluid and is rotating at 200 rpm and the outer cylinder is fixed. The fluid film thickness between two cylinders is 0.12 cm and outer diameter of the inner cylinder is 20 cm. If the torque transmitted by the shaft to rotate inner cylinder is 0.8 N , the viscosity of the fluid is
A layer of water having the viscosity of 1.2 # 103 N s/m2 flows down on inclined fixed surface with the velocity distribution as given by:
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Page 12 FM 1
u = y y U h h If the velocity of water U = m sec and h = m , what will be the magnitude of the shearing stress that the water exerts on the fixed surface in N/m2 ?
A 2.5 mm diameter aluminum sphere ( = 2700 kg/m3 ) falls into an oil of density 875 kg/m3 . If the time to fall 75 cm is 48 s then the oil viscosity is (A) 0.0589 kg/m s (B) 0.589 kg/m s (C) 0.397 kg/m s (D) 0.0397 kg/m s
Consider a concentric shaft fixed axially and rotates inside the sleeve. If the shaft of radius ri rotates at rad/s inside the sleeve of radius r0 and length L and the applied Torque is T, what will be the relation for the viscosity of the fluid between shaft and sleeve ?
FM 1.47
T( 0 - ) 2 03 T( 0 + ) (D) = 2 3 (B) =
The velocity profile for laminar one-dimensional flow through a circular pipe is given as u (r) = u max ( r2 R2), where R is the radius of the pipe and r is the radial distance from the centre of the pipe. If an oil at 40cC flows through a 15 m long pipe with R = 0.0 m and maximum velocity of u max = m s , what will be the friction drag force applied by the fluid on inner surface of the pipe when = 0.0010 kg/m - s ?
Demo Ebook
Page 13 FM 13
FM 1.49
A 1 m diameter cylindrical tank has a length of 5 m long and weight 125 N . If it is filled with a liquid having a specific weight of 10.9 kN/m3 , the vertical force required to give the tank an upward acceleration of 2.75 m/ sec2 is (A) 550 kN (B) 55 N (C) 5.5 N (D) 55 kN A cylindrical rod of diameter D , length L and density s falls due to gravity inside a tube of diameter Do . The clearance, (Do D) << D is filled with a film of viscous fluid (, ).The expression for terminal fall velocity would be D (Do D) m r g (Do D) (C) V = s m (A) V = rs g (B) V = rs gD (Do + D) m r gD (D Do) (D) V = s m
FM 1.50
FM 1.51
The belt as shown in figure below moves at steady velocity of 2.5 m/s and skims the top of a tank of oil SAE 30 W ( = 0.29 kg/m -s) at 20cC with L = m , b = 0 cm and h = cm . What power P in watts is required to remain belt in motion ?
Two balls of Steel and Aluminum can float on water due to surface tension effect. The density of steel and aluminium balls are to be 7800 kg/m3 and 2700 kg/m3 , respectively. Which metal ball would have maximum diameter to float on water at 20cC and what will be the diameter of that ball when surface tension of water at 20cC is 0.073 N/m ? (A) steel, 4.1 mm (B) Aluminium, 2.4 mm (C) Aluminium, 4.1 mm (D) Steel, 2.4 mm For a cone-plate viscometer of radius R = cm , the angle = 3c and the gap is filled with liquid as shown in figure. If the viscous torque T = . and rotation rate is 94.2 rad/s , the liquid viscosity will be
FM 1.53
(A) 0.0116 kg/m s (B) 0.116 kg/m s (C) 0.193 kg/m s (D) 0.0193 kg/m s
FM 1.54
A solid cone of base r0 and initial angular velocity 0 is rotating inside a conical seat as shown in figure below. If there is no applied torque and air drag is
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Page 14 FM 1
The rotating-cylinder viscometer as shown in figure below shears the fluid in a narrow clearance R = (r - R) with a linear velocity distribution in the gap. If the driving torque measured is T and the bottom friction is included then the expression for is
FM 1.56
T (r - R) ( - ) (B) = 2 3 ( + /4) R (L + R ) ( - ) ( - ) (C) = (D) = 2 2 ( + /4) 2 3 ( - /4) For a 300 mm long sliding lubricated bearing, the viscosity of oil is 0.008 kg/m s during steady operation at 80cC . The average oil film thickness between the shaft and journal is 1.2 mm . If shaft of 80 mm diameter is rotated at 750 rpm , the amount of torque needed to overcome bearing friction would be (A) 0.0063 N m (B) 0.063 Nm (C) 0.63 N m (D) 6.3 N m (A) = = 0.063 N m A disk of radius R = cm , rotates at 1200 r.p.m inside an oil container of viscosity = 0.29 kg/m -s as shown in figure below. The oil film thickness is h = mm . If the velocity profile is linear and neglecting shear on the outer disk edges, the viscous torque on the disk is
FM 1.57
Demo Ebook
Page 15 FM 15
A soap bubble of diameter D coalesces with another bubble of diameter D to form a single bubble D with the same amount of air. For an isothermal process, D as a function of D , D , patm and surface tension is (A) pa D + sD = (pa D + sD ) + (pa D + sD ) (B) pa D + sD = (pa D + sD ) (pa D + sD ) (C) pa D sD = (pa D sD ) + (pa D sD ) (D) pa D + sD = (pa D + sD ) + (pa D sD ) A skater of mass m moving at constant speed Vo , suddenly stands stiff with skates pointed directly forward and allows herself to coast to a stop. If blade length is L , water film thickness h , water viscosity and blade width is b then how far will she travel (on two blades) before she stops ? mLb (B) x = (A) x = Vo mh Vo mh mLb mLb (C) x = Vo mh (D) x = Vo mh mLb Two thin flat plates are tilted at an angle and placed in a tank of surface tension and contact angle as shown in figure below. At the free surface of the liquid in the tank, the distance between two plates are L and width is b into the paper. What will be the expression for in terms of other variables ?
FM 1.59
FM 1.60
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Page 16 FM 1
SOLUTIONS
FM 1.1
Option (A) is correct. We have a - m3 /kgK p = 310 kPa, v = . m R= . T = 298 K and T = Treating air as an Ideal gas, the final pressure in the tire from the ideal gas law, pv pv = T T p = T # p = 323 # 310 = 336 kPa v = v (constant) 298 T Option (C) is correct. Amount of air needs to be bled off to restore pressure (p2 = 310 kPa) is m = m - m pv m = = 310 # 0.050 = 0.1812 kg 0.287 # 298 RT pv and m = = 310 # 0.050 = 0.1672 kg 0.287 # 323 RT Hence m = 0.1812 0.1672 = 0.014 kg
FM 1.2
FM 1.3
Option (C) is correct. We have p = 10 atm = 1013250 Pa T = 400cC = 400 + 273 = 673 K From ideal gas law g p = = = . RT ( )#( ) m . #( ) c p = kR = = . k g , the formula is For gas cooled isentropically to T = cC = k k p = bT l p T
k k p = p # bT l = T
a #b
. .
= 135.5 kPa
FM 1.4
Option (B) is correct. Specific weight = Weight of fluid mg W = g = = v v Volume of fluid Total weight weight of Cane = Volume of fluid mg 0.153 0.369 # 9.81 0.153 = = 355 # 106 355 # 106 3.47 = = 9.77 kN/m3 355 # 106 g = = = . g m g m g .
Density
Demo Ebook
Page 17 FM 17
r = rwater
= , patm. = a
Option (D) is correct. We have )= S .G . = # , T = c = ( + Density of gas = S.G. # Density of ater = 2 # 103 # 1000 = 2 kg/m3 From gas equation Also
p = rRT = 2 # 287 # 298 = 171 kPa (absolute pressure) pabsolute = patmospheric + pgage pgage = 171 101 = 70 kPa
FM 1.6
1 =
Now
FM 1.7
= 393 K
Option (D) is correct. We have a, T = cC = + v= m, p = p = a, T = cC = + = The initial mass of Hydrogen in cylinder pv m = = 800 # 30 = 271.35 kg 0.2968 # 298 RT Final mass of Hydrogen in cylinder pv m = = 600 # 30 = 206.99 kg 0.2968 # 293 RT Thus the amount of Hydrogen that must be bled off is m = 271.35 206.99 = 64.36 kg
FM 1.8
Option (D) is correct. Daltons law of Partial Pressure is ptotal = pair + pwater = ma Ra T + mw Rw T v v p v p v mtotal = ma + mw = a + w Ra T Rw T
or Since Now
ptotal = pair + pwater = atm = Pa pair = 101325 pwater = 101325 4242 = 97083 Pa p p = ma + mw = a + w v Ra T Rw T 97083 = 97083 + 4242 = + 4242 461 303 287 # 303 461 # 303 287 # (30 + 273) # = 1.147 kg/m3
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Page 18 FM 1
FM 1.9
a p = pv pv = T T T =p p T
a v =v =v= .
v =v
T =
c =( pabsolute RT
= 3.96 kg/m3
Option (D) is correct By definition 2 (pa pv) rV 2 2 (133000 4242) 0.25 = 998 # V 2 2 (133000 4242) V = = 32.13 m/s 998 # 0.25 Cacritical = 0.25 =
FM 1.12
Option (B) is correct The ideal gas formula Predicts: Speed of sound a, + # #( = 1.33 # 461 # 423 = 509 m/s . kRT = )
FM 1.13
Option (C) is correct. We have = 9268 N/m3 , = 131.5 Ns/m2 Weight density = rg = 9268 = 944.75 kg/m3 9.81 m = = 131.5 r 944.75 = 0.139 N sec.m/kg = 0.139 m2 / sec.
Kinematic viscosity
FM 1.14
Option (A) is correct. The volume of blimp is v = 2 pR2 L = 2 # p # (15) 2 # 72 = 33929 m3 3 3 From the ideal gas law, the respective densities of helium and air
Demo Ebook
Page 19 FM 19
pHe #( = RHe T # pair (b) = air = Rair # T # Then the respective gas weights are (a) He = WHe = rHe gv = Wair = rair gv =
FM 1.15
= = =
# #
# #
We have = 4.56 # 10-2 Ns/m2 , y = . # , V = sec., A = . When force F is applied on the plate, shear force comes in the action. F = t # A = m #V # A = V y y 1 = 4.56 # 102 # # 0.129 = 2.32 N 2.54 # 103
FM 1.16
Option (D) is correct. Assuming a linear velocity distribution on each side of the plate. F = t1 A + t2 A = b m1 V l A + b m2 V l A h1 h2 =; mV mV m m A = : + D VA + h h E h h
FM 1.17
Option (C) is correct. From Newtons law of viscosity = m du = mU y dy 1 = 0.02 # 6 = 15 N/m2 0.008 2 = 0.01 # 6 = 15 N/m2 0.004
and
FM 1.18
Option (A) is correct. The magnitudes of shear forces acting on the upper and lower surfaces of the plate are Fshear, upper = tw, upper A = mA du dy V mAVp = mA p = h h Fshear, lower = tw, lower A = mA du dy (V Vm) = mA p h Both shear forces are acting in the opposite direction of motion of the plate,
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Demo Ebook
Page 20 FM 1
Option (A) is correct. We have S.G. = . , = 4 # 10-4 m2 / sec. From Newtons law of viscosity (at the surface of plate) (y = 0) = m c du m dy y = y du = : p U cos a p kD = pU c dy m 2 2 2d d d y=0 y= From equation (i) = nr # p U 2d = n # (S.G. # 1000) # p # U 2 d = 4 # 104 # (0.91 # 1000) # 1.57 # U d = 0.571U N/m2 d
...(i)
FM 1.20
y = 0.8 mm = 8 # 104 m The force balance from figure gives Fx = Fy = F Fshear cos c FN sin c = FN cos c Fshear sin c W = ...(i) ...(ii)
W = m#g = # = N Fshear = ts As . = mA s V = ( . ) # ( . # . ) # y # Fshear = 0.9 N (F sin 20c + W) Equation (ii) gives FN = shear cos 20c = 0.9 # sin 20c + 150 = 159.95 N cos 20c By substituting the value of Fshear and FN in equation (i),we get Weight and
F = Fshear cos c + FN sin c = 0.9 # cos 20c + 159.95 # sin 20c = 55.55 N
Demo Ebook
Page 21 FM 21
FM 1.21
Option (C) is correct. We have The saturation pressure of water at 45cC = 9.593 kPa When air is fully escaped, the space is filled with vapor and the container have a two-phase mixture of saturated water vapor. Then vapor pressure Pv = Psaturation ( cC) = . a Option (D) is correct. Shear stress is given by = mV = . # = a . L and the Reynolds Number is rVL # # . Re = = b m .
FM 1.22
FM 1.23
Option (C) is correct. Velocity profile u = u ( r n Rn ) We know that the wall shear stress in pipe flow w = mdu dr r = R
n n mu n = = mu d : r n D = mu ; nrn E R dr R r=R R r=R Then the drag force applied by the fluid on the pipe wall becomes nm u ( pR) # L = npmu L F = tw Aw = R #
FM 1.24
Option (B) is correct. (a) From the Power-law for air 0.7 n p = m0 b T l = 1.8 # 105 # b 673 l = 3.221 # 105 kg/m s 293 T0 (b) From the sutherland law (T/T0) 1.5 (T0 + S) s = m0 ; E T+S (673/293) 1.5 # (293 + 110) = 1.8 # 105 = G (673 + 110) = 3.225 # 105 kg/m s
FM 1.25
Option (A) is correct. Assume a linear viscous velocity distribution in the film below the block. Then a force balance in x - direction gives: Fx = W sin q tA = W sin q :mV D A = maX = h W sin = mV A h mgh sin q V = hW sin q = mA mA
or
W = mg
FM 1.26
Option (C) is correct. Due to the flow of glycerin, shear force acting in the opposite direction to this
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Demo Ebook
Page 22 FM 1
In equilibrium condition Fx = W sin mg sin vg sin vg sin g = t#l# = t#l = t#l = t#l b= m = rV = g ...(i) ...(ii)
# l # h # sin = t # l = gh sin a From the Newtons law of viscosity, shear stress at the plate ( = 0) mU Uy = = m c du m = m; U E h dy y = h h y= From equation (i) and (ii), we get U = gh sin a h U =
FM 1.27
g 2 sin a 2m
Option (A) is correct. Assuming a linear velocity distribution in the clearance, the force is balanced by resisting shear stress in the oil. F = tAwall = b m V l # (pDi L) DR mVpDi L ...(i) F = R Ri For the given oil
= rn = (
#r
)#n
= 0.87 # 998 # 0.003 = 2.63 kg/m s Then by substituting in equation (i), we get F = 2.63 # 0.4 # p # 0.08 # 0.3 = 792.79 b 793 N (0.0401 0.0400)
FM 1.28
Option (D) is correct List-I a. Ideal fluid b. Newtonian fluid c. / d. Mercury in glass 2. 1. 5. 4. List-II Fluid of zero viscosity Viscosity does not vary with rate of deformation Kinematic viscosity Capillary depression.
Demo Ebook
Page 23 FM 23
FM 1.29
Option (D) is correct. List-I a. Capillarity b. Vapour pressure c. Viscosity d. Specific gravity 4. 1. 3. 2. List-II Surface tension Cavitation Shear forces Density of water
Option (C) is correct For a droplet or bubble with one spherical surface p = 2s = 2 # 0.0712 = 2 # 0.0712 R 0.005 # 103 5 # 106 = 28480 Pa - 28.5 kPa
FM 1.31
Option (B) is correct. We have , = 7.3 # 10-2 N/m d=3 We know that surface tension on liquid droplet is given by the relation, 2 p = 4s = 4 # 7.3 #10 d 3 # 10 3 = 97.33 Pa Option (D) is correct For a liquid cylinder, the internal excess pressure is p = s R (0.00073) = Dp # R = 200 # 2 = 200 # 0.000365 = 0.073 N/m
FM 1.32
FM 1.33
Option (B) is correct There are two surface, inside and outside the ring. So the total force measured is F = 2 (spD) = 2psD = 2 # p # 0.0728 # (0.06) = 0.0274 N
FM 1.34
Option (D) is correct. We have d = 4 mm = 4 # 3 m The capillary effect is given by the equation, h = 4s cos q r#g#d where Capillary effect for water = 0.0734 N/m , = 0c, = 1000 kg/m3 h = Capillary effect for mercury 4 # 0.0734 cos 0c 1000 # 9.81 # 4 # 103 = 7.48 # 103 m = 7.48 mm = Surface tension in N/m = Angle of contact
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Page 24 FM 1
= 0.51 N/m , = 128c =SG # = 13.6 # 1000 = 13600 kg/m3 h = 4 # 0.51 # cos 128c 3 13600 # 9.81 # 4 # 10 = 2.35 # 103 m = 2.35 mm Here the negative sign indicates the capillary depression. In magnitude h = 2.35 mm
FM 1.35
Option (C) is correct. (a) For water, capillary rise # cos c = 0.0275 m hw = s cos q = # . rgD ) # . #( . (b) For Mercury c = 0.00912 m hm = s cos q = # . # cos rgD # . # . Here negative sign shows the capillary depression. Option (D) is correct.
FM 1.36
We have
= 960 kg/m3, D = . mm = . #
h = . mm = 0.0025 m, contact angle = 15c The surface tension of milk 3 3 rgRh = 960 # 9.81 # 1.9 # 10 # 2.5 # 10 milk = 2 cos f 2 # cos 15c = 0.02315 N/m
FM 1.37
We have b = cm , = 0.12 m, F = . From the surface tension force relation, s = F = 0.018 = 0.075 N/m 2b 2 # (0.12)
Demo Ebook
Page 25 FM 25
FM 1.38
Option (B) is correct. From the figure above, the force balance on the annular fluid is Force in vertical direction = Weight of fluid film cos # (2ro + 2ri) = rg # p (r o r i ) h h = s cos q rg (ro ri)
FM 1.39
The needle dents the surface downward and the surface tension forces are upward as shown in figure. Then a vertical force balance gives: Vertical forces = Weight of needle 2 cos # L = rg p D # L 2 cos = rg pD 2 = rg pD = r g pD #
FM 1.40
= 0.0772 N/m Option (B) is correct. The wall shear stress anywhere on the surface of the frustum at a distance r from the axis of rotation is w = m du = mV = m wr dr h h The shear force on the area dA , dF = tw dA = m wr dA h dT = rdF = m wr dA h mw r dA T = h A The shaft power required at top surface is mw r dA Pshaft, top = wT = w # h A Torque
mw h
#r
A
dA
...(i)
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Demo Ebook
Page 26 FM 1
=
FM 1.41
pmw h
Option (C) is correct. By putting the value in expression of shaft power at top (20cC), pmw 2 D 4 3.14 # (0.1) # (200) 2 # (0.12) 4 = Pshaft, top = 32h 32 # (0.0012)
r=
r dr =
= 67.824 W The power is proportional to viscosity. Thus the power required at 80cC is m Pshaft, top, cC = 80cC # Pshaft, top, 20cC m20cC = 0.0078 # 67.824 = 5.29 W 0.1 Therefore, the reduction in the required power input at 80cC is Pshaft, top,
FM 1.42
cC
Pshaft, top,
cC
Option (C) is correct With b the width of the plates into the paper, the capillary forces on each wall together balance the weight of fluid held above the free surface. Weight of fluid = Surface tension force g # ( . or ) # h # b = 2 # (sb cos q) h = s cos q ) rg # ( . = 2 # 0.0728 # cos 0c , 0.020 m = 20 mm 998 # 9.81 # (0.00075)
FM 1.43
Option (A) is correct. We have m= g , y = . mm , A = . m , = 30c, = 0.4Ns/m2 The FBD of the block shown below.
y = film thickness W = mg
Option (A) is correct. We have L= cm = m, N = rpm, h = . cm = . D = cm, R = = . cm = . m, T = . Torque transmitted by the shaft
Demo Ebook
Page 27 FM 27
mw pmwR L R # pRL = # h h and = 2pN = 2 # p # 200 = 20.94 rad/s 60 60 From equation (i),we get 0.8 # (0.0012) h = = T#3 2pwR L 2 # 3.14 # 20.94 # (0.075) 3 # 1 = 0.0173 N s/m2 T =
FM 1.45
...(i)
Option (D) is correct. We have = 1.2 # 10-3 Ns/m2 , U = m sec , h = . m From Newtons law of viscosity ...(i) = m du dy At the fixed surface (at y = ) du = U Uy = U ;h E dy h h y= From equation (i) = m # U = 1.2 # 103 # 2 # 3 = 0.072 N/m2 0.1 h Option (C) is correct. According to stokes law = Wnet # t 3pDL The net weight of the sphere in the fluid is
3
FM 1.46
...(i)
Wnet = (rsphere rfluid ) g # v fluid = (rsphere rfluid ) # g # pD 6 = (2700 875) # 9.81 # p # (0.0025) 3 = 1.46 # 104 N 6 Then from equation (i),we get ^1.46 # 104h # 48 = 0.397 kg/m s = 3 # p # (0.0025) # (0.75)
FM 1.47
Option (C) is correct Assuming a linear velocity distribution inside the annular clearance, the shear stress is ...(i) = m DV = m wri r ri Dr This stress causes a force dF = tdA = t (ri dq) L The torque of this force about the shaft axis is dT = ri dF Put equation (i), (ii) and (iii) together T = = ...(ii) ...(iii)
p
# #
ri dF =
p
# r t (r Ldq) = #
i i p
# dq =
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Page 28 FM 1
FM 1.48
Option (B) is correct. The velocity profile is given by u (r) = u max c r m R The shear stress at pipe surface is expressed as mu max = s = mdu = mu max # d ; r E R dr r = R dr R r=R Then the friction drag force mu max ( pRL) As = pRL FD = ts As = R FD = 4pmLu max By substituting the given values in equation (i), we get FD = 4 # 3.14 # (0.0010) # (15) # 5 = 0.942 N ...(i)
FM 1.49
WT = Weight of tank = 125 N WL = Weight of liquid = mg = rvg = gv = specific weight of liquid = 10.9 kN/m3 WL = 10.9 # 103 # p # (1) 2 # 5 = 42.8 kN 4
From the Newtons law of motion in vertical direction Fy = may FV WT WL = may FV = b 125 + 42800 l 2.75 9.81 FV
FM 1.50
= 12033 FV = 54958 N - 55 kN
Option (A) is correct. At terminal velocity, the rod weight should equal the viscous drag. W = Viscous Drag V s g # v = ;m pDL (Do D) /2 E # mVpDL s g # D # L = (Do D) /2 r gD (Do D) V = s 8m
Demo Ebook
Page 29 FM 29
FM 1.51
Option (C) is correct The power is the viscous resisting force times the belt velocity. P = Viscous resisting force # Velocity = toil # Abelt # Vbelt = b mV l # ^b # L h # V = mV b L h h By substituting the values, we get P = 0.29 # (2.5) 2 # (0.9) # 4 = 108.75 W , 109 W 0.06
FM 1.52
We have steel = g m , aluminum = g m , water = . From surface tension force relation, Fs = pDss and W = mg = rvg = rgpD When the ball floats Fs = W Ds = rgpD D = For Steel Dsteel = ss rg ss = rsteel g ss ( ) #( . = . # )# . =
= 4.1 mm Hence Daluminum > Dsteel So aluminum ball would be larger in size.
FM 1.53
Option (C) is correct For any radius r # R , the liquid gap is h = r tan q . Then dT = tdA w r = am wr kb pr dr l .r r tan q cos q T = 2pwm sin q 0 q = 3 sin 3 2pw
L = dr cos q
2pwm 3 3 sin q
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Page 30 FM 1
Substituting the numerical values, we get = 3 # 0.157 # sin 3c 3 = 0.193 kg/m s 2p # (94.2) # (0.06)
FM 1.54
Option (D) is correct. At any radial position r < r on the cone surface and instantaneous rate dT = r tdA w mw pr dr = r 9m # rw C # : pr dr D = h sin q h sin q #
r mw pmwr 04 pr dr = h sin w 2h sin q Since for cone T = I dw = 3 mr 02 # dw 10 dt dt Then from equation (i), pmr 04 w 3 mr 02 dw = 10 dt 2h sin q Separating the variables and integrating both the sides, t d 10 # pmr 04 = dt 2 3mr 0 # 2h sin q 0 5pmr 02 t or = w0 exp ; 3mh sin q E
Torque
T =
FM 1.55
Option (B) is correct. For the fluid in the annular region TA = = Now Tbottom = = Ttotal =
RdF =
R # t # dA =
R # b m wR l RLdq DR
pmwR L DR
# r tdA = #
2pwmR 4 4DR
pwm r am wr k prdr = DR DR
r dr
FM 1.56
Option (B) is correct. We have L= mm = . m, = 0.008 kg/m.s, t film = . mm = . D = mm = . m, N = rpm mw Torque is given by T = R Area t film # # T = T = T = mwR pmwR L pRL = t film # t film pm ( pN ) # R L t film 4p2 mNR3 L 60 # t film
As = pRL = 2N 60
Demo Ebook
Page 31 FM 31
Option (A) is correct. At any r # R , the viscous shear on both sides of the disk mwr total = 2 # t = 2 # h and viscous force mwr ( prdr) dF = ttotal # dA w = h # Then viscous torque pmwr pmwr dr.r = dr dT = dF.r = h h Integrating both the sides pmw R pmw R = pmwR r .dr = T = # h r= h h Substituting the numerical values p 0.29 # 2p # N # (0.05) 4 T = # = 2N 60 (0.001) # 60 2 4 2 p 0.29 # 1200 # (0.05) = 0.716 Nm = # # (0.001) # 60
FM 1.58
Option (A) is correct The masses remain the same for an isothermal process of an ideal gas m +m = m 1 v1 + 2 v2 = r3 v 3 or p p p p 9RT C # 9 D C + 9RT C # 9 D C = 9RT C # 9 D C p ,v = D = RT pa + s r pa + s r pa + s r p p p E # 9 D C + ; RT E # 9 D C = ; RT E # 9 D C RT
P Pa = s R The temperature cancels out, and we may clean up and rearrange as follows
3 2 3 2 + 8sD 2 ) + (pa D 1 + 8sD 1 ) pa D + sD = (pa D 2
FM 1.59
The skate bottom and the melted ice are like two parallel plates.
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Page 32 FM 1
= mV h mVLb h Using F = ma to find the stopping distance mVLb = max = m dV Fx = F = h dt Separate and integrate once to find the velocity V dV = t mLb dt V mh V 2mLb or t log e :V D = Vo mh F = tA =
2mLb
# Vdt = #
3
Vo e
2mLb t mh
dt
= Vo mh 2mLb
FM 1.60
Consider the right side of the liquid column, the surface tension acts tangent to the local surface that is along the dashed line at right. This force has magnitude F = sb as shown. Its vertical component is F cos ( - ) as shown. There are two plates, therefore the total vertical force on the liquid column is Fvertical = 2sb cos (q f) Then the vertical force holds up the entire weight of liquid column between plates, which is W = rgbh (L h tan f) Set W equal to F, we get 2 cos ( - ) = rgbh (L h tan f) or = r ( tan f) 2 cos (q f)
***********
FM 2
PRESSURE AND FLUID STATICS
FM 2.1
The barometric reading for a wall is given as 511 mmHg at the top and 588.5 mmHg at the bottom. For average air density of 1.18 kg/m3 , the height of wall is (Hg = 13600 kg/m3) (A) 205 m (B) 202 m (C) 210 m (D) 200 m A vertical clean glass Piezometer tube has an inside diameter of 4 mm. When a pressure is applied, water at 26C ( = 9790 N/m3 , = 0.073 N/m , = 0c) rises into the tube to a height of 23.5 cm. After correcting for surface tension the applied pressure will be (A) 147 Pa (B) 2448 Pa (C) 2300 Pa (D) 2154 Pa Consider a frictionless piston-cylinder of a gas car as shown in figure. The mass of piston is 4 kg and cross-sectional area is 35 cm2 . During the compression stroke of car engine a force of 70 N is exerted on the piston. If the atmospheric pressure is 105 kPa , the pressure inside the cylinder is
FM 2.2
FM 2.3
All fluids in figure shown below are at 20cC . What will be the p between points A and B ?
Take the specific weights to be Benzene : 8640 N/m3 Mercury : 133100 N/m3 Kerosene : 7885 N/m3 Water : 9790 N/m3
Demo Ebook
Page 34 FM 2
A one-tone load on the hydraulic lift shown in figure is to be raised by pouring oil into a thin tube. The density of oil is 780 kg/m3 and diameter of hydraulic lift is 1.2 m . The height h , in order to begin to raise the weight should be
A closed cylindrical tank filled with water has a hemispherical dome and is connected to a piping system shown in figure below. The top part of the piping system has a liquid of specific gravity 0.7 and the remaining parts of the system are filled with water. What will be the pressure at point A ?
Water flows upward in a pipe inclined at 45c as shown in figure below and the pressure difference between points (1) and (2) in the pipe is 34.4 kPa. What will be the mercury manometer reading h ?
Demo Ebook
Page 35 FM 35
(A) 20 cm (C) 36 cm
FM 2.8
(B) 44 cm (D) 12 cm
The gage pressure of the air in the water tank shown in figure below is 59Kpa. The differential height hHg of the mercury column will be(S.G.mercury = 13.6)
(B) 36 cm (D) 51 cm
The right leg of the manometer is open to the atmosphere as shown in figure. The gage pressure in the air gap in the tank is 25.68 kPa. What will be the specific weight of the oil in N/m3 ?
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Page 36 FM 2
FM 2.10
An inverted U-tube manometer containing oil having specific gravity of 0.95, is located between two reservoirs as shown in the figure. The reservoir on the right, contains water and is open to the atmosphere and the reservoir on the left contains glycerin is closed and pressurized to 45 kPa . What will be the depth of water h in the figure ? ( glycerin = . m)
A water tank is divided into two compartments as shown in figure. An oil with density oil = 5 .5 kg m is poured into one side and the water level rises a certain amount on the other side to overcome this effect. The oil does not mix with water. What will be the final differential height of water shown in figure ?
A tank contains water ( = 9790 N/m3 ) and immiscible oil at 20cC as shown in figure below. If the specific weight of oil is 8809 N/m3 , what will be the h ?
(A) 26 cm (C) 10 cm
(B) 20 cm (D) 13 cm
Demo Ebook
Page 37 FM 37
FM 2.13
A tank is constructed of a series of cylinders as shown in figure. A mercury manometer is attached to the bottom of the tank. What will be the manometer reading h ?
The U-tube at right has a 1 cm internal diameter and contains a liquid (S.G. = 1.6) as shown in figure below. If 20 cm3 of water ( = 9790 N/m3 ) is poured into the right-hand leg, what will be the free surface height in each leg at equilibrium ?
. cm . 6 cm
(B) hR = (D) hR =
. 6 cm, hL = . cm . cm , hL = . cm
Two compartments A and B of the tank are closed and filled with air and a liquid shown in figure below. The liquid having the specific gravity of 0.6. If the pressure gage reads 3.5 kPa and weight of the air is negligible, the manometer reading h will be
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Page 38 FM 2
FM 2.16
In figure given below, both ends of the manometer are open to the atmosphere. The specific gravity of fluid X is
Consider the closed tank as shown in figure below. All fluids are at 20cC and air space is pressurized. If the outward net hydrostatic force on the 30 cm by 30 cm panel at the bottom is 3456 N, the pressure in the air space and the reading h on the manometer respectively, are (Take oil = 8720 N m3 , gas = 6670N m3 )
A 15 cm diameter piston is located within a cylinder which is connected to 1.3 cm diameter inclined tube manometer as shown in figure below. The fluid in the cylinder and the manometer is SAE 30 oil (specific weight = 8.95 kN/m3 ). If a weight W is placed on the cylinder, the fluid level in the manometer tube rises from point (A) to point (B). What will be the weight ?
Consider the figure given below. The pressure at A and B are the same as 100 kPa. The water is introduced at A to increase pA upto 230 kPa. If the connecting
Demo Ebook
Page 39 FM 39
tube is uniform 1 cm in diameter and the liquid densities dose not change, what will be the change in the mercury menisci ( h ) ?
Consider the flow of water through a pipe as given in figure below. For the given values, the pressure difference between the pipe pressure and pressure gage is
The fuel gage for an automobile tank reads proportional to the bottom gage pressure as shown in figure below. If the tank accidentally contains 3 cm of water plus gasoline (S.G. = 0.68), how many centimeters h of air remain when the gage reads full in error ?
Consider the system shown in figure below. If a change of 0.7 kPa in the pressure of air causes the glycerin-mercury interface in the right column to drop by 5 mm in the glycerin (S.G. = 1.26) level in the right column while the pressure in the glycerin pipe remains constant, the ratio of A2 A1 is
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Page 40 FM 2
The sensor A reads 1.5 kPa (gage) as shown in figure below. All fluids are at 20cC . What will be the elevations Z in meters of liquid levels in the open piezometer tubes B and C ?
A inclined differential manometer shown in figure contains Carbon tetrachloride (specific weight = 15.6 kN/m3 ). Initially the pressure difference between pipes A and B is zero. It is measured that for a pressure difference of 0.7 kPa , the manometer gives a differential reading of 30 cm (when measured along the inclined tube). If pipe A and B contains water, what will be the angle of inclination in degrees ?
Demo Ebook
Page 41 FM 41
The containers A and B are cylindrical and are such that pA = pB as shown in figure below. If the oil-water interface on the right moves up a distance h < h , the expression for the difference pA pB in terms of h , specific weight, d and D will be
FM 2.26
Water initially fills the funnel and its connecting tube as shown in figure. Oil is poured into the funnel until it reaches a level h > H 2 . What will be the rise in the water level ( 0) in the tube in terms of l with H = D = 0. m and d = 0.03 m ?
Consider a large cubic ice block floating in sea water. The densities of ice and seawater are 920 kg/m3 and 1025 kg/m3 , respectively. If the height of ice block below the surface is 87.5 cm then the height of ice block extends above the surface of water is
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Page 42 FM 2
A 5.5 cm diameter circular Pine rod (S.G. = . 5 ) is 2.2 m long. How much lead (S.G. = . ) is needed at one end as shown in figure so that the rod will float vertically with 30 cm out of the water ?
(A) 78 N (C) 12 N
FM 2.29
(B) 85 N (D) 20 N
A 61 cm thick block constructed of wood (S.G. = 0.65) is submerged in water and has a 75 cm thick metal plate (specific weight = 26.4 kN/m3) attached to the bottom as shown in figure. What amount of force is required to hold the block in its original position ?
A ball of mass 5.0 gm and diameter of 4 cm floats in water at 20cC at a depth h . If water = 8 kg m3 and air = 1.225 kg m3 , what will be the h at which the ball float in water ? (A) 7.3 mm (B) 20 mm (C) 10 mm (D) 0.73 mm The uniform rod (S.G. = 0.636 ) shown in the figure is hinged at B and in static equilibrium when 2 kg of lead (S.G. = 11.4 ) are attached at its end. What is the length of the rod ?
FM 2.31
Demo Ebook
Page 43 FM 43
FM 2.32
Consider the figure shown below. The cylindrical tank has a 35 cm high cylindrical insert in the bottom. The pressure at point B is 160 kPa. If the air pressure outside the tank is neglected, what will be the pressure in the air space and the force on the top of the insert, respectively ?
A uniform block of size L # h # b with b , h << L is shown in figure below. A uniform heavy ball tied to the left corner causes the block to float exactly on its diagonal. What will be the expression of diameter D of sphere ?
(B) D = ;
FM 2.34
Consider a cylinder (S.G. = 0.6 ) of 1 m in diameter and 0.8 long. If the cylinder placed to float with its axis vertical in oil (S.G. = 0.85) as shown in figure, would this cylinder be
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Page 44 FM 2
FM 2.35
The tank of water in the figure below accelerates to the right with fluid in rigid body motion. What will be the gage pressure at point A ?
A 18 cm diameter cane has 18 cm of water, overlaid with 15 cm of oil ( = 891 kg/m3 ). It is rotated about the centre in rigid-body motion at 150 rpm as shown in figure below. What will be the h and maximum fluid pressure ?
An open tank with diameter D contains water at a depth of H meter when at rest. As the tank is rotated about its vertical axis, the centre of the fluid surface is depressed. If water is spilled from the tank, the relation between initial fluid level and the angular velocity will be
(A) =
4gH R
(B) =
2gH R2
(C) = 1 2gH R
FM 2.38
(D) = 2 gH R
Consider the U-tube fluid in figure below. If the fluid is water at 20cC , what will be the uniform rotation rate about axis C for the position shown ?
Demo Ebook
Page 45 FM 45
An inverted hollow cone is pushed into the liquid as shown in figure. If the temperature of air within the cone remains constant, what will be the expression for the distance l that the water rises in the cone as a function of depth d and height H ?
A conical shape plug is situated at the bottom of a pressurized tank as shown in figure. The air pressure is 45 kPa and the liquid in the tank has specific gravity of 2.75. What will be the magnitude of the thrust exerted on the curved surface of the cone within the tank due to the air pressure and the liquid ?
A circular gate ABC is hinged at B as shown in figure below. For arbitrary depth h and gate radius R, the force P just sufficient to keep the gate from opening is
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Page 46 FM 2
(B) P = p gR (D) P = p gR
Gate AB as shown in figure is 1.2 m long and 0.8 m wide into the paper. If atmospheric pressure effects are neglected, the force F on the gate and its center of pressure position X are
, X = .1 1 m , X = 0. 1 m
A water tank with a quarter circle panel at the bottom is shown in figure below. What will be the horizontal and vertical components of the hydrostatic forces on the quarter circle panel ?
FH = k , FV = 10 FH = 2 k , FV = 10 FH = 10 k , FV = 2 FH = 10 k , FV =
k k k k
A 122 cm wide gate pivots about the hinge point O as shown in figure. If the water depth h is 1.6 m , the counter weight W is (A) 9 kN (B) 0.9 kN (C) 9.32 kN (D) 90 kN
Demo Ebook
Page 47 FM 47
FM 2.45
A cylindrical tank is shown in figure. The pressure in the air gap is 8000 Pa gage. If the net hydrostatic force on the annular plane BB is 853 N , the height h and net hydrostatic force on the bottom of the tank are
(A) h = (C) h =
FM 2.46
A 3 m long cylinder floats in water and rests against a wall as shown figure below. What will be the horizontal force that cylinder exerts on the wall at the point of contact ?
A water trough of semicircular cross section of radius 0.5 m consists of two symmetric parts hinged to each other at bottom as shown in figure below. The two parts are held together by a cable and turn buckle placed every 4.5 m along the length of the trough. The tension in each cable when the trough is filled to the rim, is
A water tank consists of two half cylinders, each weighing 1125 N, bolted together as shown in figure below. If the end caps are neglected and the diameter of water tank is 4 m, the force in each bolt is
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Page 48 FM 2
(A) 54 kN (C) 23 kN
FM 2.49
(B) 46 kN (D) 24 kN
The tank in figure shown below has a 4 cm diameter plug which will pop out if the hydrostatic force on it reaches 25 N. For 20cC fluids, what will be the reading h on the manometer when this happens ?
A quarter circle gate BC as shown in figure, is 6 m long and hinged at C . If the weight of the gate and friction at the hinge are negligible then the horizontal force P required to hold the gate stationary, is
A semicircular gate AB is shown in figure. It is hinged at B and held by a horizontal force of 366 kN at point A . What will be the height h of water above the gate AB ?
Demo Ebook
Page 49 FM 49
(A) 4 m (C) 5 m
FM 2.52
Two square cross-sectional gates hinged at one end to a conduit are used to close two openings in it and the conduit is connected to an open tank of water as shown in figure. When the water depth reaches 5 m , it is examine that both gates open at the same time. If the weight of the vertical gate and friction in the hinges is negligible, what will be the weight of the horizontal gate and the horizontal force P , acting on the vertical gate to keep the gates closed until this depth is reached, respectively ?
A 5 m high, 6 m wide rectangular gate is hinged at the top edge at A and is restrained by a fixed ridge at B as shown in figure. What will be the hydrostatic force exerted on the gate by the 5 m high water and the location of the pressure centre ?
A vertical lock gate is 5m wide and separates oil (S.G. = 0.82) levels of 5 m and 3 m, respectively as shown in figure. The moment about the bottom required to keep the gate stationary is
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Page 50 FM 2
FM 2.55
A rectangular plate blocks the end of a freshwater channel as shown in figure below. The plate is hinged about a horizontal axis along its upper edge through a point A and is restrained from opening by a fixed ridge at point B . If the width of the plate is b , the force exerted on the plate by the ridge is
(B) (D)
11 30 11 30
gh2 b2 gh2 b
FM 2.56
A weightless gate AB has length L and width b into the paper, is hinged at B . The liquid level h remains at the top of the gate for any angle as shown in figure below. An analytic expression for the force P perpendicular to AB , required to keep the gate in equilibrium is
(A) P = b (C) P = b
FM 2.57
ghb ghb
lbL
L sin q h l L sin q h l
(B) P = b (D) P = b
ghb ghb
lbL lbL +
L sin q h l L sin q h l
lbL +
The vertical cross section of a closed 6 m long storage tank is shown in the figure. The tank contains gasoline and the air pressure is 30 kPa . The magnitude of the resultant force acting on one end of the tank is
Demo Ebook
Page 51 FM 51
FM 2.58
A rigid gate OAB is hinged at O and rests against a rigid support at B as shown in figure. If the gate is 3 m into the paper, what minimum horizontal force R is required to hold the gate closed when the weight of the gate and friction at the hinge are neglected ?
Uniform body A in the figure has width b into the paper and it is in static equilibrium when pivoted about hinge O. What is the specific gravity of this body ?
(A) ; 3 + 2 (C) ; 3 + 2
FM 2.60
E E
1
(B) ; 2 + 3 (D) ; 2 + 3
E E
1
A cylindrical Mass m , is connected to a 3 m wide rectangular gate as shown in figure. The height of water level is H . If the friction at the gate hinge and at the pulley are negligible. The expression for cylindrical Mass m will be
(A)
( 4 6
- 1) + @
(B)
3 + ( - 1)E ; 4 2
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Page 52 FM 2
(C)
FM 2.61
H3 + (H - 1)D 4g : 2
(D)
H3 + (H - 1)E 4 ; 2g
An air container is placed on the Lake floor as shown in figure. A 5 m diameter hatch is located on an inclined wall of container and hinged on one edge. The water surface lies 4 m above the hinge point. Neglecting the weight of the hatch and friction in the hinge. What will be the minimum air pressure within the container to open the hatch ? ( = 10.1 kN/m3 )
What will be the height H (in terms of R) as shown in figure, for which the hydrostatic force on the rectangular panel is equal to the force on the semicircular panel ?
(A) H = . R (C) H = . R
FM 2.63
(B) H = R (D) H = .
A closed tank is filled with liquid ( = 10.1 kN/m3) and has a hemispherical dome as shown in the figure. A U-tube manometer is connected to the tank and filled with the fluid having the S.G. of 3.0 . If the differential manometer reading is 2.1 m , the vertical force of the water on the dome is
Demo Ebook
Page 53 FM 53
SOLUTIONS
FM 2.1
Option (B) is correct. Atmospheric pressures at the top and at bottom of wall are (r gh) top ptop = Hg = 13600 # 9.81 # 0.511 = 68.175 kPa 1000 1000 (r gh) bottom pbottom = Hg = 13600 # 9.81 # 0.5285 = 70.51 kPa 1000 1000 From balancing (gh) air = pbottom ptop 1.18 # 9.81 # h = 70.51 68.175 1000 h = 2.335 # 1000 = 201.71 1.18 # 9.81 , 202 m, which is also the height of wall.
FM 2.2
Option (D) is correct The capillary rise in the tube hcap = s cos q = 2 # 0.073 # cos 0c = 0.015 m 9790 # 0.001 gR Then the rise due to applied pressure is h press = 0.235 0.015 = 0.22 m The applied pressure is p = gh press = 9790 # 0.22 = 2154 Pa
FM 2.3
A = cm = a , Fcomp. =
pA = patm A + W + Fcomp. p = patm + W + Fcomp. mg + Fcomp. = patm. + A A (4 # 9.81) + 60 = (105) + = 133.5 kPa (35 # 104) # 1000
FM 2.4
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Page 54 FM 2
or
FM 2.5
+ 9790 # (0.39) 12 # (0.135) = pB pA pB = 2592 + 15972 + 3784.8 3818.1 + 1.62 p = 13348.32Pa - 13.35 kPa mg mg pgage = W = = A pD pD pgage = rgh p mg h = gage = rg pD # r g # = m = rpD ( # . ) # .
Since
= 1.134 m
FM 2.6
Option (B) is correct. By adding the pressure which are acting on the system (Manometer equation) pA + (S.G. # rH O) g # + rH O g # = pB pA = 103000 0.7 # 1000 # 9.81 # 3 1000 # 9.81 # 2 = 103000 20601 19620 = 62779Pa - 62.78 kPa
FM 2.7
Option (D) is correct. The vertical distance between points (1) and (2) is = 2.0 # tan 45c = 2 m Applying hydrostatic relation at point (1) and (2), p1 + #h1 1 h # 2 = p2 p1 p2 = 133100h 9790h + 9790 # 2 or 34400 = 123310h + 19580 h = 34400 19580 = 0.12 m or 12 cm 123310 Option (B) is correct. For given arrangement, manometer equation is p1 + rw ghw rHg ghHg = patm. p1 patm. = rHg ghHg rw ghw pgage = rw g rHg rw # hHg hw pgage = S.G.Hg # hHg hw w g 45 # 1000 = 13.6 h 0.3 # Hg 1000 # 9.81 hHg = 0.36m or 36 cm
FM 2.8
FM 2.9
Option (A) is correct The two 8 cm legs of air are negligible (only 2 Pa). Begin at the right mercury interface and go to the air gap: 133100 # (0.12 + 0.09) goil # (0.09 + 0.12 + 0.08) = pair gap or 27951 0.29 # goil = 25680 or oil = 27951 25680 0.29 = 7831.03 - 7831 N/m3
Demo Ebook
Page 55 FM 55
FM 2.10
Option (C) is correct. Let pA be the air pressure in the left reservoir. The manometer equation (sum of pressures) can be written as pair + gglycerin ( . . . . ) + goil # . gH O # (h 0.3 0.3) = 0 Left hand term takes to zero because water tank is open in atmosphere.
2
pair + gglycerin # . + goil # . g O h + g O # . = 0 p + gglycerin # . + goil # . + g O # . h = air gH O 3 3 = 62 # 10 + 12.4 # 10 # 0.1 + 0.8 # 1000 # 9.81 # 0.2 + 1000 # 9.81 # 0.6 1000 # 9.81 h = 7.21 m Note - If Reservoir is open in the atmosphere then pressure at the surface of tank takes equal to zero.
FM 2.11
Option (A) is correct. Both fluids are open to the atmosphere. The pressure of water and oil is the same at the contact surface. pcontact = patm. + roil ghoil = patm. + rw ghw oil ghoil = rw ghw hw = roil h = rw # oil . # . = . m
= 33.75 cm
FM 2.12
Option (C) is correct. Apply the hydrostatic relation from oil surface to the water surface patm + goil # (h + . ) gwater # ( . + . ) = patm oil (h + . ) = gwater # ( . ) 8809 (h + 0.10) = 9790 # 0.18 8809h = (9790 # 0.18) (8809 # 0.10) 8809h = 881.3 h = 0.10 m = 10 cm
FM 2.13
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Page 56 FM 2
+g # +g l # + gHg # h p = p + goil # Here both the ends are open in the atmosphere. So p = p = h = 9 # 0.1 + 9.8 # 0.1 + 15.6 # 0.2 = 0.0376 m 133
FM 2.14
Option (C) is correct. Firstly from figure, the height of water added v= = p (1) 2 # h 4 h = 25.46 cm Then at equilibrium, the new system must have 25.46 cm of water on the right and a 45 cm of liquid is somewhat displaced, so that L is on the right, 0.15 m on the bottom and 0.3 L on the left side. The bottom pressure is constant. patm + (1.6 # 0) (0. L) = patm + 4699.2 15664L 31328L L 0 # (0.2546) + (1.6 # = 2492.534 + 15664L = 2206.67 = 0.0704 m = 7.04cm 0) # L
Thus
Right leg height = 7.04 + 25.46 = 32.5cm = Left leg height = 30.0 7.04 = 22.96 cm =
FM 2.15
Option (D) is correct. Adding the pressures (manometer equation), pair gH O # h + gliquid # h + gHg # # 102 = 0 h (liquid - H O) = pair gHg # # 102 + g # 3 # 102 h = gH O g
2 2 2
3 2 = 3.5 # 10 + 13.6 # 1000 # 9.81 # 3 # 10 9810 0.6 # 1000 # 9.81 = 3500 + 4002.48 = 1.912 m 3924
FM 2.16
Option (D) is correct. The pressure at the bottom of the manometer must be same regardless of which leg we approach through, left or right: 5 # 0.1) + ( 0 # 0.0 ) + gX (0.04) left leg = patm + ( 5 # 0.0 ) + ( 0 # 0.05) + gX (0.06) right leg or 1473.8 + 0.04g = 1199.15 + 0.06g or 0.02 = 1473.8 1199.15 = 274.65 X = 274.65 = 13732.5 N/m3 0.02 Then S.G. of fluid X is, S.G. X = 13732.5 = 1.40 9790 patm + (
FM 2.17
Option (D) is correct. The force on the panel yields SAE 30 oil (gage) pressure at the centroid of the panel: F = 8450 =
G
# (0.3 # 0.4)
Demo Ebook
Page 57 FM 57
pCG = 70416 Pa (gage) This pressure works 15 cm above the bottom (at centroid of panel). Now from hydrostatic relation from centroid to air space pair space = 70417 8720 (0.80 0.15) 6670 # 0.60 = 60747 Pa - 60.7kPa Neglecting the specific weight of air, we move out through the mercury to the atmosphere: 60747 (133100) # h = patm = (gage) h = 60747 = 0.46 m 133100
FM 2.18
Option (B) is correct. First we have to consider that piston alone forcing the oil. In this condition, the manometer equation can be written as ...(i) p p goil h sin c = 0 where p p = pressure on the face of the piston. When weight W placed on the piston head, the pressure p p increases to pl p and W & pl p = W ...(ii) pl p p p = pp + A A where A = Area of the piston Now in this condition, manometer equation becomes. ...(iii) pl c=0 p goil # (h + .15) sin Subtracting the equation (i) from equation (iii), we get pl c p p p = goil # .15 # sin W =g From equation (ii) oil # .15 # .5 A W = 8.95 # 103 # 0.15 # 0.5 # p # (15 # 102) 2 4 = 671.25 # 0.0177 = 11.88 N
FM 2.19
Option (A) is correct Since the tube diameter is constant, the volume of mercury will displace a distance h down the left side, equal to the volume increase on the right side: h = L . Apply the hydrostatic relation to the pressure change, beginning at right (air/ mercury) interface. pB + gHg (DL sin q + Dh) gW (Dh + DL sin q) = pA with L = h 100000 + 133100 (Dh sin 30c + Dh) 9790 # (Dh + Dh sin 30c) = 130000 133100 # h (1 + sin 30c) - 9790 # h (1 + sin 30c) = 30000 133100 # h # 1.5 - 9790 # h # 1.5 = 30000 184965 h = 30000 h b 0.162 m = 16.2 cm The mercury in the left (vertical) leg will drop 16.2 cm, the mercury in the right (slanted) leg will rise 16.2 cm along the slant and (16.2 # sin 30c = 8.1 cm ) in vertical elevation.
FM 2.20
Option (A) is correct. For given figure, the pressure equation can be written as
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Page 58 FM 2
Since
pgage + rw ghw rgage ghgage rw ghw = p pipe p pipe = pgage + rw g hw S G gage hgage hw hw = 50 cm = 0.50 m = . = . sin =
p pipe pgage = 1000 # 9.81 [0.5 2.4 # 0.04 0.04] p = 3570.8 Pa , 3.6 kPa
FM 2.21
Option (A) is correct. gasoline = . # = When the tank is full, the pressure is
p full = ggasoline # full height of tank = 6657 # 0.45 = 2996 Pa Set this pressure equal to 3 cm of water plus X centimeters of gasoline : p full = 2996 = g or X = Therefore the air gap # 0.03 + 6657 # X 2996 (9790 # 0.03) = 0.406 m = 40.6 cm 6657
h = 45 3 40.6 = 1.4 cm
FM 2.22
Option (C) is correct. Starting with air pressure (point A ) and moving along the tube by adding (as we go down) or subtracting (as we go up) until we reach the Glycerin (point B ) and setting the result equal before and after the pressure change of air give
pA + rbr ghbr + rHg ghHg, rgly ghgly, = pA + rbr ghbr + rHg ghHg, rgly ghgly, pA pA = rHg g (hHg, hHg, ) rgly g (hgly, + hgly, ) p = S.G. Hg DhHg S.G. gly Dhgly = w g
...(i)
where hHg and hgly heights, respectively. The volume of mercury is constant.
Demo Ebook
Page 59 FM 59
A hHg left = A DhHg right hHg left = A # DhHg right A hgly = 0.005 m and p = 0.7 kPa = 700 N/m2 hHg = DhHg right + DhHg left = Dhgly + A # Dhgly = Dhgly c + A m A A By substituting the values in equation (i), we get 700 = 13.56 # Dhgly c1 + A2 m 1.26 # 0.005 1000 # 9.81 A1 700 = 13.56 # 0.005 c1 + A2 m 1.26 # 0.005G 1000 # 9.81 = A1 A = 0.145 A We have
FM 2.23
...(ii)
Let piezometer tube B be an arbitrary distance H above the oil glycerin interface. Apply the hydrostatic formula from point A to B: + g (1.5 H) goil (ZB H) = pB = 1500 + 12 # 2.0 + 8720 (1.5 H) 8720 ( B 1 H) = 0 1500 + 24 + (8720 # 1.5) 8720H 8720 B + (8720 # 1) + 8720H = 0 8720 B = 23324 ZB = 2.67 m Let Piezometer tube C be an arbitrary distance Y above the bottom. Then 1500 + 12 # 2 + 8720 # 1.5 + 12360 (1.0 Y) 12360 ( C Y) 1500 + 24 + 13080 + (12360 # 1) 12360Y 12360 C + 12360Y 12360 C ZC
FM 2.24
1500 + g #
Option (C) is correct. When the pressure differential of 0.7 kPa occurs in the manometer, the pressure pA pB is changed to pA pB . The left column falls the distance ( ) and the
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Page 60 FM 2
right column rises by a distance (b) along the inclined differential manometer.
