You are on page 1of 67

..

..




080105, 080109, 080500


2007

51:33(075)
1173
606

:
-

..

..

606

, ..
: : / .. .
: - . . . -, 2007. 112 . 130 . ISBN 5-8265-0597-4 (978-5-82650597-7).
, . ,
: , , , . .
080105, 080109, 080500 .

51:33(075)
1173

ISBN 5-8265-0597-4
(978-5-82650597-7)


(), 2007


..
..
28.05.2007.
60 84 / 16. 6,51 . . . 130 . 362.
-

392000, , , 106, . 14

. , , .
, XVIII ,
.
. , , .
, . , ,
. , ,
. , , ,
. , ( )
, , , , .
,
, , ,
, ,
.
1.

1.1.
, , , , , ,
, . , [1, 2].
1.1. m n m n
a11 a12 ..... a1n

a21 a22 ..... a2 n


.
A=
..... ..... ..... .....

a
m1 am 2 ..... amn
.
, , .
, . .
, A, B, C,
, . , , , ij , i- j- . ,
, , Bmk B, m k .
1.2. , , .
, , , , ,
, , Bk k- .
1.3. , -, ,
- .
-. , - -, .
1.2.
.
1.4. Cmn Amn Bmn, A
B
ij = aij + bij, i = 1, m; j = 1, n .

C = A + B.

,
1) ;
2) , .
1.5. Cmn Amn , A
cij = aij , i = 1, m; j = 1, n .

(1.1)


C = A.

. , .
:
1. + = + .
2. ( + ) + = + ( + ).
3. ( A + B ) = A + B .
4.
5.

( ) A = ( A) .
( + ) A = A + A .

1.6. - ,
. , , .
. ,
m n .
1.3.
.
1.7 ( ). Cm n Amr Brn,
A B
cij =

aik bkj , i = 1, m;

j = 1, n .

k =1

, :
1. , , ,
.
2. , i- j- ,
i- j- ,
.
.
3. , ( ).
4. ( , , ) ( ) .
, .
. = 2 3+5,
2 0 3
1 0 0

A = 1 5 5 ; E = 0 1 0 .
0 3 4
0 0 1

.
2 0 3 2 0

A = A A = 1 5 5 1 5
0 3 4 0 3

9
6 0

3 A = 3 15 15 ;
0 9 12

3 4
9 18


5 = 3 10 2 ,
4 3 3 31
5 0 0

5 E = 0 5 0 .
0 0 5


9 18 6 0
9 5 0 0 3
9
9
4



B = 3 10 2 + 3 15 15 + 0 5 0 = 6 60 17 .
3 3 31 0 9 12 0 0 5 3 12 24

1.8. , aii , i = 1, min{ m, n}, Amn .


1.9. n, ,
, n.
En In. , n

0 ..... 0
1

1 ..... 0
0
.
En =
..... ..... ..... .....

0
0 ..... 1

:

Amn En = Amn ;

Em Amn = Amn .

, .
,
. , E ( I) .
:
1. () = ().
2. (+)= + .
3. ( + ) = + .
4. .
1.4. .

1.10. 1 .
1.11. , , A n ,

det A =

a11

a12

.... a1n

a21

a 22

.... a2 n

....

....

....

an1

an 2

.... ann

....

= (1)i + k aik M ik ,

(1.1)

k =1

Mik aik A, , i- k- .
:
1) ;
2) ( ), ,
, n- n n-1 . , ,
, 1, 1-
1.10;
3) i , , , ; , . ,
, .
.
1.12. ,
det A = 0.
, .

a
= 11
a21

a12
. (1.1), , 1-
a 22
det ( A) =

a11

a12

a21 a22

= ( 1)1+1 a11 a22 + ( 1)1+ 2 a12 a21 = a11 a22 a12 a21 .