The manometer equation for final condition can be written as pA + gwater h + a gCCl a + b sin q gwater h b sin q = pB pA pB + agwater agCCl gCCl b sin q + gwater b sin q = 0 pA pB + gwater a + b sin q gCCl a + b sin q = 0 pA pB + a + b sin q gwater gCCl = 0 Now from the figure, the differential reading along the manometer is h = a + b sin q h sin = a + b sin q Now from equation (i) and (ii), we get pA pB + (Dh sin q) # (gwater gCCl ) = 0 (pA pB ) 0.7 # 103 sin = = Dh (gwater gCCl ) 30 # 102 (9810 15.6 # 103) 5 = 0.7 # 10 = 0.402 30 # ( 5790) = sin1 (0.402) = 23.70c
FM 2.25
...(i)
...(ii)
Option (A) is correct. From the given condition pA = pB H O (L + h) = goil (H + h) g or ...(i) H = H O # 6(L + h) h@ goil For a rise h < h , a volume (/4) d 2 h of water leaves reservoir (A), decreasing L by h (d D) and an identical volume of oil enters reservoir (B), increasing H by the same amount h (d D) . The hydrostatic relation between (A) and (B) becomes. pA + gH O 6L Dh (d D) + h Dh@ goil H + Dh (d D) + h Dh = pB From equation (i) and (ii), we get pA + gH O L Dh (d D) + h Dh g goil : H O (L + h) h + Dh (d D) + h DhD = pB goil ...(ii)
Demo Ebook
Page 61 FM 61
pA pB = gH O ;L Dh b d l + h DhE D g + goil ; H O L + h + Dh b d l DhE goil D = gH O L + Dh b d l gH O hgH O + DhgH O D + gH O L + gH O h + Dh b d l goil Dhgoil D = ;DhgH O + Dh b d l gH OE ;Dhgoil Dh b d l goilE D D = Dh ;gH O + b d l gH OE Dh ;goil b d l goilE D D or
FM 2.26
pA pB = Dh =gH O c + d m goil c d mG D D
Option (D) is correct. Since the volume of water must be conserved. So, d 2 l = p Di 2 H p D 0 2 h 3b 2 l # 2 3b 2 l # 0 4 Also from the geometry of the cone D = Di = D H h H Di = D and D = Dh 2 H Substitute these values in equation (i), Dh 0 2 h d 2l = p D2 H p # # # b 3 16 2 3 4 2H l # 0
2 2 3 3d 2 l = D H b D l # h 0 8 H Put H = D = . m and d = . m in equation (ii), we have
...(i)
...(ii)
3 # (0.03) 2 l = 3 # (0.03) 2 l =
(0.6) 3 3 h0 8
In equilibrium, the weight of ice block floating in a fluid is equal to the buoyant
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Page 62 FM 2
force acting on it. So FB = Wice sea ghsubmerged # Ac = rice # g # htotal Ac hsubmerged r = ice rsea htotal & 0.875 = 920 = 0.9 0.875 + h 1025
h = 0.0973 m = 9.73 cm
FM 2.28
Option (C) is correct. The weight of Pine (wood) and lead must equal the buoyancy of immersed wood and lead. or or Wpine + Wlead = B pine + Blead S.G. pine # H O # v pine + S.G. lead # H O # vlead = gH O # v pine (immersed) + gH O # vlead 2 90.65 # 9790 # 4 # (0.055) # 2.2C + 611.4 # 9790 # vlead@ = 99790 # p # (0.055) 2 # (2.2 0.3) + 9790 # vleadC 4 33.26 + 111606vlead = 44.20 + 9790vlead (111606 9790) vlead = 44.20 33.26 vlead = 10.94 = 0.000107 m3 101816 Wlead = 11.4 # 9790 # 0.000107 = 12 N
or
FM 2.29
Ww = Weight of wood WB w = Buoyancy force on wood Wm = Weight of metal plate FB m = Buoyancy force on metal plate F = holding force of block In equilibrium condition FV = 0 : F + FB m + FB w Ww Wm F = Ww + Wm FB w FB m Now Ww = S.G. # g O # vw = 0.65 # 9.81 # 1 # 3 # 1.22 # 0.61 = 7.118 kN 2 where
=0 ...(i)
Demo Ebook
Page 63 FM 63
FB m = gH O # vm = 9.8 # (3 # 0.15 # 0.61) = 2.69 kN Hence from equation (i), force required to hold the block is
2
Option (A)is correct. For ball to float on water Wball = Wof water displaced by ball + Wof air displaced by ball mball g = rwater g # vsegment + rair g # ( pR vsegment) or 0.003 # 9.81 = 998 # 9.81 # ph (3R h) 3
2
or
or
0.02943 = 998 # 9.81 # p # h2 (3 # 0.02 h) 3 + 1.225 # 9.81 : 4 p # (0.02) 3 p # h2 (3 # 0.02 h)D 3 3 0.02943 = 9790 # p # h2 (0.06 h) + 12 93.35 # 105 p h2 (0.06 h)C 3 3 0.02943 = 9790 # p h2 # (0.06 h) + 12 # 3.35 # 105 3 12 # p h2 (0.06 h) 3 0.02943 = 9790 # p h2 (0.06 h) + 4.02 # 104 3 0.02943 = 614.4h2 10239.5h3 + 4.02 # 104 10239.5h3 614.4h2 + 0.029028 = 0 gives h , 0.0073m b 7.3 mm
or
FM 2.31
Option (B) is correct. First compute buoyancies, Brod = gwater # v = 9790 # p # (0.04) 2 # L = 12.3 L 4 Wlead = mg = 2 # 9.81 = 19.62 N Blead = Wlead S.G. = 19.62/11.4 = 1.72 N Wrod = S.G. # gwater # vrod = 0.636 # 9790 # p (0.04) 2 # L = 7.9 L 4 Sum moments about B: MB = 0 : Brod # L cos c + Blead # L cos or or
c = Wlead # L cos
c + Wrod # L cos
12.3 L # L cos 30c + 1.72 # L cos 30c = 19.62 # L cos 30c + 7.9L # L cos 30c 2 2 5.3L 2 + 1.5L = 17L + 3.42L2 (5.3 3.42) L2 = (17 1.5) L 1.88L2 = 15.5L 1.88L = 15L L = 15.5 = 8.2 , 8 m 1.88
or
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Demo Ebook
Page 64 FM 2
FM 2.32
Option (D) is correct. The pressure in the air space can be found by working upwards hydrostatically from point B 160000 (9790) # (0.35 + 0.25) = pair pair = 160000 9790 # 0.60 = 160000 5874 = 154126 Pa , 154 kPa The force on top of the insert is simply the pressure on the insert times the insert area. Thus ptop = 160000 9790 # 0.35 = 160000 3426.5 = 156573.5 Pa Ftop = ptop # Atop = 156573.5 # p # (0.1) 2 = 1230 N 4
FM 2.33
Option (C) is correct. The weight of blcok W = gb Lhb and it acts in the center, at L from the left corner, while the buoyancy being a perfect triangle of displaced water. B = 1 # gLhb 2 and acts at L from the left corner. Sum moments about the left corner, point C: gLhb L MC = 0 = (gb Lhb) (L/2) b 2 lb 3 l or b = g/3 Then summing vertical forces gives the required string tension T on the left corner. gLhb gb Lbh T FZ = 0 = 2 g g g gLbh or b = T = Lhb a gb k = Lbh a k = But or or T = Wsphere Bsphere = (S.G.) g # v g # v = 6S.G. @ g # v Lhb = (S.G. 1) # p D 3 # g 6 6 Lhb D = p (S.G. 1) 1/3 Lhb D =; E p (S.G. 1)
FM 2.34
Option (A) is correct. A vertical force balance gives (S.G.) oil # vdisplaced = (S.G.) cylinder # vcylinder or 0.85 # R2 h = 0.6pR2 # 0.8 h = 0.565 m
The point B at h = 0.565 m = 0.282 m above the bottom and the point G at 2 2 2 = 0.8 = 0.4 m above the bottom. 2
Demo Ebook
Page 65 FM 65
Meta center location pR p # (0.5) 4 (0.5) 2 I = MB = = = vsub pR # h 4 # p # (0.5) 2 # (0.565) 4 # 0.565 = 0.111 m Now GB = 0.4 0.282 = 0.118 m Hence MB = MG + GB MG = MB GB = 0.111 0.118 = 0.007 m Since for stability of floating body, MG must be greater than zero (MG > ) Here MG < = , so that cylinder is unstable.
FM 2.35
Option (A) is correct. The slope of the liquid gives us the acceleration tan = ax = = . g ax = 0.15 # = 0.15 # 9.81 = 1.472 m/s2 Now, we can go straight down on left side using only gravity. pA = rgDz = 998 # 9.81 # 0.3 , 2938 Pa (gage) or we can start on the right side, go down 15 cm with g and across 100 cm with ax p A = r g Dz + r a x Dx = 998 # 9.81 # 0.15 + 998 # 1.472 # 1.00 = 1469 + 1469 = 2938 Pa
FM 2.36
A deflection h up at wall and down in the center: 2 2 (15.7) 2 # (0.09) 2 = = 0.051 m = 5.1 cm h = w 4# 4 # 9.81 And the fluid pressure will be highest at point B in the bottom corner. pB = roil gDzoil + rwater gDzwater = 891 # 9.81 # (0.15) + 998 (9.81) # (0.051 + 0.18) = 1311.1 + 2262 = 3573 pa (gage)
FM 2.37
Option (D) is correct. The equation for surface of constant pressure is given by 2 2 z = w + Constant 2 For free surface with h = 0 and r = 0 {from equation (i), constant = 0 } 2 2 h =w 2 The initial volume of fluid in the tank is equal to
...(i)
...(ii)
...(iii) v i = pR H And the volume of fluid within rotating tank can be written as (from figure) dv f = 2p vf =
#
0
2 2p # w 2
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Demo Ebook
Page 66 FM 2
2 4 R = pw r dr = pw # R = pw R g g 4g Since the volume of the fluid in the tank must remain constant. So
vi = v f 2 4 R H = pw R 4g gH 2 = R gH = gH = R R
FM 2.38
Option (C) is correct. Let h be the height of the free surface at the center line. Then ZB = h + w R B , ZA = h + w R A g #g Subtracting the above two equations, we get 2 2 2 2 ZA ZB = w R A + h 0 h 0 w R B 2g 2g
2 2 2 RB ZA ZB = w ^R A h 2g
0.18 0.10 =
RB = .
m, R A = . m
or
209.28 = 14.5 rad/s = 2pN = 14.5 60 N = 60 # 14.5 = 138.56 , 139 r.p.m 2#p
FM 2.39
Correct option is (C). When cone is pushed into the water, the air get compressed. So, for constant temperature compression of air pi vi = p f v f where subscript i and f denotes the initial and final states. Now pi = patm p f = patm + g # (d l ) vi = p R 2 H 3 ...(i)
Demo Ebook
Page 67 FM 67
Thus
patm # H = 6patm + g (d l )@ (H l ) H patm = 6patm + g (d l )@ # b H l l H patm # b H l patm = g (d l ) Hl p d l = atm ;b H l E g Hl p l = d atm ;b H l E g Hl Substitute patm = 101 kPa and = 9.8 kN/m3 H l = d ;b H l l E = d
FM 2.40
6H (H l ) @
From figure
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Demo Ebook
Page 68 FM 2
W = Weight of the water FC = force exerted by the cone on the fluid pair A = pressure force. Thus pair A = 45 # p # (1.155) 2 = 47.12 kN 4 2 and W = g ; p d 2 # 3 p b d l # 1E 3 2 4 W = 2.75 # 1000 # 9.81 # : p # (1.155) 2 # 3 p # 1 # (1.155) 2D 3 4 4 = 26977.5 # p # (1.555) 2 # b 3 1 l = 136.55 kN 3 4 Hence total thrust exerted on the curved surface of the cone is [from eq (i)] FC = 47.12 + 136.55 = 183.67 kN
FM 2.41
where
Option (B) is correct The force F and its line of action are given by F = ghCG A = gh # (pR ) p R sin c I c XX sin = = R yCP = h hCG A h # pR Summing moments about the hinge line Q gives MQ = 0 0 = ^ghpR h R P (R) h P = pg 3 4
or
FM 2.42
Option (C) is correct. The centroidal depth of the gate is hCG = 4 + (1.0 + 0.6) sin 45c = 5.1313 m So that FAB = gwater # hCG # Agate = 9790 # 5.1313 # (1.2 # 0.8) = 48226 N The line of action of F is slightly below the centroid by the amount 12 # sin 45c yCP = IXX # sin q = hCG A 5.1313 # (1.2 # 0.8) 1 (0.8) # (1.2) 3 # sin 45c = 12 # = 0.0165 m 5.1313 # 1.2 # 0.8 Thus the position of the center of pressure is at
3
Option (D) is correct The horizontal component is FH = ghCG Avert = 9790 # (5 + 1) # 9 # 2 = 1057320 N b 1057 kN The vertical component is the weight of the fluid above the quarter circle panel. FV = W ( by rectangle) W ( uarter circle) = 9790 # (2 # 7 # 9) 9790 a p k # (2) 2 # 9 4 = 956874.6 , 957 kN
Demo Ebook
Page 69 FM 69
FM 2.44
yR = IXC + yC yC:A 1 3 # (1.22) # (1.6) 12 = + 0.8 = 1.067 m 0.8 # 1.952 In equilibrium condition, taking the moment about point O , MO = . FR # ( . . ) = W# . W = 15.3 # 0.533 - 9 kN 0.9
FM 2.45
Option (C) is correct The force on annular region BB is FBB = pBB # ABB = (pair + gwater # h) # < p # {]0.36g2 (0.36 (0.10 + 0.10)) 2}F 4 = (8000 + 9790 # h) # p # 7]0.36g2 (0.36 0.2) 2A 4 853 = (8000 + 9790 # h) (0.08168) = 653.45 + 799.65h h = 853 653.45 = 0.25 m = 25 cm 799.65 Now the net hydrostatic force on bottom of tank is Fbottom = pbottom # Abottom pbottom = pair + gwater (h + . ) = 8000 + 9790 (0.25 + 0.12) = 11622 Pa gage Fbottom = 11622 # p (0.36) 2 = 1183 N 4
Thus
FM 2.46
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Demo Ebook
Page 70 FM 2
From FBD, in equilibrium condition FP = FR FR ...(i) where FP is force exerts on the wall at the point of contact. Now FR = ghC A = 9.8 # 2 # (2 # 3) = 58.8 kN 2 and FR = ghC A = 9.8 # b1 + 1 l # 1 # 3 = 44.1 kN 2 From equation (i), we get FP = 58.8 44.1 = 14.7 kN
FM 2.47
Consider half of the trough whose cross-section is quarter-circle. Horizontal force on vertical surface FH = = pavg. A = rg b R l # A = 1000 # 9.81 # b 0.5 l # (0.5 # 4.5) 2 = 5518.125 N Vertical force on horizontal surface FV = W = rgv = rg bL # pR l = 1000 # 9.81 # ; 4.5 # 3.14 # (0.5) 2 E 4
= 8663.45 N Then resultant force acting on the surface of the 4.5 m long section of the trough. FR = F H + FV = = 10271.5 N and Direction of FR , tan = FV = FH . . = . ( . ) +( . )
Demo Ebook
Page 71 FM 71
T # R = FR R T = FR
FM 2.48
Option (C) is correct. Consider a 50 cm width of upper cylinder, the water pressure in the bolt plane is p = gh = 9790 # (D) = 9790 # 4 = 39160 Pa
Then summation of vertical forces on this 50 cm wide free body gives FZ = 0 = p1 A1 Wwater Wtank 2Fbolt 0 = 39160 # (4 # 0.5) 9790 # p # (2) 2 # 0.5 1125 2Fbolt 2 2Fbolt = 78320 30741 1125 = 46454 Fone, bolt = 46454 = 23227 N , 23 kN 2
FM 2.49
Option (B) is correct The water depth when the plug pops out is F = ghCG A = 5 = 9790 # hCG # p # (0.06) 2 = 25 4 25 # 4 hCG = = 0.904 m p # (0.06) 2 # 9790 H = hCG + 0.0 sin 0c = 0. 0 + 0.0 sin 0c
or But
= 0.919 m Thus at mercury-water interface patm + ( or 0) # (H + 0.0 ) 00 # h = patm 9790 # (0.919 + 0.02) = 133100h h = 9790 # 0.939 133100 = 0.069 m = 6.9 cm
FM 2.50
Option (A) is correct. The FBD of the curved surface is shown below.
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Demo Ebook
Page 72 FM 2
In equilibrium condition in horizontal direction. Fx = 0 F = FH = ghC A = 1000 # 9.81 # 2 # (2 # 6) = 117.72 kN 2 Similarly in vertical direction Fy = 0 FV = gH O # v = 9810 # p # (2) 2 # 6 = 184.82 kN 4
2
For Hemisphere y = 4R = 4 # 2 = 8 m 3p 3p 3p x =R=2m 3 3 Now taking the moment about the hinged point C , we get MC = 0 : FV # x + FH # y = P # 184.82 # 2 + 117.72 # 8 3 3p = 1231.21 + 100 = 111.60 kN P = 2 2
FM 2.51
Option (C) is correct The centroid of a semi-circle is at 4R = 4 # 3 , 1.273 m of the bottom, as shown in the sketch 3 3p below.
Thus it is 3.0 1.273 = 1.727 m down from the force. The water force F is F = ghCG A = 9790 # (h + 1.727) # p # ]3g2 2 = 138333 (h + 1.727) N The line of action of F lies below the CG. yCP = IXX sin q hCG A (0.10976) # (3) 4 # sin 90c IXX = . ( + 1.727) (p/2) # ]3g2 = 0.629 ( + 1.727) Then summing moments about B yields the proper support force. = MB = 0 #R
Demo Ebook
Page 73 FM 73
or
FM 2.52
0 = 1.273 # 138333 # (h + 1.727) 138333 # 0.629 3 # 366 # 103 0 = 176098h + 304121 87011.5 1098000 176098h = 880890.5 & h = 5.00 m
Option (D) is correct. The FBD of the horizontal gate is shown below.
For horizontal gate taking moment about hinged point. MH = 0 where W # = pA # W = pA p = water pressure on the bottom surface of the gate A = Area of the gate W = rg # ( ) # ( # ) = 1000 # 9.81 # 3 # 16 = 471 kN For vertical gate
FR = gH O # hC # A = 9810 # (5 + 2) # (4 # 4) - 1098 kN 1 3 # 4 # (4) I XC 12 The location of FR is yR = + 7 = 7.190 m + yC = yC # A 7 # (4 # 4) For equilibrium condition about hinged point
2
MH = 0
P#
= FR # ( + .
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Demo Ebook
Page 74 FM 2
Resultant hydrostatic force on the gate FR = pavg A = rghc A = 1000 # 9.81 # 3.5 # (3 # 6) 1000 hc = + =
= 618 kN Pressure centre is determined as yP = yC + IXC yC A yC = 2 + 3 = 3.5 m 2 For rectangular section IXC = lb = 12
3
...(i)
And A = 6 # 3 = 18 m2 Therefore, from equation (i), yP = 3.5 + 13.5 3.5 # 18 = 3.71 m downwards from the free surface of water
FM 2.54
Option (C) is correct. The force diagram of the plate is shown below
F and F work at the centre of pressure. F = goil hC A where hC = vertical distance from the fluid surface to the centroid of the area. hC = 3 + 2 = 5 m Thus F = 0.9 # 1000 # 9.81 # 5 # (4 # 3) = 5.3 # 105 N Force on horizontal part of the gate is F = goil hC A where hC = 4 + 3 = 7 m So F = 0.9 # 1000 # 9.81 # 7 # (2 # 3) = 3.7 # 105 N Now location of force F , 1 (3) (4) 3 # I XC 12 yR = +5 + yC = yC # A 5 # (4 # 3) = 0.27 + 5 = 5.27 m
Demo Ebook
Page 75 FM 75
Now taking the moment about the hinged point, MO = . F . +F # R# = 0 5 5 5 R = F1 # 2.27 + F2 = 5.3 # 10 # 2.27 + 3.7 # 10 = 15.731 # 10 4 4 4 = 3.9327 # 105 - 393 kN
FM 2.55
On the side of the gate where the water measures 3 m, F acts and has an hCG of 1.5 m on the opposite side, F acts with an hCG of 1 m. F1 = goil # hCG # A1 = 0.82 # 9790 # 1.5 # 3 # 5 = 180625.5N F = goil # hCG # A = 0.82 # 9790 # 1 # 2 # 5 = 80278 N 1 3 : 1 # L # b 1D 1 # 5 # ]3g 3 yCP = = = .5 m 1 # 1.5 # 5 # 3 hCG # A1 So F1 acts at 1.5 0.5 = 1.0 m above B. 1 # L # b3 1 5 ] g3 yCP = 1 = # # = .333 m 1 #1# #5 hCG # A So F acts at 1.0 0.33 = 0.67 m above the B. Taking moments about B, we get
1 1 1
or
FM 2.56
The average pressure on a surface is the pressure at the centroid of the surface. gh p =p = rgh = rg h = r
avg center center
Then the resultant hydrostatic force on the wall is, rgh rgh2 b FR = pavg A = (h # b) = # 2 2
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Demo Ebook
Page 76 FM 2
The line of action of the force passes through pressure center yP = 2h 3 By taking moment about point A , MA = 0 FR b h + yP l = Fridge # b h + h l Fridge =
FM 2.57
h 4
+ yP
5h 4
# FR =
Option (A) is correct The centroid of the gate remains at distance L the surface. For any , the hydrostatic force is F = b h l # L # b 2 The moment of inertia of the gate is 3 IXX = bL 12 bL sin q yCP = h 12 2 #b#L and the center of pressure is, = L yCP from point B 2 Summing moments about hinge B yields P # L = F # b L yCP l
3
below
or
P =
F b L yCP l L
g # h # Lb L bL # sin q h f # Lb p L
FM 2.58
Option (B) is correct. For resultant fluid force, this cross-section is divided into three parts as shown below.
#( # ) = 1
Demo Ebook
Page 77 FM 77
= 40 # 2 # 4 + 6.67 # 4 # 2 # 4 2 For Area 3: FR3 = 320 + 106.72 = 426.72 kN = pair # A 3 + ghC 3 A 3 = 40 # 1 # 2 # 4 + 6.67 # 2 # 4 # 1 # 2 # 4 2 3 2
Total force
FM 2.59
Option (D) is correct. The water causes a horizontal and a vertical force on the body as shown:
FH = g R Rb at R above O, 2 3 FV = g p 2 at 4 to the left of O 3 4 These must balance the moment of the body weight W about O. 2 g 2 gp 2 4 gp 4 g MO = + 2 #b 3 l 4 # b 3p l 4 b 3p l 3 g S.G. body = s = = pR b b R l + R b G = pR b # b R l + R hb G 3p 3p g
3 3p 4 1 ;1 + 6 # 4 # p 2 E :1 + 2D s = = 2 3p 4 1+ 3 D 1 + : # # ; E 2 2 2 4 p
b2l=0
FM 2.60
1 = 2 + 1 :3 D 2+ 3 Option (C) is correct. The FBD of the gate and the cylindrical block is shown below. or S. G. =
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Demo Ebook
Page 78 FM 2
W = Wight of cylindrical block. FB = Buoyancy force Hydrostatic force on the gate, FR = g # hC A = g # H # H # = gH Taking the moment about the hinged point O , MO = 0 : FR # H = 4T From equation (i), FV = 0 gH 3 T = 3 gH 2 # H = 2 8 3#4 W = T + FB mg = T + FB = =
FM 2.61
...(i)
...(ii)
3 g gH 3 + g # p (1) 2 (H 1) = :H + p (H 1)D 8 4g 2 4
The forces on the hatch are shown above. where Thus The location of the FR is FR = gsea water # hC # A hC = 2 + 1 # 2 # sin 45c = 2 + 0.707 = 2.707 m 2 FR = 10.1 # 103 # 2.707 # p # (2) 2 = 85.85 # 103 N 4 yR =
IXC + y C yC # A where yC = 2 + 1 = 3.83 m sin 45c p (1) 4 4 Thus + 3.83 yR = IXC = p R 3.83 # p (1) 2 = 3.89 m In equilibrium condition, taking the moment about the hinge point MO = FR # byR sin cl = p#p#( ) #
Demo Ebook
Page 79 FM 79
Frect = ghCG # Arect = g (H/2) # (H # 2R) = g # H 2 R Force on semicircular panel is Fsemi = ghCG # Asemi = g bH + R l # p R p From the given condition, set them equal. # H R = g bH + R l # p R p
3 RH = p R2 H + 2R 2 3 2 H = p RH + 2R 2 3
or
FM 2.63
In the equilibrium condition, the vertical force of the water on the dome is equal to the force which dome exerts on the water. FD + W = pA FD = pA W where FD = force that dome exerts on the fluid and pA = pressure force at the base of the dome. Now manometer equation (from the figure) can be written as pA + ggf # ( . + . ) g O # ( . + . ) p = 0 p = 87 # 103 + 3 # 1000 # 9.81 # 2.1 9810 # 1.2 - 137 kPa W = gliquid # ; p b d l E = gliquid # : pd D FV = 0 ...(i)
and
= 10.1 # 103 # p (1.2) 3 = 4.57 kN 12 From equation (i), we get FD = 137 # p # (1.2) 2 4.57 = 150.3 kN 4
***********
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FM 3
FLUID KINEMATICS & BERNOULI EQUATION
FM 3.1
Consider steady flow of water through an axisymmetric nozzle as shown in figure. Along the centre line, water speed increases parabolically through nozzle from uin to uout . What will be the expression for center line speed u x from x = to x=L ?
FM 3.2
(uout uin) (u uout) (B) u (x) = uin + in x x L L (u uin) (u + uout) (C) u (x) = uin out (D) u (x) = uin in x x L L An idealized incompressible flow has the proposed three-dimensional velocity distribution V = xy i + f (y) j zy k . What will be the appropriate form of the function f (y) which satisfies the continuity relation ? (A) f (y) = y + constant (B) f (y) = y + constant y (C) f (y) = y + constant (D) f (y) = + constant (A) u (x) = uin + A two-dimensional velocity field is given by V = (x y + x) i ( xy + y) j in arbitrary units. At (x, y) = (2, 4), the maximum acceleration and its direction respectively, are (A) 142 units, 58.57 (B) 211 units , 58.57 (C) 211 units, 31.43 (D) 142 units, 31.43
FM 3.3
How many stagnation points are there in this flow field ? (A) One (B) Three (C) Two (D) No stagnation point The material acceleration at point (x = 2 m, y = 3 m) is (A) ax = 14 m s2, ay = 11.5 m s2 (B) ax = 11.5 m s2, ay = 14 m s2 (C) ax = 11.5 m s2, ay = 14 m s2 (D) ax = 14 m s2, ay = 11.5 m s2
FM 3.5
Demo Ebook
Page 81 FM 81
FM 3.6
Polar coordinate of a flow is given by Vr = k cos q b b l, V =- k sin b + b l. r r The flow field will be (A) Unsteady, incompressible (B) Steady, compressible (C) Unsteady, compressible (D) Steady, incompressible The linear couette flow between plates as shown in figure below has velocity Vy component as u = , v = . This flow has a stream function but no velocity h potential, because
FM 3.7
It It It It
satisfy continuity but not satisfy irrotationality satisfy continuity and irrotationality does not satisfy continuity but satisfy irrotationality does not satisfy both continuity and irrotationality
The velocity potential for a certain inviscid, incompressible flow field is given by the relation = 2x2 y b 2 l y3 3 2 where has the units of m /s when x and y are in meters. If the pressure at (x, y) = (1 m, 1 m) is 200 kPa , elevation changes are neglected and the fluid is water, the pressure at the point (x, y) = (2 m, 2 m) is (A) 40.1 kPa (B) 60.1 kPa (C) 100.1 kPa (D) 80.1 kPa A two-dimensional incompressible flow field is defined by the velocity potential = xy + x - y . The equation of the streamline is (B) = 1 (y2 - x2) + 2xy + C (A) = 1 (y2 - x2) - 2xy + C 2 2 (C) = 1 (x2 - y2) + 2xy + C (D) = 1 ^y2 + x2h + 2xy + C 2 2 Consider the following two-dimensional incompressible flow with V = yi + xj , which clearly satisfies continuity. What will be the stream function (r, ) of this flow using polar coordinates ? (B) = 3 r2 sin2 + r2 cos2 + C (A) = 3 r2 cos2 + r2 sin2 + C 2 2 (C) = 3 r2 sin2 - r2 cos2 + C (D) = 3 r2 cos2 - r2 sin2 + C 2 2
FM 3.9
FM 3.10
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Demo Ebook
Page 82 FM 3
FM 3.11
2 p What will be the pressure gradient in N/m3 ? 2 x (A) 9000 (1 x) (B) 9000 (1 + x) (C) 9000x (D) 900 (1 + x) If the pressure at section (1) is 345 kPa , the pressure at section (2) will be (A) 159 kPa (B) 3315 kPa (C) 33.15 kPa (D) 331.5 kPa The air speed at a given location is 25 m/s and the pressure gradient along the streamline is 125 N/m3 . If the effect of gravity is negligible and air = 1.2 g m , what will be the air speed at a point 0.5 m far along the streamline ? (A) 22 m/sec. (B) 2.03 m/sec. (C) 20 m/sec. (D) 23 m/sec. A frictionless, incompressible, steady-flow field is given by V = xyi y j in arbitrary units. If the density 0 = constant and gravity is neglected, an expression for the pressure gradient in the x - direction will be 2p 2p (B) (A) = r 6 xy2 (y )@ = r 6 xy2 (y )@ 2x 2x 2p 2p (C) (D) = r 6 xy2 (y + )@ = r 6 xy2 (y + )@ 2x 2x An inviscid, incompressible, steady flow fluid has a constant bulk modulus. By integrate F = ma along a streamline, what will be the equivalent Bernoulli equation for this flow ? 2 2 gz (B) EV + V + gz = C (A) EV + V + =C 2 r r 2 2 2 gz (C) - EV + V + (D) EV + V + gz = C =C 2 2r A constant thickness film of viscous liquid flows in laminar motion down a plate at angle = 30c as shown in figure below. The velocity profile is u = Cy (2h y) , v = w = . What will be the volume flux per unit width in terms of the specific weight and viscosity ?
FM 3.12
FM 3.13
FM 3.14
FM 3.15
FM 3.16
Demo Ebook
Page 83 FM 83
o = gh (A) v m o = gh (C) v m
FM 3.17
o = gh (B) v m o = gh (D) v m
Consider a steady, two-dimensional, incompressible flow of a Newtonian fluid with the velocity components u = xy , v = y x . What will be the pressure field p (x, y) when the pressure at point (x = 0, y = 0) is equal to pa ? (A) p = pa + r ( x y + x + y ) (C) p = pa r ( x y + x + y ) (B) p = pa + r ( x y + x + y ) (D) p = pa r ( x y + x + y )
FM 3.18
Air blows along an object as shown in figure. It has two entrances a flat door and a mounted back door. The wind blows with velocity V across the front door. The average velocity across the back door is greater than V because of the mound and it becomes 1.08V0 . If the wind velocity is 6 m/s , what will be the pressure difference between gate 1 and 2 ?
The height of the water columns in a piezometer and a pitot tube are measured to be 45 cm and 50 cm respectively (Both measured from the top surface of the pipe). Both are tapped into a horizontal water pipe. What will be the velocity at the center of pipe ? (A) 17.2 m/s (B) 1.72 m/s (C) 0.172 m/s (D) 15.6 m/s A fire hose nozzle has a diameter of 3 cm . The nozzle must be capable of delivering at least 0.016 m3 /s . If the nozzle is attached to a 2.5 cm diameter hose, what pressure must be maintained just upstream of the nozzle to deliver this flow rate ? (A) 500 kPa (B) 125 Pa (C) 250 kPa (D) 2.50 kPa A large water reservoir of 10 m diameter is filled with water which is open to the atmosphere. The reservoir has a smooth entrance orifice 2 m below the water level where the water leaves the reservoir through a 25 m long horizontal pipe attached to the orifice as shown in figure. If the diameter of orifice is 3 cm , the maximum discharge rate of water through pipe is (A) 0.00443 m3 /s (B) 0.443 m2/s (C) 0.0443 m3/s (D) 4.43 m3/s A wind blowing past over a home at 18 m/s . It speeds up as it flows up and over the roof. If elevation effects are neglected, what will be the pressure difference between over the roof and inside the home when the speed at the point on the roof is 26.5 m/s ?
FM 3.20
FM 3.21
FM 3.22
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Demo Ebook
Page 84 FM 3
The water height in an airtight pressurized tank is 20 m . A hose pointing straight up is connected to the bottom of tank. The gage pressure above the water surface is 304 kPa . What will be the maximum height to which the water stream could rise. [The system is at sea level]
FM 3.24
What will be the height h to which the water rises up ? (A) 5.12 m (B) 8.12 m (C) 4.12 m (D) 6.12 m The water velocity in the pipe will be (A) 8 m/s (C) 10 m/s (B) 9 m/s (D) 15 m/s
FM 3.25
FM 3.26
A high pressure liquid jet as shown in figure, can be used to cut various materials. If the viscous effects are negligible, what will be the pressure and flow rate, respectively to produce a 104 m diameter water jet with a speed of 700 m/s ?
Demo Ebook
Page 85 FM 85
(B) 245 MPa , 5.5 # 106 m3 /s (D) 24.5 MPa , 5.5 # 106 m3 /s
What will be the velocity at the downstream of the hose as shown in figure when all the viscous effects are neglected ?
Water flows through the pipe contraction as shown in figure. If the difference in o will be manometer level is 0.2 m , the flow rate v
An oil at 20cC ( = 870 kg/m3 and = 0.104 kg/m - s ) flows through a 2 m long straight horizontal pipe. The pressure drop is constant = 800 Pa/m . If Reynolds o is number Re D of the flow is to be exactly 1000, the flow rate v 3 3 (A) 34 m /h (B) 3.4 m /h 3 (C) 17 m /h (D) 340 m3 /h A 0.20 m diameter pipe discharges into a 0.15 m diameter pipe. If they are carrying 0.20 m3/s of water, what will be the difference between their velocity heads ? (A) 6.37 m (B) 4.47 m (C) 5.47 m (D) 4.87 m Two streams of water from two tanks strikes upon each other as shown in figure. The point A is the striking point and all the viscous effects are negligible. What
FM 3.30
FM 3.31
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Page 86 FM 3
A liquid ( = 0.002 N - s/m2 , = 1000 kg/m3 ) is forced through the circular tube of 9 mm diameter as shown in figure. A differential manometer is connected to the tube to measure the pressure drop along the tube. If the differential reading h is 6 mm and the flow is laminar, what will be the mean velocity in the tube ?
o in , which is Water enters a tank of diameter D , steadily at a mass flow rate of m open to the atmosphere. An orifice of diameter Do with a smooth entrance (i.e. no losses) is open at the bottom allows water to escape. If the tank is initially empty, the maximum height that the water will reach in the tank is
Demo Ebook
Page 87 FM 87
(A) h (C) h
FM 3.34
(B) h (D) h
A liquid ( = 789 kg/m3 , = 1.19 # 10-3 N-s/m2 ) flows through a 10 mm diameter horizontal tube. If the mean velocity is 0.15 m/s , what will be the pressure drop per unit length of the tube and the velocity at a distance of 2 mm from the tube axis, respectively ? (A) 28.55 N/m2 , 0.126 m/s (B) 71.32 N/m2 , 0.315 m/s (C) 42.8 N/m2 , 0.189 m/s (D) 57.1 N/m2 , 0.252 m/s o as shown in Water flows through a variable area pipe with a constant flow rate v figure. The viscous effects are negligible and the pressure remains constant throughout the pipe. If D is the three fourth of the D , what will be the diameter D ?
FM 3.35
310 straight microtubes of 25 cm length each, are bundled together into a honeycomb whose total cross-sectional area is 0.0006 m2 . The volume flow rate of water at 22cC is 1 m3 /h . If the pressure drop from entrance to exit is 1.5 kPa, the appropriate microtube diameter and flow velocity are (A) D = 1.5 # 103 m,V = 0. 63 m s (B) D = 1.5 # 10 m,V = 0.0 63 m s (C) D = 1.5 # 102 m,V = .63 m s (D) D = 1.5 # 103 m,V = 6.3 m s A circular stream of water from a spigot is observed to taper from a diameter of D1 to D2 in a distance of z1 . The expression for flow rate is
FM 3.37
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Page 88 FM 3
(B) 4.43A2 z 4 1 b D2 l D1
4.43A2 z1 (D) 4.43A2 z14 4 D 1 b 2l 1 b D2 l D1 D1 A 1 mm diameter strings are knotted into 2 2 cm squares to make a fishnet. If the net plane is normal to flow direction, the horsepower required to tow 28 m2 of this netting at 1.54 m/s in seawater at 20C ( = 1025 kg/m3, = 0.00107 kg/m -s ) is (A) 7.5 hp (B) 7.0 hp (C) 3.75 hp (D) 3.5 hp The vent on the tank as shown in figure is closed and the tank is pressurized to increase the flow rate. What will be the pressure p1 needed to produce twice the flow rate of that when the vent is open ?
FM 3.39
FM 3.40
The water speed at section (2) is (A) 6.52 m/s (C) 8.83 m/s
FM 3.41
Demo Ebook
Page 89 FM 89
Oil with specific gravity 0.85 flows in the variable area pipe as shown in figure. If the viscous effects are negligible, the flow rate of oil in m3 /s will be
m = gH O
2
The water is siphoned from the tank as shown in figure. A water barometer inserted into the tank and it gives a reading of 9.2 m . If the pressure of the vapor in the closed end of the barometer equals to the vapor pressure, what will be the maximum value of h allowed without cavitation occurring ?
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Page 90 FM 3
FM 3.44
o in m3 /s ? What will be the flow rate v (A) 0.335 (B) 3.35 (C) 0.00335 (D) 0.0335 What will be the pressure needed at section (1) to draw the water into section (2) ? (A) 0 (B) 2 kPa (C) 0.02 kPa (D) 0.2 kPa The water flows steadily from a large open tank and discharges into the atmosphere through a 7.6 cm diameter pipe as shown in figure. If the pressure gages at A and B indicates the same pressure then the diameter of the narrowed section of the pipe at A , is
FM 3.45
FM 3.46
The oil flows steadily from the two tanks as shown in figure. What will be the water depth hA for tank A ?
Demo Ebook
Page 91 FM 91
(A) 24 m (C) 23 m
FM 3.48
(B) 21 m (D) 22 m
Ethyl alcohol flows through the Venturi meter as shown in figure with a velocity of 4.5 m/s in the 27.25 cm diameter pipe. If the viscous effects are negligible, what will be the elevation h of the alcohol in the open tube, connected to the throat of the Venturi meter ?
The water flows into the sink at a rate of 1.26 # 104 m3/s as shown in figure. When the drain is closed, the water will eventually flow through the overflow drain holes rather than over the edge of the sink. Neglect the viscous effects. What will be the number of drain holes of 1 cm diameter that are needed to ensure that the water does not overflow the sink ? (Cc = 0.61)
(A) 2 (C) 3
FM 3.50
(B) 5 (D) 4
The water flows into a large tank at a rate of 0.010 m3/s as shown in figure. The water leaves the tank through 5 holes in the bottom of the tank, each of which produces a stream of 20 mm diameter. For steady state operation, the equilibrium height h will be
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Page 92 FM 3
Air at standard conditions ( = 12.0 N/m3) flows through the cylindrical drying stack as shown in figure. The inclined water filled manometer reading is 20 mm and viscous effects are neglected. What will be the flow rate ?
In ideal conditions, the flow rate of seawater through the orifice meter as shown in figure is to be 19 # 104 m3/s with pressure difference p p = k a . If the contraction coefficient is 0.63, the diameter of the orifice hole d will be
A weir of trapezoidal cross section is used to measure the flow rate in a channel o0 , when H = l . What will be the flow rate as shown in figure. The flow rate is v 3 when H = l ?
Demo Ebook
Page 93 FM 93
o= (A) v o= (C) v
FM 3.54
o v o v
o= (B) v o= (D) v
o v o v
The water flows in a 2 m wide rectangular channel as shown in figure, with up-stream depth of 80 mm . The water surface rises 20 mm as it passes over the portion where the channel bottom rises 10 mm . If the viscous effects are negligible, what will be the flow rate through the channel in m3/s ?
The water flows down uniformly through the slopping ramp as shown in figure with negligible viscous effects. What will be the depth h2 at the downstream ?
Water flows under the inclined sluice gate as shown in figure. If the gate is 2.4 m wide into the paper, the flow rate will be
A conical plug regulate the air flow from the pipe of diameter 0.33 m as shown in the figure. The air leaves the edge of the cone with a uniform thickness of 0.02 m . If viscous effect are negligible and the flow rate is 1 m3/s , the pressure within the
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Page 94 FM 3
Water flows from a nozzle of equilateral triangular cross-section as shown in figure. After it has fallen a distance of 82 cm , its cross-section becomes circular with a diameter of 3.3 cm . What will be the flow rate in m3/s ?
The water flows over the unit width spillway as shown in figure. If the velocity is uniform at upstream and downstream and viscous effects are negligible, what will be the velocity at the downstream ?
Demo Ebook
Page 95 FM 95
SOLUTIONS
FM 3.1
Option (A) is correct. A general equation for parabola in x -direction u = a + b (x c) From boundary conditions At x = u = uin At x = L By setting c = u = uout and from equation (i) at x = a = uin and at x = L , b = uout uin L By substituting these values in equation (i), we get (u uin) u (x) = uin + out x L
...(i)
FM 3.2
Option (C) is correct. The velocity components are u = 2xy2 , v = f (y), w = zy The incompressible continuity equation 2u + 2v + 2w = 0 2x 2y 2z 2 ( xy ) + 2 f (y) + 2 ( zy ) = 0 or 2x 2y 2z df 2y2 + y2 = 0 dy df = 3y2 dy Integrating the above equation,we get f (y) =
# (3y ) dy
2
= y + constant
FM 3.3
Option (B) is correct. The velocity components are u = x y + x, Each component of acceleration : du = u2u + v2u dt 2x 2y dv = u2v + v2v dt 2x 2y ay = (x2 y2 + x) ( 2y) + ( 2xy y) ( 2x 1) At (x, y) = (2, 4) ax = (22 42 + 2) (2 # 2 + 1) + ( 2 # 2 # 4 4) ( 2 # 4) = 110 ay = (22 42 + 2) ( 2 # 4) + ( 2 # 2 # 4 4) ( 2 # 2 1) = 180 v = (2xy + y)
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Page 96 FM 3
g +]
g = 210.95 units
Option (A) is correct. For stagnation point, all components of V must equal zero in order for V itself to be zero. So ...(i) u = 1 + 1.25x + y = 0 ...(ii) v = 0.5 1.5x 2.5y = 0 By solving equation (i) and (ii), we get and y = . x = . Since for given velocity field only one value of x and y is obtained. Therefore, only one stagnation point is there. Option (C) is correct. At any point (x, y) in the flow field velocity components are u = + . x + y , v = . . x . y Material acceleration at any point (x, y) u + u2 u + v2 u + w2 u ax = 2 2 t 2 x 2 y 2 z v + u2 v + v2 v + w2 v ay = 2 2 t 2 x 2 y 2 z For steady two dimensional flow field 2 u =2 v = and w = 2 t 2 t u + v2 u Then ax = u2 2 x 2 y = (1 + 2.5x + y) # (2.5) + ( 0.5 1.5x 2.5y) # 1 = 2 + 4.75x v + v2 v ay = u2 2 x 2 y = (1 + 2.5x + y) # ( 1.5) + ( 0.5 1.5x 2.5y) # ( 2.5) = 0.25 + 4.75y Material Acceleration at point (x = 2 m, y = 3 m) is ax = 2 + 4.75 # 2 = 11.5 m/s2 ay = 0.25 + 4.75 # 3 = 14 m/s2
FM 3.5
FM 3.6
Option (D) is correct. Incompressible continuity relation in polar coordinates : Vq = 0 2 (rV ) + 2 r r 2r r 2q or 2 r k cos - b + 2 - k sin + b = 0 b b r 2r ; r lE r 2 ; r lE 2 k cos r - b + 2 - k sin + b = 0 b b r 2r ; r lE r 2 ; r lE k cos b + b lE + # ;- k cos b + b lE = 0 r; r r r by NODIA and COMPANY
Demo Ebook
Page 97 FM 97
b + b lE = 0 r or 0=0 Incompressible continuity equation is satisfied. Hence the flow field will be steady incompressible.
FM 3.7
k r;
b + b lE - ;k r r
Option (A) is correct. Check continuity 2u + 2v = 0 or 0 + 0 = 0 (satisfied therefore exists) 2x 2y Now check irrotationality : z = 2v - 2u = 0 - V ! 0 (Not satisfied, flow is rotational, does not exist) h 2x 2y Option (D) is correct. Applying the Bernoullis equation at both the points with subscript 1 & 2, 2 p p1 V 12 ...(i) + = 2 + V2 g 2g 2g With V 2 = u2 + v2 . For the velocity potential given 2 f 2 f = 2x2 2y2 u= = 4xy and v = 2 2 x y At point 1, x = 1 m and y = 1 m u1 = 4 # 1 # 1 = 4 m/s v1 = 2 ^1 h2 2 ^1 h2 = 0 and V 12 = ^4h2 = 16 m2 /s2 At point 2, x = 2 m and y = 2 m So that u2 = 4 # 2 # 2 = 16 m/s v2 = 2 ^2 h2 2 ^2 h2 = 0 and V 22 = ^16h2 = 256 m2 /s2 Thus, from equation (i), ^9.80 # 103h g p2 = p1 + ^V 12 V 22h = 200 # 103 + 16 256h 2g 2 # 9.81 ^ = 80.1 kPa
FM 3.8
FM 3.9
Option (B) is correct. First check that 4 2 = 0 , which means that incompressible continuity is satisfied, 22 f 22 f 42 = + 2x 2 2y 2 2 22 = y + 2x , =2 2x 2x2 2 22 and = x 2y , =- 2 2y 2y 2 22 22 Hence + = 2 - 2 = 0 , exists 2x2 2y2 Now use to find u and v and then integrate to find 2f 2y = y + 2x = u = 2x 2y Hence = +2 + ( ) 2 2f 2y 2f = x 2y = = 2y v = 2y 2x 2x
2
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Page 98 FM 3
FM 3.10
Option (C) is correct. In Cartesian coordinates the stream function is 2y = y u = 2y 2y = x v = 2x By integrating equation (ii), we get
...(i) ...(ii)
# 2 = # 2x dx
= 2x + f (x) = x2 + f (x) 2
2
...(iii)
# f (x) = # 3y
y or f (x) = y + C
Substitute this in equation (iii), = 3 y2 2 + C 2 But in polar coordinates y = r sin q and x = r cos q Therefore the desired result is ( , ) = 3 ( sin q) 2 ( cos q) 2 + C = 3 2 sin2 q 2 2
FM 3.11
cos2 q + C
Option (B) is correct. Since the flow is steady and inviscid. So equation of motion along the stream line direction is 2 V = rV 2 g sin q 2 2 x Here pipe is horizontal i.e. = 0c & V = ( + ) i 2p Hence = 3r (1 + ) 2 [3 (1 + )] sin 0c = 0 2 x 2 = 9r (1 + ) = 9000 (1 + ) N/m3 Option (D) is correct. From previous part of the question 2p = 9000 (1 + ) 2 x 2p = 9000 (1 + ) 2 Substitute limits of p between 345 kPa to p and for x between 0 to 1 m and
FM 3.12
Demo Ebook
Page 99 FM 99
#
p
p
=
2 p
a
= 9000
# (1 + x) dx
x=0 2 1
= 9000 :x + x D 2 0 p = 345 # 103 9000 b1 + 1 l = 345 # 103 9000 # 3 2 2 = 103 # :345 27 D = 331.5 kPa 2
FM 3.13
Option (D) is correct. 2p = 2 x The equation of motion along the stream line direction is 2p V = rV 2 g sin q 2 x 2 x If neglect the effect of gravity, then We have V= sec , So = rg = 2p V = rV2 2 x 2 x 2 V = 125 = 4.06 sec1 25 1 . 23 2 x # V dx V = 2 2 x 2 V = 4.06 sec1 and x = . m 2 x
Also Substitute
V = 4.06 # 0.5 = 2.03 m/s So the net air speed will be V + dV = 25 2.03 = 22.97 - 23 m/s
FM 3.14
Option (B) is correct. For this (gravity-free) velocity, the momentum equation is V + v2 V =4 p cu2 2x 2y m 0 ;(3xy) 2 (3xyi - y3 j) + (- y3) 2 (3xyi - y3 j)E =4 p 2x 2y 0 6(3xy) # (3yi) + (- y3) (3xi - 3y2 j)@ =4 p 0 69xy2 i - 3xy3 i + 3y5 j @ =4 p 0 6(3xy3 - 9xy2) i - 3y5 j @ = 4 p 4 p = r0 63xy2 (y 3) i 3y5 j @ 2p = r0 63xy2 (y 3)@ 2x
FM 3.15
Option (B) is correct Along a streamline, the equation of motion is dp + rd (V ) + gdz = 0 where = g , dp = EV dr and EV = bul modulus = constant r ...(i)
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Page 100 FM 3
d + d V + g dz = 0 d + d b V l + gdz = 0 EV Now integrate this equation between point (1) & (2), we get V d z EV d b 1 V 2 l + gdz = 0 2 + 2 V z EV : 1 1 D + 1 (V 22 V 12) + g (z2 z1) = 0 r2 r1 2 EV
It means
FM 3.16
Option (D) is correct. 2p There is atmospheric pressure all along the surface at y = h, hence = . The 2x x -momentum equation can be 2p + rgx + m 42 u ;u2u + v2u E = 2x 2x 2y or ;u # + # 2u E = 0 + r x + m 42 2y or 0 = 0 + r sin q + m ( 2 ) r sin q r C = = 2m 4m o= v
2 h 0
# udy = # Cy (2h y) dy
0 0 h
#2
0
hy y
#
0
y2 y
Cy = 7Chy A ; E = Ch Ch = 2 h3 3 0
3 3 o = 2 # r # h 3 = 1 # r # h = gh v 3 6m m 6 4m
= g
FM 3.17
Option (D) is correct The pressure gradients from the Navier-stokes x and y relations : 2 2p 22 u cu2u + v2u m = + m e2 u + 2x 2y 2x 2x2 2y2 o 2p or + m (0 + 0) 6- 2xy (- 2y) + (y2 - x2) (- 2x)@ = 2x 2p = 2r (xy2 + x3) 2x and similarly for the y-momentum relation 2 2p 22 v + 22 v cu2v + v2v m = + m =2 v 2 + 2x 2y 2y 2x 2y2 2z2 G 2p or 6- 2xy (- 2x) + (y2 - x2) (2y)@ = + m 6 2 + 2 + 0@ 2y 2p = 2r (x2 y + y3) 2y 2p 2p and may be integrated to find p (x, y) The two gradients 2x 2y x2 y2 x 4 2p p = dx y = cons tant = 2r c + m + (y) 2 4 2x then differentiate w.r.t. y,
...(i)
...(ii)
Demo Ebook
or
or
...(iii)
From equation (ii) and (iii),we get r p = (2x2 y2 + x 4 + y 4) + C = pa 2 At (x, y) = (0, 0) C = pa Finally, the pressure field for this flow is given by p = pa r ( x y + x + y )
FM 3.18
Applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) and (2), p1 + 1 rV 12 + gz1 = p2 + 1 rV 22 + gz2 2 2 Neglecting the gravitational effects. So, z1 = z2 Thus p1 + 1 rV 12 = p2 + 1 rV 22 2 2 p1 p2 = 1 r (V 22 V 12) 2 Substitute = air = 1.2 g m , V2 = 1. V , V1 = V and V = m s p1 p2 = 1 # 1.23 # [(1.08 # 6) 2 (6) 2] 2 0.615 # 6(6.48) 2 (6) 2@ = 3.68 - 3.7 N/m2
FM 3.19
The application of the Bernoullis equation between points (1) and (2) gives 2 p1 V12 p At center line z2 = z1 + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 g 2g rg 2g p2 - p1 V 12 V 22 = 2g g
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Page 102 FM 3
Since point 2 is a stagnation point and thus V2 = V 12 = p2 p = rg h pitot + R rg h piezo + R rg 2g rg = h pitot h piezo V = 2g (h pitot h piezo) = = 1.715 , 1.72 m/s
FM 3.20
o= . We have D = . cm , D2 = cm , v m s Applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) & (2), 2 p1 V 12 p + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 g 2g 2g For horizontal pipe z1 = z2 & at downstream p2 = p1 V 12 V 22 So = + 2g 2g g p1 = [V 2 V 12] 2g 2 Now, from continuity equation o = A1 V1 = A2 V2 v o . 1 V1 = v = p = . 2m s A1 ( . # 1 2) 2 o . 1 V2 = v = p = 22. m s A2 ( # 1 2) 2 Substitute these values in equation (i), we get r p1 = [V 22 V 12] = 1000 [(22.65) 2 (3.62) 2] 2 2 = 249959 - 250 kPa
FM 3.21
...(i)
Consider water level at point (1) and pipe exit at point (2) and applying Bernoulli equation between (1) and (2) 2 p1 V 12 p + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 g 2g rg 2g z1 = V 2 & V2 = 2g
2
2gz1
p1 = p2 = patm, z2 = , V1 =
Demo Ebook
For maximum discharge rate, z will be maximum i.e. z = m V , max = 2gz max = 2 # 9.81 # 2 = 6.26 m/s Then maximum discharge rate 2 o = A pipe # V , max = pD o # V , max = p # (0.03) # (6.26) = 0.00443 m3/s v 4
FM 3.22
Applying the Bernoullis equation at section (1) & (2), 2 p1 V 12 p + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 g 2g 2g Elevation effects are negligible z1 = z2 = 0 and V1 = 18 m/s , V2 = 2 . m s , air = 1.23 kg/m3 So p1 p 2 = g (V 2 V 12) 2g 2 = 1.23 [(26.5) 2 (18) 2] = 232.6 Pa 2 = g
Option (B) is correct. Consider point (1) at the free end of water in tank and point (2) at top of the water trajectory. The Bernoulli equation between these two points. 2 p1 V 12 p V2 = V1 = + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 g 2g rg 2g p p p2 p patm + z1 = 1 + z1 = 1, gage + z1 z2 = 1 rg rg rg = 204 # 1000 + 20 = 40.8 m 1000 # 9.81 Option (B) is correct.