, , , ,
.
2- , , , . 1.1.

a11

a12

a21 a22

a a
a
a
= 11 12 11 12
a21 a22 a21 a22
. 1.1


a11 a12

= a21 a22
a
31 a32

a13

a23 .
a33

(1.1), , 2-
a11 a12 a13
det ( A) = a21 a22 a23 =
a31 a32 a33
= ( 1)1+ 2 a12

a21 a23
a31

a33

+ ( 1)2 + 2 a22

a11

a13

a31 a33

+ ( 1)3 + 2 a32

a11

a13

a21 a23

2- , ,
a11

det ( A) = a21

a12

a13

a 22

a 23 =

a31

a32

a33

= a11 a22 a33 + a12 a23 a31 + a21 a32 a13 a13 a22 a31 a11 a23 a32 a12 a21 a33.

3- , , , . 1.2.
a11 a12 a13 a11 a12 a13 a11 a12 a13

det ( A) = a21 a22 a23 = a21 a22 a23 a21 a22 a23
a31 a32 a33 a31 a32 a33 a31 a32 a33
. 1.2

. :
1)
det =

2 3
= 14 15 = 29,
5 7

2)
7 3 0
det = 1 2 4 = 84 12 + 0 0 140 18 = 86.
1 5 6

1.5.

2- 3- , . , ,
4- 24 , . ,
, . ,
, , .
1.13. ,
, , .
.
. , . .
.
1.1. .
.
.
1.1. , , , ( ) , .
, [2] , ,
. .
.
1. , ,
.
. , , ,
. , , 1. ,
.
1.1.
( 1.1). q A - p, ~
. A . , ~
det A ,

()

()

~
det A =
n

k =1

k =1

k =1

= (1)i+k (qk + pk ) M ik = (1)i+k qk M ik + (1)i+k pk M ik =


= det ( A) + det ( A p ) ,

Ap , A , q p. ,
det ( Ap ) = 0 .

.
1.1 :
1) , - ( ,
- );
2) ( ), ,
, , ;
3) , , .
, , ,
, .
, , .
:
1) , , ,
;
2) , ( )
, , .
.

3
=
5

8 1
0 4
6 8
9 3

2
.
1

. (1.1), , , :
Det A = 1(1)

1+1

0 4 2
3 4 2
3 0 2
1+2
1+3
6 8 1 + 8(1)
5 8 1 + (1) (1)
5 6 1 +
9 3 0
7 3 0
7 9 0

+ 6(1)

1+4

3 0 4
5 6 8 ,
7 9 3

. , :
det A= 72 8 (63) (21) 6 (150) = 1353.
, . ,
, 6 2. , :
1
3
det =
5
7

8 1
0 4
6 8
9 3

6
29 28 49 0
2
7 12 12 0
=
1
5
6
8
1
0
7
9
3
0

29 28 49
= 1(1)2+4 7 12 12 =
7
9
3

= 1(1)2+4 [(29) (12) 3 + (7) 9 (49) + (28) (12) 7 (49) (12) 7


( 28) 3 (7) (29) (12) 9)]= 1353.
. , ,
. , .
:
1) det ( A + B ) det ( A) + det ( B);
2) det ( A B) = det ( A) det ( B).
1.6.
.
1.14. , , 1. ,
1 = 1 = .
1.2.
1

aij1 =

(1) i + j
M ji ,
det A

Mji ji 1.
, ,
.

8 5 2

. , = 6 4 8 .
5 3 3

. det A = 10. :
1
a11
=

1
a12
=

12
(1)1+1 4 8
= ;
3 3
10
10

(1)1+ 2 5 2
9
=
10 3 3
10

..

, , , , . ,
9
32
12

10
10
10

22
14
52
.
1 =
10
10
10
2
1
2

10
10 10
.
12

10
22
10
2

10

32

10 8 5 2

52
6 4 8 = E .

10

2 5 3 3

10

9
6

5
10

11
7
1 =
5
5
1
1

5 10
9
10
14
10
1
10

16

5
26
.
5
1

1.7.
.
1.15. Amn nm, AT , , aijT

a ji = aijT , j = 1, m, i = 1, n.
, A, . , , A . , , .
1.16. , , .

, .
:
1)
2)

( A B )T = BT AT ;
det ( A) = det (AT ) .
1.8.

1.17.

a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1n xn = b1 ;


a x + a x + ... + a x = b ;
21 1
22 2
2n n
2

..........
..........
..........
..........
.........

am1 x1 + am 2 x2 + ... + amn xn = bm ,

(1.2)

aij , bi , i = 1, m, j = 1, n , , m
() n x1, x2, ..., xn.
1.18.

x1, x2, ..., xn, (1.2) , .

, . 2.
, ,
.
. , C .
- - , , ,
- . 1.1.
1.1

-

B

8
6
5

5
4
3

2
8
3

390
560
310

, .
. ,
.
. x1, 2, C x3. , :
8 x1 + 5 x2 + 2 x3 = 390 ;

6 x1 + 4 x2 + 8 x3 = 560 ;
5 x + 3 x + 3 x = 310 .
2
3
1
, .
(1.2)
a11

a
A = 21
.....

a
m1

a12
a 22
.....

am2

a1n

..... a 2 n
,
..... .....

..... amn
.....

. bi, ,
b1

b = M ,
b
m

(), .
1.19. , .

,
x1

x= M ,
x
n

(1.2) , , :
A x =b.

,
. , . , , ,
. , .
1.9.
1.3. n c n , :

xi = i / ,

i = 1, n,

; i , i-
.
.
8 x1 + 5 x2 + 2 x3 = 390 ;

6 x1 + 4 x2 + 8 x3 = 560 ;
5 x + 3 x + 3 x = 310 .
2
3
1

.
8 5 2
390 5 2
8 390 2
8 5 390

= 6 4 8 , 1= 560 4 8 , 2= 6 560 8 , 3= 6 4 560 ,


5 3 3
310 3 3
5 310 3
5 3 310


= 10; 1 = 200; 2 = 300; 3 = 400;

x1 = 20; x2 = 30; x3 = 40.

() , 20 A, 30

B,
40 C. , . , , , .
, .
, . .
1.10.

:
A x = b,

(1.3)

A ; x ; b .
, , , 1. , (1.3) ( , ,
, ) 1, :
1x = 1 b,

x = 1 b,
;
x = 1 b.
. 1 b . x.
.

8 x1 + 5 x2 + 2 x3 = 390

6 x1 + 4 x2 + 8 x3 = 560 .
5 x + 3 x + 3 x = 310
2
3
1

.
8 5 2

= 6 4 8 ,
5 3 3

. 1.6.
6

5
11
x=
5
1

9
10
7
5
1
10

16

5
26

5
1

390 20


560 = 30 .
310 40

.
, , . , . .
1.11.
. .
1.20. ,
, ,
. .

.
1.4. , .

.
LLLLLLLLLL
a x + a x + L + a x = a ;
2 2
n n
1 1
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
LL

b x + b x +L+ b x = b;
n n
1 1 2 2
LLLLLLLLLL .

, ,
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL
(a + b ) x + (a + b ) x + L + (a + b ) x = a + b ;
1 1
2
2 2
n
n n
1
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
LLLLLL

b1 x1 + b2 x2 + L + bn xn = b ;

LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

x1, x2, ..., xn . , , , , .


, , . (, ,
), .
() :
1) ,
x1 , , ;
2) x2 , ;
3) i- xi , i-;

4) , (n-1)- , ,
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + LLLLLLLL + a1n xn = b1 ;

a22 x2 + LLLLLLLL + a2 n xn = b2 ;

O
M

a(n1)(n1) x(n1)(n1) + a(n1)n xn = bn1 ;

ann xn = bn ;

5) n- , , , , xn x1, .
, . , .
, :
1) i- aii xi , ,
, i , , xi
;
2) , i- aii xi i- ,
. i- i- aii.
.
1.21. m n ,
a11

a
*
A = 21
.....
a
m1

a12
a 22

..... a1n
..... a 2 n

.....

.....

am 2

..... amn

.....

b1

b2
,
....
bm

m (n + 1), .
, ,
. , , , .
.