FM 3.24
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Page 104 FM 3
Applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) & (3), we get p p1 V 1 + + z1 = 3 + V 3 + z 3 g g g Here p1 = m , V1 = , z1 = m , p 3 = (gage), V3 = , z 3 = h 3 p Hence h = 1 + z1 = 60 # 10 3 + 2 g 9.8 # 10 = 6.12 + 2 = 8.12 m
FM 3.25
Option (B) is correct. Applying continuity equation at section (2) & (4), A2 V2 = A 4 V4 V2 = V4 A2 = A 4 (same cross section) Now applying bernoullis equation at section (3) & (4), 2 p p 3 V 32 + + z3 = 4 + V 4 + z 4 g 2g 2g Here p 3 = p 4 = (gage), V3 = , z 3 = h = .12 m , z 4 = 4 m V 42 = z z Hence 3 4 2g V 42 = (8.12 4) # 2 # 9.81 = 80.83 V4 = 9 m/s = V2
FM 3.26
Applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) & (2), 2 p1 V 12 p + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 g 2g 2g Here V1 - , z1 - z2 and p2 = 2 So = p1 = V 2 # g = 1 rV 22 2g 2 g = 1 # 1000 # (700) 2 = 2.45 # 105 kN/m2 = 245 MPa 2 p 4 2 6 3 o = V2 A2 = Flow rate v # 4 (1 ) - 5.50 # 10 m /s
FM 3.27
Demo Ebook
Applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) & (2), we get 2 p p1 V 12 + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 g 2g 2g , z2 = Here p1 = p2 = (gage pressure), V1 = , z1 = 2 Hence 0.3 = V 2 0.33 2g V 22 = 0.63 # 2 # 9.81 = 12.36 V2 - 3.5 m/s
FM 3.28
Applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) & (2), 2 p1 V 12 p + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 g 2g 2g Here So, V1 = and z1 = z2 2 p1 p = 2 + V2 g 2g V2 = Now Hence Flow rate 2g (p1 p2) g ...(i)
p 1 = g h 1 & p 2 = gh 2 p1 p2 = g (h1 h2) = 0.2g 0.2g = 1.98 m/s V2 = 2g # g o = A2 V2 v = p (0.05) 2 # 1.98 = 0.00389 m3 /s 4 = 3.89 # 103 m3 /s
FM 3.29
D3 1000 = 870 # 400 # 0.104 8 # 4 # 0.104 or 1000 = 1.005 # 106 D3 D = 0.00099457 D = 0.0998 , 0.1000 m
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Page 106 FM 3
Now Then
V =
Dp D ]0.1g2 = 800 # = 1.20 m/s 2 4 # 8 # 0.104 L# m o = AV = p # (0.1) 2 # 1.20 v 4 = 0.009425 m3 /s = 0.009425 # 3600 = 34 m3 /h
FM 3.30
Option (B) is correct. o= . m s We have D = . m, D = . m, v o=AV =A V Flow rate v o . V = v = p = 6.37 m/s A #( . ) o . V = v = p = 11.32 m/s A #( . ) Now the difference between velocity head is 2 2 d = V 2 V 1 = 1 (V 22 V 12) 2g 2g 2g 1 = [(11.32) 2 (6.37) 2] = 4.47 m 2 # 9.8 Option (A) is correct.
FM 3.31
The water jets strikes at point A as shown in figure. We have to take three sections (1), A and (2). Now applying Bernoullis equation at section (2) and A , we get 2 p2 V 22 p + + z2 = A + V A + zA g 2g 2g Here p2 = (Gage), V2 = , VA = , z2 = 1 + h , zA = h p Thus z2 = A + zA g p 14 + h = A + h g pA = 14g Again applying Bernoullis equation at section (A) & (1), we have 2 2 pA V A p + + z A = 1 + V 1 + z1 g 2g 2g Here VA = , V1 = , p1 = 1 2 k a , pA = 1 g , zA = h , z1 = 2. m Hence 14 + 0 + h = 172 + 0 + 2.5 m g ...(i)
Demo Ebook
The flow is laminar flow, so that mean velocity 2 Dp V =R 8m l From manometer equation (see figure) or p + gf Dh ggf Dh = p p p = Dp = Dh ^ggf gf h = Dh ^g h^rgf rf h
Thus
FM 3.33
= 0.007 # 9.81 # ^2000 1000h = 68.7 N/m2 2 b 0.004 l # 68.7 2 V = = 8.59 # 103 m/s 8 # 0.002 # 2
Option (C) is correct. The Bernoulli equation between water entrance and exit of tank. pin V in p + + zin = out + V out + zout g g rg g Since Then pin = pout = patm , Vin = 2 V out = zin 2g and zout =
Vout = 2gzin So that the mass flow rate through the orifice oout = rA Vout = r pD # oout = rv m gzin
o 2 zin = 1 # = 4mout 2G 2g rpD 0 oout = m o in gives the relation for maximum height the water Setting zin = h max and m will reach in the tank. o 2 h max = 1 = 4min2 G 2g rpD 0
FM 3.34
Option (D) is correct. First check Reynolds number to determine if flow is laminar or turbulent. rVD # . # . < = = Re = m . # Thus, flow is laminar and mean velocity is given by
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Demo Ebook
Page 108 FM 3
8 # ^1.19 # 103h # 0.15 mV p = = = 57.1 N/m2 per m l 0.010 2 R b 2 l Since velocity distribution in terms of v max is r vz = v max : a R k D So that and v max = V , where V is the mean velocity. r 2 It follows that vz = 2V :1 a R k D For r = mm ,
FM 3.35
2 Dp V =R 8m l
We have
p = constant , D =
Flow rate
o o o o v v = V = v = pv = A D pD p # ^ Dh Substitute the V & V in equation (i) o o o 2 o 2 v v m c . m = 2gz c 64v 2 m - c 4v 2 m = c . D D 9D D o2 D # gz = 3.51v D = o2 o2 3.51 v = 0.179 v 2 # 9. 8 z z 2 1/4 o o D = 0.65 b v l = 0.65 1v / z z 4
Demo Ebook
FM 3.36
Option (A) is correct. For water at 20cC : = 998 kg/m3 and = 0.001 kg/m - s otube = 310 # v otube o = N#v Since v 4 1 = 310 pD Dp = 310 pD 4 # 1500 or # # 3600 128 # 0.001 # 0.25 128mL or D = 128 # 0.001 # 0.25 = 6.085 # 1012 1500 # p # 310 # 3600 Also or D = 0.00157 m o = V#A v o V = v = = 1666.67 m/h . A = 1666.67 m/s = 0.463 m/s 3600
FM 3.37
Applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) and (2), 2 p1 V 12 p + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 g 2g 2g Here p1 = p2 = (Gage pressure), z2 = V 12 + z = V 22 So, 1 2g 2g V 22 V 12 = 2gz1 From continuity equation o = A1 V1 = A2 V2 v o o V1 = v , V2 = v A1 A2 From equation (i) o2 o2 1 1 = 2gz v v o2 1 2 = v #c 2 2 2m A2 A1 A 2 A1 2 o2 A2 v 1 # c 2 m = 2gz1 2 A2 A1 2 2 o2 = A 2 # 2gz21 = A 2 # 2gz41 v 1 c A2 m 1 c D2 m D1 A1 o = A2 # 2gz14 = 4.43A2 z14 v 1 c D2 m 1 c D2 m D1 D1 ...(i)
A2 = D2 2 c m D1 A1
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Page 110 FM 3
FM 3.38
Option (B) is correct. Considering the string as Cylinders in cross flow, the Reynolds Number is rVD # . # . Re = = m . For cylinder CD - . Now drag on one 2 cm strand: F r = CD V 2 DL = . # 2 # ( . ) 2 # . # . 2- . 2 N 2 2 Now 1 m2 of net contains 5000 of these 2 cm strands and 28 m2 of net contents 5000 28 = 140000 strands total. Now the total force on net F = 140000 # 0.0243 , 3400 N Then the horsepower required to tow the net is P = FV = 400 # 1.54 = 5236 W P = 5236 = 7.0 hp 746
FM 3.39
Applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) & (2), when the vent is open. 2 p1 V 12 p + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 g 2g 2g Here p1 = p2 = 0 (gage pressure), V1 = 0 , z2 = 0 , z1 = m Thus, V 22 = 2gz1 = 2 # 9.8 # 3 = 58.8 V2 = 7.67 m/s To have double the flow rate with the vent closed. p1 = Y 0 and V2 = 2 # . = 15. 4 m s . From Bernoullis equation, 2 p1 + z1 = V 2 2g (15.34) 2 p1 = 3 = 9 2 # 9.8 p1 = 9 # 9.8 = 88.2 kPa
FM 3.40
Option (C) is correct. Applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) and (2), 2 p1 V 12 p + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 g 2g 2g
Demo Ebook
= m
z = z (horizontal pipe) 2 69 + 3 = 34.5 + V 2 9.8 2 # 9.8 9.8 2g V 22 = 7.04 + 0.46 3.52 = 3.98 2g V = 3.98 # 2 # 9.8 = 78 V = 8.83 m/s
FM 3.41
Option (A) is correct. From continuity equation, the flow rate entering the pipe must be equal to the sum of the flow rates leaving the pipe. So, o +v o +v o o =v v o A V A V o =v o v o v o =v v = 0.28 0.0065 # 8.83 0.0185 # 6.1 - 0.11 m3/s Option (B) is correct.
FM 3.42
Applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) & (2), 2 p1 V 12 p + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 oil 2g goil 2g Here z1 = z2 (horizontal pipe), V1 = V 22 = p1 p2 So, 2g goil From the figure, by applying manometer equation,we get
...(i)
p1 = p + goil l = p + goil l p =p and p2 = goil (l + h) gH O h + p Thus p1 p2 = gH O h goil h = h (gH O goil ) Substitute this value of p1 p2 in equation (i), H O V 22 = h (gH O goil ) = h 1 1 = 1 b l 2g goil S.G.H O S.G. S.G. oil V 22 = 0.1 # 2 # 9.81 # : 1 1D = 0.346 0.85
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 # ( .1) # .
= 0.00463 m3/ s
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Page 112 FM 3
FM 3.43
Applying Bernoullis equation at section (2) and (3), we have 2 p p2 V 22 + + z2 = 3 + V 3 + z 3 g 2g 2g Here p2 = (gage), z2 = , z 3 = . m , p 3 = pvapor , V2 = 2 p So, 0 = vapor + V 3 + . g 2g p + g # .2 p pvapor pvapor From equation (i) and (ii) 2 9.2 + V 3 + 1.8 2g Also Given = p2 = pvapor and p2 = 0 = 9.2g = 9.2
...(i)
...(ii)
=0
V 32 = 7.4 2g V 32 = 7.4 # 2 # 9.8 = 145.04 V3 = 12.04 m/s Again applying continuity equation at section (3) and (4), A 3 V3 = A 4 V4 (7.6 # 10-2) 2 # 12.04 = p # (12.7 # 102) 2 # V4 4# 4 V4 = 4.32 m/s Now applying Bernoullis equation at section (2) & (4), 2 p p2 V 22 + + z2 = 4 + V 4 + z 4 g 2g 2g Here p2 = 0 (gage), V2 = 0 , z2 = h , p 4 = 0 (gage), z 4 = 0 2 Hence h = V4 2g = (4.32) 2 = 0.95 m 2 # 9.81
Demo Ebook
FM 3.44
Applying Bernoullis equation at section (2) & (3), 2 p p2 V 22 + + z2 = 3 + V 3 + z 3 gair 2g air 2g Here p 3 = (gage pressure), z2 = z 3 (horizontal pipe) 2 2 p2 So = V3 V2 2g 2g air From continuity equation at section (2) & (3), A2 V2 = A 3 V3 D 2V = p D 2V 4 2 2 4 3 3
2 2 D2 V2 = D 3 V3 2 2 V2 = b D 3 l V3 = b l V3 = V3 2 D2
...(i)
...(ii)
From figure
p2 = goil # h
...(iii) = 8.95 # 103 # 0.3 = 2.68 # 103 Pa Substitute the values of V2 & p2 from equation (ii) and (iii) into equation (i), 2 2.68 # 103 = V 32 (4V3) = 15V 32 2g 2g 2g 12
3 V 32 = 2.68 # 10 # 2 # 9.8 = 291.82 12 # 15
V3 = 17.08 m/s o = A 3 V3 = p ( . v
)2 #
= . 33 m3 s
Option (A) is correct. Applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) & (3), 2 p p1 V 12 + + z1 = 3 + V 3 + z 3 g 2g 2g Here z1 = z 3 (horizontal pipe) p 3 = (gage pressure) V1 = V3 (because A1 = A 3 ) p1 Hence = 0 & p1 = 0 Option (C) is correct. We have D= . m , pA = pB & p = p 3 Applying Bernoullis equation at section (4) and (2), 2 p 4 V 42 p + + z 4 = 2 + V 2 + z2 2g g 2g
FM 3.46
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Page 114 FM 3
& p = (Gage pressure), p = p (given) 2 p V So ...(i) + + z = V2 2g g Again applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) & (2), 2 p1 V 12 p + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 g 2g 2g Here p1 = p2 = (gage pressure), V1 = , z2 = , z1 = . m Thus V 22 = 2gz1 = 2 # 9.81 # 4.8 = 94.176 ...(ii) V2 = 9.7 m For section (3) & (2), we have 2 p 3 V 32 p + + z 3 = 2 + V 2 + z2 2g g 2g Here V2 = V3 (because of A2 = A 3 ), p2 = (gage pressure), z2 = So ...(iii) p 3 = gz 3 = . # ( . + 2. ) = 74.48 kPa Substituting values from equation (ii) and (iii) into equation (i), we have 2 74.48 + V 42 + (4.8 2.4) = (9.7) 9.8 2g 2 # 9.8 V 42 = 4.8 + 7.6 2.4 = 10 2g Here V 2 = 10 # 2 # 9.8 = 196 V = 14 m/s Now from continuity equation at section (2) & (4), A 4 V4 = A2 V2 D 2V = p D 2V 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 D4 = V2 # D 2 = . #( . 14 V4 D 4 = 0.0633 m
FM 3.47
z =
) 2 = 0.0040
Option (C) is correct. For steady flow, flow rate remains constant. o4 o2 = v v Now applying Bernoullis equation at section (3) and (4), 2 p 3 V 32 p + + z3 = 4 + V 4 + z 4 g 2g 2g Here p 3 = p 4 = 0 (Gage pressure), z 4 = , V3 = 0 , z 3 = hB = 3 m So V4 = 2gz 3 = 2 # 9.8 # 3 = 7.67 m/s
...(i)
Demo Ebook
Flow rate from the section (4) is o4 = A 4 V4 = p # (0.05) 2 # 7.67 = 0.0150 m3/s v 4 Also applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) and (2), 2 p1 V 12 p + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 g 2g 2g Here p1 = p2 = (Gage pressure), V1 = , z2 = 0 , z1 = hA Thus V2 = 2ghA From equation (i), we get (0.03) 2 # 2ghA = 0.0150 4# 2ghA = 21.23 2ghA = 450.71 hA = 22.995 - 23 m
FM 3.48
Applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) & (2), 2 p1 V 12 p + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 g 2g 2g 2 Here z1 = , z2 = 2 .4 # 1 m , V2 = 4. m s And from continuity equation
...(i)
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Demo Ebook
Page 116 FM 3
AV =A V 2 V = A V = b D l V = b 15.25 l # 4.5 = 10.06 m/s 10.2 D A and p = g # 1.83 = 1.83g Substitute these values in equation (i), ( ) 1.83g (4.5) 2 p + = + + 0.204 g 2g g p = 1.83 + 1.03 + 0.204 5.16 = 2.096 From figure p = gh p = h On comparing equation (ii) & (iii), we get h = 2.096 m
FM 3.49
...(ii)
...(iii)
Applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) & (2), 2 p1 V 12 p + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 g 2g 2g Here p1 = p2 = (Gauge pressure), V1 = , z2 = and z1 = b 2.5 + 1 l # 102 = 3 # 102 m 2 Thus Now where V2 = 2 # 9.8 # 3 # 102 = 0.77 m/s 2 o = nA2 V2 = nCc p d 2 v V2 # 2gz1 =
n = Number of holes required Cc = Contraction coefficient o = Flow rate = 1.26 # 104 m/s v o v 4 # 1.26 # 104 n = = = 5.04 = 3.42 2 2 2 pCc d 2 V2 3.14 # 0.61 # (10 ) # 0.77 1.475 Hence, 4 holes are needed
FM 3.50
Option (C) is correct. Applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) & (2), 2 p1 V 12 p + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 g 2g 2g
...(i)
Demo Ebook
Here
p =p =
(Gage pressure), V = , z = h , z =
V = 2gh & V = 2gh It is a steady state operation. So, flow rate remains constant. o =v o v o = 0.01 m3/s where v 2 o = 5A2 V2 = 5 # p D 2 v V2 4 From equation (ii) and (iii), 2 0.01 = 5 # p D 2 # 2gh 4 4 # 0.01 2gh = = 6.37 5 # 3.14 # (0.02) 2 2gh = (6.37) 2 = 40.57 h = 40.57 = 2.07 m 2 # 9.8
FM 3.51
...(ii) ...(iii)
Applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) & (2), 2 p1 V 12 p + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 g 2g 2g Here z1 = , z2 = h and from continuity equation A1 V1 = A2 V2 2 V1 = A2 # V2 = b 1 l # V2 = V2 2 4 A1
...(i)
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Demo Ebook
Page 118 FM 3
V = 4V1 Substitute these values in equation (i), ( V) p V p + = + +h g g g 15V 12 = p p h ...(ii) 2g g The manometer equation can be written as p + gl + gm # . sin c + g (h l . sin c) = p p p = 0.02 sin 30c (gm g) + gh = 0.01 (gm g) + gh g p -p ...(iii) = 0.01 b m 1l + h g p -p Substitute value of from equation (iii) into equation (ii), 2 g g 15V 1 = 0.01 b m 1l + h h = 0.01 b m 1l 2g g g 0.02g gm 1l V = 15 b g Substitute m = . m and = 12.0 N/m3 V = 0.0131 # b 9.8 # 10 1l = 10.68 12
3
FM 3.52
o = # m s, p p = We have a , Cc = . v Applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) & (2), 2 p1 V 12 p + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 g 2g 2g p1 - p2 V 22 V 12 = 2g From continuity equation o V1 = v A1 19 # 104 = 19 # 4 = 0.97 m/s p 25 # 3.14 2 2 (5 10 ) 4# # Substitute these values in equation (i), 2 2 16 # 103 = V 2 (0.97) 2 # 9.8 9.8 # 103 = V 22 . 1 = 16 # 2 = 32
z1 = z 2 ...(i)
Demo Ebook
Hence
# #
# #
The flow rate is given by o = AV v where From the figure V = 2gH ...(i)
Area f trapezidal = 1 # sum of parallel sides # distance between these sides 2 A = 1 # (l + l + 2H tan 45c) H = H (l + H tan c) 2 From equation (i), o = AV = H (l + H tan v
3/2
c) #
gH
...(ii) = 2g H (l + H tan 45c) l o = flow rate at H = 2 Now v o = flow rate at H = 34l and v From equation (ii), we get 3/2 2g b l l bl + l l 2 2 o v 3/2 o = v 2g b 3l l bl + 3l l 4 4 1 3/2 3l b2l #b 2 l o v = = 0.466 o v 3 3/2 7l b4l #b 4 l o0 o = 2.15v v
FM 3.54
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Page 120 FM 3
Applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) & (2), 2 p p1 V 12 ...(i) + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 g 2g 2g Here p1 = p2 = (gage pressure), z1 = . m , z2 = ( . 1 + .1 ) = .11 m From continuity equation A1 V1 = A2 V2 V2 = A1 V1 = h1 V1 = . V1 = . V1 .1 h2 A2 Substitute these values in equation (i), 2 V12 + 0.08 = (0.8V1) + 0.11 2g 2g V 12 [1 0.64] = 0.11 0.08 = 0.03 2 # 9.8 V 12 = 1.63 V1 = 1.28 m/s o = A1 V1 = ( . v
3
Applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) and (2), 2 p1 V 12 p ...(i) + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 g 2g 2g Here p1 = p2 = (Gage pressure), z1 = . 1 + . = . 1 m , z2 = h2 , V1 = m s From continuity equation A1 V1 = A2 V2 V2 = A1 V1 = h1 V1 = . # = . h2 h2 h2 A2 Substitute these values in equation (i), 0.9 2 b 2 ]3g + 0.91 = 0 + h2 l + h 0+ 2 2 # 9.8 2 # 9.8 1.37 = . 2 1 + h2 h2 2 h 2 1. h 2 + . 1 = 0 After solving this equation, we get h2 = 1. m , 0.186 m , 0.163 m From these roots h2 = 0.163 is not possible physically h2 = 1.347 m is also not possible because it is greater them h1 = . m . So the possible value of h2 is h2 = 0.186 m
FM 3.56
Option (A) is correct. Applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) and (2),
Demo Ebook
p V p + + z = +V + z g g g
...(i)
,z = .
AV =A V V =AV =hV = . V = V . h A Substitute these values in equation (i), 2 V 12 + 1.8 = (6V1) + 0.3 2g 2g 35V 12 = 1.5 2g V = 1.5 # 2 # 9.8 = 0.84 35 V - 0.92 m/s Hence, the flow rate
FM 3.57
o = A V = ( . # . )# . v
- 3.97 m3/s
Applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) & (2), 2 p1 V 12 p + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 g 2g 2g Here p2 = (Gage pressure), z1 = , z2 = .2 m And from continuity equation o 1 V1 = v = p 2 = 11. m s A1 ( # . ) o 1 V2 = v = 1 = = 31.85 m/s 2 # p # .2 # . 2 A2 2pRh Substitute these values in equation (i),
...(i)
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Page 122 FM 3
(31.85) 2 p1 (11.7) 2 + +0 = 0+ + 0.25 2 # 9. 8 12 2 # 9.8 p1 = 51.75 + 0.25 6.98 = 45.02 12 p = 45.02 # 12 = 540.24 Pa , 540 Pa
FM 3.58
Applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) and (2), 2 p1 V 12 p + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 g 2g 2g Here p1 = p2 = (Gage pressure), z2 = , z1 = . 2 m And from continuity equation o o V1 = v , V2 = v A1 A2 A1 = Area of equilateral triangular = = 3 a2 4
...(i)
3 (0.058) 2 = 1.45 # 103 m2 4 # A2 = p # (0.033) 2 = 8.55 # 104 m2 4 Now equation (i) becomes o 2 o 2 v v c A1 m + 2gz1 = c A2 m o2 ; 12 12 E = 2gz1 v A 2 A1 o2 = 2gz1 v 1 1 2 2 A2 A1 Substitute the numerical values # 9.8 # 0.82 o2 = 2 1 v 1 (1.45 # 10 ) (8.55 # 10 ) 16 . 072 16.072 = 4 4 = 136.8 # 10 47.5 # 10 89.3 # 10 4 o2 = 0.18 # 104 v o = 0.43 # 102 = 0.0043 m3/s or v
4 2 3 2
Demo Ebook
FM 3.59
Applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) and (2), 2 p1 V 12 p + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 g 2g 2g Here p1 = p2 = (Gage pressure), z1 = . , z2 = 1. From continuity equation A1 V1 = A2 V2 Considering the unit width. V1 = z2 # V2 = 1. # V2 = .2 V2 z1 . Thus equation (i) becomes 2 (0.276V2) 2 0+ + 3.8 = V 2 + 1.05 2g 2g V 22 1 0.076 = 3.8 1.05 = 2.75 h 2g ^ V 22 = 2.75 # 2 # 9.8 = 58.33 0.924 V2 = 7.64 m/s ***********
...(i)
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FM 4
FLOW ANALYSIS USING CONTROL VOLUMES
FM 4.1
A 1.5 m3 rigid tank contains air whose density is 1.18 kg/m3 . A high-pressure air is allowed to enter the tank until the density in the tank rises to 7.20 kg/m3 . The mass of air that entered the tank is (B) 9.03 kg (A) 10.8 kg (C) 1.77 kg (D) 12.57 kg The wind blows through a 2.2 m # 3 m garage door with a speed of 1.5 m/s as shown in figure. What will be the average speed V of the air through the two 0.91 m # 1.22 m windows ?
FM 4.2
Water is being pumped into a bathtub whose cross-section 3 m # 4 m . The bathtub has a 5 cm diameter orifice and water is discharged through orifice at a constant velocity of 5 m/s . If the water level in the tub rises at a rate of 2 cm/min , the rate at which water supplied to the pool in m3/s , is (A) 0.0139 (B) 0.0269 (C) 0.0058 (D) 0.139 Three pipes steadily delivers water at 20cC to a large exit pipe as shown in figure o = . m s . If increase below. The velocity V = m s and the exit flow rate v o by 20% would increase v o by 10%, the velocities V1, V and V are in v
FM 4.4
(A) V1 = 12 m s,V = .
m s,V = .
m s
Demo Ebook
V = V = V =
V = V = V =
Water at 20cC flows through the piping junction, enters at section 1 with flow rate of 1.26 # 103 m3 /s as shown in figure below. A portion of the flow is diverted through the shower-head, which contains 50 holes of 1 mm diameter at section 3. The average velocity at section 2 is 2.5 m/s. If flow through the shower is uniform , the exit velocity from the shower head jet is
An oil having a specific gravity of 0.85 is pumped with a water jet pump as shown in figure. The water and oil mixture has an average specific gravity of 0.90 and water flow rate is 0.5 m3/s . What will be the flow rate in m3/s at which the pump moves oil ?
Water flowing through an 8 cm diameter pipe enters a porous section as shown in figure below, which allows a uniform radial velocity Vw through the wall surfaces for a distance of 1.2 m. If the entrance average velocity is 12 m/s and the exit velocity is 9 m/s , what will be the Vw in cm/s ?
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Page 126 FM 4
FM 4.8
Air at the steady rate of 25 m3/min is drawn into a compressor at standard atmospheric conditions. The compressor pressure ratio, pexit pinlet is 10 to 1 and through the compressor p n remains constant with n = 1. . If the average velocity in the compressor discharge pipe is not to exceed 25 m/s , what will be the minimum discharge pipe diameter ? (A) 6.4 m (B) 0.0064 m (C) 0.064 m (D) 0.64 m Consider the river flowing towards a sea at mean velocity of 3 m/s with a rate of 250 m3/s at a location 90 m above the sea surface. The power generation potential of the entire river at that location is
FM 4.9
The overall efficiency of the pump-motor unit is (A) 67% (B) 50% (C) 65% (D) 70% The pressure difference between the inlet and the exit of the pump is (A) 201 kPa (B) 192 kPa (C) 199 kPa (D) 196 kPa
FM 4.11
FM 4.12
What is the mass flow rate in kg/s at which the mass of air in the tank is increasing ? (A) 0.65 (B) 0.073 (C) 0.065 (D) 0.73
Demo Ebook
FM 4.13
What is the average time rate of change of air density in kg/m3 s within the tank ? (A) 1.56 (B) 1.30 (C) 0.0130 (D) 0.130 The pipe flow in shown figure below, fills a cylindrical tank. At time t = 0 , the water depth in the tank is 65 cm. What will be the time required to fill the remainder of the tank ?
FM 4.14
(B) 23 s (D) 16 s
Water is being pumped from a lake to a reservoir of 15 m height by a 7 hp (shaft power) pump. If the mechanical efficiency of the pump is 82% , what will be the maximum volume flow rate of water ?
Water enters the bottom of the cone as shown in figure at a uniformly increasing average velocity V = at . If d is very small and h = 0 at t = 0 , the expression for the water surface rise is
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Page 128 FM 4
The velocity distribution is uniform at the entrance of a 0.9 m wide channel with a velocity V as shown in figure. Further at the downstream the velocity profile is given by u = y y , where u is in m/s and y is in meter. What will be the value of V in m/s ?
A fluid flowing past incompressibly over a flat plate as shown in figure below, with a uniform inlet profile u = Uo and a exit profile u , U <3 - F , where = Y . What 2 o will be the expression for volume flow rate v across the top surface of the control volume ?
o
o = Uo bd (A) v o = 3 U bd (C) v
o
o = 5 Uo bd (B) v o = 3 U bd (D) v
o
FM 4.19
A syringe plunger is moved forward at the steady rate of 10 mm/s and the vaccine leaks pass the plunger at 0.1 of the volume flow rate, out the needle opening. The inside diameters of the syringe and the needle are 15 mm and 0.525 mm , respectively. What will be the average velocity of the needle exit flow ?
Water flows through a horizontal pipe at a rate of 35 L/s . The pipe diameter is reduced from 15 cm to 8 cm by a reducer. The pressure difference at the centre line, between the two sections of pipe is measured to be 30 kPa. If the kinetic energy correction factors to be 1.05, the irreversible head loss in the reducer is (A) 5.44 m (B) 6.75 m (C) 2.379 m (D) 0.675 m Consider an incompressible steady flow between two parallel plates as shown in
FM 4.21
Demo Ebook
figure below. The uniform upstream velocity is, u = Uo = m s , while downstream velocity profile is u = az zo z , where a is a constant. If zo = cm and the fluid is gasoline at 20cC , what is the value of u ma ?
A fire hose nozzle is to deliver water that will rise 40 m vertically. What is the stagnation pressure required at the nozzle inlet if (a) no loss is there (b) a loss of 30 N m/kg is there, respectively ? (A) 392 kPa , 422 kPa (B) 316 kPa , 294 kPa (C) 294 kPa , 316 kPa (D) 422 kPa , 392 kPa The water level in a tank is 16 m above the ground. A hose is connected to the bottom of the tank and the Nozzle at the end of the hose is pointed straight up. The tank is at sea level and water surface is open to the atmosphere. There is a pump in the line leading from the tank to the Nozzle, which increases the pressure of water. If the water jet rises to a height of 30 m from the ground, the minimum pressure rise supplied by the pump to the water line is
FM 4.23
The test section wall in figure shown below contains 12064 holes of 5 mm diameter each. The suction velocity through each hole is Vr = 4 0 m min and the entrance velocity V0 = 215 m min . For incompressible steady flow of air at 20cC , what will be the final velocity Vf ?
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Page 130 FM 4
FM 4.25
The velocity distribution in an open channel flow is characterise by the relation V=U y h im s where U = free-surface velocity, y = perpendicular distance from the channel bottom in meter and h = depth of the channel in meter. What is the average velocity of the channel stream as a function of U ?
Consider a water jet that is deflected by a stationary cone such as shown in figure below. If the jet velocity and diameter are 30 m/s and 5 cm , respectively and the jet is deflected by 45c, what amount of force is required to hold the cone against the water stream ?
The vane turns water jet completely around as shown in figure below. If the water has pressure p and temperature T cC , the maximum jet velocity is
FM 4.28
2 2 F (B) V = ; F 2 E 2E 2rpD 2rpD 2 2 (C) V = ; F 2 E (D) V = ; 2F 2 E rpD rpD A jet of water with velocity V is directed in the positive x direction and it is deflected by a flat plate. The plate is moving towards the on coming water jet with velocity 0.5 V . If the jet cross-sectional area is A and a force F is required to maintain the plate stationary then the magnitude of force required to move the plate towards the jet, as shown in figure below, is
(A) V = ;
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Air enters in a jet engine at 20cC and 1 atm, where A1 = m and V1 = m s and leaves at 1 atm, where A = m and V = 1 m s as shown in figure below. If the air-fuel ratio is 30: 1, the test stand support reaction Rx will be
FM 4.30
What is the tension in rope A ? (A) 592 N (C) 848 N What is the tension in rope B ? (A) 490 N (C) 536 N
FM 4.31
FM 4.32
Water at 20cC flows steadily through a reducing pipe bend as shown in figure below. Known conditions are p1 = k a gage, A1 = 1 cm , p = k a gage,
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Page 132 FM 4
o= g s . Neglecting bend and water weight, the total force A = cm and m which must be resisted by the flange bolts will be
A 300 mm diameter circular plate is held perpendicular to an axisymmetric horizontal jet of air having a velocity of 30 m/s and a diameter of 85 mm as shown in figure. A hole at the centre of the plate is provided which results in a discharge jet of air having a velocity of 40 m/s and a diameter of 35 mm . What will be the horizontal component of force required to hold the plate stationary ?
Water flows through a reducing section of pipe as shown in figure below. All fluids are at 20cC . If D1 = 8 cm , D2 = 5 cm , p2 = 1 atm , V2 = 1 m s , and the manometer reading is h = 58 cm . What will be the horizontal force resisted by each bolt when number of bolts is 4 ?( Hg = 1 28 N m )
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FM 4.35
A water tank is drained through a hole of area Ao with fluid velocity V = gh as shown in figure below, where h is the depth of water above the hole and the cylindrical tank have bottom area Ab . Expression for the time to drain the tank from an initial depth of ho is
(A) t = Ao # Ab (C) t = Ab # Ao
FM 4.36
ho g gho
(B) t = Ab # Ao (D) t = Ao # Ab
ho g gho
Water is pumped from a reservoir as shown in figure. The head loss is known to be 1.2V 2/2g , where V is the average velocity in the pipe. The relationship o , where h p is in the between the pump head and the flow rate is h p = v 3 3 o is in m /s . What will be the flow rate v o in m /s ? meters and v
Water exists to the standard sea-level atmosphere through the split nozzle as shown in figure below. The weight flow rate at section 2 and 3 is equals to 748 N/s. If D = cm , D2 = D 3 = 0 cm and p = 35 k a (absolute), the force on the flange bolts at section 1 is
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Page 134 FM 4
FM 4.38
Water enters a pump impeller radially and leaves the impeller with a tangential component of absolute velocity of 10 m/s . The impeller exit diameter is 60 mm and the impeller speed is 1800 rpm . If the stagnation pressure rise across the impeller is 45 kPa , the loss of available energy across the impeller and the hydraulic efficiency of the pump respectively, are (A) 8.7 Nm/kg , 0.597 (B) 11.6 N m/kg , 0.796 (C) 14.5 N m/kg , 0.995 (D) 5.8 N m/kg , 0.398 The water enters a horizontal, circular cross-sectional, sudden contraction nozzle at section (1) with a uniformly distributed velocity of 7.5 m/s and a pressure of 517 kPa as shown in figure. The water exits from the nozzle into the atmosphere at section (2) with the velocity of 30.5 m/s . What will be the axial component of the anchoring force required to hold the contraction in place ?
FM 4.39
Water is flowing through a U-section pipe as shown in figure below. At flange (1), flange (2) and Location (3) the pressures are 100 kPa , 50 kPa and 100 kPa , respectively. If the momentum flux correction factor to be 1.03, the total x and z forces at the two flanges connecting the pipe are
(A) FRx = 3.11 , FRz = 112 (C) FRx = 112 , FRz = 3.11
FM 4.41
(B) FRx = 3.11 , FRz = 112 (D) FRx = 112 , FRz = 3.11
A nozzle is connected to a vertical pipe and discharges water into the atmosphere at a rate of 0.01 m3/s as shown in figure. The gage pressure at the flange is 40 kPa and the nozzle has a weight of 200 N . If the volume of water in the nozzle is 0.012 m3 , what will be the vertical component of the anchoring force required to hold the nozzle in place ?
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Water at 20cC flows through a 5 cm diameter pipe as shown in figure, which turns the water flow direction completely around. The pressure at flange 1 is p1 = 1 5 a (abs), at flange 2 is p2 = 1 a (abs) and mass flow rate is 23.45 kg/s. What will be the total force which flanges must withstand ?
(A) Fx = 53 (C) Fx = 24
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Page 136 FM 4
FM 4.43
The flow rate through the bend is (A) 0.20 m3/s (C) 0.002 m3/s
FM 4.44
What is the anchoring force FAy in y -direction, required to hold the bend in place ? (A) 3251 N (B) 3041 N (C) 3401 N (D) 341 N A liquid jet of velocity Vj and area A j strikes a single 180c bucket on a turbine wheel rotating at angular velocity as shown in figure below. What will be the expression for maximum power in terms of , A j and Vj ?
FM 4.45
rA j V j rA j V j
rA j V j
Consider a free jet of fluid which strikes a wedge as shown in figure. A portion of the total flow is deflected by 30c and the remainder is not deflected. The horizontal and vertical components of force needed to hold the wedge stationary are FH and FV , respectively. If the effect of gravity is neglecting and the fluid speed remains constant, the force ratio FH FV is
A liquid jet of velocity Vj and diameter D j strikes a fixed cone of = 60c and deflects back as a conical sheet at the same velocity. What will be the restraining force F ?
(A) F = rA j V j
(B) F = . rA j V j
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(C) F = rA j V j
FM 4.48
(D) F =
rA j V j
A vertical circular cross section jet of air strikes a conical deflector as shown in figure. A vertical anchoring force of 0.1 N is required to hold the deflector in the place. If the magnitude of velocity of the air remains constant and air = . kg m , what will be the mass of the deflector ?
The box in figure shown below has three 1.27 cm holes on the right side. The otop = v obottom = 2 2 cm s volume flows of 20cC water from top and bottom hole is v omiddle = and from middle is v cm s . What will be the force, which this water flow causes on the box ?
Water flows through the horizontal tee connection as shown in figure. The flow of water is considered frictionless, incompressible and one-dimensional. If each pipe has an inside diameter of 1 m , the x and y components of the force exerted by the tee on the water respectively, are
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Page 138 FM 4
The tank in figure given below has a mass of 51 kg when it is empty and contains 600 L of water at 20cC . Pipes 1 and 2 have area A = 2. # 10 m2 and o = 0.0 v m s . What should be the scale reading W ?
Water is flowing in a 0.1 m diameter uniform pipe as shown in figure. The pipe puts the force on the fluid in the 6 m section. What will be the axial and normal components of the force, respectively ?
Water enters in a elbow at diameter D1 = 10 cm , p1 = 233 kPa (gage) and exits to atmosphere at D2 = 3 cm as shown in figure below. At a weight flow rate of 150 N/s the force on the flange bolts at section 1 is (Neglect the weight of water and elbow)
Demo Ebook
.
FM 4.54
The speed V at the exit and direction of the combined jet respectively, are (A) 5.36 m/s , 21.5c (B) 2.15 m/s , 8.6c (C) 4.29 m/s , 17.2c (D) 3.22 m/s , 12.9c What is the head loss for a fluid particle flowing from (1) to (3) and from (2) to (3) ? (A) 558 N m/s (B) 419 N m/s (C) 837 N m/s (D) 697 N m/s
FM 4.55
FM 4.56
What will be the resisting torque required to hold the rotor stationary ? (A) 225 N m (B) 150 N m (C) 200 N m (D) 175 N m How fast will be the rotor spin steadily if the resisting torque is reduced to zero ?
FM 4.57
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Page 140 FM 4
In a pipe flow of water, the distribution of axial direction velocity u is linear from zero at the wall to maximum of uc at the centerline. What will be the average velocity u and the kinetic energy coefficient , respectively ? , 5.4 uc (C) uc , 2.7 3 (A) (B) uc , 1.1 (D) 3uc , 8.1
FM 4.59
Consider inward flow radial turbine which involves a nozzle angle 1 = 60c and an inlet rotor tip speed U1 = m s . The absolute velocity leaving the rotor at section (2) is radial with a magnitude of 12 m/s and the ratio of rotor inlet to outlet diameters is 1.8 . If the fluid is water, what will be the energy transfer per unit mass of fluid flowing through this turbine ?
The velocity profile in a turbulent pipe flow may be approximated with the expression u = 1 r 1 n uc a Rk where u = local velocity in the axial direction, uc = centerline velocity in the axial direction, R = pipe inner radius from pipe axis, r = local radius from pipe axis and n = constant. What will be the kinetic energy coefficient for n = ? (A) 111.1 (B) 11.1 (C) 0.111 (D) 1.11 Water flows vertically upward in a circular cross-sectional pipe as shown in figure. The velocity profile over the cross-sectional area at section (1) is uniform and at section (2) the velocity profile is characterise by the relation: V = wc a1 r k k R where V = local velocity vector, wc = centerline velocity in the axial direction, R = pipe radius and r = radius from pipe axis. What will be the expression for the fluid pressure drop between sections (1) and (2) ?
FM 4.61
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FM 4.62
What will be the expression for h , shown in figure above ? (B) h = h + b h l + h (A) h = h + b h l + V h g V g (C) h = h c h m + V h (D) h = h c h m V h g g If energy conservation is considered, the expression for the loss of available energy across the jump will be g g (B) (A) (h h2) 3 (h h ) hh 4h2 h1 1 g (C) h h (h h ) (D) (h h1) 3 g 4h2 h1 2
***********
FM 4.63
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Page 142 FM 4
SOLUTIONS
FM 4.1
Option (B) is correct. From mass balance Mass of air entered = Final mass of tank Initial mass of tank ma = m f mi = rf v ri v = (rf ri) v v = constant for tan = ]7.30 1.18g # ]1.5g = 9.03 kg Option (B) is correct. Consider steady incompressible flow of wind, then owindow + v owindow ogarage door = v v Agarage door Vgarage door = Awindow V + Awindow V = Awindow V where Vgarage door = Normal velocity to the garage door = 1.5 sin 30c Thus 2.2 # 3 # 1.5 sin 30c = 2 # 0.91 # 1.22 # V V = 4.95 = 2.23 m/s 2.22
FM 4.2
FM 4.3
Option (A) is correct. From mass conservation to the bathtub. The rate of increase in the amount of water = The difference between water supply rate and water discharge rate o pool = m o supply m odischarge m opool = v osupply v odischarge o = rgv o v m osupply = v opool + v odischarge ...(i) v odischarge = Vdischarge # Aorifice Then v = 5 # p # (0.05) 2 = 0.00982 m3/s 4
3
# # = 0.24 m /min = 0.004 m3/s Substituting in equation (i), we get osupply = 0.004 + 0.00982 v = 0.01382 , 0.0139 m3/s
FM 4.4
...(i)
Demo Ebook
or
0.05 = V # p # V = 0.05 # 4 2 = 7.86 m/s p # (0.09) o4 o3 = 0.1 v 0.2 v o3 o = 2v v o = 0.05 = 0.025 m3 /s v 2 o =VA v o 0.025 V = v = 0.025 = p p 2 A (d ) (0.06) 2 4# 3 4# = 8.84 m/s ) +( + )# ( + ) = 0.05 = 0.05 V = 0.05 0.00982 0.025 0.00125 = 12.14 , 12 m/s
and or
or
FM 4.5
Option (C) is correct. A control volume around sections (1, 2, 3) yields o2 + v o3 o1 = v v And with V2 = 2. m s , flow rate o2 = A2 V2 = 2. # p # ( . 2) 2 = 0.000785 m3 /s v Thus from equation (i), o1 v o2 o3 = v v = 1.26 # 103 0.785 # 103 = 0.475 # 103 m3 /s o3 v Each hole carries = 0.000475 = 9.5 # 106 m3 /s 50 50 or 9.5 # 106 = p # (0.001) 2 # Vjet 4
6 Vjet = 4 # 9.5 # 102 = 12.10 m/s p # (0.001)
...(i)
FM 4.6
Option (D) is correct. For steady flow process ooutlet o inlet = m m o1 + m o2 = m o3 m o1 + 2 v o2 = r3 v o3 ...(i) 1 v Consider both the water and oil are incompressible. So, 1 = 2 = 3 o1 + v o2 = v o3 Thus ...(ii) v On combining equation (i) and (ii), we have o1 + 2 v o2 = r3 (v o1 + v o2) 1 v liquid S.G.H O o1 + r2 v o = r3 (v o +v o2) v = = S.G. r1 2 r1 1 H O H O o1 + S.G. 2 v o2 = S.G. 3 (v o1 + v o2) v
2 2 2
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Page 144 FM 4
o S G S G v
FM 4.7
Option (B) is correct For a suction velocity of Vw , the cylindrical suction surface area Aw = 2pR # L = 2 # p # 0.04 # 1.2 = 0.3016 m2 Since for steady flow ow + v o o =v v or V A = Vw Aw + V A or 12 # # (0.08) 2 = Vw # + # p #( ) 4 or Vw = p # (0.08) 2 (12 9) /0.3016 4 3 p (0.08) 2 = # # = 0.05 m/s = 5 cm/s 4 # 0.3016 Option (C) is correct.
FM 4.8
We have
o= v
m min =
m s, V =
m s, n = . ,
pexit = pinlet
It is steady flow process, so mass flow remains constant. o o =m m o1 2 A2 V2 = r1 v 2 o1 V2 = r1 v 2 # d 2 4 o1 4 r1 v d = p r2 V2 p Also = Constant n r n p = b 1l r2 p 1 p n =b l 2 p Here p & p denotes the inlet an exit pressures respectively. Now from equation (i) and (ii), we get o1 p1 1/n v 4 d = # # b l p2 p V2
...(i)
...(ii)
Demo Ebook
= =
FM 4.9
Option (D) is correct. The total mechanical energy of the river water per unit mass becomes emech = P.E. + K.E. = gh + V = (9.81 # 90) + (3) 2 2
= 887.4 J/kg , 0.887 kJ/kg The power generation potential of the river water is o mech Pma = me o = rv o = 1000 # 250 = 250000 kg/s m Thus
FM 4.10
Option (A) is correct. The mass flow rate of water o = rv o = 1000 # 0.07 = 70 kg/s m Then the Energy output of the pump # . # oout = m o#g#h = E The overall efficiency of pump-motor unit o pump-motor = DEout = . = . . DEin = 67.2% , 67%
= 13.7 kW
FM 4.11
Option (D) is correct. The change in pressure at inlet to exit must be equal to the useful mechanical energy supplied by the pump oout = m op p = v oDp E r oout . = 196 kPa p = DE o = . v Option (B) is correct.
FM 4.12
From the principle of conservation of mass dmsystem o in m oout =m dt oin rout Aout Vout = rin v = 1.23 # 0.28 1.8 # p # (0.03) 2 # 213 4 = 0.344 0.271 = 0.073 kg/s
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Page 146 FM 4
FM 4.13
Option (D) is correct. dmsystem dr We know = d (rVsystem) = Vsystem dt dt dt From previous part of the question dmsystem = 0.073 m/s dt d Hence = . = . - . kg m s . Vsystem dt Option (B) is correct. For a control volume enclosing the tank and the portion of the pipe below the tank, oout - m o in = 0 dv + m dt or D 4 2 D # dh 4 dt 2 D # dh 4 dt dh dt
2
FM 4.14
or
= 998 # p # (0.12) 2 # 2.5 998 # p # (0.12) 2 # (1.9) 4 4 = 998 # p # (0.12) 2 ]2.5 1.9g # 4 2 4 rpD p 4 2 = 998 # # (0.12) # ]2.5 1.9g # 4 998 # p # (0.75) 2 (0.12) 2 # ]0.6g = = 0.0154 m/s (0.75) 2 (1.0 0.65) t = = 0.35 = 22.73 s - 23 s 0.0154 0.0154 Ppump, useful Ppump, shaft
FM 4.15
Also
Ppump, useful = hpump # Ppump, shaft = 0.82 # 7 = 5.74 hp o Puseful = mgz = rvgz . # . o = Puseful = v . rgz # #
Option (B) is correct. For a control volume around the cone, the mass relation becomes d b dv l - m o in = 0 dt d (h tan ) h - d t = 0 or C dt 9 Integrate: h3 tan2 = r p d 2 # at 2 8 3
h (t) =
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FM 4.17
By using the control volume indicated in the figure. From the conservation of mass principle o o =v v VA = Where V#( .
# udA = #
A
( y y ) b # dy
.
V =V
0.23V = 2 # (0.3) 2 2 (0.3) 3 3 0.23V = 0.18 0.018 = 0.162 V = 0.162 = 0.70 m/s 0.23
FM 4.18
Option (C) is correct. For the given control volume and incompressible flow, otop + v oexit oin = v v oin v oexit = Vin Ain Vexit Aexit otop = v or v = Uo
# b dy U #
o
hh
E b dy
y y ; d d E bdy d y d y = Uo bd Uo b = # dy # dyG d d = Uo bd Uo
= U bd U b c
y y d d d m
= Uo bd Uo b b d d l otop = 3 Uo bd v 8
FM 4.19
The control volume selected for solving this problem is the deforming control volume. From the principle of conservation of mass, o + rv oleak = 0 rA VP + rv
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Page 148 FM 4
FM 4.20
oleak = o = constant , v v A VP + A V + A V = 0 1.1A2 V2 = A VP 2 V = 1 c A1 m VP = 1 d 1 2 # VP 1. 1 A 2 1.1 d 2 2 = 1 # b 15 l # 10 # 103 = 7.42 m/s 1.1 0.525 Option (C) is correct. Let b be the plate width into the paper. Let the control volume enclose the inlet and outlet. The walls are solid, so no flow through the wall. For incompressible flow oin oout = v v Here or
# ubdz
zo
#
or
az (zo z) bdz
# U bdz = # U bdz
=
zo o o zo o
u = az (zo z)
Now at z = zo
or
u max = Uo # z o = Uo zo 3 = # 6 = 9 cm/s 2
a = Uo zo
FM 4.21
The energy equation between sections (1) and (2) gives 2 2 p1 p + 1 V 1 + z1 = 2 + a2 V 2 + z2 + hL g 2g rg 2g Since z1 = z2 and 1 = 2 = 1.05 (V 2 V 22) p p2 Thus hL = 1 +a 1 2g rg o 0.035 Also V1 = v = = 1.98 m/s p A1 (0.15) 2 # 4 o v 0.035 V2 = = 6.96 m/s = p A2 (0.08) 2 # 4 By substituting in equation (i), we get 1.07 [(1.98) 2 (6.96) 2] hL = 30 # 1000 + 1000 # 9.81 2 # 9.81 = 3.058 2.382 = 0.675 m
...(i)
Demo Ebook
FM 4.22
Option (A) is correct. To evaluate the stagnation pressure at the nozzle inlet, assume that the stagnation pressure at the nozzle exit is the same as the stagnation pressure at the nozzle inlet and applying the energy equation to the flow from the nozzle exit to the maximum elevation of the water flow. ...(i) p = gDz + r (loss) (a) For no loss, equation (i) gives p = (9.80) (40) = 392 kPa (b) For loss = 30 N m/kg , equation (i) gives p = (9.80 # 40) + (999 # 30 ) = 422 kPa 1000
FM 4.23
Applying energy equation between (1) and (2) 2 2 p1 p + 1 V 1 + z1 + h pump = 2 + a2 V 2 + z2 g 2g rg 2g Since V1 = V2 = and p1 = p2 = patm Therefore h pump = z2 z1 = 1 = 1 m A pressure rise corresponds to h pump = 1 m is p = rgh pump = 1 # . 1#1 = 137340 N/m = 137.34 kPa
2
FM 4.24
Option (B) is correct. The total suction flow leaving is ohole osuction = Number of holes # v v = 12064 # Ahole # Vr = 12064 # p # (0.005) 2 # 480 = 1.895 m3 /s 60 4 o o Now v = v1 or A V = A1 V1 (2.5) 2 # 215 = p # (0.8) 2 # V1 60 4# 4 (2.5) 2 # 215 V1 = = 34.99 . 35 m/s 60 # (0.8) 2 o1 v osuction o2 = v And v A2 V2 = A1 V1 1. 2 or (0.8) # V2 = p # (0.8) 2 # 35 1.895 4# 4 (0.8) 2 # V2 = 15.7 4#
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Page 150 FM 4
V = 15.7 # 4 2 = 31.25 m/s p # (0.8) of o =v Since v or A V = A f Vf 2 (0.8) # 31.25 = p # (2.2) 2 # Vf 4# 4 (0.8) 2 # 31.25 Vf = = 4.13 m/s (2.2) 2
FM 4.25
# rV:n dA
A
# #
y U a k l dy h lh = .
u = U
y y a h k da h k =
By momentum equation for steady flow o cos q mV o FRx = mV o (cos q ) = mV Then FRy = 0 (Due to symmetry about x -axis) FRx = 58.9 # 30 # (cos 45c 1) = 518 N
Demo Ebook
FM 4.27
Option (D) is correct. For a control volume enclosing the vane and the inlet and outlet jets, applying Momentum relation oout uout min uin = m o jet ( V) m o jet (+ V) Fx = F = m o jet V F = 2m F = 2rAV # V = 2rAV 2 F F = F = V = p 2 2rA rp D 2r # D 4 Option (C) is correct. From the momentum equation for steady one dimensional flow in x direction. o bmV o F = bmV
FM 4.28
/
out
/
in
o r = rAVr # Vr = rAV r F = mV Since jet and plate moves in opposite direction, therefore relative velocity Hence
FM 4.29
Vr = V ( . V ) = . V F = rA ( . V ) = . rAV
Option (C) is correct. The density of air #( + = 1.205 kg/m3 For a control volume enclosing the engine o = r1 A1 V1 m and 1 = p = RT ) 1atm = 101325 Pa
= (1.205) # (0.25) # (500) = 150.62 , 151 kg/s o +m of o =m m o m o 1 = 151 + 151 = 151 + 5 = = 151 + 1 # m 30 30 mf
= 156 kg/s Now from momentum relation (direction of Rx and flow is same) o u m o u m o f uf Fx = Rx = m o f << m o and m o m = 156 # (1800) 151 # (500) 0 and ssuming u f = = 205300 N , 205 kN
FM 4.30
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Page 152 FM 4
For a control volume that is fixed and non-deforming, the linear momentum equation is 2 VdV + VV: n dA = FCV 2 t CV CS 2 VdV = 0 For steady process 2 t CV
Thus
# VV:n dA = / F
CS
CV
...(i)
Option (D) is correct For control volume CV , the linear momentum equation can be written as 2 V dV + VV: n dA = FCV 2 t CV CS
/ # # VV:n dA = / F
CS
CV
V V A = TB Here From principle of conservation of mass o o =v v VA =VA Now from equation (i) and (ii), we get V V A = TB TB = 12.12 # 1000 # 7 # 0.01 - 848 N
FM 4.32
V =
2g (h1 + h2) =
= 12.12 m/s
...(ii)
Option (D) is correct. The inlet and exit velocities are o m s V = m = = . rA # # o and V = m = . m s = rA # # The control volume surrounds the bend and cuts through the flanges. The force balance is o u m ou Fx = Fbolts + p gage # A + p gage # A = m or Fbolts u = V and u = V o 2 mV o 1 = (250000 # 491 # 10 ) + (20000 # 50 # 104) = mV o (V2 + V1) = 12275 + 100 + m = 12275 + 100 + 108 (21.6 + 2.2) = 14945 , 15 kN
4
FM 4.33
Option (D) is correct. The control volume contains the plate and flowing air as shown in figure above. Applying the linear momentum equation in x -direction.
Demo Ebook
V rV A + V rV A = FAx FAx = V rV A V rV A = V r# pD V r# pD = p r # [V12 D12 V22 D22] 4 = p r # [(40) 2 # (0.085) 2 (30) 2 # (0.035) 2] 4 = p # 1.23 [11.56 1.1025] air = 4 FAx
FM 4.34
Option (D) is correct. Let the control volume cut through the bolts and through section 2. For the given manometer reading, we may compute the upstream pressure: p p2 = (gHg gwater ) h = (132800 9790) # (0.58) = 71346 Pa (gage) Now apply conservation of mass to find inlet velocity, o2 o =v v 2 or D 2 V = p # D2 # V2 4 # 1# 1 4 (0.08) 2 # V1 = p # (0.05) 2 # 13 4# 4 (0.05) 2 # 13 = 5.07 , 5 m/s (0.08) 2 Finally the balance of horizontal forces gives o (V2 V ) Fx = F bolts + p gage A = m o (V2 V ) or F bolts = p gage A m o = rA V m = 71346 # p # (0.08) 2 rA1 V1 # (V2 V1) 4 = 71346 # p # (0.08) 2 998 # p (0.08) 2 (5.0) (13 5) 4 4 V = = 158 N Now force on each bolt Fbolt = 158 = 39.5 N - 40 N 4
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Page 154 FM 4
FM 4.35
Option (B) is correct. We know that actual total pressure rise across impeller r ( . )( ) ( p) Also U =rw= = . m s = 2N 60 Thus loss = 5.66 # 10 (45 # 103) # 1 = 11.6 N m/kg 999 and efficiency is given by actual total pressure rise across impeller r = U Vq loss = U Vq = # 10 E ; 45 999
3
5.66 # 10
= 0.796
FM 4.36
Option (B) is correct For a control volume around the tank d oout = 0 dvD + m dt : oout = rAo V = rAo Ab dh = m dt dh = t Ao g dt Integrate: Ab h h A g 0 = o [ h ]h tt Ab # A g 2 h 0 = o t Ab #
gh
t = Ab Ao
FM 4.37
ho = Ab Ao # g
ho g
For the control volume shown, the energy equation gives p V p + + z = + V + z + hs hl g g g Since p = p = patm and V = V 22 + z = z + h h 2 s l 2g 2 However hl = 1.2V 2 2g o and hs = h p = v
Demo Ebook
o = V A , from equation (ii) we have Since v o 2 ...(iv) hl = 1.2 c v m 2g A2 and combining equation (i), (iii) and (iv), we get o o 2 1 v o . cv ...(v) v + z2 = z + c 2g A2 m g A m oc or v + . + m = z z + gA gA V R z1 z2 + 20 o =S Hence v W 1 1.2 2000 + + W S 2 2 2 2 p d 2 W S 2g # b pd 2 l 2g # b W S 4 4 l X T V R 6 + 20 =S W 1 1. 2 W S + + 2000 2 2 p (0.07) 2 2 W S 2 (9.81) p (0.07) ; E 2 (9.81) ; E W S 4 4 X T 1/2 26 =: D 3441.35 + 4129.62 + 2000 o = 0.052 m3/s v
1 2 1 2
FM 4.38
= .
m s
since or
V = 9.73 m/s = V2 The control volume incloses the split nozzle and cuts through the flange. The balance of forces is Fx = Fbolts + p , gage A o ( V cos = rv Fbolts o ( V cos c) + rv o (+ V ) c) rv
or
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Page 156 FM 4
o V cos = rv
Fbolts
FM 4.39
o + V p gage A c rv V x = V cos c and V x = V cos c o2 (V2 cos 30c) rv o1 V1 p1, gage A1 v o =v o and V = V = 2rv = 2 # 998 # 0.0764 # (9.73 cos 30c) 998 # 0.1528 # 7.6 (135000 101350) # p # (0.16) 2 4 = 1285 1159 676 = 3120 N = 3120 N
In this problem we include the nozzle as well as the water at an instant between sections (1) & (2) in the control volume. The atmospheric pressure at section (1) & (2) are same and cancelled out. For steady process, the linear momentum equation in the horizontal direction ( x -direction)
# VV:n dA = / F
CS
V1 rV1 A1 + V2 rV2 A2 = p1 A1 FA pA A2 From the principle of mass conservation o1 = m o2 m V1 A1 = rV2 A2 From equation (i) and (ii), we have o 1 V1 + m o 1 V2 = p1 A1 FA p2 A2 m o 1 (V2 V1) = p1 A1 FA p2 A2 m o 1 (V2 V1) FA = p1 A1 p2 A2 m 2 2 2 FA = p1 # p D 1 (V2 V1) p2 # p D 2 rV1 # p D 1
...(i)
...(ii)
= 517 # 103 # p (7.5 # 102) 2 0 4 1000 # 7.5 # p # (7.5 # 102) 2 # (30.5 7.5) 4 = 2282.88 761.7 = 1521.18 N - 1521 N
FM 4.40
Option (D) is correct. We take the entire U-section as the control volume. The x and z components of the anchoring force be FRx and FRz . Then the momentum equations along the x and z axis becomes. o 2 ( V2) bm o 1 V1 FRx + p1 A1 + p2 A2 = bm o 2 V2 + m o 1 V1) ...(i) FRx = p1 A1 p2 A2 b (m
Demo Ebook
Since
...(ii) # #p#( . )
# #p#( . )
and
# #p#( .
= 11.3 m/s Substituting in equation (i) and (ii), FRx = 100 # p # (0.05) 2 50 # p # (0.1) 2 4 4 1.03 :22 # 2.80 + 30 # 15.3D 1000 1000 = 0.1962 0.3925 0.5362 = 1.125 kN , 1125 N o V = . # . # = 93.11 N = bm
and
FM 4.41
FRz
The nozzle and the water in the nozzle are included in the control volume at an instant. From the linear momentum equation in the vertical direction (y -direction), o (V sin c V ) = p A Fy Wnozzle Wwater p A sin c m p = 0 (Gage pressure) o (V sin Fy = p A Wnozzle Wwater m ...(i) From the continuity equation o o =v v cV)
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Page 158 FM 4
= 40 # 103 # 0.05 200 0.012 # 9810 1000 # 0.01 0.01 0.01 b 0.02 # 0.707 0.04 l = 1600 200 117.72 1.035 = 1281.45 - 1281 N
FM 4.42
Option (A) is correct. The volume flow rate o o=m = . = . v m s r Let the CV cut through the flanges and surround the pipe bend then the pipe inlet and exit velocities are the same magnitude. o . V =V =V= v = , m s p A #( . ) Now subtract patm everywhere, so only p and p are non-zero. The horizontal force balance is oout u m ou Fx = Fx, flange + (p patm) A + (p patm) A = m or Fx, flange + ( )# p( . ) + (134000 101000) p # (0.05) 2 = 23.45 # ( V) 23.45 (+ V) 4 patm = a) p Fx, flange + # #( . ) + 33000 # p # (0.05) 2 = 23.45 ( 12 12) 4 Fx, flange + . + . = 562.8 Fx = 125.6 + 64.76 + 562.8 = 753 N
or
FM 4.43
Considering a control volume that contains the bend and the water within the bend between section (1) & (2). Applying the linear momentum equation in x -direction,
Demo Ebook
o V V rv
o = p A FAx + p A crv
...(i)
o o Substitute p = (Gage pressure), V = v , V = v A A Now equation (i) becomes or v or v cos c = p A FAx A A o : + cos cD = FAx p A v A A FAx p A o= v cos c+ rc A A m 6400 69000 # 0.0186 = 1000 : 0.707 + 1 D 0.0093 0.0186 - 0.20 m3/s =
FM 4.44
5116.6 129785
Option (B) is correct Applying the linear momentum equation in y -direction. o o o= v o=v FAy = ^V sin ch rv r sin sin rv A A From previous part of question o = 0.20 m3/s v Hence FAy
FM 4.45
Option (B) is correct. Let the control volume enclose the bucket and jet and let it move to the right at bucket velocity V = wR , so that the jet enters the control volume at relative speed (Vj wR). Then o out mu o in Fx = Fbucket = mu o 6 (Vj wR)@ m o7 =m Vj wRA o (Vj wR) = 2rA j (Vj wR) # (Vj wR) m o = rA j (Vj wR) Fbucket = 2m = 2rA j (Vj wR) 2 and the power is
P = wRFbucket = rA j wR (Vj wR) Maximum power is found by differentiating this expression and equating to zero (Maxima-Minima principle). dP = 0 d d A R (V - R) = 0 j j d 2A j d 6R (Vj - R) 2@ = 0 d d R (V - R) = 0 j @ d 6 R # (Vj - R) # (- R) + (Vj- R) # R R (Vj wR) 6 wR + (Vj wR)@ 2wR + Vj wR 3wR + Vj =0 =0 =0 =0
..(i)
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Page 160 FM 4
V or R = j 3 Again from equation (i), d P = 3R (-ve, maxima) d V It means, power will be maximum when R = j . Substituting this in the expression of power. V V 2 V 4V j2 Hence Pmax = 2rA j # j # bVj j l = 2rA j # j # 3 3 3 9 = 8 rA j V j3 27
FM 4.46
Applying the horizontal and vertical components of the linear momentum equation to the contents of the control volume. 2 u dV + uV:n dA = F x t CV 2 CS Taking V:n is + ve for flow out of CV and ve for flow into the CV. ...(i) V rV A + V rV A + V cos crV A = FH and ...(ii) V sin crV A = FV However V = V = V = V . So equation (i) and (ii) becomes
V (A + A cos c - A ) = FH V A sin c = FV and by dividing these two equations, we get FH = A + A cos c A FV A sin c From conservation of mass principle o +v o o =v v or
(iii)
A V = A V +A V ...(iv) A = A +A Combining equation (iii) and (iv), we get FH = A + A cos c A A FV A sin c A (cos c ) = 0.27 = A sin c The negative sign indicates that FV is down rather than up as shown in the sketch.
FM 4.47
Option (D) is correct. Let the control volume enclose the cone, jet and the sheet. Then oout uout m o in uin = m o ( Vj cos q) mV o j Fx = F = m o ( Vj cos q Vj ) =m
Demo Ebook
o Vj c Vj F = m o bVj Vj l = 3 mV o j =m 2 F = 3 rA j Vj # Vj 2 = 3 rA j V j2 = 1.5rA j V j2 2
FM 4.48
= 60c o = rA j Vj m
Using the stationary, non-deforming control volume shown in the figure above to find the mass of the conical deflector. Applying the linear momentum equation in the vertical direction, o ( V + V cos c) = FA Wcone m o (V V cos c) FA or Wcone = m mcone g = rA V (V V cos However V = V and A = pD c) FA ...(i)
p (0.1) 2 # 30 # 630 (30) cos 30c@ = ]1.23g # 0.1 (4) (9.81) (9.81) = 0.108 kg
FM 4.49
Option (D) is correct. First we need to compute the velocities through the various holes: Vtop = Vbottom = # p #( . # #( .
= =
. .
m s m s
Then make a force balance for a control volume enclosing the box: o in uin + m o top utop Fx = Fbox = m uin = Vmiddle and utop = Vtop omiddle # ( Vmiddle) + rv otop Vtop or Fbox = rv = 998 # 5663 # 106 # 44.70 + 2 # 998 # 2832 # 106 # 22.35 = 252.63 + 126.34 - 379 N
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Page 162 FM 4
FM 4.50
We can use the x and y components of the linear momentum equation to evaluate the x and y components of the reaction force exerted by the water on the tee. For the control volume containing water in the tee gives, o = p # pD + V r v o R x = p A + V rv ...(i) and o V rv o R y = p # p D p # pD + V r v ...(ii)
The reaction forces in equation (i) and (ii) are actually exerted by the tee on the water in the control volume. The reaction of the water on the tee is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. From conservation of mass principle, o +v o =v o v o V # pD = o =v o v o =v v Also Further # p( ) = . m s m s
o = V # pD = ( ) # p ( ) = . v
(5.288) o V = v2 2 = = 6.733 m/s pD 2 p (1) 2 4 4 o (10) and V = v3 = = 12.73 m/s p D2 p (1) 2 3 4 4 Because the flow is incompressible and frictionless, we assume that Bernoullis equation is valid throughout the control volume. Thus r p = p + (V V ) = 200 + Also (999) (6) 2 (12.73) 2@ # 1 = 137 kPa 2 #6 1000
r p = p + (V V )
= 200 kPa + b 999 l6(6) 2 (6.733) 2@ # 1 = 195.3 kPa 2 1000 From equation (i), we get Rx = (200000) # p (1) 2 + (6 # 999 # 4.712) 4 = 185000 N = 185 kN And the x -direction component of force exerted by the water on the tee is 185 kN
Demo Ebook
. From equation (ii), we have Ry = 195300 # p (1) 2 (137000) # p (1) 2 4 4 + (6.733 # 999 # 5.288) 12.73 # 999 # 10
= 1.534 # 105 1.076 # 105 + 0.356 # 105 1.272 # 105
- 45800 = 45.8 kN and the y -direction component of force exerted by the water on the tee is + 45.8 kN .
FM 4.51
Option (B) is correct Let the control volume surround the tank, cut through the two jets and slip just under the tank bottom. The relevant jet velocities are o . V =V = v = = . , . m s A . # The scale reads force P on the bottom. Then the vertical force balance is o V m o V =m o ( V ) Fz = P Wtank Wwater = m o = P mtank # g gwater # vwater = mV o + mtank # g + gwater vwater or P = mV o # V + mtank # g + gwater vwater = rv = (998 # 0.0834 # 29.5) + (51 # 9.81) + 9790 # 600 1000 = 2455 + 500 + 5874 = 8829 - 8800 N
FM 4.52
Using the control volume shown by broken lines and applying the axial and normal components of the linear momentum equation. FN = 0 since there is no momentum flow in the normal direction. FA = 0 since the flow is assumed fully developed and the net amount of axial direction momentum flow out of the CV is zero. RN W cos q = 0 or RN = W cos q W = gv = gAl = g # pd l = (9.8 # 103) # and p (0.1) 2 # 6 = 462 N 4 from figure
So Now
= sin1 2 = 19.5c 6
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Page 164 FM 4
p A + RA + W sin q p A = 0 or RA = p A p A W sin q = (p1 p2) A W sin q From the manometer readings p = gh and p = gh Thus p p = g (h1 h2) and from equation (i), we get
A =A ...(i)
RA = g (h1 h2) A (W sin 19.5c) p (0.1) 2 = (9.8 # 103) (3.0 0.5) # (462 # sin 19.5c) 4 = 192.4 154.2 - 38 N
FM 4.53
Volume flow rate o = weight flow rate = 150 = 0.0153 m3 /s v 9790 specific weight Then the velocities at (1) and (2), o . 1 V1 = v = = 1. m s p 2 A1 # ( .1) o . 1 V2 = v = = 21. m s p 2 A2 ( . ) # weight flow rate o = Mass flow rate m = 1 = 1 .2 g s g . 1 Then the balance of forces in the x-direction gives: o 2 mu o 1 Fx = Fbolts + p1 A1 = mu o (u2 u1) Fbolts = p1 A1 m V2x = V2 cos c o ^ V2 cos c V1h = p1 A1 m = 233000 # p # (0.1) 2 15.29 # ( 21.7 cos 45c 1.95) 4 = 1829.05 + 264.43 - 2094 N
FM 4.54
Option (C) is correct. For the water flowing through the control volume shown above, the x and y direction components of the linear momentum equation are (Take + ve for flow out of CV and ve for flow into the CV .) ...(i) V2 rV2 A2 + V cos q # rV A = 0 and ...(ii) V1 rV1 A1 + V sin q # rV A = 0
Demo Ebook
From the conservation of mass principle, we get rV A rV A + rV A = 0 Dividing equation (ii) by (i), we obtain p( . ) ( ) # V # pd V A = = = . tan = p p V A ( . ) d V # ( ) # ...(iii)
or = tan1 (0.3086) = 17.2c Substitute the values of A V from equation (iii) into equation (i), we get or V rA + V cos q # (rV A + rV A ) = 0 2 V 22 A2 V 22 d 2 V = = 2 2 cos q (V1 A1 + V2 A2) cos q (V1 d 1 + V2 d 2 ) 2 2 (6) # (0.12) = (cos 17.2c) # [(4) # (0.1) 2 + (6) # (0.12) 2] = 4.29 m/s A=pd
FM 4.55
Option (A) is correct. To evaluate the loss of available energy associated with the flow through this control volume, applying the energy equation, o bu + V l m o + bu + V l m o =0 ...(i) bu + V l m Also the conservation of mass equation gives o m o +m o =0 m o from equation (ii) into (i), we obtain Substitute m o bu + V l m o + bu + V l (m o +m o)=0 bu + V l m ...(ii)
o (u u ) + m o (u u ) = m o bV V l + m o bV V l ...(iii) m The left hand side of equation (iii) represents the rate of available energy loss in this fluid flow. Thus rate of available energy loss is rate of loss = rV A # bV V l + rV A # bV V l or (V 2 V 32) (V 2 V 32) 2 2 V1 # 1 V2 # 2 = r p ;d 1 + d2 E 2 2 4 (999 # 3.14) (4) 2 (4.29) 2 (0.10) 2 # 4 # ; = ) E 2 4 2 2 (6) (4.29) + (0.12) 2 # 6 # ; E 2
Thus
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Page 166 FM 4
FM 4.56
To find the torque required to hold the rotor stationary, we use the moment of momentum torque equation o in) (! rin Vq in) + m oout (! rout Vq out) Tshaft = ( m o out Vout cos q Tshaft = mr o = rv o We note that m o v and Vout = 3Anozzle exit Combining equation (i),(ii) and (iii), we get o2 rout cos q rv Tshaft = 3Anozzle exit For = 30c, using equation (iv) to get 999 # (0.005) 2 # 0.5 # cos 30c Tshaft = 3 # (18 # 106) = 200 N m
FM 4.57
...(iv)
Option (D) is correct. To determine the rotor angular velocity associated with zero shaft torque, we again use the moment of momentum torque equation to obtain, this time with rotation, o out (Wout cos q Uout) ...(i) Tshaft = mr We note that Uout = rout w o v and Wout = 3Anozzle exit Combining equation (i), (ii) and (iii), we get o v o out c Tshaft = rvr cos q rout w m Anozzle exit From equation (iv), we obtain for Tshaft = 30c = 160 rad/s = 0.005 # cos 6 3 # 18 # 10 # 0.5 Option (C) is correct. For this flow, the velocity distribution is linear and thus ...(ii) ...(iii)
...(iv)
FM 4.58
Demo Ebook
u = uc a r k R For the average velocity u , we can written as = uc a r ka r k d a r k R R R pR 1 2 3 = 2uc :1 a r k 1 a r k D = 2uc b 1 1 l 2 R 3 R 0 2 3 or u = uc 3 For the kinetic energy coefficient , we can written as R u ru u # a r kda r k # pr dr R R = = u u r # pR # u b l or from the equation (i), put the value of u , 1 3 = 54 a u k # a r k d a r k u R R c 0 1 3 = 54 a1 r k a r k d a r k R R R 0 1 3 2 = 54 :1 a r k 3r + 3 a r k D r d a r k R R R R R 0 1 4 2 3 = 54 : r a r k 3 a r k + 3 a r k D d a r k R R R R R 0 2 5 3 4 1 = 54 :1 a r k 1 a r k 3 a r k + 3 a r k D 2 R 5 R 3 R 4 R 0 = 54 :1 1 1 + 3 D = 54 = 2.7 2 5 20 4 u =
# u#
pr dr
...(i)
# # # #
FM 4.59
Option (A) is correct. Using the moment of momentum energy equation to evaluate the energy transfer per unit mass. ...(i) wshaft net out = U Vq, The value of V, can be ascertained with the help of the section (1). Velocity triangle sketched below.
From the velocity triangle we note that V,1 = VR, 1 tan c By principle of conservation of mass, we obtain VR, 1 = VR, A = VR, r = (1 ) b 1 l = . m s r1 1. A1 Thus with equation (ii), V,1 = 6.7 # tan 60c = 11.6 m/s and with equation (i), we get wshaft net out = (6.7) (11.6) = 77.7 N m/kg ...(ii)
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Page 168 FM 4
FM 4.60
Option (D) is correct. For flow through surface area A of the control volume, the kinetic energy coefficient V rV :n dA =
o #V m
# ru # pr dr
r u # pR # u uc
u a r kda r k R R u
r a Rk u pr dr
r r # a R kda R k
...(i)
ua r kda r k R R 1 1/n = 2uc a1 r k a r k d a r k R R R 0 To facilitate the integrations we make the substitution = 1 r R Thus d = d a r k R r r When = , =0 = , = 1 or when R R And equation (ii) becomes u = r # pR =
# ru # #
..(ii)
..(iii) ..(iv)
u = 2uc = 2uc
#
1
b n (1 b) db
#
1
_b n b n + 1i db
1 1 1 +1 1+ 2 0
n bn = 2uc b >1 H +1 1 +1+1 n n 1 n n = 2uc 9a 1 + n 1 + 2n kC 2 2 = 2uc = 2n + n n n G (n + 1) (2n + 1) 2n2 u = u (n + 1) (2n + 1) c Combining equation (i), (iii), (iv) and (v), we obtain
..(v)
2u c3
#
1 0
b n # (1 b) db
3 2n2 =(n + 1) (2n + 1)G (n + 1) (2n + 1) 3 2n2 == E (3 + n) (3 + 2n)G; 2n2 For n = , equation (vi) gives
#
1
b (1 b) db
3 n
..(vi)
Demo Ebook
=)
FM 4.61
For the control volume shown in the figure, the z -component of the momentum equation is
# wV:n dA = F
CS
or
# w rw
But with x / r R
w c a r k r dr = w c R
r=
r r c R + R m r dr
= wc R
x=
x=
(x x + x ) dx R wc
= w c R :x x + x D =
Thus A = pR , equation (i) becomes pr p p = Rz + WW rw + # b R lwc pR pR pR We can determine wc in terms of w by using the continuity equation
...(ii)
CS
V :n dA = 0 or since = constant Aw =
# w dA = # #
1 x=0
r=
wc 9 r C # pr dr R
= 2pwc R2 or
(x x2) dx
R w = 2pwc R2 b 1 l 6
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Page 170 FM 4
Thus wc = w
or with
FM 4.62
For unit width of flow, application of the horizontal component of the linear momentum equation to the water in the control volume from section (1) to section (2) gives, 2 gh 2 ...(i) Rx + 1 g h 2 = V1 rh1 V1 + V2 rh2 V2 2 2 2 h where is the hydrostatic force, when width equal to unity. 2 Since the jump occurs over a short distance, we neglect Rx from equation (i). Also from conservation of mass principle ...(ii) V2 = V1 h1 h2 Combining equation (i) and (ii), we get 2 2 2 h 1 ;1 - b h2 l E = rV 12 h1 ;bV2 l h2 1E 2 V1 h1 h1 2rV 12 h1 h1 2 h2 h2 2 ;1 b h1 l E = rgh 2 ;b h2 l h1 1E 1 2 2 1 b h2 l = 2V 1 1 1 gh1 > h2 h1 H b h1 l h2 b1 h1 l 2 h2 h2 2V 1 or b1 h1 lb1 + h1 l = gh1 # h2 b h1 l h2 2 h2 2V 12 b h1 l + b h1 l gh1 = 0 From equation (iii), we obtain 2 1 ! 1 + 8V 1 gh1 h2 = 2 h1 h2 = h1 + b h1 l + 2V 1 h1 2 2 g The other quadratic root is not meaningful. or
2 2
= g
...(iii)
FM 4.63
Option (D) is correct. Application of the energy equation to the flow from point A to point B shown in
Demo Ebook
the figure above gives p pB V B + + gzB = A + V A + gzA + wshaft net in oss r Here pA = pB = gage ressure , wshaft net in = Thus jump loss = V A V B + g (zA zB) 2
2 2
2 2 ...(iv) = V 1 V 2 + g (h1 h2) 2 Combining equation (ii), (iii) and (iv), we obtain (from previous part of question) 2 V 12 V 12 b h1 l h2 Jump loss = + g (h1 h2) 2
= V 1 ;1 b h1 l E + g (h1 h2) 2 h2 2 2 gh from eq. (iii) = 1 ;b h2 l + h2 E;1 b h1 l E + g (h1 h2) 4 h1 h1 h2 2 2 2 2 gh = 1 ;b h2 l b h2 l # b h1 l + h2 h2 # b h1 l + g (h h2)E 4 h1 h1 h2 h1 h1 h2 2 gh = 1 ;b h2 l 1 + h2 h1 E + g (h1 h2) 4 h1 h1 h 2 3 2 2 3 gh h1 h1 h 2 = 1 ;h 2 h 1 h2 + E + g (h1 h2) 4 h12 h2 g 2 2 = h13 + 4h1 h2 (h1 h2)@ h 3 h1 h 2 + h1 h 2 4h1 h2 6 2 g = h 3 h12 h2 + h1 h22 h13 + 4h12 h2 4h1 h22@ 4h1 h2 6 2 g h 3 h13 + 3h12 h2 3h1 h22@ = 4h1 h2 6 2 g Jump loss = (h h1) 3 4h1 h2 2
2 2
***********
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FM 5
FLOW ANALYSIS USING DIFFERENTIAL METHOD
FM 5.1
The velocity field of a flow is given by V = x t i + y t + x t j + xz k s , where x, y and z are in meters and t is in seconds. For fluid particles on the x -axis, the speed and direction of flow respectively, are (A) 2 2 x2 t m/s , 45c (B) 2 2 x2 t m/s , 30c (C) 2 x2 t m/s , 45c (D) 2 2 xt2 m/s , 45c Consider the following steady, three-dimensional velocity field in Cartesian coordinates: V = (u, v, w) = (axy2 1.5) i + (cy3 3.0) j + (dxy 4.5) k where a, c and d are constants. The flow field is incompressible at (A) a = c (B) d = a (C) 3a = c (D) 2a = d
FM 5.2
FM 5.3
y x i j m s, (x + y ) (x + y ) where x and y are in meters. The fluid speed along the y -axis and the angle between velocity vector and x -axis at points (x, y) = (5, 5) respectively, are (A) 10 m/s , 45c (B) 10 m/s , 45c (C) 20 m/s , 45c (D) 15 m/s , 45c The velocity field of a flow is given by V = Consider the following statements regarding the creeping flow : (a) Unsteady term of Navier stokes equation is ignored. (b) Inertial term of Navier stokes equation is ignored. (c) Pressure term of Navier stokes equation is ignored. (d) Viscous term of Navier stokes equation is ignored. Which of the statements given above is correct ? (A) 1, 2 and 3 (B) 1, 2 and 4 (C) 1 and 2 (D) 3 and 4 The velocity field of a flow is given by V = (x y) i + (xy3 1 ) k m s , where x, y are in meters. What will be the location of any stagnation point in the flow field ? (A) (2, 1) (B) (1, 2) (C) (2, 2) (D) (1, 1) The velocity component of a steady, two dimensional, incompressible flow field is u = 2x2 4xy . What will be the expression for v as a component of x and y ? (A) v = 2xy 4y2 + f (x) (B) v = 4xy 2y2 + f (x) (C) v = 4xy + 2y2 + f (x) (D) v = 2xy + 4y2 + f (x) For incompressible fluids the volumetric dilatation rate must be zero. For what combination of constants a , b , c and e can the velocity components u = ax + by
FM 5.4
FM 5.5
FM 5.6
FM 5.7
Demo Ebook
A fluid field is given by V = x yi + y zj yz k m s , where x, y and z are in meters. What will be the acceleration at the point (2, 1, 3) ? (A) 38 m/s2 (B) 40 m/s2 (C) 20 m/s2 (D) 42 m/s2 The viscosity of a body lotion as a function of temperature is listed in table below. The specific gravity of the body lotion is about 1.5 and is not a strong function of temperature. The body lotion is squeezed through a small hole of diameter D = mm in the lid of an inverted jar. The room and the lotion are at T = cC . Assume that Re must be less than 0.1 for the creeping flow approximation, the maximum speed of the lotion through the hole such that the flow can be approximated as creeping flow is Viscosity of Body lotion at 16 percent moisture content T , cC 14 20 30 40 50 70 (A) 1.09 m/s (C) 10.9 m/s , Poise (g/cm-s) 600 190 65 20 10 3 (B) 0.109 m/s (D) 0.0109 m/s
FM 5.9
FM 5.10
Two velocity components of a steady incompressible flow field are known as: u = ax + bxy v = axz byz2 where a and b are constants, the velocity component w as a function of x, y and z is 3 3 (A) w = az byz + bz + f (x, y) (B) w = az + byz + bz + f (x, y) 3 3 (C) w = az byz + bz + f (x, y) 3
3
FM 5.11
Consider a certain region of steady flow with the velocity field The flow field is (A) incompressible only (B) inviscid only (C) incompressible and inviscid (D) neither incompressible nor inviscid
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Page 174 FM 5
FM 5.12
The velocity in a certain two-dimensional flow field is given by the equation V = 2xti 2ytj where the velocity is in m/s when x , y and t are in meter and seconds, respectively. What will be the magnitude of the velocity and the acceleration respectively at the point x = y = m at the time t = ? (A) 8.2 m/s , 0 (B) 0, 5.66 m/s (C) 8.2 m/s , 4.2 m/s (D) 0, 4.2 m/s
FM 5.13
Consider the following steady, two dimensional, incompressible velocity field V = (u, v) = (2x + 3) i + ( 2y + 4x2) j The pressure as a function of x and y is (A) cannot be found (B) p = r ( x (C) p = r ( x ) (D) p = r ( x
) x y) + m
FM 5.14
Consider the following statements regarding a laminar boundary layer on a flat plate as shown in figure below
(a) At a given x -location, if the Reynolds number were to increase, the boundary layer thickness would also increase. (b) As outer flow velocity increase, so does the boundary layer thickness. (c) As the fluid viscosity increases, so does the boundary layer thickness. (d) As the fluid density increase, so does the boundary layer thickness Which one of these is true ? (A) only (a) (B) Only (c) (C) Both (a) and (c) (D) Both (b) and (d)
FM 5.15
Consider a steady, incompressible, two-dimensional flow of fluid into a converging o and duct with straight walls as shown in figure below. The volume flow rate is v the velocity is in the radial direction only with ur a function of r only. If b be the width into the paper and at the inlet r = R and ur = ur (R), for inviscid flow everywhere, an expression for ur as a function of r, R and ur (R) is
Demo Ebook
FM 5.16
Air flows parallel to a speed limit sign along the high-way at a speed of V = m s -5 . The temperature of the air is 25cC ( = 1.849 # 10 kg/m s) and the width w of the sign parallel to the flow direction is 0.45 m . What will be the boundary layer on the sign ? (A) laminar (B) Transitional (C) Turbulent (D) Laminar for a while and then becomes transitional The water flows through the curved hose as shown in figure with an increasing speed of V = t m s , where t is in seconds. If t = sec , what will be the resultant acceleration and its direction, respectively ?
FM 5.17
Air flows into the region between two parallel circular disks from a pipe as shown in figure. The fluid velocity in the gap between the disks is given by V = V R r , where R is the radius of the disk, r is the radial coordinate and V is the fluid velocity at the edge of the disk. If V = . m s , the acceleration at r = . m will be
A hydraulic jump is a rather sudden change in depth of a liquid layer as it flows in an open channel as shown in figure. The liquid depth changes from z to z in a relatively short distance with a corresponding changes in velocity from V = m s to V = m s and l = . m . What will be the average acceleration of the liquid as it flows across the hydraulic jump ?
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Page 176 FM 5
A nozzle is used to accelerate the fluid from V to V in a linear fashion. If the flow is constant with V = m s at x = and V = m s at x = m , what will be the local and the convective acceleration, respectively ? (A) 128 (2x + 1) i , 0 (B) 0, 96 (2x 1) i (C) 96 (2x 1) i , 0 (D) 0, 128 (2x + 1) i Oil flows past a sphere with an upstream velocity of 24 m/s as shown in figure. The speed of the fluid along the front part of the sphere is V = V0 sin q . If the radius of the sphere is 0.20 m , the streamwise and normal components of acceleration at point A in m/s2 respectively, are
FM 5.21
The fluid velocity changes from 7 m/s at point A to 19 m/s at point B along the x -axis as shown in figure. The velocity is a linear function of distance along the streamline. If the flow is steady, what will be the acceleration at point C ?
The temperature of the exhaust in an pipe is given by the relation : T = T0 ( + aebx ) + c cos (wt) where T0 = 80cC , a = 5 , b = 0.03 m , c = 0.05 , = 125 rad/s and the exhaust speed is constant at 1.5 m/s . What will be the time rate of change of temperature of the fluid particles at x = 4 m when t = 0 ? (A) 15.8cC/s (B) 16.8cC/s (C) 16.8cC/s (D) 17.5cC/s A fluid flows steadily along the stream line as shown in figure. What is the angle between the acceleration and the stream line at point A ?
FM 5.24
Demo Ebook
The velocity field for a steady two-dimensional incompressible flow in the xy y -plane is given by V = (u, v) = V h i + 0j . The flow is (A) Clockwise, Rotational (B) Counter clockwise, Rotational (C) Irrotational (D) Not determined What is the expression for the vorticity of the flow field described by (A) (x2 + y2) k (C) (x2 y2) j V = x yi xy j (B) (x2 + y2) i (D) (x2 + y2) k
FM 5.26
FM 5.27
The three components of velocity in a flow field are given by u = 3.0 + 2.0x y v = 2.0x 2.0y w = 0.5xy The vorticity vector as a function of space (x, y, z) is (A) (0.5y) i (0.5x) j + (3.0) k (B) (0.5x) i + (0.5y) j (3.0) k (C) (0.5x) i (0.5y) j + (3.0) k (D) (0.5x) i + (0.5y) j + (3.0) k
FM 5.28
A velocity field of a flow is given by V = (y ) i + (y ) j , where V is in m/s and x and y are in meters. What will be the equation of stream line passing through the point (5, 3) ? (A) y = x + ln (y ) + (B) y = x + ln (y + ) + (C) x = y + ln (y ) (D) x = y + ln (y ) + The velocity field of a flow is given by V = y (x + y ) i + x (x + y ) j m s where x and y are in meters. The equation of streamline will be (A) x + y = constant (B) x + y = constant (C) x + y = constant (D) x y = constant Consider a uniform flow in the positive x direction combined with a free vortex located at the origin of the coordinate system. If the streamline = 0 passes through the point x = and y = , what will be the equation of this streamline ? (B) sin = ln (4r) (A) sin = ln 4 2U 2rU
FM 5.29
FM 5.30
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Page 178 FM 5
(C) sin =
FM 5.31
ln r 2rU ^ 4 h
(D) sin = ln _ 1 4i 2 U
V = ^2x2 y + x h i + ^2xy2 + y + 1h j where the velocity is in m/s when x and y are in meters. What is the angular rotation of a fluid element located at (x, y) = (0.5 m, 1.0 m) ? (A) 0.56j rad/s (B) 0.75j rad/s (C) 0.75k rad/s (D) 0.75i rad/s
FM 5.32
The three components of velocity in a flow field are given by u = x +y +z v = xy + yz + z w = 3xz z2 /2 + 4 The volumetric dilatation rate and an expression for the rotation vector respectively, are y y y y (A) a + z k i + 5z j k , 0 (B) 0, a + z k i + 5z j + k 2 2 2 2 2 2 y y y y (C) 0, 5z i a + z k j k (D) 0, a + z k i + 5z j k 2 2 2 2 2 2
FM 5.33
For a certain two-dimensional steady flow field it is suggested that the x -component of velocity is given by u = a + b (x c) where a, b and c are constants with appropriate dimensions. What will be the expression for v as a function of x, y and the constants of the given equation such that the flow is incompressible ? (A) v = b (x c) y + f (x) (B) v = b (x c) y + f (x) (C) v = b (x c) y f (x) (D) v = b (x c) y f (x)
FM 5.34
The radial velocity component in an incompressible, two-dimensional flow field is vr = 2r + 3r2 sin q , vz = 0 What will be the corresponding tangential velocity component v , required to satisfy conservation of mass ? (A) v = r - r cos + f (r) (B) v =- r - r cos + f (r) (C) v = r - r cos + f (r) (D) v =- r + r cos + f (r) The streamlines in a two dimensional flow field are all concentric circles as shown in figure below. The velocity is given by the equation v = r where is the angular velocity of the rotating mass of fluid. What will be the circulation around the path ABCD ?
FM 5.35
Demo Ebook
A steady, two-dimensional flow field in the xy -plane has the following stream function = 2x2 + 5xy + 3y2 The flow field is (A) continuous (C) incompressible (B) compressible (D) not determined
FM 5.37
The stream function corresponding to the velocity potential = x - xy which passes through the origin is (A) = 3x2 - y3 (B) = 3x2 y - y3 (C) = 3x2 y + y3 (D) = 3y - x2 y3
FM 5.38
The expression for the stream function for this flow is (A) = Vy + C (B) = Vx + C (C) = Vy - C (D) = Vx - C The 2 is a horizontal line at y = . m and the value of along the x -axis is zero. If V = m s , the volume flow rate per unit width between these two streamlines is (A) 5 m3 /s (B) 10 m3/s (C) 10 m2/s (D) 5 m2/s A uniform stream of speed V = . m s is inclined at angle from the x -axis as shown in figure below. The cartesian velocity components are u = 2.5 cos a v = 2.5 sin a If the flow is steady, two dimensional and incompressible, the stream function for this flow is
FM 5.39
FM 5.40
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Page 180 FM 5
The velocity distribution for two dimensional flow of a viscous fluid between wide parallel plates is parabolic and it is given by y u = Uc : a k D h The corresponding stream function and velocity potential respectively, are y (A) = Uc y : - a k D + C , Not possible h y (B) = Uc y :x - a k D + C , = y - xy h y (C) Not possible, = Uc y : - a k D + C h y (D) = y - xy , = Uc y :x - a k D + C h Consider fully developed Couette flow as shown in figure, with top plate moving and bottom plate stationary. The velocity field for above steady, incompressible and two dimensional flow in the xy -plane is given by y V = (u, v) = aV k i + 0j h If stream function = 0 along the bottom wall of the channel, the value of stream function along the top wall is
FM 5.42
The stream function for an incompressible flow field is described by = 3x2 y y3 where the stream function has the units of m2 /s with x and y in meters. The rate of flow across the straight path AB as shown in figure below is
Demo Ebook
The velocity components for an incompressible, plane flow are vr = Ar + Br cos q v = Br sin q where A and B are constants. What is the corresponding stream function ? (A) = Ar- + B sin + C (B) = A + Br- sin + C (C) = A + Br sin + C (D) = Ar- sin + Br- + C
The velocity components u and v respectively, are (A) 9x + 2, 9y 4 (B) 9y 4, 9x + 2 (C) 9y 4, 9x + 2 (D) 9x + 2, 9y 4 The stream function in this region is (A) =- 9xy - 2y - 4x + C (C) =- 9xy + 2y + 4x + C (B) = 9xy + 2y + 4x + C (D) = 9xy - 2y - 4x + C
FM 5.46
FM 5.47
Consider the following steady, two-dimensional, incompressible velocity field V = (u, v) = (2x + 1) i + ( 2y + 3) j What will be the velocity potential function and the flow type ? (A) Rotational, =- x + x + f (y) (B) Rotational, = x + x + f (y) (C) Irrotational, = x + x + f (y) (D) Irrotational, =- x + x + f (y)
FM 5.48
A reverse flow region may develop by water in the region just downstream of a sluice gate as shown in figure. The velocity profile is to be consist of two uniform regions, one with velocity 3 m/s and the other with velocity 0.9 m/s . If the channel is 6.1 m wide, what will be the net flow rate of water across the portion of the control surface at section (2) ?
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Page 182 FM 5
A fluid having a viscosity of 0.003 Ns/m2 flowing with an average velocity of 100 mm/s in a 2 mm diameter tube. What will be the magnitude of the wall shearing stress ( rz ) ? (A) 1.5 Pa (B) 1.20 Pa (C) 0.8 Pa (D) 1.0 Pa
FM 5.50
The shear stress at the edge of the layer (x = h) is V0 (B) (A) 2V0 h h (C) 0 (D) None of these The flow rate across the surface AB is (A) 3 V0 bh 2 (C) 2 V0 bh 3
FM 5.51
Demo Ebook
The volume rate (per meter of width) of the flow is (A) 42.1 # 104 m2 /s (B) 4.21 # 104 m2 /s (C) 4.21 # 102 m3 /s (D) 4.21 # 104 m3 /s The magnitude of the shearing stress acting on the bottom plate is (A) 50 N/m2 (B) 75 N/m2 (C) 60 N/m2 (D) 45 N/m2 Consider the following statements regarding the DAlemberts paradox with the irrotational flow approximation: (a) The pressure drag force on any non-lifting body of any shape immersed in a uniform stream is zero. (b) The aerodynamic drag force on any lifting body on any shape immersed in a uniform stream is zero. (c) The aerodynamic drag force on any non-lifting body of any shape immersed in a uniform stream is zero. (d) The aerodynamic drag force on any non-lifting body of any shape immersed in a non-uniform stream is zero. Which of the statement given above is correct. (A) only c (B) b and c (C) a and d (D) only a The two dimensional velocity field for an incompressible, Newtonian fluid is described by the relation V = ^12xy2 6x3h i + ^18x2 y 4y3h j where the velocity has units of m/s when x and y are in meters. If pressure at point x = 0. m , y = .0 m is 6 kPa and the fluid is glycerin at 20c C ( = 1.50 N-s/m2 ), the stresses xx , yy and xy at this point respectively, are (A) (B) (C) (D) 6.02 kPa , 5.98 kPa , 45.0 kPa 45 kPa , 6.02 kPa , 5.98 kPa 5.98 kPa , 6.02 kPa , 45 kPa 5.98 kPa , 6.02 kPa , 45 Pa
FM 5.53
FM 5.54
FM 5.55
FM 5.56
The stream function for the flow of a non-viscous, incompressible fluid in the vicinity of a corner as shown in figure is given by the equation = 2r 4/3 sin 4 q 3
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Page 184 FM 5
FM 5.57
What will be the expression for the pressure gradient along the boundary = 3/4 ? r 2 p 2 p (B) (A) = rr = 2 r 2 r r r 2 p 2 p (C) (D) = r = r 2 r 2 r r A wire of diameter d is stretched along the centerline of a pipe of diameter D . For a given pressure drop per unit length of pipe and d = . , by how much the D pressure of the wire does reduce the flow rate ? (A) 31.95% (B) 42.6% (C) 53.25% (D) 63.9% An object having the general shape of a half-body is placed in a stream of fluid and at a great distance upstream the velocity is U as shown in figure below. If the body forces are neglected and the fluid is nonviscous and incompressible, What will be the pressure difference between the stagnation point and point A in terms of U and fluid density ?
FM 5.58
A viscous fluid is contained between two long concentric cylinders. Assuming that the flow between the cylinders is approximately the same as the laminar flow between two infinite parallel plates. The inner cylinder is fixed. What is the expression for the torque required to rotate the outer cylinder with an angular velocity in terms of the geometry of the system, viscosity of the fluid, and angular velocity ?
(B) T =
2pr o3 mwl ro ri
i o
Demo Ebook
FM 5.60
A bearing is lubricated with an oil having a viscosity of 0.2 N s/m2 through which a vertical shaft passes as shown in figure below. If the flow characteristics in the gap between the shaft and bearing are the same as those for laminar flow between infinite parallel plates with zero pressure gradient in the direction of flow. What will be the torque required to overcome viscous resistance when the shaft is turning at 80 rev/ min ?
A drop of water in a rain cloud has a diameter of 45 m . The air temperature is 25cC and its pressure is standard atmospheric pressure. How fast does the air have to move vertically so that the drop will remain suspended in air ? ( air = . g m - s) # (A) 0.00596 m/s (B) 0.0596 m/s (C) 0.596 m/s (D) 5.96 m/s A viscous, incompressible fluid flows between the two infinite, vertical, parallel plates as shown in figure. If the flow is laminar, steady and uniform, what will be the expression for the pressure gradient in the direction of flow in terms of mean velocity by using the Navier Stokes equations ?
FM 5.62
FM 5.63
mV mV 2 p 2 p (B) = rg = + rg 2 y 2 y h h mV mV 2 p 2 p (C) (D) = + rg = rg 2 y 2 y h h The velocity distribution for free vortex flow in a horizontal, two-dimensional bend through which an ideal fluid flows can be approximated is shown in figure. What will be the discharge (per unit width normal to plane of paper) through the channel ? (A)
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Demo Ebook
Page 186 FM 5
(A) q = C (C) q = C
Dp r Dp r
***********
Demo Ebook
SOLUTIONS
FM 5.1
Option (A) is correct. We have V = 2x2 t i + [4y (t 1) + 2x2 t] j + xz2 k m/s For particle on the x -axis, y = z = So V = 2x2 t i + 2x2 tj Thus on the x -axis the velocity is V = Direction of flow u + v + w = ( x t) + ( x t) + tan = v = x t = u xt = 45c = 2 2 x2 t m/s
FM 5.2
Option (A) is correct. From continuity equation, condition for incompressibility 2 u +2 v +2 w =0 2 x 2 y 2 z 2 u = 2 (axy . ) = ay 2 x 2 x 2 v = 2 (cy . ) = cy 2 y 2 y 2 w = 2 (dxy . ) = 2 z 2 z Thus equation (i) becomes ay + cy = 0 ay = 3cy2 a = 3c Hence at a = c, the given velocity field will be incompressible.
...(i)
FM 5.3
Option (B) is correct. 10y2 10x2 i j m/s (x 4 + y 4) 1/2 (x 4 + y 4) 1/2 Comparing with velocity field, we get 10y2 x u = 4 4 1/2 , v = (x + y ) (x + y ) The resultant velocity We have V = y + x = x +y The resultant velocity does not depends on the coordinates. So, velocity remains constant in all directions. Now tan = v = x u y At (5, 5) tan = 1 = 45c V = u +v = = m s
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Page 188 FM 5
FM 5.4
Option (C) is correct. When the creeping flow approximation is made, only pressure and viscous terms remain. The other three terms (i.e. unsteady term, Inertial term and gravity term) are very small compared to these two and can be ignored. Option (C) is correct. We have V = (x y) i + (xy 3 16) k On comparing with velocity field, we get u = x y , v = xy At the stagnation point, V = i.e., u = v = From equation (i) xy = 0 x =y And =0 xy y#y Since x = y it follows that x =2 Hence stagnation point (x, y) = (2, 2) =0 y = 16 &y =2
FM 5.5
...(i)
x = y
FM 5.6
Option (C) is correct. From continuity equation for two-dimensional incompressible flow 2 u +2 v =0 x 2 2 y 2 u =2 v 2 x 2 y 2 u = 2 ( x xy) = ( x y) Since 2 2 x x Substituting in equation (i), 2 v = 4x + 4y 2 y Integrating this equation 4y 2 v = ( 4x + 4y) 2 y = 4xy + + f (x) 2
...(i)
Option (A) is correct. The volumetric dilation rate for incompressible fluid is : V =0 2 u +2 v +2 w =0 2 x 2 y 2 z With the velocity distribution given 2 u = a, 2 v = e, 2 w = 2 x 2 y 2 z Thus, from equation (i), we get a+e = 0 ...(i)
FM 5.8
Demo Ebook
v = ,2 v = yz , 2 v =y ,2 v = v = y z, 2 2 2 x 2 y z 2 t w = ,2 w = z , 2 w = yz , 2 w = w = yz , 2 2 2 x y 2 z 2 t The acceleration components ax , ay and az are u + u2 u + v2 u + w2 u ax = 2 2 t 2 x 2 y 2 z = 0 + x2 y # 2xy + y2 z # x2 + ( yz2) # 0 = 2x3 y2 + x2 y2 z ax = 2 # 23 # 12 + 12 # 3 # 22 = 16 + 12 = 28 v + u2 v + v2 v + w2 v ay = 2 2 t 2 x 2 y 2 z = 0 + x2 y # 0 + y2 z # 2yz + ( yz2) # y2 = 2y3 z2 y3 z2 = y3 z2 At (2, 1, 3) ay = 1 3 # 3 2 = 9 w + u2 w + v2 w + w2 w az = 2 2 t 2 x 2 y 2 z = 0 + x2 y # 0 + y2 z # ( z2) + ( yz2) ( 2yz) = y z + y z = y z At (2, 1, 3) az = 12 # 33 = 27 So, acceleration vector becomes a = ax i + ay j + az k = 28i + 9j + 27k Resultant acceleration a =
FM 5.9
At (2, 1, 3)
= 1594 = 39.92 - 40 m/s2 Option (B) is correct. Density of body lotion lotion = S.G. lotion # rwater = 1.5 # 1000 = 1500 kg/m3 Viscosity of lotion at 30cC lotion = 65 g/cm s = 6.5 kg/m s Now from Reynolds number definition r V D Re max = lotion # ma # mlotion 0.1 = 1500 # Vmax # 0.004 6.5 Vma = 6.5 # 0.1 = 0.109 m/s 1500 # 0.004
FM 5.10
Option (A) is correct. Continuity equation for three-dimensional, incompressible flow field is 2 u +2 v +2 w =0 2 x 2 y 2 z 2 w = 2 u 2 v 2 z 2 x 2 y 2 u = 2 (ax + bxy) = a + by Since 2 z 2 x
...(i)
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Page 190 FM 5
2 v = 2 axz byz = bz 2 y 2 y Now equation (i) becomes 2w = a by + bz 2z Integrate the above equation, we get w = az byz + bz + f (x, y)
FM 5.11
Option (C) is correct. First check for Incompressibility : From continuity equation 2 u +2 v =0 2 x 2 y 2 u = 2 (ax + b) = a 2 x 2 x 2 v = 2 ( ay + cx) = a 2 y 2 y 2 u +2 v = aa = Hence 2 x 2 y Therefore flow is incompressible Second check for Inviscid Flow : For flow to be inviscid, the viscous term of Navier stokes equation be zero. Therefore Navier stokes equation, for x -momentum viscous terms u = , 2u = 2 u = a , 2 u = and 2 2 y 2x 2x 2 y So =2 u + 2 u G = 0 2 2 x y Therefore, x -momentum viscous term is zero. Now for y -momentum viscous terms v = a, 2 v = 2 v = c, 2 v = 0 and 2 2 y 2 x 2 2 x y Hence =2 v + 2 v G = m [0 + 0] = 0 2 x 2 y Since the viscous terms are identically zero in both components of Navier-stokes equation, this region of flow can indeed be considered inviscid. Option (B) is correct. From expression for velocity, the components are u = xt , v = yt and w = Since u + u2 u + v2 u + w2 u ax = 2 2 t 2 x 2 y 2 z ax = 2x + (2xt # 2t) + ( 2yt # 0) + 0 = 2x + 4xt2 Similarly At and v + u2 v + v2 v + w2 v ay = 2 2 t 2 x 2 y 2 z
FM 5.12
Demo Ebook
u v V a
a =
FM 5.13
2u = 0 and 2 u = 2 2 y x Hence, the x -momentum is 2p [4x + 6] = 2 x 2p = r ( 4x 6) 2 x Now y -component of Navier stokes equation for this flow 2p ;u dv + v dv E = + m =2 v + 2 v G dx dy y 2 x 2 y 2 u dv = (2x + 3) # 8x = (16x2 + 24x) dx v dv = ( 2y + 4x2) # ( 2) = 4y 8x2 dy 2 v = 8 and 2 v = 2 2 y x Hence, y -momentum is [16x2 + 24x + 4y - 8x2 ] = 2p + m] g 2 y
2p = r [ 8x2 24x 4y] + 8m 2 y 2p 2p and Now we calculate cross-differentiation y2 x 2 2 x2 y 2p 2p = 2 c m = 2 r ( x ) = y 2 x 2 y y2 x 2 2 2p 2p and = 2 ; E = 2 r ( x x y) + m 2 x 2 y x x2 y 2 2 = r [ 16x 24] 2p 2p ! y2 x x2 y 2 2 Hence these are not equal, the given velocity distribution is not an exact solution of Navier-stokes equation. Thus we are unable to calculate a steady, incompressible, two-dimensional pressure field with the given velocity field. Since
FM 5.14
Option (B) is correct. (a) False : If the Reynolds number at a given x location were to increase, all else being equal, viscous forces would decrease in magnitude relative to inertial forces,
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Page 192 FM 5
rendering the boundary layer thinner. (b) False : Actually as V increases, so does Re and the boundary layer thickness decrease with increasing Reynolds number. (c) True : Since appears in the denominator of the Reynolds Number, Re decreases as increases, causing the boundary layer thickness to increase. (d) False : Since appears in the numerator of the Reynolds number (Re) increases as increases, causing the boundary layer thickness to decrease.