A =

.
8 5 2 390

6 4 8 520

5 3 3 310

(1/8)
(6)
(5)
, .
1. , - .

A1 = 0

5
1
8
4
1 13
4
2
1 7
8
4

195
4
535

2
265
4

(1/2)

2.
5

1 8
A2 = 0 1

0 0

3.

1 195
4
4
26 1070 .

5 200


x3 = 200 5
x1 20

x
1070
26
x
=

x2 = 30 .
2
3
x 40

195 x3 5
3
x2
x1 =
4
4 8

.
1.12.

, ,
. .
1.22. , ( , ) . .
1.23. Amn r , , r + 1 , (r = n r = m). ,
, .
1.24. Amn . rank(A).
1.5.
Ax = b ,

(1.4)

m n, :
1. q = rank(A*) (1.4) r = rank(A) (
), (1.4) , .
2. q = r = n, .
3. q = r < n, .
:
1. , q = r+ 1, ,

a11 x1 + a12 x2 + LLLLLLLL + a1r xr = a1(r +1) xr +1 + L + a1n xn + b1 ;
a x + a x + LLLLLLLL + a x = a
22 2
2r r
2 (r +1) xr +1 + L + a 2 n xn + b2 ;
21 1

LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

ar1 x1 + ar 2 x2 + LLLLLLLL + arr xr = ar (r +1) xr +1 + L + arn xn + br ;

0 = br +1 ;

0 = 0;

LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

0 = 0,

x1 , x2 , ..., xn , x1 , x2 , ..., xr . , , br +1 0 , , .
2. r = n, , (1.4)
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + LLLLLLLL + a1n xn = b1 ;
a x + a x + LLLLLLLL + a x = b ;
21 1
22 2
2n n
2

LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

an1 x1 + an 2 x2 + LLLLLLLL + ann xn = bn ;

0 = 0;

LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

0 = 0,

n , .
3. r < n, (1.4)

a11 x1 + a12 x2 + LLLLLLLL + a1r xr = a1(r +1) xr +1 + L + a1n xn + b1 ;


a x + a x + LLLLLLLL + a x = a
22 2
2r r
2 (r +1) xr +1 + L + a2 n xn + b2 ;
21 1
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

ar1 x1 + ar 2 x2 + LLLLLLLL + arr xr = ar (r +1) xr +1 + L + arn xn + br ; (1.5)

0 = 0;

LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

0 = 0.

(1.5) , .
, .
.
,
. .
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + LLLLLLLL + a1r xr = a1(r +1) xr +1 + L + a1n xn + b1 ;

a22 x2 + LLLLLLLL + a2 r xr = a2(r +1) xr +1 + L + a2 n xn + b2 ;

O O O
M
M

arr xr = ar (r +1) xr +1 + L + arn xn + br ;

0 = 0;

LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

0=0

. .
. :
x1 + x2 x3 + 6 x4 + x5 = 0 ;

2 x1 + 3 x2 4 x3 x4 + 9 x5 = 0 ;
x + 2 x + 5 x + 3 x + 7 x = 0 .
2
3
4
5
1

.
x1 + x2 x3 + 6 x4 + x5 = 0
x1 + x2 x3 + 6 x4 + x5 = 0

x
x
x
x

13
+
7
=
0
2
x2 6 x3 13 x4 + 7 x5 = 0
3
4
5
3x + 4 x + 9 x + 8 x = 0
10 x + 48 x 13 x = 0
3
4
5
4
5
2
3
x1 + x2 x3 = 6 x4 x5
x1 = x2 + x3 6 x4 x5 ;

x2 2 x3 = 13 x4 7 x5 x2 = 2 x3 + 13 x4 7 x5 ;
10 x = 48 x + 13x
10 x = 48 x + 13x .
4
5
4
5
3
3

, x4, x5 , x1, x2, x3


:
x1 = 14,2 x4 + 4,7 x5 ;

x2 = 3,4 x4 4,4 x5 ; .
x = 4,8 x + 1,3x .
4
5
3

, :
(14,24 + 4,7x5; 3,44 4,4x5; 4,84 + 1,3x5; x4; x5) .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

.
, .
, .
?
? .
?
?
?
?
?
?
? .

2.

2.1.
() , :
1) , ;
2) .
,
(n = 12), . . 20- . , . .
( n = 2500). , [1, 3].
(, ,
) n . (, ,
) :
1)
X1

X = M ,
X
n

X i , i = 1, n , i- ;
2)
X 11

~ X 21
X =
M

X
n1

X 12 L X 1n

X 22 L X 2 n
,
M
O
M

X n 2 L X nn

X ij i- , j- .
, , :
1)
n

X1 j
j =1

~
Y = X M = X X 1,
n

X
nj
j =1

1

1 = M n- . , 1

, ;
2)
n
Z = X T X i1 L

i =1

i =1

X in = X T 1T X .

X ij

, -

i =1

j- . , Z j j- . Z j
.
Z j . ,
.

i =1

j =1

Yi = Z j ,
, , .
. 2.1 , .
2.1

2 . N

X1
X2
:
Xn

1
2
:
n

X11 X12 . X1n


X21 X22 . X2n
::::
Xn1 Xn2 . Xnn

Y1
Y2
:
Yn

Z1 Z2 . Zn

Z j = Yi

X1 X2 . Xn

j =1

i =1


~
X 1 + Y = X .

(2.1)

2.2.

: . , , 1000 600 , 400 / , 5 .., 2000 .


, , ,
, - .
, ,
X ij
aij =
, i, j = 1, n .
(2.2)
Xj
. (2.2) . ,
a11 a12 ..... a1n

a21 a22 ..... a2 n


,
A=
..... ..... ..... .....

n1 an 2 ..... ann
, , ,
.
, :
AX + Y = X .
(2.3)
.
(2.3)
Y = X AX = ( E A) X
X = (E A) X

(2.4)

:
X, Y? ,
.
A . , .
2.1. , Y
(2.4) X.

, , .
, . ,
, , ..

, .
2.1. A , , B
= (E A)1, .

, , , .
2.2. A , ,
.

.
, . , , .
2.3.
,
B = ( E A) 1 ,

. .
-,
a
.
a + a q + a q 2 + a q 3 + .... =
1 q
, ,
Y
Y + A Y + A 2 Y + .... =
= ( E A) 1 Y .
EA
,
X = ( E A) 1 Y = Y + A Y + A2 Y + ....

X, Y,
:
1) Y ;
2) AY Y;
3) A2Y . , , , , .. . , , , , ;
4) A3Y ;
5) .., ..
.
, , , . tj ( . /) 1 . j- , Tj
, .
Tj = t j +

aij Ti ,
i =1

, ,
T = t + AT T ,

t1
T1


T = : , t = : ;
t
T
n
n

T = ( E AT ) 1 t = [( E A) 1 ]T t = BT t .

, , . , . , .
,
.
:
= , ;
= , ;
, , .., ..

,
X i = bi1 Y1 + bi 2 Y2 + .... + bin Yn , i = 1, n ,

bij B ,
X i
X i
,
= bij
Y j
1

.. bij , ( ) i- ,
j- . .
, .
, Y = (Y1, Y2, , Yn ),

X = B Y .
, , .
, ,
. ,
, . , .

2.4.

(, ~
, -). X
X :
20 15 30
XX = 5 15 70 ;
25 40 40

80
X = 100 .
135

:
1. .
2. - Y - Z - , , .
3. A ( ).
4. B = (E A)1, .
5. :
- 1 .
0,25

h = 0,35 ;
0,35

- ( . /) 1 .
0,1

t = 0,2 ;
0,23

.
6. ,
2,5

Y = 3,5 .
1,5

?
.
1. . 10 20- . ., , .
(, ) n ,
. , ,
, :

;
, , , ..;
, ,
..;
.
2. - Y
1 15
Y: = X XX 1 = 10 ,
1 30

- Z -
~
Z = X T 1T X = (30 30 5) .