FM 5.15
Option (A) is correct. If the flow is inviscid, we could not enforce the no-slip condition at the walls. Thus at any r location, the volume flow rate must be the same. o = Area # velocity = rbDq # ur v o ...(i) ur = v rbDq o At radius r = R ...(ii) ur (R) = v RbDq Substituting equation (ii) into equation (i) ur = R ur (R) r Option (D) is correct. Since the air flow is parallel to the sign, this flow is that of a flat plate boundary layer and Reynolds number for this flow rVL Re x = m p . At 25cC kg m = . air = atm = . RT # .45 = 1.15 105 Hence Re x = 1.184 # 4 # 0 # 5 1.849 # 10 For Re # 1 # 105 , the flow is laminar (for smooth flat plate). 1 # 105 # Re # 3 # 106 , the flow is transitional. Re $ 3 # 106 , the flow is turbulent. Since Re x is greater than 1 # 105 but just barely so and less than 3 # 106 . Thus the boundary layer is laminar for a while and then becomes transition by the trailing edge of fin.
FM 5.16
FM 5.17
Option (A) is correct. We have V = t , t = sec , R = m The component of the acceleration along the stream line is V + V2 V as = 2 2 t 2 s 2 V = ,2 V = as = 3 + 0 = 3 m/s2 2 t 2 s And the component of acceleration normal to the stream line is ( t) an = V = = t R At t = sec an = 9 # 4 = 6 m/s2 6 Now the net acceleration a = as s + a n n = s + n
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where s and n are unit vectors. The Resultant acceleration a = Direction of acceleration, (3) 2 + (6) 2 = = 45 = 6.71 m/s2
tan = an = as
Option (C) is correct. The acceleration is given by a = as s + a n n where s and n are the unit vectors. From the figure it is clearly see that stream lines are straight i.e. R = 3. Normal acceleration an = V = . R and stream wise acceleration is V = V2 V as = V2 2 s 2 r where V = V R as = V R # bV R l =V R r r r r Substitute r = . m, V = . m s, R = . m (1.5) 2 # (0.91) 2 as = = 8.62 m/s2 (0.6) 3
FM 5.19
Option (A) is correct. The flow is only in x -direction and acceleration is given by V + V :(4 a =2 : V) 2 t ui a = ax i = u2 2 x Without knowing the actual velocity distribution, the acceleration can be approximated as u ax = u2 2 x = bV1 + V2 l # bV2 V1 l = b 4 + 2 l # b 2 4 l 2 2 0.1 l = 3 # ( 20) = 60 m/s2
FM 5.20
Option (D) is correct. In the form of linear fashion, the velocity is given by u = ax + b where a and b are constants At x = , V = m s and from equation (i), b =8 Also at x = m , V = m s and from equation (i), 24 = a # + a = 24 8 = 16 Now equation (i) becomes V = 16x + 8 ...(i)
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Page 194 FM 5
V + V: 4 a =2 : V 2 t 2 V =0 2 t
The velocity is only in x -direction (linear). ui a = ax i = u2 2 x So, convective acceleration u i = (16x + 8) 2 (16x + 8) i u2 # 2 x 2x = (16x + 8) i # 16 = 128 (2x + 1) i
FM 5.21
m s, R = . m V = 5 V0 sin q = 5 # 24 sin q = 60 sin q m/s 2 2 The normal acceleration is given by ( sin c) an = V = = m s . R And the streamwise acceleration is V = sin q 2 V as = V2 # 2 s 2 s 2 V =2 V 2 q # 2 s 2 q 2 s 2 V = 60 cos q 2 = Arc = s radius 0.20 s = 0.2 q = 1 2 s = 0.2 & 2 0.2 2 s 2 2 V = 60 cos q 0.2 2 s as = 60 sin 40 # 60 cos 40 = 8863 m/s2 0.2
FM 5.22
...(i)
...(ii) ...(iii)
Let s = Arc
Option (C) is correct. The acceleration field is given by V + V :(4V ) a =2 2 t From the figure, flow is only in x -direction. i.e. u = u (x), v = , w = u + u2 u i a = b2 2 t 2 xl ui 2 u= = u2 2 x 2 t Since u is a linear function of x . Let
...(i)
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...(ii) u = C x+C Now applying the boundary conditions on equation (ii) to find out the values of the constants C and C . At x = , u = s , which gives At x = . ,u= C =7 s , which gives 19 = C1 # .1 + C1 = 12 = 120 0.1 Now equation (ii) becomes u = (120x + 7) m/s 2 u = 120 sec1 2 x and from equation (i) At point C , x = . m Hence
FM 5.23
a = (120x + 7) # 120i m/s a = (120 # 0.05 + 7) # 120i = 1560i m/s2 , = 125 rad/s , ...(i)
Also ..(ii) T = T (1 + aebx ) 1 + c cos (wt) Differentiate equation (ii) w.r.t. t , 2 T = T (1 + aebx ) cw sin (wt) 2 t Again differentiate equation (i) w.r.t. x , 2 T = T 1 + cos (wt) ( abebx ) 2 x 2 T T in equation (i), we have Substitute and 2 2 t 2 x dT = T (1 + aebx ) cw sin (wt) + uT 1 + c cos (wt) ( abebx ) dt At t = , dT = 0 + uT (1 + c) ( abebx ) = abuT (1 + c) ebx 0 0 dt Now substitute the values and x = m , we get dT = 5 0.03 1.5 80 (1 + 0.05) e0.03 # 4 # # # dt dT = 18 1.05 0.887 - 16.8cC/s # # dt
FM 5.24
Option (A) is correct. The resultant acceleration is given by where a = a n n + as s an = Normal acceleration as = Streamwise acceleration Vs a = V n + V2 R 2 s
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Page 196 FM 5
a =
(3) 2 n + 3 # 3s = 3n + 9s m/s2 3
...(i)
Now in terms of unit vector i and j n = sin 30ci + cos 30cj s = cos 30ci + sin 30cj Substitute these values in equation (i), a = 3 ( 0.5i + 0.866j) + 9 (0.866i + 0.5j) = 6.3i + 7.1j a tan = y = . = . ax .
Hence
= tan1 (1.127) - 48.5c So, angle between the acceleration and stream line is = q 30c = 48.5c 30c = 18.5c
FM 5.25
Option (A) is correct. y ....(i) V = (u, v) = V i + 0j h Since the flow is in xy -plane. Therefore z -component of vorticity v 2 u = V =V z = c2 h h 2 x 2 ym Since vorticity is non-zero, this flow is rotational. The vorticity is negative, implying that particles rotate in the clockwise direction. Velocity field
FM 5.26
Option (A) is correct. The vorticity is twice the rotation vector. = 2w = d # V From expression for velocity, u = x y , v = xy and w = and with w 2 v , =1 2 u 2 w , =1 2 v 2 u x = 1 c2 m y m l z 2 2 2 b2 2 c2 y 2 z z 2 x x 2 y It follows that x = , y = Thus and z = ^- y - x h = 2 ^wx i + wy j + wz k h 1 2 2 = 2 :^0 h i + ^0 h j + 2 ^ y x h kD =^x + y h k
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FM 5.27
Option (C) is correct. In Certesian coordinates, the vorticity vector is w 2v i + 2 u 2 w j+ 2 v 2 u k = c2 b2 c2 2 y 2z m z 2 xl x 2 ym By differentiating u with respect to x, y and z 2 u = 2 ( . + . x y) = . 2 x 2 x 2 u = 1, 2 u= 2 y 2 z 2 v = 2.0, 2 v = . , 2 v = Same for v 2 x 2 y 2 z 2 w = 0.5y, 2 w = . x, 2 w = And for w 2 x 2 y 2 z
....(i)
Therefore from equation (i), Vorticity vector as a function of space (x, y, z) is = (0.5x 0) i + (0 0.5y) j + {2.0 ( 1)} k = (0.5x) i (0.5y) j + (3.0) k
FM 5.28
Option (D) is correct. We have V = (y 1) i + (y 2) j From equation (i), the velocity components are u = y , v = y , w = From the equation of stream line dx = dy = dz u v w dx = dy y y y y m dy = dx dy = c y y y On integrating, we get y dy y
...(i)
# y
dy =
# dx
let (y 2 = t) & solve
y + ln (y ) = x x = y + ln (y ) +
FM 5.29
Option (B) is correct. We have V = 20y2 (x 4 + y 4) 1/2 i + 20x2 (x 4 + y 4) 1/2 j m/s where u = 20y2 (x 4 + y 4) 1/2 and v = 20x2 (x 4 + y 4) 1/2 The equation of stream line is dx = dy v u dy dx = 20x2 (x 4 + y 4) 1/2 20y2 (x 4 + y 4) 1/2
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Page 198 FM 5
Option (C) is correct. The resulting stream function is = yuniform flow + yfree vortex + C = Ur sin q G ln r + C p At (x, y) = (4, 0) = 0 r = and = 0 Thus from equation (i), 0 = 0 G ln 4 + C 2p and C = G ln 4 2p So that = Ur sin q G ^ln r ln h p or = Ur sin q G ln r p The equation for the streamline( = 0 ) is therefore 0 = Ur sin q G ln r p or sin = G ln r 2prU 4 ...(i)
FM 5.31
Option (C) is correct. For velocity distribution given, u = 2x2 y + x , v = xy + y + , w = 0 v 2 u z = 1 c2 2 2 x 2 ym u= x 2 v = 2y2 and 2 2 y 2 x So that z = 1 ^2y2 2x2h = y2 x2 2 At x = 0. m and y = .0 m z = ^1.0h2 ^0.5h2 = 0.75 rad/s Thus = 0.75k rad/s (Since for a two-dimensional flow field x = y = 0 ) Since
FM 5.32
Option (D) is correct. u +2 v +2 w =2 2 x 2 y 2 z Thus, for velocity components given Volumetric dilatation rate = 2x + ^x + z h + ^ 3x z h = 0 This result indicates that there is no change in the volume of a fluid element as Volumetric dilatation rate
Demo Ebook
it moves from one location to another. The rotation vectors about the x , y and z axis are given by w 2 v = 1 0 y + 2z = y + z x = 1 c2 h@ 6 ^ a2 k 2 2 y 2 zm 2 u 2 w = 1 2z 3z = 5z y = 1 b2 ^ h@ 2 6 2 2 z 2 xl 2 v 2 u = 1 y 2y = y And z = 1 c2 h 2 2 2 x 2 y m 2^ Thus, = wx i + wy j + wz k y y =a + z k i + 5z j k 2 2 2
FM 5.33
Option (A) is correct. The x -component of velocity is ...(i) u = a + b (x c) For incompressible flow, Volumetric strain rate DV = 2 u +2 v +2 w = V Dt 2 x 2 y 2 z 2 w =0 For two dimensional flow field 2 z 2 u +2 v =0 v =2 u Then ...(ii) &2 2 x 2 y 2 y 2 x By substituting equation (i) into equation (ii), we get 2 v = 2 a + b (x c) = b (x c) 2 2 y x v dy Integrate to solve for v v = 2 2 y
# = # [ 2b (x c)] dy + f (x)
An arbitrary function of x is added rather than a simple constant of integration. Since this is a partial integration with respect to y, v is a function of both x and y. Therefore v = 2b (x c) y + f (x)
FM 5.34
Option (B) is correct. In cylindrical polar coordinates, the continuity equation for incompressible fluid is 2 ^rvr h vq + 2 vz = 0 + 2 r 2 r 2 q 2 r z ^rvr h 2 v =2 Since vz = , ...(i) 2 r 2 2 ^rvr h With rvr = 2r2 + 3r3 sin q , = 4r + 9r2 sin q r 2 Thus, equation (i) becomes 2 v = 4r + 9r2 sin q ^ h 2 Equation (ii) can be integrated with respect to to obtain or v = 4rq 9r2 cos q + f ^r h Where f ^r h is an undetermined function of r . ...(ii)
# dv
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FM 5.35
Circulation
= n V : ds
ABCD q AB
# = # v bdq + # v dr + # v adq + # v dr
r q r BC CD DA
...(i)
Since vr =
#
q
w b dq + +
#
q
wa dq +
or
FM 5.36
Option (C) is correct. We have = 2x2 + 5xy + 3y2 From the definition of stream function, the velocity components are 2y = 2 ( x + xy + y ) u = 2 y 2 y and u = 5x + 6y 2y = 2 ( x + xy + y ) v = 2 2 x x
= 4x 5y For two dimensional flow, the continuity equation is 2 u +2 v =0 2 x 2 y 2 u = 2 ( x + y) = 2 x 2 x 2 v = 2 ( x y) = 2 y 2 y 2 u +2 v = 55 = 0 Hence 2 x 2 y Therefore the given flow field is incompressible.
FM 5.37
# d = # ^3x
or
3y2h dy ...(i)
y3 = 3 c x2 y m + f1 ^x h 3
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Similarly
2y 2f = = xy v = 2x 2y
# d = # 6xydx
or = 3x2 y + f2 ^y h To satisfy both equation (i) and (ii), we get ...(ii) = 3x2 y y3 + C Where C is an arbitrary constant. Since the streamline = 0 passes through the origin ( x = , y = ), it follows that C = and = 3x2 y y3
FM 5.38
Option (A) is correct. From the definition of stream function. 2y =V u = 2 y Integrating with respect to y , = Vy + g (x) And v = 2y = 2 Vy + g (x) = 2 g (x) 2 x 2 x 2 x
...(i) ...(ii)
Here v = , for given velocity field. 2 g (x) = 0 Thus 2 x Integrate with respect to x , we get g (x) = C Hence equation (ii) becomes = Vy + C
FM 5.39
Option (D) is correct. From answer of previous part = Vy + C At y = , = 0 gives (along x -axis) C =0 = Vy Then at y = 0 = Vy = Now at y = . 2 = 10 # 0.5 = 5 m2/s Hence Volume flow rate per unit width between 2 and 0 is o v = y2 y0 = 5 0 = 5 m2/s w
FM 5.40
Option (C) is correct. From the definition of stream function, 2y = . cos a u = 2 y By integrating with respect to y = 2.5y cos a + g (x) Now differentiate with respect to x
...(i)
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Page 202 FM 5
2 =2 g x 2 x 2 x v = 2.5 sin a = 2 [g (x)] 2 x Now integrate above equation with respect to x , And g x = 2.5x sin a + C By substituting the value of g x in equation (i) = 2.5y cos a 2.5x sin a + C = 2.5 [y cos a x sin a] + C
FM 5.41
Option (A) is correct. From the definition of the stream function 2 y y = Uc : a k D u = h 2 y and integrate with respect to y to obtain y d = Uc : a k D dy h
or Since So that
= Uc ;y
y E + f ^x h h
2 y = , is not a function of x v = 2 x y = Uc y : a k D + C h
Where C is an arbitrary constant. To evaluate the velocity potential, let 2 f y = Uc : a k D u = h 2 x and integrate with respect to x to obtain y d = Uc : a k D dx h y or = Uc :x a k x D + f ^y h h 2 f U xy 2f ^y h However v = = = c + 2 2 y y h and this relationship cannot be satisfied for all values of x and y . Thus, there is not a velocity potential that describes this flow (The flow is not irrotational).
FM 5.42
Option (C) is correct. From the definition of stream function () 2y V = y u = h 2 y Integrating with respect to y , y = V + g (x) = V y2 + g (x) h 2h 2y And = 2 : V y + g (x)D v = 2 2x h x v = 2 g (x) 2x Since v = 0 for given velocity field. Then
...(i)
...(ii)
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v = 0 = 2 [g (x)] 2 x Integrate with respect to x g x =C Substituting in equation (ii), stream function becomes = V y2 + C 2h Now by limiting conditions on , = 0 at y = (the bottom wall) 0 = 0+C C =0 Thus = V y2 2h Now stream function along the top wall, y = h is top = V # h2 = Vh 2 2h
FM 5.43
We have = 3x 2 y y 3 o = yB yA Thus v At B x = and y = m So that B = 3 ^0 h2 # 1 ^1 h3 = 1 m3 /s (per unit width) At A x = m and y = So that A = 3 ^1 h2 # 0 ^0 h3 = 0 o = yB = m s (per unit width) Hence v The negative sign indicates that the flow is from right to left as we look from A to B . o = 1 m3 /s (In magnitude) v
FM 5.44
Option (B) is correct. From the definition of the stream function, for cylindrical polar coordinates, 2 2 y and v =vr = r2 2 r q So that for the velocity distribution given d = Ar + Br cos q r d 2 And = Br sin q 2 r ...(i) ...(ii)
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Page 204 FM 5
# d = # ^A + Br # d = # Br
cos qh dq + f ^r h ...(iii)
or = Aq + Br sin q + f ^r h Similarly integrate equation (ii) with respect to r to obtain sin qdr + f ^q h or = Br sin q + f ^q h Thus, to satisfy both equation (iii) and (iv), the stream function is = Aq + Br sin q + C Where C is an arbitrary constant.
FM 5.45
...(iv)
FM 5.46
Option (D) is correct. From the definitions of potential function 2 f = 2 . (x y ) + x y = x + u = 2 x 2 x 2 f = 2 . (x y ) + x y = y v = 2 y 2 y Option (B) is correct. By the definition of stream function. 2y 2y , v = u = 2 x 2 y 2y = x+ u = 2 y Stream function is found by integration of the velocity component. = 9xy + 2y + f (x) Now differentiate with respect to x 2 = 9y + 2 [f (x)] 2 x 2 x 2 Since = v 2 x v = 9y f l(x) 9y 4 = 9y f l(x) f l(x) = 4 Integrating with respect to x f (x) = 4x + constant Then stream function = 9xy + 2y + 4x + constant
FM 5.47
Option (C) is correct. For the flow to be irrotational, the vorticity must be zero. Since the flow is in xy -plane, the only z -component of vorticity is there. v -2 u z -component of vorticity z = 2 2 x 2 y 2 v = 2 ( y + ) = 2 x 2 x 2 u = 2( x+ ) = 2 y 2 y Hence z = 0 0 = 0
Demo Ebook
Since voriticity is zero, therefore flow is irrotational. Now from the definition of potential function 2 f 2 f ,v= u = 2 y 2 x 2 f = x+ u = 2 x Integrate with respect to x 2 = 2 # x + x + f (y) = x + x + f y 2
FM 5.48
Option (C) is correct By the principle of control volume. oa v ob = Va Aa Vb Ab onet = v v = 3 # (0.37 # 6.1) 0.9 # (0.55 # 6.1) = 3.75 m3/s Option (B) is correct. Shearing stress vr + 2 vz rz = m b2 2 z 2 rl
FM 5.49
And v ma = V , where V is the mean velocity. 2 vz = Vr It follows that 2 r R Thus, at the wall (r = R ), mV ^rz hwall = R ^rz hwall = mV = 4 # 0.003 # 0.100 = 1.20 Pa Hence R ^0.002/2h
FM 5.50
Option (C) is correct. We have, velocity component v = V bhx x l h From newtons law of viscosity = m dv dx Differentiate equation (i) w.r.t. x dv = V (h x) dx h Hence from equation (ii) at x = h , = m # V (h h) = h ...(i)
...(ii)
FM 5.51
# vdA = # #
= Vb h
V hx x b l # b dx h h V b hx x h x bhx l = : D h
h x=
v # b # dx =
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= V b b h h l = V b # h = 2 V0 bh 3 h h
FM 5.52
Option (B) is correct. The volume flow rate per unit width between two parallel plates is given by 3 Tp q = 2h 3m l Tp For h = = # m , = 0.38 N-s/m2 and m = # l q = 2 # ^2 # 103h3 # ^30 # 103h = 4.21 # 104 m2 /s 3 # 0.38
FM 5.53
Option (C) is correct. The shearing stress acting on the bottom plate is u +2 v yx = m c2 2 y 2 xm
...(i)
Since velocity profile between two fixed, parallel plates is parabolic in nature and it is given by 2 p 2 u = 1 ^y h2h and v = 2m 2 x p 2 v = 2 u = 12 It follow that ^2y h, 2m2 x 2 x 2 y p 2 and from (i), yx = y x^ h 2 2 p Tp At the bottom plate y = h and since = l 2 x Tp Hence yx = h = h#^ # h l ^ h ^ # = 60 N/m2
FM 5.54
Option (A) is correct. DAlemberts paradox states that with the irrotational flow approximation, the aerodynamic drag force on any non-lifting body of any shape immersed in a uniform stream is zero. Option (D) is correct. For incompressible, Newtonian fluid the stress in cartesian coordinates are expressed by u , = p + m2 v, =m 2 u +2 v xx = p + m2 yy xy c2 2 x 2 y y 2 xm For the given velocity distribution u = 12xy 2 6x 3 and v = x y y with x = . m and y = . m : 2 u = 12y2 18x2 = 12 1.0 2 18 0.5 2 = 7.50 s1 ^ h ^ h 2 x 2 u = 24xy = 24 0.5 1.0 = 12.0 s1 # # 2 y 2 v = 36xy = 36 0.5 1.0 = 18.0 s1 # # 2 x 2 v = 18x2 12y2 = 18 0.5 2 12 1.0 2 = 7.50 s1 ^ h ^ h 2 y Thus for p = # N m and = 1.50 N-s/m2
FM 5.55
Demo Ebook
xx = 6 # 103 + 2 # 1.50 # 7.50 = 5.98 kPa yy = 6 # 103 + 2 ^1.50h^ 7.50h = 6.02 kPa xy = 1.50 # ^12.0 + 18.0h = 45.0 Pa
FM 5.56
Option (D) is correct. Along the = 3/4 boundary, which is a streamline (i.e. = 0 on = 3/4). p V = Constant + 2 p V ...(i) or = rV2 2 r 2 r For the stream function given, vr = 2 y = r cos q r2 q
Option (B) is correct. The volume flow rate for axial flow in the annular space between two fixed concentric pipes is given by 2 2 2 o = pDp r 04 r i4 (r 0 r i ) v 8ml > ln a r0 k H ri which can be written as Z 2 2_ 1 a ri k D b ] : 4 r0 o = pr 0 Dp [1 a ri k4 + ...(i) v ` r 8m l o ln a ri k b ] r0 a \ Since ri = d , equation (i) can also be written as r D Z _ d l2 2 b ] 1 b ; E 4 ] b 4 D o = pr 0 Dp [1 b d l + ...(ii) v ` D d 8m l ] ln b b l ] b D \ a For d = . , equation (ii) gives D 2 2 61 (0.1) @ pr 04 Dp 4 o v = *1 (0.1) + 4 = 0.574 8ml ln (0.1) Thus, for the same p the flow rate is reduced by o = (1 0.574) # 100 = 42.6% % reduction in v
FM 5.58
Option (B) is correct. Write Bernoulli equation between stagnation point and point A to obtain pstag = pA + rV A For half body V A = U c + b cos q + b m rA rA ...(i) ...(ii)
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Page 208 FM 5
b =2 p rA
...(iii)
Substitution of equation (iii) into equation (ii) yields VA = U b + + l p and therefore from equation (i), we get pstag = pA + rU b + l = pA + . p 2 pstag pA = 0.703rU rU = 2
Thus
FM 5.59
Option (B) is correct. The torque which must be applied to outer cylinder to overcome the force due to the shearing stress is (see figure) dT = ro dF = ro ^tro ldqh = r o tldq So that In the gap Since T = r o tl u =U y b dF = tdA ...(i)
dq = pr o tl
FM 5.60
Option (A) is correct. The torque due to force dF acting on a differential area dA = ri ldq is (see figure) dT = ri dF = r i tldq Where is the shearing stress. Thus T = r i tl
dq = pr i tl
...(i)
u =U
y b
Demo Ebook
FM 5.61
Option (B) is correct. Downward force on the drop is the weight of the drop. Fdown = rdrop # g # o = rdrop # g # p D e of drop ...(i)
The upward force on the drop is the aerodynamic drag force and the buoyancy force. 3 ...(ii) Fup = 3pmVD + p D # rair # g 6 For the drop to be remain suspended, equation (i) must be equal to equation (ii). 3 Then drop # g # D = 3pmVD + pD rair # g 6 D3 - g = 3pmVD air h 6 ^ drop
2 V = D [rdrop rair ] # g 18m
where At 25cC
g m . # = . g m
air = 1.849 # 105 kg/m s Hence V = (45 # 106) # [1000 1.184] # 9.81 18 (1.849 # 105) = 0.0596 m/s
FM 5.62
Option (D) is correct. With the coordinate system shown u = , w = and from the continuity equation 2 v 2 y = . Thus, from the y -component of the Navier-stokes equations with gy = g , p 2 0 = ...(i) rg + m2v y 2 x 2 Since the pressure is not a function of x , equation (i) can be written as p d v = pl Where pl = 2 + rg and integrated to obtain m y 2 dx dv = pl x + C ...(ii) m dx From symmetry dv = 0 at x = 0 . So that C = 0 . Integration of equation (ii) dx yields pl x +C m pl Since at x = ! h , v = 0 it follows that C = ^h h and therefore m pl 2 2 v = x h h 2m ^ v = The flow rate per unit width in the z -direction can be expressed as h h pl plh q = vdx = ^x h h dx = m m h h
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Demo Ebook
Page 210 FM 5
It follows that
FM 5.63
From the Bernoulli equation at section A and B , pA v A p For horizontal pipe z = z + = B + v qB g g g g 2 1 rK 2 1 1 2 ...(i) or vq Tp = pB pA = 1 ^v q Bh = b a2 b2 l 2g A 2 Since or Thus from (i), or Therefore q = K =
#
a
v q dr = K
#
a
dr = K ln b r a
ln b a
Tp = 1 r 2
q2 1 1 2b 2 2 l b a b b ln a l 1/2 q = 2 ln b # b 12 12 l a a b Tp Where C = q =C r
Tp r ln b # b l a a b
***********
FM 6
INTERNAL FLOW
FM 6.1
Consider a fully developed laminar pipe flow. If the pipe diameter is reduced by half while the flow rate and pipe length are held constant, the head loss will be (A) Increase by a factor of 2 (B) Increase by a factor of 4 (C) Increase by a factor of 16 (D) Remains same. Consider a flow through a 15 m long horizontal pipe at the laminar transition point. The fluid is oil with = 890 kg/m3 and = 0.07 kg/m -s . If the power delivered to the flow is 1 hp , the flow rate will be (A) 2420 cm3 /s (B) 4840 cm3 /s (C) 3630 cm3 /s (D) 484 cm3 /s Glycerin at 40cC with = 1252 kg/m3 and = 0.27 kg/m -s is flowing through a 5 cm diameter horizontal smooth pipe with an average velocity of 3.5 m/s . What will be the pressure drop per unit length of the pipe ? (A) 121 kPa (B) 1.21 kPa (C) 12.1 kPa (D) 0.121 kPa
FM 6.2
FM 6.3
FM 6.5
The pumping power requirement to overcome pressure drop is (A) 1.5 kW (B) 4.5 kW (C) 3 kW (D) 6.0 kW
0 304
2 255
4 226
6 200
a)
The wall shear stress in the fully developed section of the pipe is (A) 163 Pa (B) 325 Pa (C) 650 Pa (D) 81.5 Pa
Page 212 FM 6
FM 6.7
What will be the overall friction factor ? (A) 0.000183 (B) 0.183 (C) 0.00183 (D) 0.0183 The piston shown in figure below is pushed steadily by a force F , which causes o= flow rate of v cm s through the needle. If fluid has = 900 kg/m3 and = 0.002 kg/m -s , the force F will be
FM 6.8
A compressor that draws in air ( = 1.149 kg/m3, = 1.802 # 10-5 kg/m - s) from the outside, through an 12 m long, 20 cm diameter duct. The compressor takes in air at a rate of 0.27 m3/s . If the friction factor is to be 0.0211, the useful power used by the compressor to overcome the frictional losses in the duct is (Disregarding any minor losses)
In fully developed laminar flow in a circular pipe, the velocity at 0.5 between the wall surface and the center-line) is (B) 0.5 max (A) 2 max (C) 0.75 max (D) Not changed (where u max is the maximum velocity)
FM 6.11
The velocity profile in fully developed laminar flow in a circular pipe of inner radius R = cm in m/s is given by u (r) = 4 c1
2 2
The maximum velocity in the pipe and the volume flow rate respectively, are (A) 4 m/s, 0.01005 m3 /s (B) 0.01005 m/s, 4 m3 /s (C) 0.01005 m3/s, 4 m/s (D) 4 m3/s, 0.01005 m/s
FM 6.12
Consider a flow between two smooth parallel horizontal plates of 3 cm apart. If the fluid is SAE 10 oil and V = m s ^ = 870 kg/m3 and = 0.104 kg/msh, the head loss per meter is (A) 0.430 m/m (B) 0.487 m/m (C) 0.325 m/m (D) 0.163 m/m Consider laminar flow of a fluid through a rectangular concrete channel with the smooth surfaces of friction factor (f = 58/ Re). If the average velocity of the fluid is doubled, the change in the head loss of fluid in percentage is (Assume the flow regime remains same) (A) Decrease by 50% (B) Increase by 50% (C) Increase by 100% (D) Decrease by 100% Water at 20c C flows from a tank by the pressurized air at a rate of 60 m3 /h as shown in figure below. If coefficient of friction f = 0.01 , what gage pressure p1 is needed to drive the pipe flow ?
FM 6.13
FM 6.14
A single 6 cm diameter tube consists of seven 2 cm diameter smooth thin tubes packed tightly as shown in figure below. Air at about 20c C and 1 atm ( = 1.2 kg/m3 , = 1.8 # 10-5 kg/m-s ), flows through this system at 150 m3 /h . What will be the pressure drop per meter length of the pipe ? (Take f = 0.0 50 )
Oil with a density of 850 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity of 6 # 104 m2/s flows in a 5 mm diameter and 40 m long horizontal pipe, from a storage tank open to the atmosphere. If the height of the liquid level above the center of the pipe is 3 m and the flow is fully developed laminar, the flow rate of oil through the pipe is (A) 1.88 # 106 m3/s (B) 1.88 # 104 m3/s (C) 1.88 # 107 m3/s (D) 1.88 # 108 m3/s
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Page 214 FM 6
FM 6.17
A fluid flows through two horizontal pipes of equal length which are connected together to form a pipe of length 2l . The flow is fully developed laminar and the pressure drop for the first pipe is 1.44 times greater than for the second pipe. If the diameter of the first pipe is D , the diameter D of the second pipe is (A) 1.64D (B) 1.37D (C) 1.095D (D) 1.92D A capillary viscometer measures the time of t = seconds required for a 8 cm3 of water at 20c C to flow through a D diameter glass tube as shown in figure below. If L = 1 cm , l = cm and flow is laminar with no entrance and exit losses, the capillary diameter D will be (Take = 0.001 kg/m -s )
FM 6.18
Oil with = 894 kg/m3 and = 2.33 kg/m -s , flows at 0.5 m/s through 300 m long and 40 cm diameter cast iron pipe. Neglect minor losses. The pumping power required to overcome the pressure losses, is (A) 0.45 kW (B) 5.0 kW (C) 45 kW (D) 4.5 kW SAE 30 oil at 20c C ^ = 0.29 kg/m-s , = 891 kg/m3h flows upward in a 3 cm diameter pipe through a pump from A to B at a rate of 3 kg/s as shown in figure below. At 100% efficiency, what pump power is required ?
FM 6.20
Oil with = 910 kg/m3 and = 0.01 kg/m -s flows through a 1.2 m - diameter pipe at a rate of 3 m3 /s . The pressure drop along the pipe and friction factor are
7.6 MPa and 0.0157 respectively. If the pump is 88% efficient, the power required and the length of the pipe respectively, are (A) 26 MW, 136.5 km (B) 19.5 MW, 182 km (C) 19.5 MW, 136.5 km (D) 26 MW, 182 km
FM 6.22
The pump adds 25 kW to the water as shown in figure and causes a flow rate of and neglect minor losses. What will be the 0.04 m3/s . For either case f = . flow rate expected when the pump is removed from the system ?
Consider the pitot-static pressure arrangement as shown in figure below. Air at 20c C is flowing through the pitot tube ^ = 1.2 kg/m3 , = 1.8 # 10-5 kg/m -sh and the manometer fluid is colored water at 20c C ^ = 998 kg/m3 , = 0.001 kg/m -sh . If the friction factor of the flow is f = . and Vavg = . VCL , the pipe volume flow rate and the wall shear stress respectively, are
Glycerin at 20cC ( = 1260 kg/m3 , = 1.50 N - s/m2 ) flows upward in a vertical 75 mm diameter pipe with a centerline velocity of 1.0 m/s . The head loss and pressure drop in a 10 m length of the pipe respectively, are (A) 8.2 m , 225 kPa (B) 0.11 m , 125 kPa (C) 6.75 m , 207 kPa (D) 3.43 m , 166 kPa
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Page 216 FM 6
FM 6.25
If the pipe is horizontal, the flow rate of oil through pipe is (A) 1.62 # 105 m3 /s (B) 162 # 105 m3 /s (C) 16.2 # 105 m3 /s (D) 162 # 104 m3 /s The flow rate of oil through the pipe, if the pipe is inclined at 8c upward from the horizontal, is (A) 100 # 105 m3/s (B) 1.00 # 105 m3/s (C) 0.10 # 105 m3/s (D) 10.0 # 105 m3/s Consider two types of drinking straws, one with a square cross-sectional shape and the other type the typical round shape. The amount of material in each straw and the length of the perimeter of the cross section of each shape are same . Assume the drink is viscous enough to ensure laminar flow and neglect gravity. o v What is the ratio of the flow rates _ v i through the straws for a given pressure o drop ? (For square cross section f e h = . and for round shape f e h = ). (A) 0.183 (B) 0.55 (C) 5.5 (D) 1.83
round square
FM 6.26
FM 6.27
FM 6.28
Water flows from tank A to tank B with the valve closed as shown in figure. If the friction factor is 0.02 for all pipes and all minor losses are neglected, what will be the flow rate into tank B when the valve is opened to allow water to flow into tank C also ?
Water at 20c C flows through a multiple parallel-plate passages heat exchanger as shown in figure below. The available pressure drop is 2 kPa and plate walls are hydraulically smooth. If the desired total flow rate is 0.25 m3 /s , the appropriate number of passages are ^ f = 0.0 8h
FM 6.30
Oil at 20cC ( = 888.1 kg/m3, = 0.8374 kg/m -s) is flowing through a vertical glass funnel as shown in figure. The funnel consists of 20 cm high cylindrical reservoir and a 1 cm diameter, 20 cm high pipe. The funnel is always maintained full by the addition of oil from the tank. Neglect entrance losses. What will be the ratio of the actual flow rate through the funnel to the maximum flow rate for the Frictionless case ?
Water at 20c C flows upward through an inclined 6 cm diameter pipe at 4 m/s is shown in figure. A mercury manometer has a reading of h = 13 mm . The pipe length between points (1) and (2) is 5 m and point (2) is 3 m higher than point (1). What will be the friction factor of the flow ?
Viscous oil (S.G. = 0. , = 0.10 Pa - s ) flows from tank A to tank B through the six rectangular slots as shown in figure below. If minor losses are negligible and the total flow rate is 30 mm3 /s , the pressure in tank A will be (Take f = 32 0 )
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Page 218 FM 6
A 2 mm diameter and 20 cm long straw delivers the water at 10c C with a rate of 3 cm3 /s . If the flow is vertically up, what will be the axial pressure gradient 2 p 2 x ?(Take = 1.307 # 10-3 kg/m -s , = 1000 kg/m3 ) (A) 2 kPa/m (B) 10 kPa/m (C) 4 kPa/m (D) 20 kPa/m A tank of water has a 1.5 cm diameter hole at the bottom, where water discharges to the atmosphere. The water level is 3 m above the outlet. Disregarding the effect of the kinetic energy correction factor. If the entrance of the hole is sharp edged, the flow rate of water through the hole is (loss coefficient KL for sharpedged = 0.5 ) (A) 1.11 # 103 m3/s (B) 111 # 103 m3/s (C) 11.1 # 103 m3/s (D) 0.111 # 103 m3/s Water at a rate of 0.04 m3/s , flows in a 0.12 m diameter pipe that contains a sudden contraction to a 0.06 m diameter pipe. If the loss coefficient KL = . , the pressure drop across the contraction section is (A) 99.75 kPa (B) 33 kPa (C) 166.25 kPa (D) 133 kPa The water pipe system shown in figure below consists of 1200 m long cast-iron ^f = . h pipe of 5 cm diameter, two 45c and four 90 c flanged long-radius elbows, a fully open flanged globe valve and a sharp exit into a reservoir. The minor losses coefficient for the pipe system is as follows
FM 6.34
FM 6.35
FM 6.36
45c long-radius elbow : K, . 90c long-radius elbow : K, . Open flanged globe valve : K, . Sharp exit valve : K, . If the elevation at point 1 is 400 m , what gage pressure is required at point 1 to deliver 0.005 m3 /s of water at 20c C ( = 0.001 kg/m-s ) into the reservoir ? (A) 4.54 MPa (B) 3.46 MPa (C) 1.43 MPa (D) 6.4 MPa
FM 6.37
Kerosine is to be withdrawn from a 15 cm high kerosine tank by drilling a well rounded 3 cm diameter hole with negligible loss at the bottom surface and attaching a horizontal 90c bend of negligible length. The kinetic energy correction factor is 1.05. What will be the flow rate of water through the bend, respectively
if (a) the bend is a flanged smooth bend and (b) the bend is miter bend without vanes ?
(A) 8.08 L/s, 4.78 L/s (C) 6.03 L/s, 4.78 L/s
FM 6.38
(B) 4.78 L/s, 6.03 L/s (D) 8.08 L/s, 6.03 L/s
A horizontal pipe has an sudden expansion from D = m to D = m . The water is flowing at 10 m/s and p = a in the small section and the flow is turbulent. If the kinetic energy correction factor to be 1.06 at both inlet and outlet, the downstream pressure is
A 4.5 m diameter tank is initially filled with water 2 m above the centre of a sharp edged 15 cm diameter orifice. The tank water surface is open to the atmosphere and the orifice drains to the atmosphere. Neglecting the effect of the kinetic energy correction factor. The time required to empty the tank is (loss coefficient for sharp edge KL = 0. )
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Page 220 FM 6
FM 6.40
FM 6.41
What will be the non recoverable head loss ? (A) 33.4 kPa (B) 6.9 kPa (C) 52.4 kPa (D) 26.4 kPa
The pressure difference indicated by orifice meter is (A) 1.9 kPa (B) 19.0 kPa (C) 146 kPa (D) 14.6 kPa What will be the head loss ? (A) 2.207 m (C) 0.7734 m (B) 2.0421 m (D) 0.940 m
FM 6.43
FM 6.44
A 5 cm diameter smooth pipe contains an orifice plate of = 0.6 and it is monitored by a mercury manometer ^ = 13550 kg/m3h as shown in figure below. ) What will be the h when the flow rate is 0.334 m3 / min ?(Take Cd = .
Air at 20cC ( = 1.204 kg/m3) flows at high speed through a venturi-meter monitored by a water manometer as shown in figure below. If h = cm , what will be the maximum mass flow rate of air that venturi can measure ? (Take discharge coefficient Cd = . )
Consider the flow of air at high speed through a venturi monitored by a mercury manometer ^Hg = g m h as shown in figure below. Discharge coefficient Cd and Expansion factor Y for this flow are 0.985 and 0.76 respectively. The upstream conditions are 150 kPa and 353 K . If h = cm , the mass flow rate for flow to be compressible is
Ethanol at 20c C ^ = 789 kg/m3 , = 0.0012 kg/m -sh flows through a 5 cm diameter smooth pipe at a rate of 7 m3 /hr . Three piezometer tubes are installed as shown in figure below. If the pipe contains a thin plate orifice of diameter d = cm , the piezometer levels h and h will be ^Take K = 1.5 and f = . h
(A) h = . m , h = . m (C) h = . m , h = . m
FM 6.48
(B) h = . (D) h = .
m, h = . m, h = .
m m
Consider the parallel-pipe system as shown in figure below. The SAE 10 oil at 20c C ^ = 870 kg/m3 and = 0.104 kg/m -sh is flowing laminarly through the pipe system with pressure drop p p = a . What will be the total flow rate between 1 and 2 ?
Consider the parallel-pipe system of two identical length and material pipe as shown in figure below. The diameter of pipe A is half of the diameter of pipe B
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Page 222 FM 6
. If the friction factor to be same in both case and disregarding minor losses, the flow rates in pipes A and B would be
Remains same Flow rate of A increased by a factor of 0.177. Flow rate of B increased by a factor of 0.177. Flow rate of A decreased by a factor of 0.177.
The flow rate in each pipe is o1 = 0.01 m3 s , v o2 = 0.0277 m3 (A) v o1 = 0.01 m3 s , v o2 = 0.011 m3 (B) v o1 = 0.0277 m3 s , v o2 = 0.01 m3 (C) v o1 = 0.011 m3 s , v o2 = 0.01 m3 (D) v
s s s s
FM 6.51
The pressure drop across the system will be (A) 56 kPa (B) 55 kPa (C) 550 kPa (D) 137.5 kPa For the Series -Parallel system of pipes shown in figure below, each pipe is 8 cm diameter cast iron ( f , 0.0022 ) and the pressure drop p1 p2 = 7 0 Pa . If the minor losses are neglected, what will be the resulting flow rate for water at 20c C ?
FM 6.52
FM 6.53
Water at 80cC ( = 3.65 # 10-7 m2 /s ) flows with an average velocity of 2 m/s through a 120 mm diameter pipe. If the pipe wall roughness is small enough so that it does not protrude through the laminar sublayer and the pipe is to be considered as smooth ( f = . ), what will be the largest roughness allowed to classify this pipe as smooth ? (A) 23.1 mm (B) 0.0231 mm (C) 0.00231 mm (D) 0.231 mm The three water-filled tanks are connected by pipes as shown in figure. If minor losses are neglected, the flow rate in m3 /s in each pipe is
FM 6.54
o= . v o= . v o= . v o= . v
o = . ,v o = . ,v o = . ,v o = . ,v
o = . ,v o = . ,v o = . ,v o = . ,v
A highly viscous liquid flows under the action of gravity from a large container through a small diameter pipe in laminar flow as shown in figure below. Disregarding entrance effects and velocity heads, the variation of fluid depth in the tank with time, is
FM 6.56
A triangular passages (f = 52.9/ Re) of heat exchanger with L = cm and an isosceles triangle cross section of side length a = cm and included angle = 80c is shown in figure below. If the oil ^ = 870 kg/m3, = 0.104 kg/msh at 20c C flows at 2 m/s , the pressure drop will be
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Page 224 FM 6
An oil (S G = and = 2.2 # 10-4 m2/s ) flows at a rate of 4 # 104 m3/s through a vertical pipe as shown in figure. The manometer reading h will be
The water velocity at several locations along a cross section of 5 cm radius pipe is given in table below. r cm 0 1 2 3 4 5 Vm s 6.4 6.1 5.2 4.4 2.0 0.0
What will be the flow rate of water ? (A) 0.297 m3/s (C) 2.97 m3/s
FM 6.59
Oil ( = 8900 N/m3 , = 0.10 N - s/m2 ) flows through a 23 mm diameter horizontal tube as shown in figure. A differential U-tube manometer is used to measure the
pressure drop along the tube. What will be the range of h for laminar flow ?
The water at 20cC flows from the tank as shown figure below, through the 3 cm long horizontal plastic pipe attached to the bottom of the tank. What time it will take to empty the tank completely, assuming the entrance to the pipe is wellrounded with negligible loss ? (Take the friction factor of the pipe to be 0.022.)
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Page 226 FM 6
SOLUTIONS
FM 6.1
Option (C) is correct. In a fully developed laminar pipe flow, head loss is given by hL = f L V = D g LV LV = e D g VD n D g o = nLV = n L v g D D g > pD H D
V=
o v pD
o nLv g pD where = Kinematic viscosity L = Pipe Length D = Diameter of pipe o = Volume flow rate v If diameter of pipe is reduced by half, then D = D 2 o o nLv nLv So that = 16hL hL = = # D g D p gp b l = Hence Reducing the pipe diameter by half increase the head loss by a factor of 16.
FM 6.2
Option (B) is correct. For laminar flow at transition point rVd = 2300 Re = m 890 # Vd = 2300 or Power
& Vd =
# .
= 0.181 m2 /s ...(i)
or
mLV m d 2 745.7 = 8p # mLV 2 = 8p # 0.07 # 15 # b 0.181 l d &d = . 6 745.7 = . 6 . d d = 0.034 m V = .1 1 = .1 1 = . m s . d o = p # d 2 # V = p # ]0.034g2 # ]5.32g v 4 4 = 0.00484 m3 /s = 4840 cm3 /s
FM 6.3
Re =
Re = 811.5 < 2300 Hence the flow is laminar and friction factor for this Re is f = 64 = 64 = 0.07887 Re 811.5 Then the pressure drop per unit length (L = 1 m) p L = f L # D rV 1252 # (3.5) 1 = 0.0788 # 1 # # 1000 0.05 2
2
= 12.1 kPa
FM 6.4
Option (A) is correct. Head loss hL = f L # V g D o o o v v =fL # V= v =fL # # ; E g pD D D pD g#p #D o Lv = f# p gD 0.01573 # 16 # 45 # (8 # 103) 2 hL = = 36.59 m , 36.6 m 2 # p2 # 9.81 # (0.04) 5
FM 6.5
Option (C) is correct. Pressure drop is given by o r = f # L # #; v E D pD o o r Lr v = f# L # # v = f# D pD pD 16 45 999.1 # (8 # 103) 2 p = 0.01573 # # # 2 # p2 # (0.04) 5 # 1000 = 358.3 kPa - 359 kPa Hence the power requirements to overcome this pressure drop is oDp = # # Ppump = v rV p = f # L # D = 2.87 kW , 3 kW
FM 6.6
FM 6.7
Option (A) is correct. The Wall shear stress in the fully-developed region is defined as p p p 6 26000 4tw = 4 = = 2 2 d L fully developed or w = 26000 # d = 26000 # 0.05 = 162.5 Pa , 163 Pa 8 4#2 Option (D) is correct. The overall head loss for z = Dp hf = = = . m rg # . The overall friction factor is defined as g .81 foverall = h f overall # d # = 11.2 # b 0.05 lb 2 # 9 2 l 6 L V 10 = 0.0183
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Page 228 FM 6
FM 6.8
Option (D) is correct The velocity of exit from the needle is o 0.15 = 306 cm/s V = v = p A 2 0 . 025 g 4 #] The energy equation gives p p ...(i) +V + z = + V + z + hf + hf g rg g g mLV (laminar flow), equation (i) With z = z , V - , h f , and h f = rgD becomes p -p = hf + V = g g or # m # L # V +V g rgD p ]3.06g2 = 32 # 0.002 # 0.015 # 3.06 + g 2 # 9.81 900 # 9.81 # ]0.00025g2 = 5.32 + 0.48 = 5.8 m Then F = Dp # A piston = r # g # . # p ] . g = 9.81 # 900 # 5.8 # p ]0.01g2 , 4.0 N 4
FM 6.9
Option (A) is correct. The average velocity for this flow o o V = v = v# Ac pD The pressure drop in the duct
. # = . p#( . )
m s
p = Dp L = f L # D
rV
Substitute f = 0.0211, r = 1.149 kg/m3, L = 12 m, V = 8.594 m/s and D = 0.2 m 1.149 # (8.594) 2 So pL = 0.0211 # 12 # = 53.72 Pa 0.20 2 Then the required pumping power becomes oDp = . # Ppump = v
FM 6.10
= 14.5 W
Option (C) is correct. The velocity profile in fully developed laminar flow in a circular pipe is given by u (r) = u max ; r E R (R ) At r = R u (R ) = u max ; E = u max : D R = 3 u max = 0.75u max 4 Option (A) is correct. The general velocity profile in fully developed laminar flow is u (r) = u max ; r E R We have u (r) = u ; r E R By comparing these two, we get
FM 6.11
= 4 m/s
Option (C) is correct. The half-distance between plates is called h, then Hydraulic diameter 4A = 4h = 4 # 1.5 = 6 cm Dh = perimeter rVDh # . # . = (Laminar flow) = Re D = m . For laminar flow between two parallel horizontal plates, the head loss and Pressure drop per meter flow is given by mVL ] . g# . # p = = # ] . g h
h
Hence
FM 6.13
Option (C) is correct. The friction factor of given channel rVDH f = 58 where Re = m Re Then Head loss L V hL = f L # V = g DH e # DH # g L V = 29 mLV #m = # # 2 g rVDH DH rgDH
DH = Hydraulic diameter
If the average velocity is doubled, then V = 2V mL # V mLV Hence = = = 2hL hL = rgD H rgD H G Therefore percentage change in Head loss is h hL Increase h ( ) = L = # hL
1
FM 6.14
Option (A) is correct. For water at 20c C , take = 998 kg/m3 and = 0.001 kg/m -s o o o v v V = v = = = p A p#d #d
h #^ = . p #] . g
m s
The energy equation between points (1) (the tank) and (2) (the open jet) : 2 V2 p1 + + 1 = 0 + pipe + 80 + h f 2g 2g g 2g or where V2 p1 = pipe + 80 + h f 10 2g g
2 L V pipe h f = f D # 2g = . 1
...(i) #
+ .
#2
. 2 # . 1
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Page 230 FM 6
or
] g + #
= 998 # 9.81 # ;
Option (C) is correct. Assume all the flow goes through the seven 2 cm tubes. Thus each tube takes one - seventh of the flow rate : o , . m s V = v = A , tubes # p #] . g rVd . = (Turbulent flow) = . # . # Re = m . # r . Hence p = f L # V = . # . # #] . g d = 269.32 , 270 Pa Option (D) is correct. The pressure at the bottom of the tank is p
, gage
FM 6.16
The pressure loss across the pipe, disregarding minor losses is p = p p = p patm = p Pressure loss for fully developed laminar flow o mLV mLv = p = D pD o #r#n#L#v = pD Dp pD 4 o= Then v 128 # r # n # L = . k m o= V # p D v
FM 6.17
4 o = p D Dp v 128ml
= .
D =D D
FM 6.18
Option (A) is correct. Assume no pressure drop and neglect velocity heads. The energy equation reduces to p p +V + z = + V + z + hf g rg g g or 0 + 0 + ^L + l h = 0 + 0 + 0 + h f hf = L + l
or
or
FM 6.19
o mLv o= v and for uniform draining v Dt prgD 128m # Lv v t = v = = 4 o v prgD 4 h f h f # prgD 128mL mLv t = prgD (L + l) 128 # 0.001 # 0.12 # 8 # 106 6= = . p # 998 # 9.81 # D 4 # (0.12 + 0.02) D = 4.75 # 1012 D - 0.00148 , 0.0015 m = 1.5 mm
h f = (L + l) # D
Since Re = 76.7 < 2300 . Hence the flow is laminar. The pressure loss for laminar flow is given by rV p = f L D Since f = 64 = 64 = 0.834 Re 76.7 Then p = 0.834 # 300 # 0.4 894 # (0.5) 2 1 # 1000 = 69.9 kPa 2
Therefore pumping power required to overcome this pressure drop oDp = V # pD # Dp Ppump = v =
FM 6.20
Check
Apply the steady flow energy equation between A and B p pA V A + + zA = B + V B + zB + h f h p rg g g g 500000 = 180000 + 15 + h h or VA = VB = V and zA = 0 f p 891 # 9.81 891 # 9.81
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Page 232 FM 6
h f hp = or Where
h f h p = 21.61 m hf = = 140.4 m
mLV # # ] g +] g # = g rgd # #] Now hp = h f = 140.4 21.16 = 119.2 m The pump power is then given by o p = mgh o p = 3 # 9.81 # 119.2 P = rgvh = 3508 - 3500 Watts or 3.5 kW
FM 6.21
Option (D) is correct. The flow rate gives the velocity and Reynolds number o V = v = = . m p s A #] . g Re d = Since or rVd = m r p = f L V d # . . # . = (turbulent flow)
Hence
FM 6.22
Applying the Bernoullis equation at section (1) and (2) 2 2 p1 V 12 p + + z1 + h p = 2 + V 2 + z 2 + f l # V g 2g 2g 2g D Where p1 = p2 = , z1 = h , z2 = and V1 = )2 )2 = 1. m s = 1 .1 m s o v . V2 = c A m = 2 p( . o V = v = p A . #( .
Also Hence
(31.8) 2 (14.15) 2 30 h + hp = + 0.016 # b = 133.2 m 2 # 9.81 0.06 l # 2 # 9.81 2 #1 h p = Po = = . m gv ( . # 1 ) # . h = 133.2 63.7 = 69.5 m
and z = V + f l # V g g D h= . m=z V = AV = b D l V or V = b D A
lV= .