2

Yi = 55 ;

Z i = 55 .

i =0

i =0

, .
3.
1
4
0,25 0,15 0,222
1
A = 0,063 0,15 0,519 =
16
0,313 0,4 0,296

5
16

3
20
3
20
2
5

2
9

14
.
27

8
27


0
X A X Y = 0 .
0
4. B = (E A)1.

3376
1707
1,978 0,984 1,35
1780
B = 1,043 2,32 2,039 =
1707
1,471 1,756 3,179

837
569

. ,

560
569
1320
569
999
569

768
569

1160
.
569

1809
569

1 0 0
B (E A) = 0 1 0 .
0 0 1
, B , , A . .
5. :

0,745
T: = B t = 0,966 ;
1,274
T


1,374
Z: = B h = 1,672 .
2,164
T

6. ,
2,5
dY = 3,5,
1,5


10,414
dX: = B dY = 13,784 .
14,591

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

?
?
?
?
? .
?
, , ?
?

3. .

.

, . - . ,
.
.
, , [1, 4].
3.1.

.
3.1. , : 1, 2, 3, , n, ,
xn, x1, x2, , xn, ,
, . xi , i = 1, ...,
.
3.2. , i- .

xi , i = 1,..., : {xi } . , , .
- . , ,
, , . 23,5 . ., 25,3 . ., 29,0 . ., 22,4 . . , - . ,
. 3.2, .
, ,
, n. ,
5
5 5
5
xn =
, n = 1, 2, ..., , x : , , 1, , ... .
n+2
3 4
6
5
: {xn } =
.
n + 2
, .
, () . .
3.3. {xi} (), M,

xn M ( xn M ).
, , , , , . ,
, , ;
, ;
!
;
, ;
: , ;
, , .
. ( !) . , , .
3.3. {xi } ,
M > 0 : n xn M .
3.4. {xi } , , .
.
) {n} , , ;

1
) ;
n
) {(1) n n} , .
3.5. ( ),
> 0 ( M > 0), N, xn ( xn M ).

, ) , ) .
, , , , , . , .
3.2.

, :
3.6. {zi} {xi} {yi},
zi = xi + yi , i = 1, 2, ..., .

{ z i } = { xi } + { y i } .
3.7. {zi} {xi} {yi},
zi = xi yi , i = 1, 2, ..., .

{ z i } = { xi } { y i } .
3.8. {zi} {xi} {yi},
zi = xi yi , i = 1, 2, ..., .

{zi } = {xi }{ yi } .
3.9. {zi} {xi} {yi},
zi = xi yi , i = 1, 2, ..., .

{zi } = {xi } { yi } .

3.10. {zi} {xi} {yi},


zi = xi y i , i = 1, 2, ..., .


{zi } = {xi }{ yi } .
,
[].
3.1. (...) (...).
3.2. {xi} {yi} ..., {zi} = {xi} {yi} ...
3.3. ... ...
:

{ xi }

{ yi }
...,

M > 0 : n xn M .

. , N ,
M

n N z n = xn yn
M =.
M
{zn} = {xn} {yn} ... .
> 0, M > 0 N : n N xn

3.3.

. .
3.11. a {xi},
> 0 N : n N , a xn < .

, , , .
a {xi},
lim xn = a .
n

, {xi} a, a, n .

xn a , n .
. ,

1
1

1) lim = 0 ,
2) lim 2 + 2 = 2 .
n n
n
n
, , , .
3.12. (: -) a, a R1 ,
( a , a + ) .
3.13. ( ). a {xi}, > 0 N, -- a.

, . , ,
lim xn = .
n

,
lim n 2 = .

, , . , , , , , .
.
3.4. , .
. , , lim xn = a lim xn = b , a b .
n

,
> 0 N : n N ,

a x n < / 2 b xn < / 2 .

,
a b = a xn + xn b < a xn + b xn = / 2 + / 2 = .

a b < > 0, a = b. .
3.5. .
3.6. .
3.4.