...(i)
So that
FM 6.23
m s
p p = ^rwater rair h gh = ]998 1.2g 9.81 # ]0.040g = 391 Pa Therefore, velocity at centre line 2D p VCL = = 2 # 391 = 25.5 m/s r 1.2 Now average velocity Vavg = 0.85VCL = 0.85 # 25.5 = 21.675 m/s Thus the flow rate p o = V#A = . v # #] . g = . and wall shear stress f w = # rVavg2 8 = 0.0175 # 1.2 # ]21.675g2 = 1.233 Pa 8
FM 6.24
m s
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Page 234 FM 6
Re =
rVD = m
<
FM 6.25
(Dp gl sin q) D 2 Where = 90c 32ml mlV + gl p = D # 0.5 + 9.81 # 1260 # 10 = 32 # 1.50 # 10 (0.075) 2 - 1.66 # 105 Pa = 166 kPa Also, applying Bernoullis equation at section (1) and (2), 2 p1 V 12 p + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 + h L g 2g 2g With p1 = p2 + Dp , V1 = V2 , z2 z1 = l Dp hL = l = 1. # 1 1 = 3.43 m g . 1 # 12 Option (A) is correct. Flow rate can be determined from 4 o = Dp pD v 128mL So that V = Since
sin 90c = 1 = g
FM 6.26
p = p1 - p2 = 145 98 = 47 kPa 4 o = 47000 # p # (0.015) = 1.62 # 105 m3/s Hence v 128 # 0.24 # 15 Option (B) is correct. For uphill flow with an inclination of 8c, 4 ouphill = (Dp rgL sin q) pD v 128mL = [47000 (876 # 9.81 # 15 # sin 8c)] # p (0.015) 4 128 # 0.24 # 15
So
p 1 = Dp 2 hL = hL 2 2 f1 l1 # V 1 = f2 l2 # V 2 2g 2g Dh Dh
1 2 1 2 1 2
p = h L
2 A2 = a =a perimeter 2 a
f1 V 12 f V2 = 2 2 a D D = 4a Therefore a = p D
...(i)
and
V Dh V D = n n V Dh V a = = pV D Re h = n n n Re h =
1 2
p 4 p2 16
From continuity equation o +v o o =v v Since D = D = D , it follows that V = V +V Also for fluid flowing from A to B , pA V A p + + zA = B + V B + zB + f l # V + f l # V g g g g g D D Where Thus or pA = pB = , VA = VB = , zA = m and zB = zA = f l V + f l V D g D g 0.02 15 = [80V 12 + 40V 22] 0.1 # 2 # 9.81
...(i)
...(ii)
...(iii)
...(iv)
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Page 236 FM 6
Comparing equation (ii) and (iv), we get f l V =f l V D g D g Since f = f and D = D lV 40V 22 V Solve equation (i), (iii) and from eq (iii) from eq (v) Hence
FM 6.29
=l V = 75V 32 ...(v) = 1.369V3 (v) for V , V and V . From equation (i) and (v)
V = 1.369V3 + V3 = 2.369V3 18.4 = (2.369V3) 2 + 0.5 (1.369V3) 2 V = 1.676 m/s V = 1.369 # 1.676 = 2.29 m/s o = A V = p # ( .1) # . - 0.0180 m3/s v 4
Option (C) is correct. If there are N passages, then b = cm for all N and the passage thickness is H = . N . The hydraulic diameter is Dh = H . The velocity in each passage is related to the Pressure drop. r p = f # L # # V where f = fsmooth = . 8 Dh or 2000 = 0.028 # 2.0 # 998 # 2 2 2 # 0. 5 N o . Where V = v = = 1m s Ac ^ . # . h Thus 2000 = 0.028 # 2.0 N # 998 # ]1g2 2 # 0.5 2 N = 2000 # 2 # 0.5 # 2 = 71.57 , 72 passages 0.028 # 2.0 # 998 Option (B) is correct.
FM 6.30
The flow velocity for the frictionless case. V ,max = 2 Then maximum volume flow rate
1
o=V v
#A = V
pD =
p#
= 2.20 # 104 m3/s Now the actual flow rate can be determined by 4 oactual = (Dp rgL sin q) pD v 128mL Since the flow is vertically downwards, so =- 90c and p = pinlet - poutlet = (patm + rghcylinder ) patm = rghcylinder (because at inlet total pressure becomes patm and pressure due to oil in cylinder ghcylinder and at exit atmospheric pressure patm is there) 4 oactual = (rghcylinder rgL sin q) pD Therefore v 128mL = = rg (hcylinder + L) pD 4 128mL sin ( 90c) = 1
= 5.1 # 106 m3 /s So, the ratio of actual flow rate through the funnel to the maximum flow rate is oactual v 5.1 # 106 = 0.0232 = omax v 2.20 # 104
FM 6.31
Option (C) is correct. By moving through the manometer, we obtain the pressure change between points (1) and (2). or p1 + rw gh rm gh rw gDz = p2 p1 p2 = rm gh rw gh + rw gDz = gh ^rm rw h + rw gDz
Since
= 9.81 # 0.135 ^13568 998h + 998 # 9.81 # 3 = 16647 + 29371 = 46018 - 46000 Pa Dp hf = Dz = rw g # . 1 = 4.7 3 = 1.7m 2g f = hf # d # 2 L V .81 = 0.0250 = 1.7 # 0.06 # 2 # 9 5 42
FM 6.32
Option (A) is correct. For each slot, flow rate becomes o = 1 # 30 # 109 = 5 # 109 m3 /s v 6 o #1 So that V = v = = 1. # 1 m s A ( # 1) # 1 Also = S . G. # r O = . # 1 = g m 4 (3 1) 4A and = # # = 1.5 mm Dh = perimeter (6 + 2)
2
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Page 238 FM 6
pA V A p + + zA = B + V B + zB + f l # V g g g g Dh with zA = zB , pB = , VA = VB = pA = f b l lb l rV Dh = 3250 # 0.6 # 1 # 850 # (1.67 # 103) 2 0.0015 2 - 1540 N/m2 = 1.54 kPa
FM 6.33
Option (D) is correct. For water at 10c C : = 1000 kg/m3 = 1.307 # 10-3 kg/ms orD o o o v rVD rD v = = V= v = v m m # A m # pD A pD o rv # # # Re = = = 1462 (Laminar flow) mpD . # #p# . o mLv # . # # . # # Thus hf = = p# prgD # . #] . g , 0.204 m The axial pressure gradient if the flow is vertically up rg ^h f + Dz h 1000 # 9.81 # ^0.204 + 0.2h p = z = L = 0.2 L L Re = = 19816 Pa/m , 20 kPa/m
FM 6.34
The energy equation for a control volume between two points p p + V + z + h pump = + a V + z + hturbine + hL g g rg g Since p = p = patm, z = , V = and h pump = hturbine =
2 2 2 z = a2 V 2 + hL = a2 V 2 + KL V2 hL = KL # V 2g 2g 2g g 2gz1 V = a2 + KL Since 2 = 1, then volume flow rate becomes 2 2gz1 o = V Ac = pD hole # v 4 1 + KL Substituting the numerical values, we get 2 o = p # (0.015) # 2 # 9.81 # 3 = 1.11 # 103 m3/s v 1 + 0.5 4
FM 6.35
Applying the bernoullis equation at section (1) and (2), 2 2 p1 V 12 p + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 + K L V 2 g 2g 2g 2g o . Where V1 = v = = . p 2 A1 # ( .12) o V2 = v = p A2 Hence equation (i) becomes, . #( . )2 = 1 .1
...(i) s s and z1 = z2
Option (B) is correct. For water, take = 998 kg/m3 and = 0.001 kg/m -s . With the flow rate known, we can compute o . V = v = = 2. m s A p 2 d n .
The energy equation is written from point 1 to the reservoir surface 2 2 p1 V 12 p + + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z2 + h f + 6Kvalve + Kelbow, c + Kelbow, c + Kexit@V g 2g rg rg 2g
2 p1 V 12 + + z1 = 0 + 0 + z2 + h f + 6Kvalve + Kelbow, 45c + Kelbow, 90c + Kexit@V 2g g 2g
or
2 2 p1 = z 2 z1 V 1 + c f # L # V m g 2g 2g D
+ Kelbow,
2 + Kexit@V 2g
p1 = 500 400 0.331 + 250.56 + 3.68 = 353.9 , 354 g p 1 = rg # = # . 1# = 3465794 Pa , 3.46 MPa
FM 6.37
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Page 240 FM 6
The energy equation for a control volume between two points p p + V +z = + a V + z + hL g g rg g Here V = z = and p = p = patm So
2 2 2 z = a2 V 2 + hL = a2 V 2 + KL V 2 2g 2g 2g 2gz1 V = a2 + KL
hL = KL V g
2gz1 a2 + KL
= 0.00603 m3/s = 6.03 L/s (b) For Miter bend without vanes (KL = 1.1) 2 o = p # (0.03) # 2 # 9.81 # 5 v 1.05 + 1.1 4 = 0.00478 m3/s = 4.78 L/s
FM 6.38
From continuity equation for incompressible flow. AV =A V pD V = ;D E # V V = A #V == # G A pD D 2 (0.06) = # 10 = 2.5 m/s (0.12) 2 The loss coefficient for sudden expansion
2 2 2 (0.06) 2 2 A D small 1 KL = ;1 = ;1 2 E = =1 G = 0.5625 Al arg e E D2 (0.12) 2
hL = KL # V = g
The energy equation for the expansion section p p + V +z = + a V + z + hL g rg g g Since z = z , then p + V = P + a V + hL g rg g g p = p + r : a V a V ghLD 1.06 # (10) 2 1.06 # (2.5) 2 = 300 + 1000 # ; 2 9.81 # 2.87@ # 1 1000 = 321.53 kPa , 322 kPa
FM 6.39
The average discharge velocity through the orifice at any given time at any 2gz time, in general V = 1 + KL We denote the diameter of the orifice by Do and the diameter of tank by D . The amount of water flows through the orifice during a time interval dt is 2 2gz o = vdt o = pD o ...(i) dv dt 4 1 + KL and the decrease in the volume of water in the tank 2 dv = Area ( dz) = pD dz 4 ...(ii)
From mass conservation, equation (i) must be equal to equation (ii) 2 2 2gz D o ( ve sign shows decrease in volume) dt = pD dz 4 4 1 + KL + KL (z) dz dt = D g Do Then the draining time is t + KL dt = D (z) dz g Do t= z=
t f = D Do =D # Do
+ KL z g 6 # @ + KL g #
= D # Do = D # Do
+ KL ( g # + KL g
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Page 242 FM 6
= 2#
FM 6.40
(4.5) 2 # (0.1) 2
Option (A) is correct Since flow rate o = Cd At # v Dp r_ b i where = d = D 2 # 75000 998 61 ]0.5g 4@ =
Option (C) is correct. o . Vt = v = = . m s p At #] . g Since head loss due to pressure difference is known as non recoverable head loss. So r ploss = K # # V t = 1.8 # 998 # ]7.64g2 2 The velocity = 52427 - 52400 Pa = 52.4 kPa
FM 6.42
Option (D) is correct. For a pressure drop of p across the orifice plate, the flow rate is expressed as Dp o = Ao Cd ...(i) v r( b ) Since =d = . = d D d = 30 cm Then
2 p (0.3) 2 = 0.07069 m2 Ao = p # d = # 4 4
Therefore from equation (i) 0.25 = (0.07069) # (0.61) # 2Dp (998) # 61 ]0.6g4@ p = 14600 kg m/s2 = 14.6 kPa
FM 6.43
Option (D) is correct. The head loss between two measurement section is estimated by energy equation. Dp V V p p V V ...(i) z =z hL = = rw g rw g g g Since for constant volume flow rate, V # D = V pd V = bD l # V d o V = v = . # = . m s Ac p#( . ) Substituting in equation (i) D D ;b d l # V E V ;b d l E V Dp Dp hL = = rw g rw g g g
hL =
50 4 2 ;b 30 l 1E # 1.27 2 # 9.81
Option (C) is correct. Since Now = 0.6 = d = d or d = . # = c 5 D o = 0.334 = Cd # A # v 60 = Cd # p d # 2D p r _1 b 4 i ^rHg rwater h gh rwater _ b i where p = ^Hg - w h # gh 2 ^13550 998h # 9.81 # h 998 61 ]0.6g 4@
or
or
FM 6.45
Option (B) is correct. The pressure drop across the venturi-meter is p = p p = rw gh rair gh r = (rw rair ) gh = rair b w 1l gh rair Then flow rate (p p ) = Ao Cd rair ( b ) r gh b w l rair = Ao Cd ( b ) 2 p # (0.06) 2 d p = = 0.002827 m2 Ao = 4 4 =d = = . D o = Ao Cd v o = 0.002827 # 0.98 # v gh b rw l # rair rair rair ( b )
where and
Thus
= 0.2265 m3/s Then the maximum mass flow rate that venturi-meter can measure is o = rv o = 1.204 # 0.2265 = 0.273 kg/s m
FM 6.46
Option (A) is correct. The upstream density is p m = = . RT # and =d = = D The pressure difference measured by the mercury manometer 1 =
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Page 244 FM 6
p p = ^rHg rair h gh = ] g p = 49200 Pa Now the compressive venturi formula thus predicts : r ^p p h o = Cd YAt # m b = 0.985 # 0.76 # 9 p # 0.042C # 4 = 0.40 kg/s
FM 6.47
] . g h = h h = K # V t = . # ; = . g # . E
Hence h = 0.58 + h1 = 0.58 + 1 = 1.58 m Then the piezometer change between (2) and (3) is due to friction loss 2 ]0.99g2 = 0.115 m h 3 h2 = h f = f # L # V = 0.023 # 5 # 2g 0.05 2 # 9.81 D or
FM 6.48
From the pressure drop relation, the flow rates are oa 2 mLa v pa = =2 # pd a 3 4 oa = 21 # 10 # p # ]0.08g = 0.0027 m3 /s or v 128 # 0.104 # 76 ob 2 mLb v and pb = =2 pd b 4 ob = 21000 # p # ]0.05g = 0.0005 m3 /s or v 128 # 0.104 # 61 For parallel pipe system o=v oa + v ob v = 0.0027 + 0.0005 = 0.0032 m3 /s
FM 6.49
Option (D) is correct. For parallel system of pipe, head loss for each pipe must be same. When the minor losses are disregarded, head loss is
Thus
When the pipe length, friction factor and head loss is constant, the flow rate becomes proportional to the D in parallel connection. o = kD . k = constant of proportionality v Let diameter of pipe B = DB and diameter of pipe A = DA . oB = k DB . Therefore v oA = k DA . = k . DB . v DA = DB gi en oA = 0.177 # k (DB) 2.5 = 0.177 # v oB v Hence the flow rate of pipe A is decreased by a factor of 0.177.
FM 6.50
Option (A) is correct. For parallel pipe system the head losses are the same for each pipe o2 8fL v o2 8fL v o2 8fL v h f = 2 1 51 = 2 2 52 = 2 3 53 p gd 1 p gd 2 p gd 1 3 o1 + v o +v o = 0.056 m /s v or
...(i)
or
2 2 o1 o2 v 8 # 0.0275 # 800 # v h f = 8 # 20.0275 # 900 # = p # 9.81 # ]0.1g5 p 2 # 9.81 # ]0.12g5 2 o3 0.0275 # 600 # v = 8# 2 p # 9.81 # ]0.08g5 2 2 2 o1 o2 o3 h f = 204501 v = 73053 v = 416059 v 2 o = 204501 v o2 = 2.8v o1 o = 1. 7 v o1 or v v 73053 1 2 o = 204501 v o2 = 0.492 v o1 o = 0.701 v o1 or v v 416059 1
Now from equation (i), o1 + 1. 7 v o1 + 0.701 v o1 = 0.056 v o1 = ]0.056g or 3.374v o1 = 0.056 or v o1 = 0.01 m s v 3.374 o =1.673 = 1.673 v o1 # 0.0186 = 0.0277 m3 /s v o = 0.7014 v o1 = 0.7014 # 0.0166 = 0.0116 m3 /s v
2 o1 8 # 0.0275 # 900 # ]0.0166g2 8 # f1 # L1 # v = 5 p2 # 9.81 # ]0.1g5 p 2 # g # d1 = 56.35 m
and
FM 6.51
hf =
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Page 246 FM 6
FM 6.52
Option (A) is correct. The head loss is the same through pipes AC and BC (parallel system) p = h fA + h fC = h fB + h fC g = c f L # V A m + c f L # V B m = c f L # V B m + c f L # VC m g A g C g B g C d d d d
2 2 250 750000 = 0.022 + b 0.022 # 150 # # # b l 0.08 2 0.08 2 l 998
and
2 2 100 750000 = 0.022 + b 0.022 # 150 # # # b l 0.08 2 0.08 2 l 998 From equation (i) and (ii), 2 2
751.50 = 34.375 2 + 20.625 751.50 = 13.75 2 + 20.625 From equation (iii) and (iv), V A = 751.50 20.625 # 34.375 and
DA = DB
And for Pipe in series oAB = v oC = . v m s Hence the total volume flow rate o= v oAB = v oC = 0.0280 m3 /s v - 101 m3 /hr
FM 6.53
Correct option is (B) Let h = roughness . Thus h = ds Where And s = V u tw u =c r m u =c Hence u =; 8 ...(i) =d DD p n r# l where w = Dp l
2 1/2
since p = f l # V D
5 (3.65 # 107) and from eq (i), s = = 2.31 # 105 m = 0.0231 mm 0.0791 If the roughness element is smaller than 0.0231 mm it lies within the laminar sublayer.
FM 6.54
Assume that fluid flows from A to B and A to C . o +v o o =v v or (0.1) 2 V1 = p # (0.08) 2 V2 + p # (0.08) 2 V3 4# 4 4 V = 0.64V2 + 0.64V3 = 0.64 (V2 + V3) For fluid flowing from A to B with pA = pB = and VA = VB = zA = zB + f l # V + f l # V g g D D
2 2 60 20 = 0.015 # 200 # V 1 + 0.020 # 200 # V 2 0.1 2 # 9.81 0.08 2 # 9.81
...(i)
...(ii) and VA = VC =
or 60 = 1.529V 12 + 5.10V 32 ...(iii) Solve equation (i), (ii) and (iii) for V , V and V . From equation (i) and (iii) 60 = 1.529 # (0.64) 2 (V2 + V3) 2 + 5.10V 32 60 0.626 (V2 + V3) 2 + 5.10V32 95.8 = (V2 + V3) 2 + 8.14V 32 Subtract equation (ii) from equation (iii) 60 40 = 5.10V 32 2.55V 22 or V = Thus, from equation (iv) and (v) V . ...(iv) ...(v)
0 = 8.14V 32 + ( 2V 32 7.84 + V3) 2 95.8 This can be simplified to ...(vi) 2V3 2V 32 7.84 = 103.6 11.14V 32 Squaring both the sides and rearrange to get V .6 V + . = 0 which can be solved by the quadratic formula to give V = Thus 19.63 ! ( 19.63) 2 4 # 92.5 = 11.77 or 7.86 2 V = 3.43 m/s or V = . 0 m s
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Page 248 FM 6
Note : The value V = m s is not a solution of the original equations, equation (i), (ii) and (iii). With this value the right hand side of equation (vi) is negative (i.e 103.6 11.14V 32 = 103.6 11.14 (3.43) 2 = 24.5 ). As seen from the left hand side of equation (vi), this cannot be. This extra root was introduced by squaring equation (vi). Thus Also, from equation (iii) or 60 = 1.529V 12 + 5.10 # (2.80) 2 or V = .6 m s o = A V = p # (0. 0) # .6 = 0.0 v m s o = A V = p #( . v ) # . = . m s
and from equation (i), we get 3.62 = 0.64V2 + 0.64 # 2.80 or V2 = 2. 6 m s o2 = A2 V2 = p # (0.0 ) 2 # 2. 6 = 0.0 or v m3 s
FM 6.55
Option (A) is correct. We take point (1) at the free surface of tank and point (2) at the exit of the pipe. Then, the energy equation between these two points. 2 2 p p1 + 1 V 1 + z1 = 2 + a2 V 2 + z2 + hL g rg 2g 2g Since p1 = p2 = patm, V1 , 0, z2 = 0, and V2 = 0 (Velocity head negligible) Above equation becomes z1 = hL and h = hL where h is the liquid height in the tank at any time t . 2 Now hL = f L # V 2g d For fully developed laminar flow f = 64 = 64 Re Vd/n 2 L V Thus hL = 6 # L # V = 6 n 2 # 2g 2 g d d d V n The average velocity o o o V = v = v 2 = v2 Ac pd pd o o o L 1 v 6 nL v hL = 6 n = 12 nLv 2 # 2g # 2 = 2 # 2 pd pd # 2g d d g pd o ...(i) hL = h = 12 nLv g pd From mass conservation, above equation must be equal to change of liquid height in the tank. 2 o = pD dh v 4 dt Now equation (i) becomes
2 2 h = 12 nL # pD # dh = 32nLD dh dt dt gd g pd
Integrating from t =
FM 6.56
The bottom side of the triangle is and = 2 # 2 sin 40c, 2.57 cm A = 1 # 2.57 # ]2 cos 40cg = 1.97 cm2 2
Perimeter = 2 + 2 + 2.57 = 6.57 cm Then Hydraulic diameter 4A = 4 # 1.97 = 1.20 cm Dh = perimeter 6.57 rVDh Re D = = 870 # 2 # 0.0120 , 201 (Laminar flow) m 0.104 Then f = 52.9 = 52.9 = 0.263 201 Re r Hence p = f # L # # V Dh = ]0.263g # b 0.6 l # b 870 l # ]2g2 0.012 2
h
- 23000 Pa = 23 kPa
FM 6.57
o # V = v = = . p A #( . )
m s
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Page 250 FM 6
# < = # The flow is laminar and flow rate is given by ( = 90c) 4 o lv o = p (Dp gl ) D or p = p - p = + l v 128ml D Thus = S. G. # g = . # . = . m So that Re = and
2
rVD VD = = m n
= ...(i)
= nr = n (S.G.rH O) = 2.2 # 104 # 0.87 # 999 = 0.191Ns/m2 Equation (i) gives 4 # 10 + 8.53 # 103 # 4 p = 128 # 0.191 # 4 # 4 4 p # (0.020) ...(ii) = 1.119 # 105 N/m2 = 111.9 kN/m2 From manometer equation, p = p gh + gm h gh m = S.G. m g = . # . = . m h = h + l h or h + h = h + l p p = Dp = g (h + h ) gm h = (gm g) h + gl ...(iii) Combine equation (ii) and (iii), we get
111.9 = (12.74 8.53) h + 8.53 # 4 or h = 18.5 m Note: Since h < , the manometer is displaced in the direction opposite that shown in the original figure.
FM 6.58
Option (B) is correct. The divided cross section of the pipe into 1 cm thick annual regions is shown in table. The flow rate is to be determined by using midpoint velocity values for each section. Therefore o= v
#V
Ac
avg
= p # b 6.4 + 6.1 l # 6(0.01) 2 0@ + p b 6.1 + 5.2 l # 6]0.02g2 ]0.01g2@ 2 2 + p # b 5.2 + 4.4 l # 6]0.03g2 ]0.02g2@ + p b 4.4 + 2.0 l # 6]0.04g2 ]0.03g2@ 2 2 + p # b 2.0 + 0 l # 6]0.05g2 ]0.040g2@ 2 3 o = 0.0297 m /s v
FM 6.59
VD #
(no flow) and the maximum h is for Re = 2100 . 8900 b 9.81 l # V # 0.023 2100 = 0.1 = g
or V = 10.06 m/s For the flowing fluid, Bernoullis equation gives p p V + + z = +V + z + f l V g g g D g and V = V = V Thus p p = f# l V #g D g (i) f = 64 or f = Re From equation (i), p = p p = . # . . # ( . ) # # .
z =z
= 30439 N/m2 From manometer equation, we get p + goil (H + h) S.G. g h goil H = p p = p - p = (S.G. gH O g) h 30439 or h = = 0.510 m (7 # 9800 8900) Hence 0 # h # 0.510 m
2
FM 6.60
We take point (1) at free surface of the tank and point (2) at the reference level at exit. By applying energy equation for a control volume between these two points 2 2 p1 p + 1 V 1 + z1 + h pump = 2 + a2 V 2 + z2 + hturbine + hL g 2g rg 2g Since p1 = p2 = patm , z2 = , hturbine = , and V1 , 2 2 z1 = a2 V 2 + hL hL = f L # V 2 2g 2g D So
2 2 z1 = a2 V 2 + f L # V 2 2g 2g D 2gz1 V2 = = a2 + ^ fL/D h
2gz 1 + ^ fL/D h
2 = 1
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Page 252 FM 6
where z is the water height relative to the center of the orifice at that time. Now, the flow rate of water through the pipe during a time interval dt is gz o = vdt o = Ac # V dt = pD o # dv dt + ^ fL Do h where Do is the diameter of orifice. From conservation of mass Flow rate of water through the pipe = decrease in the volume of water tank
2 2gz dt = Ac, tank dz = pD # dz 4 1 + ^ fL/Do h + ^ fL Do h dz dt = D gz Do + ^ fL Do h = D # z dz g Do By integrating above equation from t = when z = z to t = t f when z = (completely drained tank) t + ^ fL Do h dt = D # z dz D t= z=z o g + ^ fL Do h z t f = D # Do g 2 D o 4 #
]10g2
***********
FM 7
EXTERNAL FLOW
FM 7.1
The resultant force of 400 N is acting on a body at angle of 30c with the direction of flow as shown in figure below. What will be the drag and the lift forces acting on the body, respectively ?
FM 7.3
For un-powered flight (i.e. for which the lift, drag and weight forces are in equilibrium) the glide slope angle will be (A) tan1 c CD m (B) tan1 c CL m CL CD (C) tan1 ^CD CLh (D) tan1 c 2CD m CL A 3 m long and 0.5 m diameter cylindrical tank is installed on top of a vehicle. The average speed of vehicle is to be 26.5 m/s and density of air is 1.028 kg/m3 . What will be the drag force acting on the tank when (a) the frontal area is the front and back of the tank (CD = 0. ) and (b) the frontal area is the sides of the tank (CD = 0. ), respectively ? (A) 64 N, 0 (B) 64 N, 433 N (C) 433 N, 64 N (B) 0, 433 N Water flows at 20c C with 25 cm/s , encounters a creep motion. If a smooth ceramic sphere (S.G. = . ) is immersed in the flow of water, what will be the sphere diameter ? (A) 40 m (B) 0.04 m (C) 4 m (D) 0.4 m A laminar boundary layer formed on one side of a plate of length l and produces a drag FD . For the same upstream velocity, how much must the plate be shortened if the drag on the new plate is to be FD ? (B) l = l (A) l = l (C) l = l (D) l = 0.0 l
FM 7.4
FM 7.5
FM 7.6
A hydrofoil of 0.5 m # 4 m cross section moves at 14.5 m/s in sea water. If hydrofoil = 1025 kg/m3 and = 0.00107 kg/m - s at 20cC . What will be its drag for a smooth wall ? (A) 1320 N (B) 3638 N (C) 251 N (D) 125 N
Page 254 FM 7
FM 7.7
The top surface of the passenger bus is 4.0 m wide and 8 m long and the bus is moving at a velocity of 19.5 m/s . If the outdoor air is 1.184 kg/m3 dense and kinematic viscosity of air is 1.562 # 105 m2 /s , the drag force acting on the top surface of the bus is (A) 22 N (B) 20 N (C) 21 N (D) 42 N A 6 m/s stream of SAE 30 oil at 20cC ( = 891 kg/m3 and = 0.29 kg/m - s ) is past over a thin flat plate of 55 by 110 cm . If the stream is parallel to the long side, the total friction drag is (A) 30 N (b) 362 N (C) 181 N (D) 60 N
FM 7.8
If the bicyclist has a frontal area of 0.45 m2 and drag coefficient of 1.1 in the upright position, the terminal velocity of the bicyclist is (A) 29 km/h (B) 195 km/h (C) 62 km/h (D) 90 km/h If the bicyclist has a frontal area of 0.4 m2 and a drag coefficient of 0.9 in the racing position, the terminal velocity of the bicyclist is (A) 34 km/h (B) 229 km/h (C) 73 km/h (D) 106 km/h In a laminar boundary flow the net drag on one side of the two plates having the cross section l # l parallel to the free stream as shown in figure, is FD . What will be the drag (in terms of FD ) on the same two plates when they are connected together as indicated in figure ?
FM 7.10
FM 7.11
For a laminar flow of a fluid over a flat plate if the free-stream velocity of the fluid is doubled, the drag force on the plate is (Assume the flow to remain laminar) (A) FD = . 3FD (B) FD = FD (C) FD = . 3FD (D) FD = 1.1 9FD
1 1 1 1
FM 7.13
Wind storms sometimes blow off empty containers of trailer tracks. The dimensions of one type of container are as shown in figure below and the air density is 1.1 kg/m3 .What amount of minimum wind velocity normal to the side of the container would be required to blow off the container ? (CD = . )
A 15 m long and 3.4 m wide railway wagon is shown in figure. If the weight of the wagon is 250 kN , the wind velocity necessary to blow over the wagon is ( CD = . )
A 50 mm diameter solid plastic sphere is dropped into water at 20cC . If the density of sphere is 1150 kg/m3 , the terminal velocity of the sphere in water is ( CD = . ) (A) 4.43 m/s (B) 0.443 m/s (C) 0.0443 m/s (D) 44.3 m/s A 65 kN weighs tractor-trailer truck is coasting freely with no brakes down an 8c slope at 1000 m standard altitude (air = 1.112 kg/m3). The truck has drag area CD A = . m . If the rolling resistance is 120 N for every m/s of speed, the terminal coasting velocity will be (A) 33 m/s (B) 66 m/s (C) 30 m/s (D) 17 m/s A dust particle of density 1800 kg/m3 is unsettled during high winds and rise to a height of 350 m . It takes 43 min to fall back to the ground in still air at 1 atm and 15cC . If stokes law is applicable, what will be the diameter and velocity of the dust particle, respectively ? (air = 1.802 # 10-5 kg/m -s) (A) 0.05 mm, 8.14 m/s (B) 0.05 mm, 0.136 m/s (C) 0.5 mm, 8.14 m/s (D) 0.5 mm, 0.136 m/s A parachutist jumps from a plane, using an 8.5 m diameter parachute in the standard atmosphere. The total mass of parachutist and parachute is 135 kg . If fully open parachute is in quasi steady motion, the time to fall from 2000 m ( air = 1. kg m ) to sea level ( air = 1. kg m ) will be (take CD = 1. )
FM 7.16
FM 7.17
FM 7.18
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Page 256 FM 7
A heavy steel sphere (S G = ) of 3 cm diameter is attached to a string and should hang at an angle when immersed in a stream of velocity V = m s of air at standard sea-level ( = 1.225 kg/m3 , = 1.78 # 10-5 kg/m-s ) as shown in figure below. Neglecting the string drag, the angle is (CD = . )
A helium-filled balloon at 20cC and 1 atm is connected with a string of negligible weight and drag as shown in figure below. The diameter is 50 cm and the balloon material weighs 0.2 N , not including the helium. If the helium pressure is 120 kPa and the tilt angle = 87.3c, the airstream velocity U will be (take CD = . and RHe = kg )
A shortwave radio antenna is constructed from circular tubing as shown in figure. If the wind is blowing with 100 km/hr , the wind force on the antenna is(Take CD = . )
FM 7.22
A fully loaded 400 ton of jet airplane takes off at a speed of 250 km/h . Assume each passenger with luggage is 140 kg and the wing and flap settings air maintained the same. The take off speed when the airplane has 150 empty seats, is (A) 243.5 km/h (B) 24.3 km/h (C) 257 km/h (D) 25.7 km/h Wind is blowing across the 6 mm diameter wire of transmission line at a speed of 40 km/h. The drag force exerted on the wire, when air is at 1 atm and 15cC is 55 N . What will be the length of the wire ?( = 1.47 # 10-5 m2 /s and CD = 1.0 ) (A) 1.21 m (B) 121 m (C) 12.1 m (D) 0.121 m
FM 7.23
The takeoff speed of this aircraft at sea level at standard atmospheric conditions and the wind loading respectively, are (density of standard air = 1.225 kg/m3 ) (A) 66 km/h, 94 N/m2 (B) 207 km/h, 916 N/m2 (C) 916 N/m2, 207 km/h (D) 94 N/m2, 66 km/h The required power to maintain a constant cruising speed of 300 km/h for a cruising drag coefficient of 0.035 , is (A) 186 kW (B) 37.2 kW (C) 372 kW (D) 18.6 kW Two bike racer rides at 30 km/hr through still air. The second racer drafts closely behind the first racer rather than riding alongside. If any forces other than aerodynamic drag is neglected, what percentage will be the power required and to overcome aerodynamic drag for the second racer ? (Take CD = 0. CD = 0.50 ) (A) 43.2% (B) 3.24% (C) 4.32% (D) 32.4%
ND D
FM 7.25
FM 7.26
FM 7.27
A building is approximately 87.5 m wide and 154 m tall. If the velocity profile against the building is a typical profile for an urban area as shown in figure and the wind speed halfway up the building is 20 m/s , what will be the drag on the building ? (Take CD = 1. )
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Page 258 FM 7
FM 7.28
For the triangular two-dimensional object as shown in figure, the lift and drag coefficients based on formal area respectively, are (Neglect the shear forces).
FM 7.29
The drag forces acting on the signboard and 2 poles respectively, are (A) 18.06 kN, 136 N (B) 180.6 kN, 13.6 N (C) 136 N, 18.06 kN (D) 180.6 kN, Zero What will be the minimum length L of the concrete block for the panel to resist the winds ? (A) 18.5 m (B) 37.1 m (C) 8.5 m (D) 3.71 m
FM 7.30
FM 7.31
FM 7.32
The car is driven 60000 km in a year and the overall efficiency of the engine is 28% . If the density, unit price and heating value of gasoline to be 0.75 kg/L , Rs. 25/L and 42000 kJ/kg , respectively, the increase in the annual fuel cost of car due to this sign is (A) No increment (B) Rs. 2225/year (C) Rs. 12225/year (D) Rs. 1225/year A ship is encrusted with tide, the ship requires 7000 hp to overcome friction drag when moving in seawater ( = 1025 kg/m3 and = 0.00107 kg/m - s ) at 20cC . The ship is 150 m long and has a wetted area of 5000 m2 and neglecting the wave drag. How fast would the ship move with the same power if the surface were smooth ? (A) 11 m/s (B) 5.5 m/s (C) 22 m/s (D) 1.1 m/s A 2 m diameter and 40 m high pole is subjected to 22 m/s storm winds at sea level ( = 1.225 kg/m3 and = 1.78 # 10-5 kg/m-s ). What is the estimated windinduced bending moment about the bottom of the pole ? (take CD = . ) (A) 760 kNm (B) 380 kNm (C) 95 kNm (D) 190 kNm A small airplane of 10.2 m2 wing area and 6.22 kN of weight has the cruising speed of 210 km/hr . If the engine delivers 150 kW at this speed and 60% of this power is lost in propeller and to overcome body resistance, what will be the drag coefficient of the wing ?
FM 7.33
FM 7.34
FM 7.35
The speed at which the rolling resistance is equal to the aerodynamic drag force, is
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Page 260 FM 7
The maximum speed of this automobile is (A) 200 km/h (B) 98 km/h (C) 156 km/h (D) 242 km/h A 50 cm diameter television-transmitting antenna is on top of a 2.5 m high pipe, which is on top of a tall building and is subjected to normal winds up to 150 km/h at 10cC and 100 kPa . What will be the drag force acting on the antenna and the bending moment at the bottom of its pipe, respectively ?
FM 7.38
An 0.80 m diameter, 1.2 m high garbage can is found tipped over in the morning due to high winds velocity of 135 km/h during the night. If the air density is to be 1.25 kg/m3 and the drag coefficient of the can to be 0.7, what will be the mass of the can ? (B) 443 kg (A) 90 kg (C) 180 kg (D) 886 kg A tractor-trailer truck has drag area CD A = m without the deflector and CD A = .7 m with the deflector added. Its rolling resistance is 112 N for each m/s of speed. If the truck moves at 24.5 m/s , how much power is reduced due to deflector added ? (A) 17% (B) No Reduction (C) 4.25% (D) 8.5%
FM 7.40
FM 7.42
What power is required for take off at the same speed ? (A) 187 kW (B) 505 kW (C) 168 kW (D) 280 kW
FM 7.43
A thin flat plate of 50 cm # 50 cm in size is balanced by a counterweight as shown in figure below. If air at 101 kPa and 25cC flows downward over both surfaces of the plate with a free-stream velocity of 36 km/h , the mass of the counterweight that needs to be added in order to balance the plate is ( = 1.562 # 10-5 m2/s )
Water droplets of 0.06 m diameter fall through the air under standard sealevel conditions ( = 1.789 # 10-5 N-s/m2 ). If the drops do not evaporate and the Reynolds number is less than unity, what will be the falling velocity of the droplets ? (B) 1.10 # 104 m/s (A) 1.10 # 105 m/s (C) 1.10 # 106 m/s (D) 1.10 # 107 m/s A water boat is moving through water ( = 999.1 kg/m2, = 1.138 # 10-3 kg/m -s) at 15cC with speeds up to 30 km/h . The bottom surface of the boat assume to be a 1 m wide, 3 m long flat surface. The friction drag exerted on the boat by water and power needed to overcome it respectively, are (A) 26.23 N, 2.186 kW (B) 262.3 W, 2.186 kN (C) 262.3 N, 2.186 kW (D) 26.23 kW, 2.186 kN A smooth flat plate of cross section 6 m # 4 m is placed in water with an upstream velocity of U = . m s . If the flow is laminar, what will be the boundary layer thickness and the wall shear stress respectively at the trailing edge of the plate ?( = 1.12 # 10-6 m2 /s ) (A) 0.0137 m , 0.0380 N/m2 (B) 0.0183 m , 0.0506 N/m2 (C) 0.183 m , 0.632 N/m2 (D) 0.0229 m , 0.0632 N/m2 Water at 20cC and 1 atm ( = 998 kg/m3 , = 0.001 kg/m-s ) flows past a thin flat plate with 20 m/s . What will be the distance x from the leading edge at which the boundary layer thickness will be 1 mm ? (A) 0.00442 m (B) 0.442 m 4 (C) 4.42 # 10 m (d) 0.0442 m Standard air ( = 1.562 # 10-5 m2/s, = 1.184 kg/m3) flows steadily past over a flat plate with a velocity of 8 m/s . At approximately what location will the flow become turbulent and the boundary layer thickness at that location, respectively ? (A) 0.0678 cm, 0.976 m (B) 0.678 cm, 0.976 m (C) 0.0976 m, 0.678 cm (D) 0.976 m, 0.678 cm
FM 7.45
FM 7.46
FM 7.47
FM 7.48
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Page 262 FM 7
FM 7.49
A 1.22 # 2.44 m sheet of plywood is put on a roof rack of a car as shown in figure below. The car speed is 15.5 m/s and the sheet is perfectly aligned with the airflow. What will be the boundary layer thickness at the end and the drag respectively, if the flow remains laminar ?
(A) 0.77 mm , 7.2 N (B) 1.54 mm , 1.44 N (C) 7.7 mm , 0.72 N (D) 15.4 mm , 14.4 N
FM 7.50
A tractor-trailer truck has a drag area CD A = . m , a rolling resistance of 8339 N, a bearing friction resistance of 350 N and a maximum speed of 110 km/h on a level road during steady cruising in calm weather with air density of 1.25 kg/m3 . Now a aerodynamic deflector is installed to the front of the rig to streamline the flow to the top surface and the drag area is reduced to CD A = m . What will be the maximum speed of the truck with deflector ? (A) 119 km/h (B) 32.07 km/h (C) 33.09 km/h (D) 116 km/h The pivot of a wind turbine with two hollow hemispherical cups is stuck as a result of some malfunction as shown in figure below. If the diameter of cups is 8 cm and centre to center distance is 50 cm . The maximum torque applied on the pivot for a wind speed of 15 m/s and air density of 1.25 kg/m3 , is (CD, convex = . and CD, concave = . )
FM 7.51
Two 7.35 cm diameter base balls weighs 145 g each are connected to a rod of 7 mm diameter and 56 cm long as shown in figure below. At sea-level standard air and including the drag of the rod, what power is required to keep the system spinning at 42 rad/s ? (CD, ball = . , CD, rod = . )
An iceberg ( = 1026 kg/m3 ) floats with approximately 1/7 of its volume in the air as shown in figure. If the wind velocity is U and the water is stationary, the speed at which the wind forces the iceberg through the water, is
. . . .
U U U U
A thin hinged rod of negligible weight and drag is used to connect two different size steel (S.G. = . ) balls as shown in figure. A stop is used to restrict the counter clockwise rotation. What will be the sea-level air velocity U for which the rod will first begin to rotate clockwise ?(CDa = CDb = . )
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Page 264 FM 7
FM 7.55
The pressure distribution on a cylinder is approximated by the two straight line segments as shown in figure. Neglecting the shear forces. What is the drag coefficient for the cylinder ?
A rotary mixer consists of two 1 m long half-tubes rotating around a central arm as shown in figure below. The fluid is water at 20cC and the maximum driving power available is 20 kW . What is the maximum rotation speed in rpm ? ( CD = 2.3 )
A flag of 2 m by 2.5 m is attached to the top of a 20 m tall and 0.12 m diameter flag pole. What will be the moment needed at the base of the pole to keep it in place in a 20 m/s wind ?(CD flag = 0.0 , CD, pole = 1.2 ) (A) 11194 N m
(B) 6716 N m
(C) 895 N m
(D) 8955 N m
FM 7.58
A thin sheet of fiber board weighs 90 N and lies on a rooftop as shown in the figure. Ambient air at 20cC and 1 atm at 33 m/s is generates enough friction to dislodge the board. What will be the coefficient of solid friction between board and roof ?
A fan consists of five blades of cross section 0.80 m # 0.10 m which rotates at 100 rpm . If blades are act as flat plates, the torque needed to overcome the friction on the blades will be ( = 1.46 # 10-5 m2 /s ) (A) 0.438 Nm (B) 43.8 N m (C) 4.38 N m (D) 0.0438 N m
***********
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Page 266 FM 7
SOLUTIONS
FM 7.1
Option (C) is correct. The drag and lift forces are determined by decomposing the Resultant force into its components in the flow direction and the normal direction of flow. Drag force : FD = FR cos c = 600 # cos 30c = 520 N Lift force : FL = FR sin c = 600 # sin 30c = 300 N Option (A) is correct.
FM 7.2
For steady un-powered flight Fx = 0 gives FD = W sin q Fy = 0 gives FL = W cos q Thus Hence FD = W sin q = tan q where FD = rU ACD = CD FL FL W cos q rU ACL CL tan = CD CL = tan1 c CD m CL
FM 7.3
Option (B) is correct. (a) The drag force acting on the tank when the frontal area is the front and back of the tank is FD = CD # A # = 0.9 # rV
= 63.75 N , 64 N (b) The drag force acting on the tank when the frontal area is the sides of the tank is FD = 0.8 # (0.5 # 3) #
FM 7.4
Option (C) is correct. For water at 20cC take = 998 kg/m3 and = 0.001 kg/m - s and for creep motion Red = . rVd So Red = m
or
FM 7.5
1 = 998 # 0.25 # d 0.001 d = 0.001 # 1 = 4 # 106 m = 4 m 998 # 0.25 FF = 1 rU 2CDf A 2 where CDf = . = .
FF = 1 rU 2 1.328 bl = 0.664rU 3/2 b n l 2 f Ul p n Consider two flows with 1 = 2 , U = U , b = b , 1 = 2 and l = l . So from equation (i), FF = l FF l So that with FF = 1 FF1 4 l = 4 or l = l l
FM 7.6
Option (A) is correct. Reynolds Number for this flow ReL = rVL = m # . . # .
= 6.9 # 106 (Turbulent flow) For smooth wall 1440 CD = 0.031 1/7 Re L (ReL) 0.031 1440 = 0.00306 = 6 1/7 (6.9 # 106) (6.9 # 10 ) r FD = CD # # U # b # L # ( sides) = 0.00306 # b 1025 l # (14.5) 2 # 4 # 0.5 # 2 2 = 1320 N
FM 7.7
Drag force
Option (B) is correct. The Reynolds number is . # Re L = VL = # = . n . # Since Re L > Re cr = 5 # 105 . Thus the flow is combined laminar and turbulent and 1742 friction coefficient C f = 0.074 1/5 Re L Re L 0.074 1742 = = 0.002772 6 1/5 9.987 # 106 (9.987 # 10 ) Then the drag force acting on the surface becomes . rV #( . ) = . FD = C f A #( # )# = 19.97 , 20 N
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Page 268 FM 7
FM 7.8
Option (C) is correct. Reynolds Number for this flow is rVL = ReL = m and drag coefficient
# # . .
L=
cm
= 20278 (Laminar flow) CD = 1.328 = 1.328 , 0.00933 (ReL) 1/2 (20278) 1/2 So, the total drag force due to friction is FD = 1 # CD # r # V 2 # 2bL 2 = 1 # 0.00933 # 891 # (6) 2 # 2 # 0.55 # 1.1 = 181 N 2
FM 7.9
Option (D) is correct. Terminal velocity is determined by setting. FD = Wtotal # sin q FD = mtotal # g # sin c = 95 # 9.81 # sin 12c , 194 N rV FD = CD # A # V = # FD = r # A # CD 2 # 194 1.25 # 0.45 # 1.1 FB =
Since
FD = Wtotal sin q V = mtotal g sin q CD # A # V = = # mtotal # g # sin q CD # A # r 2 # 95 # 9.81 # sin 12c 0.9 # 0.4 # 1.25
Option (A) is correct. For case (a): Drag force Thus For case (b): FDl = 1 rU 2 CD A Where CD = 2 Thus . and A = ( l) # l = l U# l n and A = l FD = 1 rU 2 CD A where CD = . = . 2 Ul Re l n ...(i) FD = 1 rU 2 # 1.328 n # l 2 = 0.664rU 3/2 # n l 3/2 2 Ul
FDl = 1 rU 2 # 1.328 n # l 2 = 1 (0.664rU 3/2 n l 3/2) 2 2Ul 2 By comparing equation (i) and (ii), we see that
FDl = 1 FD = 0.707FD 2
FM 7.12
Option (A) is correct. For a laminar flow over a flat plate, rV FD = C f A # rV 2 = 1.328 A # # 2 Re0.5 rV = . . #A# VL b n l 0.5 = 0.664V 3/2 A n 0.5 = kV 3/2 L A n . = constant L Now for Initial condition where k = . FD = kV If the free stream velocity of fluid is doubled, i.e. Then V = 2V1 FD = k (V ) = k ( V ) FD = 2.83FD
1
where C f = .
Re = VL n
= .
k (V )
= .
FD
FM 7.13
Option (C) is correct. The minimum wind velocity normal to the side of the container to blow the container over will be the terminal velocity. Since terminal velocity is obtained by setting W = FD + FB Here FB = , because no buoyancy force is applied by the air. Hence FD = W = m # g = # . = 49050 N Now the velocity of wind is determined by rV FD = CD # A # V = # FD = CD # A # rair # . #( # )#( . )
or
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Page 270 FM 7
Hence Where or
FM 7.15
2.55FD = 0.75W 0.75 # (250 # 103) = 7.35 # 10 4 N FD = 2.55 FD = 1 CD rU 2A 2 U = 2 # (7.35 # 10 4) 1/2 FD = = 35 m/s ; 1.9 # 1.23 # 3.4 # 15E C D rA
The terminal velocity of a free falling object is reached when Weight of solid = Drag force + Buoyant force W = FD + FB FD = W FB CD # A # C D # D # f V f V = rs gv rf gv
3
FM 7.16
Option (A) is correct. Summing forces along the roadway gives W sin = FD + FRolling r = CD A # # V + Croll # V or 65000 # sin 8c = 8.64 # 1.112 # V 2 + 120V 2 9046.25 = 4.80V 2 + 120V 4.80V 2 + 120V 9046.25 = 0 V + V . =0 or V = 32.63 , 33 m/s
FM 7.17
Option (B) is correct. The velocity of dust particle to travel 350 m in 43 min is to be V = distance = 350 = 0.1356 , 0.136 m/s time 43 # 60 This velocity of a free falling particle is reached when FD = W FB where FD = 3pmVD (stokes law) W = rs gv and FB = rf gv 3 v = pD 6 Substituting these values in equation (i), we get 3VD = rs gv rf gv = (rs rf ) g # pD D = where V s f mV g (rs rf ) ...(i)
= 1.802 # 105 kg/m s = 0.136 m/s = density of dust particle = 1800 kg/m3 = density of air at 1 atm and 15cC p . kg = = = . . RT # 18 # 1.802 # 105 # 0.136 = 5 105 m or 0.05 mm # 9.81 # (1800 1.225)
Hence
FM 7.18
D =
Option (D) is correct. If acceleration is negligible, W = FD or r m # g = CD # U # p D 135 # 9.81 = 1.2 # or Thus r U 2 # p # (8.5) 2 2# 4
U = 38.89 r Usea level = 38.89 = 5.64 m/s 1.225 38.89 = 6.22 m/s U = 1.0067
Thus the change in velocity is very small, so we can seasonably estimate the time-to-fall using the average fall velocity. 2000 0 t fall = Dz = = 337 s Vavg [(5.64 + 6.22) /2]
FM 7.19
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Page 272 FM 7
The sphere should hang, so that string tension balances the resultant of drag and net weight. rV rV p Drag force FD = CD # # A = CD # # D = 0.5 # 1.225 # (40) 2 # p # (0.03) 2 = 0.346 N 2 4 p 3 = 9(rsphere rair ) g # 6 D C = 9"^7.86 # 998h 1.225, # 9.81 # p # (0.03) 3C 6 So , 1.09 N tan = Wnet = . . Fdrag = tan1 b 1.09 l , 72c 0.346
Wnet
FM 7.20
Option (A) is correct. For air at 20cC and 1 atm , take air = . kg m and = 1.8 # 10-5 kg/m - s . For Helium R = kg . p So He = = 120000 = 0.197 kg/m3 2077 # 293 RT The balloon net buoyancy is independent of the flow velocity Bnet = ^rair rHe h g # p D = (1.2 0.197) # 9.81 # p # (0.5) 3 , 0.644 N 6 Thus, the net upward force is Fz = ^Bnet W h = 0.644 0.2 = 0.444 N FD = Fz # tan q = 0.444 # tan (87.3c) = 9.42 N rU FD = CD # #A 9.42 = 0.2 # 1.2 # U 2 # p # (0.5) 2 2 4 9.42 = 0.0236 U 2 U = 9.42 - 400 0.0236 U = 20 m/s
FM 7.21
Option (C) is correct. The antenna is a composite body consisting of one main pole, one horizontal bar and four vertical rods. Thus. FD = FD + FD + FD = 1 rU 2 [CD A1 + CD A2 + 4CD A 3] 2 U = 100 # 5 = 27.8 m/s and CD = CD = CD = . 18 1 FD = # 1.23 # (27.8) 2 # 1.4 [5 # 0.04 + 1.5 # 0.02 + 4 # 1 # 0.01] 2
1 2 3
Where So that
- 180 N
FM 7.22
Option (A) is correct Aircraft will take off when lift equals to the total weight. rV W = FL = CL A # (m # g) W = rC L A rC L A When the airplane is fully loaded, then Mass m = 400 ton = 400000 kg and Velocity V = 250 km/h Now, when 150 seats are empty, Mass of airplane V = W = mg
m = m1 (150 # 1 0) = 400000 21000 = 379000 kg and Velocity is V When the density, lift coefficient and wing area remain constant, the ratio of the velocities of the under-loaded and fully loaded aircraft becomes 2 (m2 # g) /rCL A mg V = = = m V1 2 (m1 # g) /rCL A m1 g m1 V = V1 # m m1 Substituting the numerical values, we get V = 250 # 379000 = 243.34 km/h 400000 , 243.5 km/h
FM 7.23
Option (B) is correct. For given parameter, the Reynolds number 0 b . l # (0.00 ) Re = VD = = .5 5 # 10 n 1. 0 # 105 The drag coefficient corresponding to this value of Re = 4.535 # 103 CD = 1.0 Then, the drag force becomes FD = CD # A # rV = CD # (L # D) # rV
where A = frontal area for flow past a cylinder = LD p 1 atm At 1 atm and 15cC = = RT 0. + 15) #(
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Page 274 FM 7
= 101.325 kPa = 1.225 kg/m3 0.287 # 288 So 1.225 # b 40 l 3.6 55 = 1.0 # L # 0.006 # 2 2 # 55 L = 2 1.0 # 0.006 # 1.225 # b 40 l 3.6 = 121.22 , 121 m
2
FM 7.24
Option (B) is correct. An aircraft will takeoff when lift equals the total weight. rV W = FL = CL A V = W = rC L A m#g = rC L A . # # . 5# . 5#
= 57.6 m/s or 207 km/h And wind loading Floading = FL = W = A A , 916 N/m2
FM 7.25
# .
5.
Option (C) is correct. When the aircraft is cruising steadily constant altitude, the net force acting on the aircraft is zero and thus thrust provided by the engine must be equal to the drag force. . 5#( . ) rV = . 5# # FD = CD A = 4466.1 N or 4.466 kN And the power required is to be P = Thrust # velocity = FD # V = 4.466 # (300/3.6) , 372 kW
FM 7.26
Similarly Thus,
Option (D) is correct. For an urban area u = Cy . Thus with u = m s at y = h = m We obtain C = 200.4 = 3.52 or u = .5 y ]77g The total drag is FD =
# dF
CD ru dA
= 1 rC D 2
154
y=0
(3.52y0.4) 2 # (87.5) dy
= 1 # 1.23 # 1.3 # (3.52) 2 # 87.5 2 = 867 # 1 # (154) 1.8 1.8 = 4.17 # 106 N = 4.17 MN
FM 7.28
#
0
154
y0.8 dy
FD = Thus FD
# p cos qdA + # t sin qdA where = = # p cos qdA + # p cos qdA + # p cos qdA = # p cos cdA # p cos cdA
w w
= 1 rU 2 # b 1 lb l 2 ; 1.20 b 1 rU 2 l cos 45cA2E 2 2 2 b where , l = en th o o ect A = lc cos c m Hence FD = 1.7 b 1 rU 2 l lb 2 1.7 # 1 rU 2 # lb 2 or = 1.70 CD = FD = 1 rU 2 A 1 rU 2 lb 2 2 Because of symmetry of the object, FL = or CL = FL =0 1 rU 2 A 2
FM 7.29
Option (A) is correct. The drag force acting on the sign, FD, sign = CD # A # rV 1.30 # (150/3.6) 2 2
= 2.0 # (4 # 2) #
= 18056 N or 18.06 kN The drag force acting on the pole, rV FD, pole = CD # A # = 0.3 # (0.05 # 4) # 1.30 # (150/3.6) 2 = 68 N 2
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Page 276 FM 7
Therefore, the drag force acting on both poles is FD, poles = 2 # 68 = 136 N
FM 7.30
Option (D) is correct. The resultant drag force on the sign passes through its centre, the drag force on the poles passes through the center of the pole and the weight of the sign passes through the centre of the block. Taking moment about center of the sign post and setting it equal to zero. M = 0 FD, sign # ( + + . ) + FD, poles # ( + . ) W # (L ) = where W = the weight of concrete signpost = mg = rgv = Substituting the values, we get # . # (L # # . ) = 13538 L
Hence
= Frontal area = (0.45 # 0.6) m2 = 1.25 kg/m3 = 50 km/h = 50/3.6 m/ 2 1.25 # b 50 l 3.6 FD = 2.2 # (0.45 # 0.6) # 2 = 71.61 N , 72 N
FM 7.32
Option (C) is correct. The amount of work done to overcome this drag force and required energy input for a distance of 60000 km are Wdrag = FD # L = # = 4.3 # 106 kJ/year W Energy input = . # k year Einput = drag = . # hcar . Then the amount of fuel that supplies this much energy is Einput m fuel Heating value = = rfuel rfuel 1.54 # 107 = 42000 = 489 L/year 0.75 And the cost of this much fuel is Cost of fuel = (Amount of fuel) # (unit cost) = 489 # 25 = Rs. 12225/year
FM 7.33
or or
rU 2 = = 0.031 A U CD = # 2 # G# (ReL) 1/7 ReL 2 rUL rU = = 0.031 1/7 # AG # U ReL = # m 2 (rUL/m) 2 0.031 1025U 7000 hp = ; # 5000 # U 1/7 E # 2 (1025 # U # 150/0.00107) 745.7 # 7000 W = 5428U 3 1/7 5.22 # 106 = 5428U 20/7 6 = 5.22 # 10 = 961.7 U 5428 U = (961.7) 7/20 = 11.0 m/s
FM 7.34
1.225 # (22) 2 # 2 # 40 , 9500 N 2 If the flow is uniform, the center of this force should be at approximately mid depth. Therefore the bottom bending moment is M = FL = 9500 # 40 2 = 190000 Nm = 190 kNm
FM 7.35
Option (B) is correct. We can write Ptotal = Pbody + Ploss prop + Pwing where Pbody + Ploss prop = 0.6Ptotal = 0.6 # 150 = 90 kW Thus Pwing = 150 90 = 60 kW where or Pwing = FD U = CD rU AU CD = Pwing = rU A . #( #b # # )
l#
= .
FM 7.36
Option (B) is correct. The rolling resistance of the Automobile FRR = CRR # Wauto = CRR # mauto # g = 0.04 # 950 # 9.81 = 372.8 N , 373 N The speed at which the rolling resistance is equal to aerodynamic drag is obtained by setting. FD = FRR V = 373 CD # A # V = 373 # 2 # = 0 . 32 CD # A # r # 1.8 # 1.2 = 32.85 m/s , 118 km/h
FM 7.37
Option (A) is correct. The power need to overcome drag and rolling resistance is the product of the sum
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Page 278 FM 7
of the force drag and the rolling resistance and velocity. P = (FD + FRR) V rAV = cCD # + FRR m V = CD # A # rV + FRR V
3
80000 = b 0.32 # 1.8 # 1.2 # V l + 373V 2 0.3456V 3 + 373V = 80000 The solution of equation (i) gives V = 55.56 m/s , 200 km/h
FM 7.38
...(i)
CD = 1.1 for thin circular disk 2 A = Frontal Area = pd 4 = density of air at 10cC and 100 kPa p 00 = = = . kg m 0. 8 # 8 RT V = 150 km/h = 150 m/s 3. 6 FD = 1.1 #
2 p # (0.5) 2 1.23 # b 150 l # 1 # 3. 6 2 4
and Thus
= 230.72 N - 231 N Now the bending moment at the bottom of pipe Mbottom = FD # (length of pipe + adius of circular antenna) = 231 # (2.5 + 0.25) = 635.25 N m , 635 N m
FM 7.39
When the garbage can is first tipped, the edge on the wind-loaded side of the can will be off the ground and thus all the reaction forces from the ground will act on the other side. Taking the moment about on axis passing through the contact point. Mcontact = 0 FD # H = W#D
C A rV # H W = FD # H = D # # D D# Where A = Frontal area = 1.2 # 0.8 = 1.25 kg/m3 V = 135 km/h = 135 = 37.5 m/s 3.6 D = 0.8 m and H = 1.2 m 0.7 # (1.2 # 0.8) # 1.25 # (37.5) 2 # 1.2 W = 2 # 0. 8 = 885.93 , 886 N Mass of the can
FM 7.40
Thus
m =W = g
, 90 kg
Option (D) is correct For air at sea-level = 1.225 kg/m3 and = 1.78 # 10-5 kg/m - s without deflector: r F = CD A # # V + Rolling Resistance = 8 # 1.225 # (24.5) 2 + 112 # 24.5 2 Power required = 2941 + 2744 = 5685 N P = F#V = 5685 # 24.5 = 139282.5 W = 139282.5 , 187 hp 745.7 F = CD A # r # V + Rolling Resistance
With deflector:
= 6.7 # 1.225 # (24.5) 2 + 112 # 24.5 2 = 2463 + 2744 = 5207 N Power required P = F#V = 5207 # 24.5 = 127572 W = 171 hp Reduction in Power required P = 187 171 = 16 hp % Reduction = 16 # 100 , 8.5% 187 Option (D) is correct. For air at sea-level, = 1.225 kg/m3 W Vstall = rCL, a A 2 # 180000 = = 32.4 m/s 1.225 # 1.75 # 160 Thus
FM 7.42
FM 7.41
Option (B) is correct. For take off at same speed of 39 m/s , we need a drag estimate
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Page 280 FM 7
FD = CD #
#V #A
Option (C) is correct. ( . )#( . ) = . Re L = VL = # n . # Which is less than the critical Reynolds Number (Re = 5 # 105), Therefore the flow is laminar. Then 1.328 C f = 1.328 = 0.002347 0.5 = Re L (3.201 # 105) 0.5 rV and FD = C f # A # From given values (Because air flows over both surface of the plate so A = A ) 1.184 # b 36 l 3.6 FD = 0.002347 # 2 # (0.5 # 0.5) # 2 = 0.0695 N The mass whose weight is 0.0695 N , m = FD = . g .
2
= .
g = 7.1 gram
FM 7.44
For steady conditions D + FB = W If Re = UD < 1, n Also and Since air << That is or
O
...(i)
U =
gH O D 2 18m
2
=
FM 7.45
Option (C) is correct. The Reynolds number at the end of the bottom surface . #( . )# rVL = Re = = 2.2 # 107 m . # 5 Since Re >> 2 # 10 , then the flow is turbulent over the entire surface and friction coefficient is 0.074 C f = 0.074 = 0.00252 1/5 = Re (2.2 # 107) 1/5 rV Now Drag force FD = C f A # = 0.00252 # (1 # 3) # = 262.3 N and Power needed to overcome it P = FD # V = 262.3 # (30/3.6) = 2185.9 W , 2.186 kW 999.1 # (30/3.6) 2 2
FM 7.46
Option (B) is correct. Laminar flat plate boundary layer thickness is given by the relation =5 And nx = 5 U (1.12 # 106) x = 7.48 # 103 x m 0.5 rm = x 1000 # 1.12 # 103 x
w = 0.332U 3/2
Option (D) is correct. Let the flow is turbulent and for turbulent flow turb = 0.16 = 0.16 1/7 x (Rex ) (rVx/m) 1/7 . 0.16 or = x (998 # 20 # x/0.001) 1/7 0.16 # (0.001) 1/7 . = x (998 # 20) 1/7 # x 1/7 (0.16) 7 # 0.001 . b x l = 998 # 20 # x (0.001) 7 # 998 # 20 or = 7.44 # 109 x = (0.16) 7 # 0.003 x = 0.0442 m
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Page 282 FM 7
FM 7.48
Option (D) is correct. The flow becomes turbulent where the Reynolds number becomes equal to the critical Reynolds number Re cr = 5 # 105 . Re cr = Vxcr n
# . # xcr = Re cr # n = # = . V The thickness of the boundary layer at xcr = . m is xcr = 4.91 # 0.976 = 0.00678 m x = 4.91 # 1/2 (5 # 105) 0.5 Re cr = 0.678 cm
FM 7.49
Option (C) is correct. For flow remains laminar . = . = L Re L (rair UL m) 5.0 = or = 0.00315 2.44 1.2 # 15.5 # 2.44 1.8 # 105 or and drag Where = 0.00315 # 2.44 = 0.00768 m = 7.7 mm r FD = CD # # U # A = CD = . ReL 1.328 = 0.00084 1.2 # 15.5 # 2.44 1.8 # 105 FD = 0.00084 # 1.2 # (15.5) 2 # (2.44 # 1.22 # 2 sides) 2 = 0.72 N
Hence
FM 7.50
Option (D) is correct. The drag force before deflector at a given velocity of 110 km/h is, rV FD = CD # A # 1.25 # (110/3.6) 2 = 5158 N 2 Now, the total resistance forces on the trunk is = 8.84 # Ftotal = FD + Fbearing + Frolling And the power required to overcome these forces is to be, P = Ftotal # V = (FD + Fbearing + Frolling) # V
1
= [5158 + 350 + 8339] # (110/3.6) = 423100 W , 423 kW The maximum velocity that truck can attain at the same power of 423 kW after deflector is installed is determined by setting the sum of bearing resistance, rolling resistance and the drag force in this case equal to 423 kW . The drag force after deflector rV FD = CD A # = 7 # 1.25 # V 2 = 4.375V 22 2
2
CD A =
P = [FD + Fbearing + Frolling] # V2 423000 = [4.375V 22 + 350 + 8339] # V2 = 4.375V 23 + 8689V2 By solving above equation for V Therefore
2
The maximum torque occurs when the cups are normal to the wind since the length of the moment arm is maximum. Then the drag force of each cup in this position is rV Convex side FD = CD # A # = (0.4) # p # = 0.283 N Concave side FD = CD # A # = (1.2) # = 0.848 N Taking the moment about the pivot, M max = FD # . rV CD = . (0.08) 2 1.25 # (15) 2 2 4 # CD = .
FD # .
= (FD FD ) # 0.50 2
2 1
Option (A) is correct. For sea-level air, take = 1.225 kg/m3 and = 1.78 # 10-5 kg/m-s . Each ball moves at a center line velocity Vb = w # rb = 42 # b 0.56 + 0.0735 l 2 2 = 42 # (0.28 + 0.03675) = 13.3 m/s Then the drag force on each baseball is approximately, r FD, ball = CD # V b # p D = 0.47 # b 1.225 l # (13.3) 2 # p # (0.0735) 2 = 0.215 N 2 4
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Page 284 FM 7
Now the drag force on each rod is calculated. Firstly Vrod = wravg = 42 # b 0.28 l = 5.88 m/s 2 r And FD rod = CD # # V rod # Drod # Lrod = 1.2 # b 1.225 l # (5.88) 2 # 0.007 # 0.28 2 , 0.0498 N Then with two balls and two rods, the total driving power required is P = 2FD, ball Vball + 2FD, rod Vrod = (2 # 0.215 # 13.3) + (2 # 0.0498 # 5.88) = 5.72 + 0.58 = 6.3 Watt
FM 7.53
Subscript a and w denotes the portion of the iceberg in the air and in the water respectively. We have va = 1 v and vw = v where v = volume of the iceberg 7
For steady motion
(U Ub) C r A r A = Dw w w = w w Assume CDa = CDw CDa ra Aa ra Aa Ub If D is a characteristic length, then v - D and A - D 1v 3 v 7 a Hence or Da = b l = = Da 3 vw 6 v Dw Dw 7 Aa = Da = So that b Dw l b l Aw Thus from equation (i), (U Ub) = 1026 # (6) 2/3 = 2754.29 - 2760 1.23 Ub U Ub = 2760 = 52.5 Ub U = 53.5 & U = 0.0187U or b Ub
FM 7.54
Option (B) is correct. For sea-level air, take = 1.225 kg/m3 and = 1.78 # 10-5 kg/m-s . Let a
and b denote the large and small balls, respectively. The rod begins to rotate clockwise when the moments of drag and weight are balanced. The moment equation is Mo = Fa # or . sin c Wa # . cos c Fb . sin c + Wb . cos c =
Fa Fb = Wa Wb or CDa # # U # D a - CDb # # U # D b
3 = (S.G.) # rwater # g a p D a p D b3 k 6 6
3 2 or # # U 2 # 6CDa # D a - CDb # D b2@ = p # S.G. # rwater # g 6D a D b3@ 2 6 4 2 3 or 1 # CDa # # # U 2 6D a - D b2@ = p # S.G. # rwater # g # 6D a D b3@ 8 6 or 1 # 0.47 # # 1.225 # U 2 # 7]0.02g2 - ]0.01g2A 8 = 7.86 # 999 # 9.8 # p # 7]0.02g 3 ]0.01g 3A 6 6.78 # 105 U 2 = 0.282 U = 4160 U =
FM 7.55
#
0
p cos q (br) dq
...(i)
for # # 2 = 1 rU 2 :1 6 qD for 0 # # p 2 2 p = 1 rU 2 if = 0 , p = rU if = 2 2 p = rU
sin q
p p
= rU
...(ii)
rU # # p cos d = 1 2
2 0
p/2
6 :1 p qD cos qdq
...(iii)
Thus from equation (i), (ii) and (iii), we have FD = 2br p cos qdq = 2br ;1 rU 2 b 6 2 l + rU 2E p 2 0 = 1 rU 2 b 12br l p 2
So that
CD =
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Page 286 FM 7
= 6 = 1.91 p
FM 7.56
Option (C) is correct. Consider a strip of half tube of width dr as shown in figure below. The local velocity is U = wr and the strip frontal area is Ddr . The total torque (2 tubes) is
T = 2 # rdF = 2 # r 9CD
0 0
r (wr) 2 Ddr C 2#
= 2 # CD #
R r w 2 # D # r3 dr # 2 0
or Power
= CD # r # w 2 # D # R = 1 CD # r # w 2 D # R 4 4 T = 1 # 2.3 # 998 # w 2 # (0.075) # (1.0) 4 = 43.04 w 2 4 P = T#w 20000 = 43.04 w 2 # w 3 = 20000 = 464.7 43.04
FM 7.57
...(i)
and
1 1.2 1.23 (20) 2 (20 0.12) - 708.5 N # # # # 2# FD = 1 CD rU 2 l2 b2 2 = 1 # 0.08 # 1.23 # (20) 2 # (2.5 # 2) = 98.4 N 2
...(ii)
...(iii)
By combining equation (i), (ii) and (iii), we obtain M = 20 # 708.5 + b 20 2 l # 98.4 = 7085 + 1869.6 2 2 = 8954.6 N m - 8955 N m
FM 7.58
Option (C) is correct. For air at 20cC , take = 1.2 kg/m3 and = 1.8 # 10-5 kg/m - s . Since the dimensions are large and the flow is turbulent. The drag when the leading edge is not at x = , F =
x
# tw dA = # aC f r u
x2 x x1
k # dA
w = C f # Cf =
#u
= =
. (rUx m)
x1
m 1/7 m # b rU l # x1/7 dx
2
and dA = b # dx
=c
= 10.87 N Since the dislodging friction force or or F = mW 10.87 = m # 90 = 10.87 = 0.12 90 = 0.12
FM 7.59
Hence, coefficient of solid friction between board and roof is Option (D) is correct.
Let or Where
dT = torque from the drag on element dA of the blade. ...(i) dT = (FD, top + FD, bottom) y = 2 # b 1 rU 2 CD dA l y 2 U = wy and = 100 # 1 # 2 = 10.47 rad/s 60 1
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Page 288 FM 7
The maximum Re l will occur at point (1) where y = L # # = # # Thus, at all point on the blade Re x < Re x = 5 # 105 and the flow is laminar. or
1 cr
Re l = Ul = wLl = n n
But with U = wy = 1.328 # 1.23 # (10.47) 3/2 61.46 # 105 # 0.1@ 1/2 y 5/2 dy = 0.0669y5/2 dy N m Thus the net torque on the five blades is 0.8 0.8 T = 5 dT = 5 0.0669y5/2 dy = 5 # 0.0669 # 2 6y7/2@0 7 y=0 dT = 1.328rw 3/2 nl y 5/2 dy
= 0.0438 N m
***********
FM 8
OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
FM 8.1
Water at 20cC is flowing uniformly in a wide rectangular channel at an average velocity of 3 m/s . If the water depth is 0.3 m, the flow is (For water at 20cC = 998 kg/m3 and = 1.002 # 10-3 kg/m -s ) (A) Laminar and subcritical (B) turbulent and subcritical (C) Laminar and supercritical (D) Turbulent and supercritical Water flows in a 3 m wide rectangular channel with a flow rate of 60 m3/s . If the flow is to be critical, the maximum depth is (A) 2.58 m (B) 4.30 m (C) 3.44 m (D) 6.88 m Water flows critically through a 4 m wide rectangular channel with an average velocity of 5 m/s . The flow rate of water is (A) 51 m3/s (B) 25.5 m3/s (C) 12.75 m3/s (D) 5 m3/s The ratio of Froude numbers on either side of a hydraulic jump are related by y y (A) b l (B) b l y y y y (C) b l (D) b l y y Water ( = 999.7 kg/m3, = 1.307 # 10-3 kg/m -s) in a half-full 4 m diameter circular channel flows at an average velocity of 2.5 m/s . What will be the hydraulic radius and flow regime ? (A) 1 m, supercritical (B) 1 m, critical (C) 2 m, supercritical (D) 1 m, subcritical Water is discharged at a rate of 27 m3/s through a trapezoidal channel with a bottom width of 4 m and a side slope of 45c. If the flow depth is 0.6 m , the flow is (A) Supercritical (B) Critical (C) Subcritical (D) First subcritical, than critical Air flows on the surface of a tank at a speed of 2 m/s . How fast would these air waves travel respectively if (a) the tank is in an elevator accelerating upward at a rate of 4 m/s2 , (b) the tank accelerates horizontally at a rate of 9.81 m/s2 and (c)the tank is aboard the orbiting Space Shuttle ? (A) 0, 2.37 m/s, 2.38 m/s (B) 2.37 m/s, 2.38 m/s, 0 (C) 2.38 m/s, 2.37 m/s, 0 (D) 2.37 m/s, 0, 2.38 m/s
FM 8.2
FM 8.3
FM 8.4
FM 8.5
FM 8.6
FM 8.7
Demo Ebook
Page 290 FM 8
FM 8.8
Water flows through a 2 m wide rectangular channel with a manning coefficient of n = . If the water is 1 m deep and the bottom slope of channel is 0.0105, the rate of discharge of the channel in uniform flow is (A) 10.76 m3/s (B) 6.03 m3/s (C) 27.11 m3/s (D) 5.56 m3/s Water flows in a V-shaped channel (n = 0.013) section as shown in figure below. The bottom slope of channel is 0.008727 . For a flow depth of 2 m at the centre, the discharge rate in uniform flow is
FM 8.9
A circular channel of diameter 75 cm is flowing half-full at an average velocity of 3.4 m/s . If the channel is asphalt lining ^n = 0.01 h, the critical slope is (A) 0.69 (B) 0.069 (C) 0.00069 (D) 0.0069 Water flows through two identical channels with square cross sections of 5 m # 5 m . Now the two channels are combined to form a single 10 m wide channel and the flow rate is adjusted so that the flow depth remains constant at 5 m . What will be the percent change in flow rate as a result of combining the channels ? (A) 50% increase (B) 31% decrease (C) 31% increase (D) No change Water flows in a finished-concrete (n = 0.012) channel of 1 m depth and slope of 0.00114 as shown in figure below. What will be the percentage reduction in flow when the surface is asphalt (n = 0.016) ?
FM 8.11
FM 8.12
Consider a uniform flow in a fine gravel-lined (n = 0.02) rectangular channel with a flow area of 3.6 m2 and a bottom slope of 0.002 . For a depth-to-width ratio y b = 0. , the channel should be classified as (A) Mild (B) Critical (C) Steep (D) Not determined All surfaces of a rectangular channel as shown in figure, are of the same material. By what percent is the flow rate reduced because of the addition of the thin center board ?
FM 8.14
Demo Ebook
Three uniform pipes of diameter D join to form one pipe of diameter D and each pipe flows half-full. If the Manning coefficient n and the slope are the same for all of the pipes, what will be the diameter D ? (A) D = .32D (B) D = .36D (C) D = . D (D) D = . 9D The flow rate in the asphalt-lined (n = 0.016) channel shown in figure below is to be 120 m3/s . What will be the elevation drop of the channel per km ?
FM 8.16
A steel painted ^n = . h rectangular channel flow, creates a 50c full wedge like wave as shown in figure below. If the depth is 35 cm , the critical depth will be
(A) 62 cm (C) 31 cm
FM 8.18
A viscous oil (S.G. = . ) flows down with an average velocity of 50 mm/s through a wide plate at a uniform depth of 8 mm as shown in figure. If the plate is on a 3c hill, the average shear stress between the oil and the plate will be
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Page 292 FM 8
FM 8.19
The channel shown in figure is built on a slope of 2 m/km and depth is y = m . If the surface are smooth concrete lined (n = . ) except for the diagonal surface, which is gravel with n = . , the flow rate will be
Water flows in the symmetrical, unfinished concrete (n = 0.014) trapezoidal channel as shown in figure below at a rate of 25 m3/s and flow depth of 0.69 m. What will be the slope angle () of bottom surface ?
(A) 0c (C) 1c
FM 8.21
Consider a trapezoidal aqueduct as shown in figure below, carries a normal flow of 60 m3 /s . For clay tile ^n = . h surfaces, the required elevation drop in m/km will be
A Trapezoidal channel with brick lining (n = 0.015) as shown in figure, has a bottom slope of 0.057 . What will be the flow rate of water through the channel ?
A trapezoidal channel with a bottom width of 1.5 m and sides with a slope of 1 : 1 is lined with clean earth (n = 0.022) and is to drain water at uniform rate of 10 m3/s to a distance of 2 km . If it is necessary to keep the flow depth below 1 m , the required elevation drop is
Demo Ebook
A channel lined with placed wood is to be carry water at a flow rate of 2 m3/s on a slope of 10 m/800 m . The channel cross section can be either a right angle triangle or a rectangle with a cross section twice as wide as its depth. Which would require less wood ? (A) Triangle (B) Rectangle (C) Not defined (D) Both requires equal amount
FM 8.25
What will be the flow rate through the channel ? (A) 10.5 m3/s (B) 4.26 m3/s (C) 44.2 m3/s (D) 45.56 m3/s The effective Manning coefficient for the channel is (A) 0.0328 (B) 0.000278 (C) 0.0299 (D) 0.0315 A clay tile ^n = 0.01 h channel is laid out on a 1 : 1400 slope and has a V-shape with an included angle of 90c as shown in figure below. If the flow rate is 11.35 m3 /s , what will the normal depth y ?
FM 8.26
FM 8.27
(A) 20 m (C) 2 m
FM 8.28
Water flows in a partially filled 1 m internal diameter circular channel made of finished concrete (n = 0.012). For a flow depth of 0.25 m at the center with bottom slope of 0.002, the flow rate is (A) 1.59 m3/s (C) 15.9 m3/s (B) 0.159 m3/s (D) 0.0159 m3/s
FM 8.29
A storm drain constructed of brickwork ^n = 0.015h has the cross section as shown in figure below. If it laid on a slope of 1.5 m/km , the normal discharge
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Page 294 FM 8
when the water level passes through the center of the circle is
In flood stage a natural channel often consists of a deep main channel plus two flood plains as shown in figure below. If the channel has the slope 1 : 2640 everywhere and main channel with clean-earth ^n = . h and the sides are heavy brush, what will be the total flow rate ?
Water flows in a partly full riveted-steel triangular duct ^n = . figure below. If the critical depth is 50 cm , the critical slope is
h as shown in
Two identical channels, one of rectangular bottom width b and one circular of diameter D with identical flow rates, bottom slopes and surface linings are considered. For the flow height of b in rectangular channel and the half full circular channel, the relation between b and D is (A) b = . D (B) b = . D (C) b = . D (D) b = . D Water discharge uniformly at a rate of 12 m3/s upto a distance of 10 km through a 2 m internal diameter circular steel (n = 0.012) drain. For the maximum depth of 1.5 m, the required elevation drop is
FM 8.33
Demo Ebook
Water flows in a equilateral triangular cross section channel as shown in figure. For a given Manning coefficient n and channel slope, the depth that give the maximum flow rate will be
(A) y = . (C) y = .
h h
(B) y = . (D) y = .
h h
FM 8.35
will be the flow depth, velocity and Froude number before the jump ? = . m, V = . m s, Fr = . = . m, V = . m s, Fr = . = . m, V = . m s, Fr = . = . m, V = . m s, Fr = .
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Page 296 FM 8
FM 8.36
FM 8.37
What will be propagation speed of the bore ? (A) 8.6 m/s (B) 12.15 m/s (C) 6.5 m/s (D) 17.2 m/s The induced water velocity is (A) 8.6 m/s (C) 14.3 m/s (B) 5.72 m/s (D) 2.87 m/s
FM 8.38
FM 8.39
Water flows in a rectangular channel with a velocity of V = m s . A gate at the end of the channel is suddenly closed so that a wave (a moving hydraulic jump) travels upstream with velocity Vw = m s as shown in figure. The depths ahead of and behind the wave respectively, are
Consider a uniform flow of water at 30 cm depth down a 1c unfinished-concrete ]n = . g slope when a hydraulic jump occurs, as shown in figure below. If the channel is very wide, the water depth downstream of the jump will be
(A) 39 cm (C) 91 cm
Demo Ebook
FM 8.41
o Consider a triangular flume as shown in figure, is built to carry the flow rate v at a depth of 0.90 m . If the flume is to be able to carry up to twice its flow rate o= v o , what will be the freeboard length l ? v
For the triangular channel as shown in figure, what will be the angle for the best hydraulic cross section (i.e. minimum area A for a given flow rate) ?
The water depths upstream and downstream of a hydraulic jump are 0.3 and 1.2 m , respectively. If the channel is 50 m wide, the upstream velocity and the power dissipated, respectively are (A) 5.42 m/s , 401 kW (B) 4.06 m/s , 301 kW (C) 6.77 m/s , 502kW (D) 2.71 m/s , 202 kW A flow through a wide channel undergoes a hydraulic jump from 40 cm to 140 cm , the percent dissipation will be (A) 50% (B) 46% (C) 25% (D) 23% A hydraulic jump occurs at the base of a spillway of a dam as shown in figure. If the spillway is 100 m wide, the head loss and power dissipated by the hydraulic jump respectively, are
FM 8.44
FM 8.45
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Page 298 FM 8
FM 8.46
During a hydraulic jump in a 10 m wide channel, the flow depth increases from 0.5 m to 4 m . The water flows at a rate of 70 m3/s . What will be the mechanical power wasted during this jump ? (A) 4.35 kW (B) 43.5 MW (C) 43.5 kW (D) 4.35 MW A hydraulic jump occurs in a wide horizontal channel at a flow depth of 0.35 m and an average velocity of 12 m/s , the head loss associated with hydraulic jump is (A) 1.972 m (B) 9.13 m (C) 4.56 m (D) 0.271 m
FM 8.47
FM 8.48
The flow depths y and y respectively, are (A) 8 m, 1.97 m (B) 8 m, 4.97 m (C) 1.97 m, 8 m (D) 8 m, 2.44 m What will be the energy dissipation ratio of the jump ? (A) 0.44 (B) 0.0119 (C) 0.59 (D) 0.55 Consider a channel contraction section as shown in figure below, often called a venturi flume. The losses are neglected and the flow is one-dimensional and subcritical. If b1 = m , b = m , y1 = 1.9 m and y = 1.5 m , what will be the flow rate ?
FM 8.49
FM 8.50
Demo Ebook
A sluice gate is used to control the flow rate of water in a 5 m wide channel. For flow depth of 1.0 m upstream and 0.50 m downstream from the gate, the flow rate of water and downstream Froude number respectively, are
Water flows in a 0.8 m wide rectangular channel at a depth of 0.25 m and discharge at a rate of 0.7 m3/s . If the character of flow is to change, the specific energy and the alternate flow depth of water respectively, are (A) 0.874 m, 0.815 m (B) 1.5 m, 0.815 m (C) 0.0874 m, 8.15 m (D) 1.5 m, 8.15 m Water flows in a 6 m wide rectangular channel at a depth of 0.55 m with a specific energy of 1.224 m . What will be the alternate depth and critical depth of the flow ? (A) y2 = 0.7 2 m, yc = 1.0 m (B) y2 = 1.0 m, yc = 0.7 2 m (C) y2 = 0.55 m, yc = 0.7 2 m (D) y2 = 1.0 m, yc = 0.55 m Water is flowing over a 42 cm high bump at a upstream velocity of 2.5 m/s in a wide channel. If the flow depth is 1.2 m , will the flow be chocked over the bump ?
FM 8.53
FM 8.54
Water flowing in a horizontal open channel with a velocity of 8 m/s and flow depth of 1 m, encounters a 20 cm high bump. What will be the change in water surface level over the bump ? (A) Remains same (B) Increase of 0.23 m (C) Decrease of 0.23 m (D) Increase of 0.03 m
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Page 300 FM 8
FM 8.56
A sharp crested triangular weir with a notch angle of 60c is constructed 0.5 m above the bottom of a 3 m wide channel as shown in figure below. If the flow depth upstream from the weir is 1.5 m, the flow rate of water through the channel is (Take discharge coefficient Cd = . )
A 100c notch angle sharp crested triangular weir is installed to measure the discharge rate of water in a open-channel. If the notch angle of weir is reduced by half, the percentage change in flow rate is (Assume the head of weir and discharge coefficient remain unchanged) (A) 39.1% reduction (B) 60.9% reduction (C) 39.1% increment (D) No change Consider the water flow under a sluice gate with free outflow. The gate is raised to a gap of 40 cm and the upstream flow depth is measured to be 2.4 m . The flow depth and the downstream velocity per unit width are (Cd = . ) (A) y = . m, V = . m s (B) y = . m, V = . m s (C) y = . m, V = . m s (D) y = . m, V = . m s Water is flowing into a channel as shown in figure below under the sluice gate with a 6 m wide and 0.5 m high opening at the bottom. If the flow depth upstream is 5 m and flow depth downstream from the gate is measured to be 2.5 m , the rate of discharge through the gate is (Take discharge coefficient Cd = . )
FM 8.58
FM 8.59
Demo Ebook
FM 8.60
Water flows over a 4 m wide and 1.5 m high broad-crested weir as shown figure below. The free-surface well upstream of the weir is at a height of 0.5 m above the surface of the weir. The flow rate in the channel and the minimum depth of the water above the weir block respectively, are
A 1.1 m high sharp crested rectangular weir is used to measured the flow rate of water in a 6 m wide rectangular channel. If the head above the weir crest is 0.60 m upstream from the weir, the flow rate of water is (A) 18.35 m3 /s (B) 2.174 m3 /s (C) 5.33 m3 /s (D) 8.234 m3 /s What will be the flow rate per unit width q , over a broad-crested weir that is 2.0 m tall and the head H is 0.50 m ? (A) 0.0350 m3 /s (B) 0.350 m2 /s (C) 0.350 m3 /s (D) 3.50 m2 /s Water flows over the rectangular sharp crested weir in a wide channel, which is lined with unfinished concrete (n = . ) with a bottom slope of 2 m/300 m as shown in figure. What will be the downstream depth and will it be possible to produce a hydraulic jump in the channel downstream of the weir ?
FM 8.62
FM 8.63
***********
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Page 302 FM 8
SOLUTIONS
FM 8.1
Option (D) is correct. The Reynolds number of the flow is rVy # # . = . = Re = # m . # Which is greater than critical value of 500. Therefore, the flow is turbulent. Now the Froude number is Fr = V = = . gy . # 0. Which is greater than 1, therefore the flow is supercritical. Option (C) is correct We have Also 0 = 0 y #y 0 y Fr = V = gy 6 . 1 # y@ 1 o V = v = A where y = depth = . y
FM 8.2
Option (A) is correct. Since flow is critical, then Fr = V = 1 gy V =1 gy (5) y =V = g . 1 y = yc = .55 m Thus flow rate becomes o = VAc = V # b # y = 5 # 4 # 2.55 = 51 m3/s v
FM 8.4
Option (B) is correct. From continuity o = Vy = constant v or gy V gy1 Fr2 = V = # Fr1 V1 gy1 V1 # gy o y1 y1 =V # = v # o # y y V1 v
y1 y = b 1l y y
FM 8.5
^pR h R Ac = = perimeter pR = 2 = 1m 2
Demo Ebook
When calculating the Froude number, the hydraulic radius should be used.
For non-rectangular channel hydraulic depth is defined as the ratio of the flow area to top width. pR 2 Ac = 2 = pR = p # 2 = p = 1.570 m yh = 2 4 4 2R Top width Now Froude number . Fr = V = = . gyh . # . Since Fr = 0.637 < 1, therefore the flow is subcritical.
FM 8.6
The flow area and average velocity are 2y bb + b + tan q l Ac = #y 2 4 + 4 + (2 # 0.6/ tan 45c) 2 = # 0.6 = 2.76 m 2 o V = v = m s = . . Ac Ac . . Hydraulic depth y = yh = = 0.5308 m = = y Top width + # . b+ tan c tan q . Then Froude number Fr1 = V = = . gyh . # . Since Fr > 1, therefore the flow is supercritical.
FM 8.7
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Page 304 FM 8
Since c = gy It follows that the tank depth is = y =c = m g If the tank accelerates upward with acceleration a , the effective acceleration of gravity is geff = g + a = + = m s Thus = c = geff y = m s # If the tank accelerates horizontally with acceleration a , the effective acceleration is geff = Thus In orbit
FM 8.8
g +a =
m s
Option (A) is correct. The flow area, wetted perimeter and hydraulic radius of this channel are Ac = b # y = # = m perimeter = b + y = + # = m and Rh = Ac = = . m p Now from Manning equation, flow rate o = a Ac R h S v n = 1 # 2 # (0.5) 2/3 # (0.0105) 1/2 = 10.76 m3/s 0.012
FM 8.9
Option (B) is correct. The flow area, wetted perimeter and Hydraulic radius of the channel are Flow area Ac = 2h # h = 2 # 2 # 2 = 4 m2 2 2 Wetted perimeter = 2# h = 2# 2 = 4 2 m sin 45c sin 45c Ac Hydraulic Radius = 4 = 1 = 0.7071 m Rh = perimeter 4 2 2 o = a Ac (Rh) # S Hence, Discharge rate v n = 1 # 4 # (0.7071) 2/3 # (0.008727) 1/2 0.013 = 22.8 m3/s Option (D) is correct For a half-full channel, A = pR The volume flow rate is , perimeter = pR , Rh = R and b = R .
FM 8.10
# 6p # ] . .
= .
m s
Demo Ebook
We denote the flow conditions for two separate channels by subscript 1 and the conditions for the combined wide channel by subscript 2. The Manning coefficient, channel slope and the flow area Ac remain constant, the flow rate in case 2 can be expressed in terms of flow rate in case 1 as
2/3 1/2 (a/n) Ac R h S2 Ac /perimeter2 2/3 o2 Rh 2/3 perimeter1 2/3 v = = = = = G ; ; E 2/3 1/2 o1 perimeter2 E Rh Ac /perimeter1 v (a/n) Ac R h S1 For condition 1:
2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
perimeter1 = 6 # 5 = 30 cm For condition 2: perimeter 2 = 4 # 5 = 20 cm Substituting these values, we get o2 v 30 2/3 = 1.31 (31% increase) = : o1 20 D v
FM 8.12
Option (C) is correct. The hydraulic radius A = 3 # 1 = 0.6 m perimeter 3 + 1 + 1 For finished concrete, flow rate (From Mannings formula) 2 3 1 2 o1 = 1 AR h v S = 1 # 3 # ( . ) 2 3 # ( . 1 ) 1 2 = 6.65 m3/s n . 12 Rh = Also for asphalt
2 3 1 2 o2 = 1 AR h v S = 1 # 3 # ( . )2 3 # ( . n . 1
1 ) 1 2 = 5 m3/s
Option (A) is correct. The flow area, wetted perimeter and hydraulic radius for this flow are Ac = y # b = 3. m2 perimeter = 2y + b y Since = 0.4 & y = 0.4b b From equation (i) and (ii), 0.4 # b # b = 3.6 0.4b2 = 3.6 b2 = 3.6 = 9 0.4 ...(i) ...(ii)
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Page 306 FM 8
b = 3m y = 0.4 # 3 = 1.2 m and Perimeter = 2 # 1.2 + 3 = 5.4 m Ac And hydraulic radius = 3.6 = 0.6667 m Rh = perimeter 5.4 o = a Ac Rh Thus the flow rate v S n = 1 # 3.6 # (0.6667) 2/3 # (0.002) 1/2 = 6.14 m3/s 0.02 Hence, the critical depth is o yc = = v G = = G = 0.753 m gb #] g Since y > yc, the channel at these flow condition is classified as mild and the flow is subcritical.
FM 8.14
Option (C) is correct. From mannings equation, the flow rate o = a AR h S v n Without the center board A = bb b l = b And Thus
b and perimeter = b + b 2 + 2 = 2b
And Thus
...(iii)
Dividing equation (iii) by (i) to obtain 2 2/3 2b b l # b b l 2 6 owith v = 0.763 owithout = b2 v b 2/3 b 2 l#b4l or 100 76.3 = 23.7% reduction
FM 8.15
Option (C) is correct. o) becomes After joining the three pipes, the net flow rate (v o1 o = 3v v o = a AR h S o = a A Rh S Where and v v n n With n = n , S = S , A = pD .
..(i)
Demo Ebook
Hence
FM 8.16
= 3 (D1) 8/3 or D =
Option (A) is correct. The flow area, wetted perimeter and hydraulic radius of channel are Flow area Ac = 1 # (10 + 5) # (2.2) = 16.5 m2 2 Wetted perimeter And hydraulic radius p = 5 + 2 # (2.2) 2 + (2.5) 2 = 11.66 m
. = . Rh = Ac = m p . Substituting the given parameters into Mannings equation o = a Ac R h S v n a = constant = 1 m1/3 /s , S = Slope 1/2 Thus 120 = 1 # 16.5 # (1.415) 2/3 # S 0 0.016 1 2 = 120 # 0.016 2/3 S0 16.5 # (1.415) S 0 = 0.008524 Therefore, the elevation drop z across a pipe length of L = 1 m must be z = S 0 # L = 0.00 2 # 1000 = 8.52 m Where
FM 8.17
Option (A) is correct. The wave angle and depth give Fr = 1 = 2.37 sin 25c V = 2.37 or c V = 2.37 # c = 2.37 # gy = 2.37 # 9.81 # 0.35 = 4.39 m/s Flow rate per meter width 3 o = V # y = . # 0. = 1.54 m /s v m Hence (1. ) 2 1 o2 1 v yC = ; E = ; g . 1 E , 0.62 m = 62 cm
Fr = V c c= gy
o2 1 yC = e v b2 g o
FM 8.18
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Page 308 FM 8
Average shear stress given by the relation w = gRh S Where For a wide flat plate So that and Thus
FM 8.19
Rh =
A = y = 8 # 103 m perimeter
...(i)
Perimeter1 = 7]1.0g2 + ]3.0g2A = 3.16 m A1 Rh = = 1.50 = 0.475 m Perimeter1 3.16 and A = 3 # 1.5 = 4.5 m2 , Perimeter 2 = 0.5 + 3 + 1.5 = 5 m A2 Rh = = 4.5 = 0.90 m 5 Perimeter2 1 1.50 # (0.475) 2/3 # (0.002) 1/2 0.025 # + 1 # 4.5 # (0.90) 2/3 # (0.002) 1/2 0.012 o - 17.3 m3/s v o= v
or
FM 8.20
Option (C) is correct. From Mannings equation o = a Ac ^Rh h S v n 5 + 5 + ^2 # 0.69h 2 Ac = # 0.69 = 3.92 m 2 Ac 3.92 Rh = = = 0.565 m perimeter 5 + 2 # 0.69 sin 45c ...(i)
a = 1 m1/3 /s n = 0.014 for unfinished surface o = 25 m3/s v Substitute these numerical values in equation (i),
Demo Ebook
Since
FM 8.21
1/2 1 3.92 # (0.565) 2/3 # S 0 0.014 # 25 # 0.014 S = 3.92 # (0.565) 2/3 2 S = ; 25 # 0.014 2/3 E = 0.01706 3.92 # (0.565) S = tan q = 0.01706 = tan1 (0.01706) = 0.98 , 1c
25 =
Option (D) is correct. The geometry leads to these values A = by + y cot q = 5 # 3.2 + (3.2) 2 cot 40c = 28.2 m2 perimeter = b + y cosec q = 5 + 2 # 3.2 # cosec 40c = 14.96 m A Rh = = 28.2 = 1.885 m perimeter 14.96 o= v 60 = or n AR h S
FM 8.22
Option (D) is correct. 2y y Ac = 1 # bb + b + 2 tan 30c l # 2 = 1 # b4 + 4 + 2 # 2 = 14.93 m2 2 tan 30c l # y Wetted perimeter = b + = + # = m sin c sin c Ac Hydraulic radius = 14.93 = 1.244 m Rh = 12 perimeter Flow area Bottom slope Hence the flow rate tan = tan (0.057) = 0.001 o = a Ac R h S v n = 1 # 14.93 # (1.244) 2/3 # (0.001) 1/2 0.015 = 36.4 m3/s
FM 8.23
The flow area, wetted perimeter and hydraulic radius of the channel are b + b + 2y 1.5 + 1.5 + 2 # 1 1 = 2.5 m2 Ac = #y = # 2 2
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Page 310 FM 8
perimeter = b + Rh =
y +y =
+ # ] g +] g =
Ac = 2.5 = 0.5776 m perimeter 4.328 From Mannings equation o = a Ac R h S v n 1/2 10 = 1 # 2.5 # (0.5776) 2/3 # S 0 0.022 S 0 = 0.0161 Therefore the elevation drop z across a pipe length of L = m is z = S 0 L = 0.0161 # 2000 = 32.2 m
FM 8.24
Option (D) is correct From mannings equation, the flow rate is 1 o = a AR h S 0 ...(i) v n Let subscript t and r denotes the triangle cross-section and the rectangular crosssection respectively.
or = v ot = 2 m3 /s , S 0r = S 0t = 10 and nr = nt We have v 00 So that equation (i) becomes A where Rh = Ar R hr = At R ht erimeter Thus Ar = 2y r2 , Perimeterr = 4yr So that Also So that Rhr = 2y r2 1 = yr 2 4yr At = 1 (2yt) yt = y t2 , Perimetert = 2 ( 2 yt) 2 y Rht = t 2 2
...(ii)
Thus from equation (ii), 2/3 2y r2 b 1 yr l = y t c 1 yt m , 2 1.26 y r8/3 = 0.5 y t8/3 yr = 0.707yt The amount of wood is proportional to the wetted perimeter. Since Perimetert = 2 2 yt = 2 2 yt = 1.00 4yr 4 # 0.707yt Perimeterr
Option (D) is correct. The channel involves two parts with different roughness and thus it is appropriate
Demo Ebook
to divide the channel into two subsections. For subsection 1. Ac = 3 # 2 = 6 m2 perimeter1 = 3 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 6 m Ac Rh = = 6 = 1m perimeter1 6
1 1 1
Ac = 10 # 1 = 10 m2 perimeter2 = 10 + 1 = 11 m Ac Rh = = 10 = 0.909 m perimeter 2 11 Applying the Manning equation to each subsection, the total flow rate through the channel becomes o1 + v o ototal = v v = a # Ac R h S 1 + a # Ac R h S 1 n1 n
2 1 1
= a #=
Ac # R h A R + c # h G # S1 n1 n
1 1
Option (D) is correct. For entire channel Ac = Ac + Ac = 1 + = 1 m perimeter = perimeter1 + perimeter 2 = 6 + 11 = 17 m Ac Rh = = 16 = 0.941 m perimeter 17
1
Hence, the effective Manning coefficient for entire channel a A R S1 neff = # c # o h # v 1 16 (0.941) 2/3 # (0.00873) 1/2 = # # = 0.0315 45.56
FM 8.27
Option (C) is correct For a V-channel A = y cot q = y cot perimeter = 2y cosec q 2 and Thus or y y A = cos q = cos 45c 2 2 perimeter 2 o = 1 AR h S 1 v n 1/2 2/3 y 11.35 = 1 # y 2 cot 45c # a cos 45ck # b 1 l 2 0.014 400 Rh = 11.35 = 1.7857 y 8/3 y = 11.35 = 6.356 1.7857 c
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Page 312 FM 8
or
FM 8.28
= cos1 (0.5) = 60c or 60 # p = p radians 180 3 Flow area Ac = R (q sin q cos q) = (0.5) 2 9 p sin a p k cos a p kC = 0.1535 m2 3 3 3 R (q sin q cos q) Rh = Ac = = q sin q cos q # R p Rq 2q p sin p cos p 3 3 # 0.5 = 0.1466 m = 3 p 2# 3 Thus the flow rate can be o = a Ac R h S v n = 1 # (0.1535) # (0.1466) 2/3 # (0.002) 1/2 0.012 Hydraulic radius = 0.159 m3 /s
FM 8.29
Option (B) is correct. The section properties are A = p R2 + R2 = R2 a1 + p k 4 4 = 12 # a1 + p k = 1.785 m2 4 perimeter = 1 # 2pR + 1 + 1 4 = 1 # 2p # 1 + 1 + 1 = 3.57 m 4 A So Rh = = 1.785 = 0.5 m and S = perimeter 3.57 Hence o= v = n AR h S
= .
m m
= 2.90 m3 /s
Demo Ebook
FM 8.30
Option (D) is correct We compute the flow rate in three pieces with the dashed lines in the figure above serving as water walls which are not counted as part of the perimeter. o+ v o ototal = v ...(i) v For o = v A Rh S n # A = ^y + y h # b = ^ + . h # = m Rh = 132 = 5.077 m ^6 + 20h 1/2 o = 1 # 132 # ]5.077g2/3 # b 1 l = 344.95 m3 /s v 0.022 2640 , 345 m3 /s For o = v A Rh S n #
So
Thus
FM 8.31
Option (B) is correct. The cross-section properties are yC = 0.5 m h yC . = . b = . h And Since or or h=
] g ] . g = .
= 0.423 m AC = 1 # ^0.423 + 1h # 0.5 = 0.356 m2 2 gAC b o g A g A VC = # C or v = # C b b AC ) # . o = AC # g = ( . v . b o = 1.046 m3 /s v VC = perimeter = 1 + 0.577 + 0.577 = 2.15 m Rh = A = 0.356 = 0.165 m 2.15 perimeter
o VC = v AC
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Page 314 FM 8
FM 8.32
orect. = a Ac # R h S v n
= a b # bb l n
#S
= a # pD # b D l # S n
= a S # pD n # Setting the flow rates in the flow channels are equal, we get ocir. = v orect. v a S n# # D = a #S # b n ] g ] g # 8/3 8/3 D = b 2/3 8 # ]4g2/3 ]3g 3/8 b = p # ]3g2/3 = 0.655 = D 8 # ]4g2/3 G b = 0.655D
FM 8.33
Demo Ebook
cos =
yR = R
= ]1g2 :2p sin 2p # cos 2p D = 2.527 m2 3 3 3 2p sin 2p cos 2p A q q q sin cos 3 3 #1 c = Rh = #R = 3 p 2 perimeter 2q 2# 3 = 0.6034 m Substituting the given values in Mannings equation, we get o = a Ac R h S v n 12 = 1 # 2.527 # (0.6034) 2/3 # (S 0) 1/2 0.012 2 12 # 0.012 S =; 2/3 E = 0.00637 1 # 2.527 # (0.6034) Therefore, the elevation drop z across a pipe length must be z = S L = = 63.7 m
FM 8.34
#1
2 o = a AR h v S1 2 n
l = A A Perimeter Rh o v
2h , b = 2 (h y) , l = y tan 60c tan c s sin c 1 [h2 (h y) 2] = 1 lh 1 b (h y) = 2 2 tan 60c 1 [2hy y2] = tan 60c y = l + 2ls = 2 b h + tan c sin c l 2hy y2 A = = y Perimeter 2 ah + cos 60c k 2 2hy y 2 a 1 2 (2hy y ) = # S1 2 n y tan c >2ah + H cos c k
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Demo Ebook
Page 316 FM 8
o For the maximum flow rate dv = , which is equivalent to dF = , where dy dy (2hy y2) 5/3 (y + h cos 60c) 2/3 By differentiation and simplification this gives F y / 5 (y + h cos 60c) (h y) (2hy y 2) = 0 or 4y 2 + (5h cos 60c 3h) y 5h2 cos 60c = 0 Which can be written as y 2 y 8a k a k 5 = 0 h h 1 ! 1 + 4 (8 # 5) y = = 0.731 or + 0.856 16 h The negative root has no physical meaning. Thus y = 0.856h So that
FM 8.35
Option (C) is correct. For depth ratio of 10 and the discharge coefficient for underflow is Cd = 0. discharge rate through the slice gate o = Cd ba gy1 v y1 Since = 10 a y a = 1 = 5 = 0.5 10 10 Thus o = 0.58 # 1 # 0.5 # 2 # 9.81 # 5 = 2.872 m3 /s v
, the
FM 8.36
For wide channels, hydraulic radius is the flow depth Rh = y . Then from Mannings equation 1 o = a # Ac R h S 0 v n 2.872 = 1 # (b # y2) # (y2) 2/3 # [tan (0.23c)] 1/2 0.012 2.872 = 1 # 1 # y2 # y22/3 # (0.004) 1/2 0.012 = 0.545 y2 = 2.872 # 0.012 1 # (0.004) 1/2 y2 = (0.545) 3/5 = 0.6947 m Now, flow velocity and Froude number before the jump are o 2.872 V2 = v = = .1 m s 7 by2 1 # 0. .1 Fr2 = V2 = = 1. 8 gy2 .81 # 0. 7 Option (D) is correct. For after the jump condition, flow depth y = 0.5y2 ( 1 + 1 + 8Fr22 ) = 0.5 # 0.6947 # ( 1 + 1 + 8 # (1.584) 2 = 1.25 m y 7 Velocity .1 = 2.3 m/s V = 2 # V2 = 0. y 1. 2 # 2. 0 Froude Number Fr 3 = V = = 0. 7 gy .81 # 1.2
Demo Ebook
FM 8.37
or Thus
FM 8.38
Option (D) is correct. The bore moves at speed V and induced a velocity V behind it. If viewed in a frame fixed to the wave as above, the downstream V = V DV . Vy Since V = = . # = . m s y Thus V = V V = 8.6 5.73 = 2.87 m/s Option (B) is correct For an observer moving to the left with speed Vw = m s the flow appears as shown below.