. , ( )
. ,
, .
, .
3.7. ( ).
xn a y n b n .
, , , ..
, n :
) z n = xn y n a b ;
) z n = xn yn a b ;
) z n = xn / y n a / b , b 0 ;
) z = x yn a b , a = b = 0 .
n

, .
, a b 3.7 .
. , :
5

2
4
1 n3

lim 2
3 +
= ...
n n 3
n

, , ,


5
lim 2

1 n n3

4
... = lim 2
lim 3 +
n n 3 n
n

1
= 0 32 = .
9

3.5. .

, ,
. , ,
a
+ = , = ,
= , a = , = .
0
, , (, )
. , .
. , :
0 0
,1 , 0.
, 0, ,
0
, .
, , , .
.
:
1. , :
) lim

3n 2 + 2n + 4

4n 2 + n 3

=a.

.
, n2,

a = lim

3 + 2 / n + 4 / n2

.
4 +1/ n 3 / n2
, ,
n

(
) 3+ 0+ 0 3
=
= ;
lim (4 + 1 / n 3 / n ) 4 + 0 0 4

lim 3 + 2 / n + 4 / n 2

a=

) a = lim

2n + 1 n 2 .

, .
, 2n + 1 + n 2 ,
a = lim

2n + 1 n 2

)(

2n + 1 + n 2

2n + 1 + n 2

) = lim

n+3
2n + 1 + n 2

= ... ,

, n,
1+ 3 n
1
... = lim
= =,
n
2 n + 1 n2 + 1 n 2 n2 0
. , ,
. , ,
.
2. . , , , , , .
.
3.8 ( ).
1
lim n sin = 1 .
n
n
3.9 ( ).
n

1
lim 1 + = e ,
n
n
e 2,7182818284... , , , [].

3.1 ( ).

lim n n = 1 .

3.2 ( ).
n
= 0 , > 1 .
n n
, , . , .
.
lim

n/2

1
7

1. lim 1
= lim 1 +

n
n
n
n 7

n 7
n/2
7 n

= lim 1 +
n
n 7

n
(7 2 )
7

= e (7 2 )

2/n

n +1
2. lim n
= .... , , 00.
n 2

,
... = lim

(n + 1)2
22

2
n n +1
= 1 = 1 .
= lim

n
4
2
2

3.6. .

.
3.14. f x ,
x D ( f ) R1, , y R1, .
y = f (x ) .

, , , , y = f (x ) . y , f , x
. , f x.
3.15. ,
V(f).

, , -:
, . , ,
, . , , , . , ..
, D (f) V (f). , , . , , D (f) . . , , ( ..).
, . , y = x2, y = sin3,5(x 17),
x3 7
x < 5;

f ( x) = 1 /( x + 10) 10 x > 5;
3
x > 10,

..
, ,
.
.
:
1. : y = ax + b , a, b .
2. : y = x , .
3. : y = a x , a .
4. : y = log a x , a , . , a = e , , , y = ln x .
5. :

y = sin( x) ;
y = cos( x) ;

y = tg ( x) ;
y = ctg ( x ) ;

y = sec( x ) ;
y = cos ec( x).

6. :
y = arcsin( x) ; y = arctg( x) ;
y = arc sec( x) ;
y = arccos( x) ; y = arcctg( x) ; y = arccosec( x).
, , , , .
3.16. f(x) g(z) q(x), f (x) = g(q (x)).

, , ,
.
3.7.

. , ,
. [] , .
3.17 ( ). a y = f (x) x0,
x0,
a.
3.18 ( ). a y = f (x) x0,
> 0 > 0, x D ( f ) x x0 <
f ( x) a < .

lim f ( x ) = a ,

x x0

f ( x) a , x x0 .

, : a f (x) x = x0 ,
> 0 > 0 : x : x x0 <

f ( x) a < .

:
1) , x0 .
, , ,
. ;
2) , x , x0, . x0 , .
, , . , , , :
lim f ( x) = ;
lim f ( x) = a .
x x0

, .
.

x2 + 1
=5.
x 3
x 2
2
, .
, .
3.10 ( ).
f (x ) a g (x ) b x x0 .