FM 8.39
Thus treat as a jump with V = m s , V = m s Since AV =A V y or =V = = y V From the depth ratio y 2 @= 4 = 1 6 1 + 1 + 8Fr 1 y 2 However So that and
FM 8.40
Option (C) is correct. The upstream velocity is R S n# h = 1 # ]0.3g2/3 # ]tan 1cg1/2 = 4.23 m/s 0.014 . Fr1 = V = , . gy . # . V =
And
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Demo Ebook
Page 318 FM 8
Option (A) is correct. Using the subscript 0 for the design conditions and 2 for denote conditions. o0 o = 2v We have v o = a A R h S where a = Flow rate v n A = 2 :1 # 0.9 # 0.9D = 0.81 m2 2 and Hence or Also Where perimeter 0 = 2 [ (0.9) 2 + (0.9) 2 ] = 2.55 m A0 Rh = = 0.81 = 0.318 m perimeter 0 2.55 o = v o v o v . #( . n # . S = n = a A Rh S n ) S ...(i)
A =y Rh =
and perimeter 2 = 2 2 y2
o = v or
y ( . n # # S n y
y)
#S ..(ii)
o = . v
l =
y2 0.9 1.167 0.9 = = 0.378 m sin 45c sin 45c or with a , n , S constant ...(i)
o aS dRh E dv ;R h dA + A b l R h = n dq dq d o Thus for a given flow rate dv = and for the minimum area dA = d d equation (i) gives dRh = 0 d A Also Rh = perimeter
Demo Ebook
where or Since
A = 1 b # (l cos q) and perimeter = 2l 2 b # l cos q 1 = b cos q 4 2l it follows that sin = b or l = b 2l in q A = 1 b b b cos q l 2 2 sin q Rh =
1 2
..(ii)
or b = 2 A # tan q Thus equation (ii) becomes Rh = cos q (2 A # tan q ) = 1 A (sin q cos q) 1/2 2 4 dRh = 1 (sin q cos q) 1/2 1 A1/2 dA So that #2 2 d dq + 1 A # b 1 l (sin q cos q) 1/2 (cos2 q sin2 q) 2 2 (i.e. minimum area), dRh = when cos2 - sin2 = 0 d
With dA = d or
FM 8.43
= 45c i.e. the best hydraulic cross-section occurs with a right angle triangle. Option (A) is correct. The depth- ratio across a hydraulic jump is given by the relation y 2 = 1 6 1 + 1 + 8Fr 1 @ y 2 1.2 = 1 7 1 + 1 + 8Fr 2 A 1 0.3 2
2 or Fr1 = 3.16 (9) 2 = 1 + 8Fr 1 Since Fr1 = V1 1/2 (gy1) V = 3.16 # 69.81 # 0.3@ 1/2 = 5.42 m/s The power dissipated is given by oL P = gvh
Option (D) is correct. With the jump height ratio y 2 = 1 6 1 + 8Fr 1 1@ 2 y 140 = 1 2 1@ 1 + 8Fr 1 2 #6 40 7 =
2 1 1 + 8Fr 1
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Demo Ebook
Page 320 FM 8
or
or Since And
+ = m E = y +V = g # ^y2 y1h3 ]1.4 0.4g 3 Thus hf = = 0.45 m = 4y1 y2 4 # 0. 4 # 1. 4 Therefore percentage dissipation h = f = , 23% E Option (B) is correct. From the depth ratio y = y 3.6 = 0.9 or But
FM 8.45
1 7 1 + 1 + 8Fr 2 A 1 2 1 7 1 + 1 + 8Fr 2 A 1 2
Thus And
Fr1 = 3.16 Fr1 = V gy V = 3.16 59.81 # 0.9? 1/2 = 9.39 m/s o = A V = by V = v # . # . y y hL = y = + Fr ' b l 1G y y
= 845 m3/s
Option (D) is correct. The average velocities before and after the jump are o V = v = = m s b#y # . o V = v = = . m s b#y # Head loss ( ) ( . hL = y y + V V = ( . ) ( ) + g # . )
= 6.33 m The mass flow rate of water is o = rv o= m g s # = Then the dissipated mechanical power becomes o # hL = 70000 # 9.81 # 6.33 Pmechanicl = mg = 4346811 W - 4.35 MW
Demo Ebook
FM 8.47
Froude number before the hydraulic jump is Fr1 = V = = . gy . # . Fr1 > 1, therefore the flow is supercritical before the jump. The flow depth after the jump is y = 0.5y1 8 1 + 1 + 8Fr 2 B
1
= 0.5 # 0.35 # 8 1 + 1 + 8 # (6.476) 2 B = 3.035 m From continuity equation Vy =Vy y V =V = # . = . y . Now from the energy equation, head loss is 2 2 hL = (y1 y2) + V 1 V 2 2g (0.35 3.035) + m s
Option (A) is correct. Flow depth before the sluice gate is y =V #y = = m . # V Now Froude number after the jump Fr 3 = V = = . gy . # Then flow depth y is y = 0.5y 3 [ 1 + 1 + 8Fr 32 ] = 0.5 # 3 # 8 1 + 1 + 8 # (0.7373) 2 B = 1.97 m
FM 8.49
Option (B) is correct. Energy dissipation ratio is defined as the ratio of head loss to the energy dissipated. Dissipation ratio = hL ...(i) Es Now, velocity before the jump y V = #V = = 6.092 m/s y . # Head loss due to jump
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Demo Ebook
Page 322 FM 8
g =
Option (B) is correct Applying the Continuity and Energy equations to eliminate V o=Vy b =Vy b Continuity : v Energy: E = y +V = y +V g g Combining equation (i) and (ii) to eliminate V . V = 2g (y1 y2) + V 12 = 2g (y1 y2) + V 22 # c y2 b2 2 y1 b 1 m
...(i) ...(ii)
Option (C) is correct. When frictional effects are negligible and the flow section is horizontal, the specific energy remains constant. Es = Es y +V = y +V g g o o v v =y + y + g # (b # y ) g # (b # y ) o2 o2 v v = + 1+ 0.5 2 # 9.81 # (5 # 1) 2 2 # 9.81 # (5 # 0.5) 2 o2 0.5 = 0.006114v o = 9.0 m3/s v Hence, the downstream velocity and Froude number are o V = v = = . m s b#y # . . and Fr2 = V = gy . # . = 1.625
o V= v by
Demo Ebook
FM 8.52
The specific energy of water is to be Es = y + V g where y = flow depth = 0.25 m V = Velocity of water = Thus Es = 0.25 + Discharg e 0.7 = 3.5 m/s = 0.25 # 0.8 Ac
(3.5) 2 = 0.874 m 2 # 9.81 Now alternate depth y is to be determined by ( . ) o Es = y + v =y + gb y # . # . #y 0.874 = y + 0.0 y Solving above equation y = 0.815 m There are three roots of this equation. One for subcritical (y = 0.815), one for supercritical (y = 0.25 m) and third one as a Negative root. Therefore, if the character of flow is changed from supercritical to subcritical while holding specific energy constant, the flow depth will rise from 0.25 m to 0.815 m .
FM 8.53
Option (B) is correct. Specific energy of flow is to be Es = y + V g V2 = E y s 2g V = 2g (Es y) = 2 # 9.81 # (1.224 0.55) = 3.636 m/s Now, the flow rate becomes o = V#b#y = . v Alternate depth is determined from Es = Es Es = y + 1.224 = y + o v gb y = y + 0. 04 y #y
# # 0.
m s
( ) # .8 # 2 1.224y 2 = y + 0. 04 y . 4y + 0. 04 = 0 By solving above equation y = 1.03 m Now the critical depth of flow
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Demo Ebook
Page 324 FM 8
o yc = e v o gb
FM 8.54
==
] g G #] g
= 0.742 m
Option (B) is correct. The upstream Froude number and critical depth are . Fr1 = V = = . gy . # . (V by ) o y V and yc = = v G = = G =; g E gb gb ]1.2g2 # ]2.5g2 1/3 =; E = 0.972 m 9.81 Since Fr11, the flow is subcritical and the flow depth decreases over the bump. The upstream over the bump and critical specific energies are ( . ) = . m Es = y + V = ( . ) + g # . Es = Es Dzb = . . = . m
Ec = 3 # yc = 3 # 0.972 = 1.46 m 2 2 It is show that Es < Ec . That is specific energy of the fluid decreases below the level of energy at the critical point, which is minimum energy and this is impossible. Therefore, the flow at specified conditions cannot exist. The flow is choked.
FM 8.55
The upstream Froude number and the critical depth are Fr1 = V = = . gy . # (V by ) o V y ] g #] g yc = = v G = = E G =; g E =; . gb gb = 1.868 m Since Fr1 > 1, the upstream flow is supercritical and flow depth increases over the bump. The upstream, over the bump and critical specific energies are Es = y + V = + g # . Es = Es Dzb = . .
] g
= . = .
m m
Ec = 3 # yc = 3 # 1.868 = 2.802 m 2 2 The flow depth (y2) over the bump is determined from y (Es Dzb) y + V y = 0 g
Demo Ebook
y Es y + V y = 0 g y #y +
] g
#] g = 0
=0 y y + By solving above equation, the physically meaningful root of this equation is determined to be y = 1.03 m Therefore, there is a rise of y y + Dzb = 1.03 1 + 0.2 = 0.23 m
FM 8.56
Option (C) is correct. The discharge rate of water through the channel is o = 8 Cd # 2g tan b q l # H 5/2 v 15 2 Where Thus H = Heigh f weir = 1.5 0.5 = 1 m o = 8 # 0.60 # 2 # 9.81 # tan b 60c l # ]1g5/2 v 15 2 = 0.818 m3 /s
FM 8.57
Option (B) is correct. The discharge rate through the triangular weir is o = 8 # Cd # tan b q l # 2g # H 5/2 v 15 2 For constant Cd and H , discharge depends on tan b l 2 Therefore Where and Then o v o v
c
= k # tan b
k = constant = 8 Cd # 2g # H 5/2 15
c
= k # tan b
0c tan _ 52 i o c v = = 0.4663 = 0.391 100c o v c tan _ 2 i 1.1917 When the notch angle is reduced by half, the discharge rate drops to 39.1% of original level. There for percent change in the discharge is Percent Reduction = 1 0.391 = 0.609 = 60.9%
FM 8.58
The discharge rate per unit width o = Cd ab gy = 0.57 # 0.4 # 1 # 2 # 9.81 # 2.4 = 1.56 m3 /s v When the frictional effects are negligible in horizontal flow, the specific energy
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Demo Ebook
Page 326 FM 8
. # . # #y Solving above equation y = 0.238 m for flow depth as the physically meaningful root (positive and less than 2.4 m ). o o . And downstream velocity V = v = v = = 6.55 m/s Ac by # .
FM 8.59
Option (D) is correct. The depth ratio y a and the contraction coefficient y a for this flow are y y = . = = 5 = 10 and a 0.5 a . The discharge coefficient corresponding to these values of (y1 /a) and (y2 /a) is determined from a experimental graph between Cd and (y1 /a, y2 /a) is Cd = . . Then the discharge rate becomes o = Cd ba gy = . # # . # v # . # = 14.3 m3/s Option (C) is correct. For broad- crested weir, the flow rate is given by the relation o = Cwb b g b l v And Thus and Cwb = H where Cwb = Broad crested weir coefficient
FM 8.60
0.65 = 0.65 = 0.563 0.5 1/2 H 1/2 _1 + 1 i _1 + H i .5 3/2 o = 0.563 # 4 # (9.81) 1/2 # b 2 l # (0.5) 3/2 = 1.36 m3/s v 3 y min = yc = H = 2 # 0.5 = 0.333 m 3
w
FM 8.61
The flow rate measure by a rectangular weir is given by o = 2 # Cd # 2g # b # H 3/2 v 3 And Cd = 0.598 + 0.0897 # H Hw = 0.598 + 0.0897 # 0.60 = 0.6469 1. 1
Demo Ebook
The condition H Hw < is satisfied. Since 0.60/1.1 = 0.55, then the water flow rate through the channel o = 2 # 0.6469 # 2 # 9.81 # 6 # (0.6) 3/2 = 5.33 m3 /s v 3
FM 8.62
Option (B) is correct. We have Substitute Thus # g #b l # H H + b Hw l H = 0.5 m and Hw = . o q =v = b . q = 0.65 2 3/2 (0.5) 3/2 1/2 (9.81) b # # 3l # 0.5 1/2 b1 + 2 l .0 = 0.350 m2/s
FM 8.63
Option (D) is correct. For rectangular sharp crested weir, flow rate is o = 2 Cwr 2g bH 3/2 where Cwr = rectangular weir coefficient v 3 And Cwr = 0.611 + 0.075 b H l Hw Thus H = 3 2.2 = 0.8 m and Hw = . o = 2 ;0.611 + 0.075 # b 0.8 lE # 62 # 9.81@ 1/2 b (0.8) 3/2 v 3 2.2 ...(i)
= 1.349b m3/s o o b= . V = v = v = . y by by A For uniform flow (From mannings formula) o = a AR h S where a = v n S = 2 = 0.00667 300 Also for a wide channel So that Thus with n = . o = 1.349b = v 1 by (y ) 2/3 (0.00667) 1/2 0.014 # 1 # 1 # and perimeter1 = 2y1 + b by1 A1 = . y1 if b >> y Rh = perimeter1 (2y1 + b) A = by
or y = 0.415 m Now from equation (i), V = 1.349 = 3.25 m/s 0.415 . So that Fr1 = V = = 1.61 gy 6. # . @ Since Fr1 > 1, it is possible to produce a jump.
***********
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FM 9
TURBO MACHINERY
FM 9.1
Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below List-I P. Wind mills 1. 2. 3. 4. Q 3 4 1 2 R 4 3 2 1 S 1 2 3 4 Q. Fans R. Water-meters S. Heart Codes : P (A) 2 (B) 1 (C) 4 (D) 3 List-II Dynamic pump Positive-Displacement turbine Positive-Displacement Pump Dynamic turbine
FM 9.2
Match List I (Machines) with List II (Features) and select the correct answer using the codes given below : List-I P. Q. R. S. Steam Engine Impulse turbine Reaction turbine Centrifugal compressor P 3 2 2 3 Q 4 1 4 1 R 2 3 3 2 S 1 4 1 4 1. 2. 3. 4. List-II Velocity compounding Diagram factor Continuous pressure drop. Isentropic efficiency
A water pump increases the pressure of the water passing through it. The flow is assumed to be incompressible. If outer diameter (Dout) is less than inlet diameter (Din), how will average water speeds Vout and Vin change across the pump ? (A) Vout = Vin (B) Vout 1Vin (C) Vout 2Vin (D) None of these For each statement about centrifugal pump, (1) A centrifugal pump with radial blades has higher efficiency than the same pump with backward-inclined blades. (2) At the pumps shutoff head, the pump efficiency is zero. (3) A centrifugal pump with forward-inclined blades is a good choice when one needs to provide a large pressure rise over a wide range of volume flow
FM 9.4
rates. (4) At pumps free delivery, the pump efficiency is zero. Which of the above is/are TRUE ? (A) 1, 2 and 3 (B) 2 and 3 (C) 1 and 4 (D) 2, 3 and 4
FM 9.5
Water at 20cC is delivered by a pump with 1500 L/min against a pressure rise of 270 kN/m2 . The driving motor supplies 9 kW of power. If the change in kinetic and potential energies are negligible, the overall efficiency of the pump is (A) 68% (B) 50% (C) 71% (D) 75% A pump delivers 18.0 L/ min. of water at a net head of 1.6 m at its best efficiency point. If the maximum pump efficiency is 70% , the power (bhp) required to run the pump is (A) 403 W (B) 6.72 W (C) 3.3 W (D) 197 W A centrifugal pump delivers 125 m3/h of water at 20cC when the brake horsepower is 22 and the efficiency is 71% . The pressure rise in kPa, is (A) 345 (B) 333 (C) 405 (D) 33.3 Consider a pump runs at 880 rpm to deliver water at 20cC with 35 m3/ min of flow rate through the system as shown in figure below. If the pipe has 20 cm diameter and is made of commercial steel (f = 0.0144), what will be the pump head ?
FM 9.6
FM 9.7
FM 9.8
(A) 55 m (C) 63 m
FM 9.9
(B) 58 m (D) 48 m
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below : List-I P. Draft tube 1. 2. 3. 4. S 2 Q. Pumps R. Impulse-Turbine S. Reaction-Turbine Q 4 R 1 Codes : P (A) 3 List-II Kinetic Energy Momentum Exchange Diffuser Pressure-rise
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Page 330 FM 9
4 2 1
3 1 4
2 4 3
1 3 2
Consider the following statements : A water turbine governor 1. helps in starting and shutting down the turbo unit. 2. controls the speed of turbine set to match it with the hydroelectric system. 3. sets the amount of load, which a turbine unit has to carry. Which of these statements are correct ? (A) 1 and 2 (B) 2 and 3 (C) 1, 2 and 3 (D) 1 and 3 Water at 20cC is sprinkled at 14 m3/h by a 36 cm diameter turbine as shown in figure below. If the nozzle exit diameter is 8 mm , the appropriate rotation rate will be
FM 9.11
Consider a typical Draft tube for each statement. P. It permits a negative head to be established at the outlet of runner and thereby increase the net head on the turbine. Q. Recovers some of the kinetic energy leaving the turbine. R. Turns the flow horizontally leaving the turbine runner. S. It permits a negative head to be established at the outlet of runner and thereby decrease the net head on the turbine. Which of the above is/are FALSE ? (A) P and Q (B) Q and R (C) R and S (D) S only If the full-scale turbine is required to work under a head of 30 m and to run at 428 rpm , then a quarter-scale turbine model tested under a head of 10 m must run at (A) 988 rpm (B) 143 rpm (C) 341 rpm (D) 428 rpm For each statements If the rpm of a pump is doubled, all else staying the same, P. the capacity of the pump goes up by a factor of about 2. Q. the net head of the pump goes up by a factor of about 2.
FM 9.13
FM 9.14
R. the required shaft power goes up by S. the output shaft power of the pump Which of the above is/are TRUE ? (A) P and R (C) Q and S
FM 9.15
A pump delivers water at a rate of 3 m3/s when operating at a speed of 60 rad/s against a head of 20 m . Which type of pump is this ? (A) Radial-flow pump (B) Axial-flow pump (C) None of these (D) Mixed-flow pump Turbine-A has diameter DA = . m and spins at NA = rpm . At its best o efficiency point, vA = 2 m /s , HA = 2. m of water and bhp A = 132 MW . The turbine-B will spin at 240 rpm and its net head will be HB = . m . What will oB and bhp B such that it operates most efficiently ? be the diameter DB , v oB = (A) DB = . m , v m /s , bhpB = 126 MW oB = (B) DB = 2. m , v m /s , bhpB = 1057 MW oB = m /s , bhpB = 14 MW (C) DB = . m , v oB = 42 m /s , bhpB = 341 MW (D) DB = 2. m, v A centrifugal pump having an impeller diameter of 1 m is to be designed so that it will supply a head rise of 200 m at a flow rate of 4.1 m3/s of water when operating at a speed of 1200 rpm . To study the characteristic of this pump, a 1/5 scale, geometrically similar model operated at the same speed is to be tested in the laboratory. If both model and prototype operate with the same efficiency (and therefore the same flow coefficient), the required model discharge and head rise respectively, are (A) 0.00328 m3 /s , 0.8 m (B) 0.0328 m3 /s , 8 m (C) 3.28 m3 /s , 12 m (D) 0.328 m3 /s , 80 m Which one of the following relation is true for dimensionless parameters of two dynamically similar pumps ? /4 oB /2 oB /2 HB /4 v (A) DB = DA # b HA l # c v (B) D # B = DA # b l m c oA oA m HA HB v v /2 oB /4 oA /2 HA /4 v (C) DB = DA # b HA l # c v (D) D # B = DA # b l m c oA oB m HB HB v v Which of the following relation is true for specific speed of turbine and specific speed of the pump ? (B) NST = NSP # hturbine (A) NSP = NST (C) NST = NSP (D) NST = NSP # hturbine hturbine Which of the following water turbines do not require a draft tube ? (A) Propeller turbine (B) Pelton turbine (C) Kaplan turbine (D) Francis turbine A pump delivers 0.0003 m3/s of water at a net head of 1.6 m at its best efficiency point. A motor that spins at 1200 rpm is available. If pump is modified by attaching different motor, for which the rpm is half that of the original pump. The ratio of specific speed of both the cases will be
FM 9.16
FM 9.17
FM 9.18
FM 9.19
FM 9.20
FM 9.21
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Page 332 FM 9
Performance data for a very small (D = 8.25 cm) model water turbine, operating with an available head of 15 m are as follows : om h v rpm 18.7 0 0 18.7 500 14% 18.3 1500 38% 16.7 2500 65% 11.5 3500 11%
It is desired to use a geometrically similar turbine to serve where the available head and flow rate are 46 m and 0.19 m3/s respectively. What will be the most efficient horsepower ? (A) 5 hp (B) 37 hp (C) 74 hp (D) 462 hp
FM 9.23
Consider a hydroelectric power plant operates under the conditions as shown in figure. The head loss associated with flow from the water level upstream of the dam, section (1), to the turbine discharge at atmospheric pressure, section (2), is 20 m . How much power is transferred from the water to the turbine blades ?
Consider the test pump as shown in the figure below. The data are :
Intel pressure p1 = 100 mmHg (Vacuum) Outlet pressure p2 = 500 mmHg (gage) Intel diameter D1 = 12 cm Outlet diameter D2 = 5 cm o = 0.01136 m3/s Flow rate v Fluid is light oil S.G. = 0.91 Efficiency = 75% What will be the input power ?
A liquid (S.G = 0.9) flows through the pump with the flow rate 7.57 # 103 m3 /s . The pressure gage at (1) indicates a vacuum of 95 mm of mercury and the pressure gage at (2) indicates a pressure of 80 kPa as shown in figure. If z2 z1 = 0.5 m , what will be the actual head rise across the pump ?
FM 9.26
If the efficiency of the pump is 70%, how much power is being supplied to the pump ? (A) 2.07 kW (B) 1.55 kW (C) 1.1 kW (D) 4.14 kW What will be the NPSH A at the pump inlet ? (A) 15.75 m (B) 9.45 m (C) 6.3 m (D) 12.6 m A liquid is pumped from an open reservoir through a 0.1 m diameter vertical pipe into another open reservoir as shown in figure. A valve is located in the pipe and the minor loss coefficient for the valve, as a function of the valve setting is shown o is in o2 with ha in meters when v in figure by the equation ha = 52.0 1.01 # 10 v 3 m /s . The fluid levels in the two tanks remain constant. If the friction factor for the pipe is f = 0.02 and all minor losses, except for the valve are negligible, what will be the flow rate when the valve is fully open ( KL = 1) ?
FM 9.27
FM 9.28
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Page 334 FM 9
Consider a hydraulic turbine which provided with 4.25 m3/s of water at 415 kPa . A vacuum gage in the turbine discharge 3 m below the turbine inlet center line reads 250 mm Hg vacuum. The supply and discharge pipe inside diameters are identically 800 mm . If the turbine shaft output power is 1100 kW , the power loss through the turbine is (A) 697.5 kW (B) 930 kW (C) 465 kW (D) 1162.5 kW Water moves horizontally through a pump at a rate of 0.02 m3/s . At the upstream of the pump the pipe diameter and the pressure are 90 mm and 120 kPa , respectively and at the downstream of the pump the pipe diameter and the pressure are 30 mm and 400 kPa , respectively. If the loss in energy across the pump due to fluid friction effects is 170 N m/kg , the hydraulic efficiency of the pump is (A) 0.399 (B) 0.879 (C) 0.799 (D) 0.599 For a given jet speed, volume flow rate, turning angle and wheel radius, the maximum shaft power produced by a Pelton wheel occurs when (A) the turbine bucket moves at same the jet speed. (B) the turbine bucket moves at double the jet speed. (C) the turbine bucket moves at half the jet speed. (D) the turbine bucket moves at quarter the jet speed. Water flows from the head water through the penstock of a Pelton wheel turbine as shown in figure. The effective friction factor for the penstock and control valves is same as 0.032 . If the diameter of the jet is 0.20 m , the maximum power output will be
FM 9.30
FM 9.31
FM 9.32
FM 9.34
What will be the nozzle diameter D that gives the maximum power output of the turbine ? fD D (A) D = (B) D = ^l D h ^ fl D h fD D (C) D = (D) D = ^ fl D h ^ fl D h For the maximum power to be developed by the turbine, the velocity head at the nozzle exit is (B) 2H (A) 1 H 3 (C) 2 H (D) 3 H 3 2 Water at 20cC with flow rate of 3.5 m3/s enters in an idealized radial turbine at 30c and leaves radially inward as shown in figure below. If the flow is absolute and the blade thickness is constant at 10 cm , the theoretical power developed at 100% efficiency will be
FM 9.35
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Page 336 FM 9
FM 9.36
A centrifugal pump rotates at 1000 rpm . Water enters the impeller normal to the blades (1 = 0c) and exits at an angle of 35c from radial (2 = 35c). The inlet radius is r = cm , at which the blade width b = cm . The outlet radius is r = cm , at which the blade width b = cm . The volume flow rate and pump efficiency are 0.0573 m3 /s and 76% respectively. What will be the net head produced by this pump and required brake horsepower, respectively ? ( water = . kg m ) (A) 4.87 m , 27320 W (C) 1.55 m , 6583 W (B) 4.87 m , 20763 W (D) 1.55 m , 8662 W
FM 9.37
Air flows across the rotor as shown in figure below. The magnitude of the absolute velocity increases from 15 m/s to 25 m/s and the absolute velocity at the inlet is in the direction shown. If the fluid puts zero torque on the rotor and air is to be incompressible, the direction of the absolute velocity at the outlet will be
The shaft torque on the turbomachine is measured to be 60 N m when the absolute velocities are as indicated in figure. If the magnitude of the shaft power is 1800 N m/s , the angular velocity and the mass flow rate respectively, are
(A) 215 rpm , 67.3 kg/s (C) 357 rpm , 112.12 kg/s
(B) 286 rpm , 89.7 kg/s (D) 250 rpm , 76.8 kg/s
The flow rate in m3/hour is (A) 17.23 (C) 28.72 What will be the head ? (A) 48 m (C) 32 m
FM 9.40
FM 9.41
The front and side views of a centrifugal pump rotor or impeller are shown in figure below. The flow entering the rotor blade row is essentially radial as viewed from a stationary frame. If the pump delivers 200 L/s of water and the blade exit angle is 35c from the tangential direction, what will be the power required associated with flow leaving at the blade angle ?
FM 9.42
What will be the torque needed to hold the manifold stationary ? (A) 5.06 N m (B) 3.04 N m (C) 4.05 N m (D) 6.1 N m
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Page 338 FM 9
FM 9.43
If the resisting torque is negligible, what would be the angular velocity of the manifold ? (A) 1.705 rev/s (B) 17.05 rev/s (C) 1.278 rev/s (D) 12.78 rev/s
What will be the angle 2 through which the wicket gates should turn the flow and the swirl angle 1 ? (A) 2 = 30c, 1 = 10c (B) 2 = 60c, 1 = 80c (C) 2 = 80c, 1 = 60c (D) 2 = 10c, 1 = 30c The power output and required net head respectively, are (A) 299.6 MW , 73.9 m (B) 246 MW , 73.9 m (C) 246 MW , 90.0 m (D) 299.6 MW , 90.0 m An inward-flow radial turbine involves a nozzle angle 1 = 60c and an inlet rotor tip speed U1 = m s as shown figure below. The ratio of rotor inlet to outlet diameters is 2.0 . The absolute velocity leaving the rotor at section (2) is radial with a magnitude of 6 m/s . If the fluid is water, the energy transfer per unit mass of fluid flowing through this turbine is
FM 9.45
FM 9.46
An axial flow fan has a blade-tip diameter of 1 m and a root diameter of 80 cm and it operates in sea-level air at 1200 rpm . The inlet angles are 1 = 55c and 1 = 30c
while at the outlet 2 = 60c. What will be the horse-power ? ( air = . (A) 16 hp (B) 8 hp (C) 4 hp (D) 32 hp
FM 9.48
The average radius of a pelton wheel is 1.80 m . A jet of velocity 100 m/s is strikes to bucket from a nozzle of 10.0 cm exit diameter. The turning angle of bucket is = 165c. If wheel rotates at 270 rpm and the efficiency of the turbine is 82 percent, the output shaft power in MW is (A) 9.67 (B) 0.0547 (C) 5.47 (D) 3.16 An idealized radial turbine is shown in figure below. The absolute flow enters at 25c with the blade angles as shown. The flow rate is 480 m3/min of water at 20cC . If the blade thickness is constant at 20 cm , the theoretical power developed at 100% efficiency will be
FM 9.49
An inward flow radial turbine involves a nozzle angle of 60c and an inlet rotor tip speed of 9 m/s as shown in figure. The radial component of velocity remain constant at 6 m/s through the rotor and the flow leaving the rotor at section (2) is without angular momentum. The ratio of rotor inlet to outlet diameters is 2.0 . If the flowing fluid is air and the static pressure drop across the rotor is 0.07 kPa , the loss of available energy across the rotor and the rotor efficiency respectively, are
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Page 340 FM 9
FM 9.51
The velocity triangles for water flow through a radial pump rotor are as shown in figure below. What will be the energy added to each unit mass (kg) of water as it flows through the rotor ?
A centrifugal water pump having an impeller diameter of 0.5 m operates at 900 rpm . The water enters the pump parallel to the pump shaft and the exit blade angle 2 is 25c as shown in figure. The uniform blade height is 50 mm . When the flow through the pump is 0.16 m3/s , the shaft power required to turn the impeller is (A) 72.3 kW (B) 90.38 kW (C) 45.18 kW (D) 54.22 kW Consider a hydraulic turbine runner as shown in figure. Relative to the rotating runner, water enters at section (1) ( radius r 1 = 1. m ) at an angle of 100c from the tangential direction and leaves at section (2) ( radius r 2 = . m ) at an angle of 50c from the tangential direction. The blade height at sections (1) and (2) is 0.45 m each and the volume flow rate through the turbine is 30 m3/s . The runner speed is 130 rpm in the direction shown. What will be the shaft power developed ?
FM 9.53
SOLUTIONS
FM 9.1
Option (C) is correct. P. Wind mills 4. 1. 2. 3. Dynamic turbine Dynamic pump Positive-Displacement turbine Positive-Displacement Pump Q. Fans R. Water-meters S. Heart
FM 9.2
Option (B) is correct List-I P. Q. R. S. Steam Engine Impulse turbine Reaction turbine Centrifugal compressor 2. 1. 3. 4. List-II Diagram factor Velocity compounding Continuous pressure drop. Isentropic efficiency
FM 9.3
Option (C) is correct. Conservation of mass requires that oout o in = m m in Vin Ain = rout Vout Aout The cross-sectional area is proportional to the square of diameter r Vout = Vin in : Din D = Vin : Din D rout Dout Dout For Dout < Din , the ratio (Din /Dout > 1). Hence Vout > Vin
FM 9.4
Option (D) is correct. (a) False : Actually, backward-inclined blades yield the highest efficiency. (b) True : There is no flow rate at shutoff head. Thus pump is not doing any useful work, and the efficiency must be zero. (c) True : This is the primary reason for choosing forward-inclined blades. (d) True : There is no head at the pumps free delivery. Thus, the pump is working against no resistance and is therefore not doing any useful work and the efficiency must be zero. Option (D) is correct. o =v oDp Since Pwater = rgvH 1500 270 = 6.75 kW 1000 # 60 # output power = = 6.75 9.00 input power = = 75% p = gH
FM 9.5
and Efficiency
FM 9.6
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Page 342 FM 9
o Pideal = rgHv = 998 # 9.81 # 1.6 # = 4.7 W Hence, the actual power (bhp) is bhp = Pideal # hpump = 4.7 # 0.70 = 3.3 W
FM 9.7
18 60 # 100
18 L/ min. =
18 m3/s 60 # 1000
Option (B) is correct. For water at 20cC , take = 998 kg/m3 . The power relation is o rgvH P = h 998 # 9.81 # b 125 l # H 3600 or (22 # 745.7) = 22 hp = 22 # 745.7 W 0.71 H = 22 # 745.7 # 0.71 # 3600 , 34 m 998 # 9.81 # 125 Pressure rise p = rgH = # . # = 332873 Pa - 333 kPa Option (B) is correct. The energy equation for the system. H pump = Dz + f L V d g Velocity Thus o V = v = p A , #( . ) . m s
FM 9.8
FM 9.9
Option (A) is correct. P. Draft tube 3. 4. 1. 2. Diffuser Pressure rise Kinetic Energy Momentum Exchange Q. Pumps R. Impulse-Turbine S. Reaction-Turbine
FM 9.10
Option (C) is correct. 1. True : Turbine govern helps in starting and shutting down the turbo unit. 2. True : Turbine governor controls the speed of turbine set to match it with the hydroelectric system. 3. True : Governor sets the amount of load, which a turbine unit has to carry. Option (C) is correct. For water at 20cC take = 998 kg/m3 . Each arm takes 7 m3/h . Vrel o v 2 = = p Aexit 3 #( . = 38.7 m/s (At max power)
FM 9.11
)2
Option (D) is correct. P True : Draft tube increase the net head on the turbine by providing the negative head at outlet. Q. True : Draft tube recovers kinetic energy leaving the turbine. R. True : Draft tube is a diffuser that also turns the flow downstream horizontally of a turbine. S. False : Draft tube does not decreases the net head on the turbine. Option (A) is correct. Since dimensionless turbine parameter head coefficient. gH gH CH = 2 2 = 2 2 wD N D For full scale turbine A : gHA CH A = NA DA and for Quarter scale Turbine B : (DB = DA /4) gHB gHB = N B D B N B # DA b l CH for both turbine must be same, therefore CH, A = CH, B CH B = gHA gHB # = NADA NB DA N B = N A # HB # HA NB = NA # HB # HA
FM 9.13
= 2N 60
= 428 #
10 4 = 988 rpm 30 #
FM 9.14
Option (D) is correct. Affinity or scaling laws For capacity For For P. Q. R. oB wB DB v oA = wA # b DA l v HB = wB DB net head HA a wA k # b DA l r bhpB net Power = B a wB k # b DB l rA wA DA bhpA True : Rotation rate appears with an exponent of 1 in the affinity law for capacity. Thus, the change is linear. False : Rotation rate appears with an exponent of 2 in the affinity law for net head. Thus, if r.p.m is doubled, the net head increases by a factor of 4. False : Rotation rate appears with an exponent of 3 in the affinity law for shaft power. Thus, if r.p.m is doubled, the shaft power increase by a factor of 8. True : rotation rate appears with an exponent of 3 in the affinity law for shaft power. Thus if r.p.m is doubled, the shaft power increases by factor of 8.
S.
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Page 344 FM 9
FM 9.15
Option (D) is correct o w v 6g # ha@ o = m s, g = For = 60 rad/s , v m s and ha = Specific speed Ns = 60 # 3 = 1.98 69.81 # 20@3/4 , the pump is a mixed-flow pump. Ns =
For Ns =
FM 9.16
Option (D) is correct. Since the turbine (B) is dynamically similar to the turbine (A). So, at the best efficiency point, from scaling laws. DB = DA # HB # b NA l = ( . ) # #b l = 2.073 m HA NB . 3 oB = v oA # b NB lb DB l = and v #b l # b . l = 342 m /s NA DA 3 5 r and bhpB = bhpA # b B l # b NB l b DB l rA NA DA 5 3 = 132 # b 998 l # b 240 l # b 2.073 l = 340.71 , 341 MW 998 300 1.5 Option (B) is correct. For similarity the model pump operate at the same flow coefficient, so that o o c v m =c v m D m wD p where the subscript (m ) refers to the model and (p) to the prototype. Thus, o om = wm # c Dm m v v wp Dp p op = . m s , , and v and with m = p , Dm D p = We get Also So that om = 1 # b 1 l # 4.1 = 0.0328 m3/s v 5
3
FM 9.17
gha gha 2 2m =c 2 2m D m w D p g ha = p # b wm l # c Dm m # ha gm wp Dp
m p
ha
Option (A) is correct. Since the two pumps are dynamically similar, dimensionless pump parameter head coefficients CH must be the same for both pumps CH, A = CH, B gHB gHA = A D A wB D B A = HA DB ...(i) B HB # b DA l Similarly, dimensionless pump parameter capacity coefficient Cv o must be same for both pumps Cv o, B o, A = Cv
FM 9.19
Option (B) is correct. o1/2 Pump specific speed : NSP = wv 3/4 (gH ) w (bhp) 1/2 Turbine specific speed: NST = (gH) 5/4 # r1/2 o , Dividing and multiplying equation (ii) by v w (bhp) 1/2 o1/2 v NST = 5/4 1/2 # 1/2 o (gH ) # r v (bhp) 1/2 o1/2 By Rearranging, NST = = wv 3/4 G # 1/2 o1/2 # (gH ) 1/2 (gH) r #v b p NST = NSP # c o m = NSP # hturbine rvgH o1/2 bhp where o = turbine and v 3/4 = NSP vgH (gH)
From eq (i)
FM 9.20
Option (B) is correct. Since draft tube is used only in reaction turbines. The propeller turbine, Kaplan turbine and Francis turbine are of reaction type, but Pelton turbine is a impulse turbine. Option (B) is correct. At homologous points, the affinity laws are used to estimate the operating conditions. Let the original pump be A and modified pump be B . oA # wB # b DB l = . oB = v v wA DA DB = DA , NB = NA and = 2N 60 # = . #
FM 9.21
m s
Here and
pN B HB = HA # a wB k # b DB l = HA # e o #( ) wA DA pN A = HA # b NB l = . # b l = . m NA Now, the ratio of specific speeds 1/2 oA (gHB) 3/4 oA 1/2 NSA = wA v v HB 3/4 wA = # # # b c m 3 4 1 2 / / o w HA l NSB vB B oB (gHA) wB # v oA 1/2 HB 3/4 = 2pNA # 60 # c v # b m oB 60 2p N B HA l v oA HB . # = NA # c v = # # #b . l b l m c oB NB HA v . # m NSA = 1 NSB
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Page 346 FM 9
FM 9.22
Option (C) is correct. We use best efficiency point (BEP) data to calculate power. At BEP = 65% , o= . m N= rpm , v = . m s and at BEP o #h Pmodel = rg # vH = 998 # 9.81 # 0.00464 # 15 # 0.65 = 443 W First establish the BEP coefficients from the model turbine data. om v . = = . Cv o = ND ) #( . CH = CP = gHm = Nm D .
b
# l #^ .
. = .
Pm = rN m D
#b
l #( .
Now enter new data for geometrically similar turbine ot v Cv = 0.19 o = 0.198 = Nt D t3 Nt # D t3 or Nt # D t = 0.19 = 0.96 0.198 gHt = . # CH = 12.45 = Nt # Dt Nt # Dt or N t # D t = 9.81 # 46 = 36.25 12.45 From equation (i) and (ii) Nt = . Dt or and N t # D t = 36.25
...(i)
..(ii)
. c D m # D t = 36.25 t ( . ) # D t = 36.25 Dt (0.96) 2 = 0.02542 Dt = 36.25 Dt = 0.399 b 0.40 m and Nt = . = . = rps Dt ( . ) Pt = CP # r # N t # D t = 1.6 # 998 # (15) 3 # (0.40) 5 = 55185 W Pt = 55185 = 74 hp 745.7
or
Then
or
FM 9.23
Option (C) is correct. For flow from section (1) to section (2), energy equation gives 2 p p2 V 22 + + gz2 = 1 + V 1 + gz1 + wshaft net in loss 2 2 r Since p2 = p1 = patm , V1 = and wshaft net out = wshaft net in 2 wshaft net out = g (z1 z2) V 2 loss 2 o to get For power, we multiply equation (i) by the mass flow rate m 2 o (z1 z2) m oV 2 m o loss Pshaft net out = mg 2
...(i)
p = rgH
(5.79) 2 (1.00) 2 = 66661 + + 0.65 13332 0 8909 2 # 9.81 8909 2 # 9.81 = 11.3 m Therefore input power Pinput =
FM 9.25
o gvH = h
#( . .
)#
= 1525 W
Option (C) is correct. The head rise gained by fluid flowing through a pump is p p ha = + z z +V V g g o # Since = . m s V = v = . p A ( . ) From continuity equation VA =VA V =Vb
...(i)
l = .
#( ) = .
m s
h Thus, from equation (i), with p = (hHg) (gHg) = ( . )^ # and p = 80 # 103 N/m2 , 80 # 103 + (0.095) (133 # 103) (3.19) 2 (0.797) 2 + + ha = 0.5 2 # 9.81 0.9 # ^9.80 # 103h ha = 11.5 m
FM 9.26
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Page 348 FM 9
p V p + + z + hp = + V + z + f l V g g g D g where p = p = , V = , V = m s , z = m , and z = Thus,equation (i) becomes 2 z + h p = V 2 b1 + f l l 2g D 200 (3) 2 hp = 1 + 0.0152 # b 0.05 lF 3 = 25.3 m 2 # 9.81 < Hence, Power gained by fluid o p P = gvh = (9.731 # 103) # p (0.05) 2 # 3 # 25.3 4
...(i)
FM 9.27
= 1.45 # 103 = 1.45 kW Power gained by fluid and Power supplied to fluid = Efficiency = 1.45 = 2.07 kW 0.7 Option (D) is correct. p p We have ...(i) NPSH = s + V s v g g g where ps and Vs refer to the pressure and velocity at the pump inlet, respectively. p p V Also, + + z = s + V s + zs + h L g g g So that with p = patm , V = , zs = and hL = patm p ...(ii) + z = s + Vs g g and therefore from equation (i) and (ii), the available NPSH is p p ..(iii) NPSH A = atm + z v g g With z positive (since pump is below reservoir) and hL = . Thus, from equation (ii) with patm. = Pa 3 (7.376 # 103) NPSH A = 101 # 10 3 + 3 = 12.6 m 9.731 # 10 (9.731 # 103)
FM 9.28
From Bernoullis equation at section 1 and 2, 2 p p1 V 12 ...(i) + + z1 + h p = 2 + V 2 + z2 + hL g g 2g and with p1 = p2 = , V1 = V2 = , and z2 z1 = m , equation (i) becomes ...(ii) h p = 33 + hL The head loss term can be expressed as 2 hL = bKL + f # l lV D 2g With KL = 1, f = . 2 , l = m , D = .1 m , equation (ii) can be written as
2 h p = 33 + ;1.0 + 0.02 # 30 E # V 0.1 2 # 9.81 o o v V = v = p ( .1) 2 A
...(iii)
o2 h p = 33 + 61.0 + 6.0@ # 826 # v o2 h p = 33 + 5.78 # 103 v Since the pump equation is o2 h p = 52.0 1.01 # 103 v Equation (iv) and (v) can be equated to determine the flow rate. Thus, o2 = 52.0 1.01 # 103 v o2 33 + 5.78 # 103 v and
FM 9.29
...(iv) ...(v)
o = 0.0529 m3/s v
Option (B) is correct. We consider the turbine inlet and discharge to be sections (1) and (2). For flow from sections (1) to (2), energy equation gives p p2 loss = 1 ...(i) + g (z1 z2) wshaft net out r Since V1 = V2 and wshaft net out = wshaft net in For power loss through the turbine we need to multiply equation (i) by the mass o . Thus flow rate, m o b p1 p2 l + mg o (z1 z2) Pshaft net out ...(ii) Ploss = m r o = rv o= However m g s # .2 = 2 Also p2 = (0.25 m of Hg) # rHg # g or = 0.25 # 13.6 # 999 # 9.81 - 33300 N/m2 From equation (ii), we get (415000 + 33300) Ploss = 4246 # + 4246 # 9.81 # 3 1.1 # 106 999 = 930346 N m/s - 930 kW
FM 9.30
Option (C) is correct. The efficiency of the pump is given by ideal work required actual work required loss = = actual work required actual work required loss w = shaft net in wshaft net in Now find wshaft net in , by using the energy equation 2 2 p pin V out V in wshaft net in = out + + loss r 2
...(i)
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Page 350 FM 9
From the volume flow rate, we obtain o o Vout = v = v = Aout pD out p# Also from principle of mass conservation,
m s
Vin = Vout D out = = m s # D in Thus from equation (i), we get (400000 120000) [(28.29) 2 (3.143) 2] + + 170 wshaft net in = 999 2 Then
FM 9.31
Option (C) is correct. Output shaft power for Pelton wheel is o(Vj wr) ( cos b) ...(i) Pshaft = rwrv Differentiate equation (i) with respect to and set the derivative equal to zero. o(Vj wr) ( cos b)@ = 0 Pmax = d 6rwrv dw o( - cos ) d (Vj - r) = 0 rv d d (V - r) = 0 d j Vj wr = 0 where r =Turbine bucket speed and Vj = Jet speed Hence Turbine bucket speed = 1 # jet speed 2
FM 9.32
The power output for a Pelton wheel is given by o (U V ) ( cos b) Pshaft = rvU For maximum power = 180c and U = V Thus, oV Pshaft max = rv ...(i)
...(ii)
or Hence
Therefore, from equation (i), we get Pshaft max = (999) # 3.59 # (114.3) 2 = 23.4 # 106 N m/s 2
= 23400 kW = 23.4 MW
FM 9.33
Option (B) is correct. Since the power output of the pelton wheel is o (U V ) ( cos b) Pshaft = rvU So the maximum power output occurs with = 180c and U = V . oV (In magnitude) Thus, = rv P
shaft
...(i)
At section (0) and (1), from Bernoullis equation p0 V 0 p + + z 0 = 1 + V 1 + z1 + f l V g g g D g But p 0 = p1 = 0 , V0 = 0 , and z 0 z1 = H 2 2 Thus, h = V1 + f l V 2g D 2g 2 Since A1 V1 = AV or D 1 V1 = D2 V 4 4 We have From (ii), and equation (i) gives V1 = c D m V Therefore, D1
2 4 V 12 = or h = V 1 ;1 + f l D 1 2g 2g D D4 E
...(ii)
h
<1 + fl D 1 F D5
4
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Page 352 FM 9
Pshaft
2 rg # p D 1 V1 h o rvgh 4 = = 1/2 4 4 c1 + f l 5 D 1 m c1 + f l 5 D 1 m D D
...(iii)
V =
2gh 1/2 4 c1 + f l 5 D 1 m D
...(iv)
For this problem f , l , D , and h are constants; D is variable Thus, from equation (iii) and (iv) 2 KD 1 where K = const. and C = const. = f # l Pshaft = 4 3/2 D (1 + CD 1 ) Note : Pshaft = as D " and as D "3. To find the D that gives maximum dPshaft power over all, set = dD 3 2 b 2 l KD 1 dPshaft 2 KD 3 1 = 4 3/2 + 4 5/2 # 4CD 1 = 0 dD (1 + CD 1 ) (1 + CD 1 ) 4 2KD1 3CD 1 or 4 G= 0 4 3/2 =1 (1 + CD 1 ) (1 + CD 1 )
4 4 = 3CD 1 1 + CD 1
& D = = D
Thus,
FM 9.34
D =
1 l 1/4 b 2 # f # D5 l
l 1/4 b2 # f # D l
For the flow through the penstock, p V p + + z = +V + z + f l V g g g D g where p = p = , V = , and z z = H Thus But So that
2 2 H = V1 + f l V 2g D 2g 2 A V = AV or D 1 V1 = p D2 V 4 4
...(i)
V = bD l V D From previous part, the maximum power occurs if D = D or 1 bD l = D 2#f# l D by NODIA and COMPANY
b f# l l D
So that
`V =
1 V2 l l 1 b 2f D
2 = 3 # V1 2g l lH 2 b2 # f D
or
FM 9.35
V 12 = 2 H 2g 3
Option (C) is correct. For water, take = 998 kg/m3 u = wr = b Here 2 = 30c, 1 = 90c 3. 5 Vn = 3.5 = , 7.96 m/s 2pr2 b2 2p # 0.7 # 0.1 Vt = Vn 2 = 7.96 = 13.8 m/s tan a2 tan 30c Vt = Vn1 = Vn1 = 0 tan a1 tan 90c o Vt = 998 # 3.5 # 9.90 # 13.8 Ptheoretical = rvu = 477213 W , 477 kW # p
l # . = 9.90 m/s
and
Thus,
FM 9.36
Option (B) is correct. Normal velocity components at Inlet and Outlet are, o 0.573 V ,n = v = = 4.224 m/s 2pb1 r1 2 # p # 0.12 # 0.18 o 0.573 V ,n = v = = 2.715 m/s 2pr2 b2 2 # p # 0.24 # 0.14 and tangential velocity components at Inlet and Outlet are, V , t = V , n # tan a = . # tan c = V , t = V , n # tan a = . # tan c = . m s Now, the net head produced by the pump is H = w # 6r V , t r V , t@ = pN # r V , t g #g H = 2p # 1000 # 0.24 # 1.9 = 4.87 m 60 # 9.81 and required brake power at 76% efficiency is o # hpump bhp = rgvH = 998.0 # 9.81 # 0.573 # 4.87 # 0.76 = 20763 W
V ,t =
FM 9.37
# sin q
FM 9.38
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Page 354 FM 9
We have
m s
Vn = u tan b = . # tan c = 5.1 m/s o = 2pr1 b1 # Vn1 = 2p # 0.09 # 0.10 # 5.1 v = 0.2882 m3/s = 0.2882 # 3600 , 1038 m3/hour
FM 9.40
Option (C) is correct. o 0.2882 Vn = v = = 3.71 m/s 2pr2 b2 2p # 0.165 # 0.075 u = wr = . # . = 20.05 m/s Vt = u Vn cot c = 20.05 3.71 # cot 40c = 15.60 m/s o Vt = Pideal = rvu # . # . # . = 61297 W 61297 Head H = P o = , 32 m (rgv) 680 # 9.81 # 0.2882
and Finally
FM 9.41
Option (A) is correct From the shaft power equation with V = o(U Vq U Vq ) = rvU o Vq We have Pshaft = rv p# where U =r w= . # = . m s To evaluate V we use the exit velocity triangle shown below.
...(i)
Thus, with
V = U Vr =
Vr tan c
V = 47.1 7.07 = 37.0 m/s tan 35c Pshaft = 999 # 0.20 # 47.1 # 37.0 - 3.48 # 105 N m/s = 348 kW
Option (C) is correct. From the moment of momentum equation, the shaft torque o (r Vq r Vq ) T =m For this continuously distributed outflow with V = , it becomes. T =2 o= . where V = m s and dm Thus, or T =2 o # rV dm
q
# r # ( ) dr
0.4
r = 0.1
FM 9.43
o = rWh dr = dm
0.4
0.1
0.4
0.1
(3r wr2) dr
or
FM 9.44
Option (A) is correct. Normal component of velocity at inlet and outlet are o 340 V ,n = v = = 37.0 m/s 2pr2 b2 2 # p # 2 # 0.731 o 340 V ,n = v = = 17.33 m/s 2pr1 b1 2 # p # 1.42 # 2.2 and tangential velocity components at inlet and outlet are V ,n 37 V , t = wr = 2p # 180 # 2 60 tan b tan (66.2c) and V ,t = 21.38 m/s V ,n = wr = tan b . # . . = 3.0 m/s tan ( . ) c = 2N 60
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Page 356 FM 9
Since
=V V tan 2 = V V
t
n t n
# tan a =
and
FM 9.45
Option (B) is correct. The shaft power is estimated from the Eulers turbo-machine equation o(r V t r V t) Pshaft = rwv = 998 # 18.85 # 340 # [2 # 21.38 1.42 # 3.0] Assuming turbine = Net Head = 2.46 # 108 W b 246 MW . Since the irreversibility neglected. Therefore bhp # H = o= rgv # . # = 73.9 m
FM 9.46
Option (B) is correct The energy transfer per unit mass of fluid is given by the relation Also or Then Thus wshaft = U Vq U Vq o = 2pr 1 bVr1 = 2pr 2 bVr 2 m V = r V = # r cos c cos
= m s
FM 9.47
Vn = Vn , . m s o = Vn A = . # p ( . ) ( . ) = 6.56 m3/s v gH = u uVn (cot a + cot b ) = (56.6) 2 (56.6) # (23.2) (cot 55c + cot 60c) = 1520 m2/s2 o P = rvgH = 1.205 # 6.56 # 1520 = 12000 W b 16 hp by NODIA and COMPANY
FM 9.48
Option (D) is correct. The volume flow rate of the jet is o = Vj # p D j = v and # . # ( . ) = 0.785 m3/s
The ideal shaft power is o(Vj wr) ( cos b) Pideal = rwrv = 998 # 28.26 # 1.8 # 0.785 (100 28.26 # 1.8) # (1 cos 165c) = 3.85 MW and actual shaft power is PActual = Pideal # hturbine = .
FM 9.49
# .
= .
Option (A) is correct. The inlet (2) and outlet (1) velocity vector diagrams are shown below. The normal velocities are.
From these we can compute the tangential velocities at each section. u2 = wr2 = # b 2p l # 1.2 = 10.1 m/s u1 = wr1 = # 2p # . = 6.70 m/s
Then,
Vt 2 = Vn 2 cot 2 c = 5.31 cot 25c = 11.4 m/s Vt1 = Vn1 cot c = 7.96 # cot 30c = 2.11 m/s o(u2 Vt 2 u1 Vt 1) Ptheoretical = rv = 998 # 8 # [(10.1 # 11.4) (6.70 # 2.11)] = 800000 W , 800 kW loss = p 1 p 2 + wshaft r
FM 9.50
p 1 p 2 = stagnation pressure drop across rotor = Dps since V2 = wshaft = U2 Vq2 U1 Vq1 = U1 Vq1 2 2 wshaft = (9) # (12 cos 30c) = 93.5 m /s
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Page 358 FM 9
Also
Thus and
FM 9.51
= (0.07 + 0.0664) kPa = 0.1364 kPa 3 loss = 0.1364 # 10 93.5 = 17.4 m2/s2 1.23 wshaft = = = 0.843 = 84.3% Dp s b l d r n
Option (D) is correct. From shaft power equation ...(i) wshaft = U Vq U Vq Since the relative velocity at the exit is in the radial direction (see the figure below), V = U = m s
Also, from the inlet conditions, V is in the opposite direction From conservation of mass We have Vr A Thus, Also, or Thus So that From eq. (i),
FM 9.52
= Vr tan c, where the minus sign means that V of U . (with 1 = 2 ) = Vr A = W A Vr = W # A = W # pr b = W # r b =b r pr b A U = r w and U = r w r =U = = . r U Vr = 16 = 32 m/s 0. 5
Option (A) is correct. Power Pshaft = Tshaft w = Tshaft # o(r Vq r Vq ) and Tshaft = rv o Vq With V = Tshaft = rvr
pN
...(i)
cot 2 = U Vq Vr ...(ii) V = U Vr ot b r = 0.5 = 0.25 m and = 2 # 900 = 94.2 rad/s 2 60 U =r w= . # . = . m o = 2pr 2 b2 Vr 2 v o 0.16 Vr = v = = 2.04 m/s 2pr 2 b2 2p # 0.25 # 0.05
Thus, from equation (ii), V = (23.6 2.04 cot 25c) m/s = 19.22 m/s From equation (i), we get So
FM 9.53
Tshaft = 999 # 0.16 # 0.25 # 19.22 = 768 N m Pshaft = 768 # 94.2 = 72346 - 72.3 kW
Option (A) is correct Note that the shaft power calculated below, Pshaft is less than the power lost by the fluid because some of the power lost by the fluid is due to the fluid and shaft bearing friction while the rest is available at the shaft. o (U Vq U Vq ) ...(i) Pshaft = m o = rv o= where m g s # = and U = wr with = 2p # 130 = 13.6 rad/s 60 Hence, and U = wr = U = wr = . # . = . m s . # . = . m s
V = U + W cos
...(ii)
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Page 360 FM 9
o = 2pr 1 bW1 sin 80c v 30 = 2p # 1.5 # (0.45) W1 sin 80c W = 7.18 m/s V = 20.4 + 7.18 cos 80c = 21.6 m/s
o = 2pr 2 bW2 sin 50c v 30 = 2p # 0.85 # (0.45) W2 sin 50c or W = 16.3 m/s Thus, V = U W cos c = cos Substitute these values in equation (i), we get Similarly, since = 1.28 # 107 N m/s = 12.8 MW
c = 1.08 m/s