1. lim x 2 + 1 = 5 ;

2. lim

, , , , .., ,
x x0 :
) q(x ) = f (x ) g (x ) a b ;
) q(x ) = f (x ) g (x ) a b ;
) q(x ) =

f (x )
a
, b 0 ;
g (x )
b

) q(x ) = f (x )g ( x ) a b , a = b = 0 .
, , , , , , .
.
3.11 ( )
lim

x 0

sin x
= 1.
x

3.12 ( )
lim (1 + x )1 x = e .

x 0

.
1 cos x
= ... ,
x

1. lim

x 0

x
x
sin 2
2 sin 2
2
= lim
2 = ... ;
... = lim
x
x 0
x 0
x
2
,
x
sin
2 lim sin x = 1 0 = 0 .
... = lim

x x 0 2
x 0
2
x

3
2. lim 1 = ... ,
x
x

t =

3
,
x
3

... = lim (1 t )3 t = lim (1 t )1 t = e 3 .


x 0
x 0

3.8.

, , x x0, , , . , . : : ,
lim f ( x) = a ,
x x0 +

,
lim f ( x) = a .

x x0

, , , . ,
.
3.19 ( ). a y = f (x ) x0 ,
> 0 > 0 : x : x x0 <

f ( x) a < .

.
.
x 5 ;
x + 10
2
x 10
y=
5 < x 3 ; ,
3
ln (x ) + 2 3 < x

x = 5 x = 3.
lim (x + 10) = 5 + 10 = 5 ;

x50

x 2 10 25 10
=
lim
= 5;

x 5 + 0
3
3

x 2 10 9 10
1
=
lim
= ;

x30
3
3
3

lim (ln( x) + 2) = ln(3) + 2 3,098.

x 3 + 0

x [10, 10] (. 3.1).


5

5
10

0
. 3.1

10

, , . , . .
.
3.20 ( ). f (x) . x0,
,
lim f ( x) = lim f ( x) .
x x0 +

x x0

x0 f (x).
3.21 ( ). x0 D (f) f (x), . , ,
I- . ,
II- .
, . 3.2, x0 , , x1.
. 3.3 , II- . .
Y

3
2
0

X
x1

. 3.2

. 3.3

. , , x = 5 I-
x =3.
3.9.

.
3.22. f(x) x0 D(f) , :
a = lim

x 0

f ( x 0 + x ) f ( x 0 )
,
x

x .
,
x, .

, f (x ) x0 , ,
x , x , f (x ) . , , , f x (x) y x .
3.23. , .
3.24. f (x) x0, .
f (x) [a, b] R1 , .
3.13. ( .) f (x) 0, .

. , , ,
.
0
. ,
0
, . ,
f (x) .
f (x) - , ,
. , f (x) , . , ,
.

. f (x ) , :

1. f (x ) = x 2 + 2 x . ,
a = lim

x0

(x + x )2 + 2 (x + x ) (x 2 + 2 x ) =
x

2 x x + 2 x + x 2
=
x0
x
lim

= lim (2 x + 2 + x ) = 2 x + 2 .
x 0

, f ( x) = 2 x + 2 .
2. f (x) = sin (x).

sin( x + x) sin( x)
sin( x) cos(x) + cos( x) sin(x) sin( x)
= lim
=
lim
x 0

0
x
x
= sin( x) lim

x 0

cos(x) 1
sin(x)
+ cos( x) lim
= 0 + cos( x).
x 0
x
x

, (sin( x) ) = cos( x).


1. , , , .
2. , .
3. , .
4. , .
5. , .
.
6. ? ?
7. , ?
8. ?
9. .
10. ?
11. , ?

4. .

4.1.

f (x) 0 ,
. ,
, , .

, , ,
.
, . ,
f ( x) = ax + b ,

a , ;
,
f ( x) = a .

f (x) 0 ,
, , .
.
, (. 4.1).
AC

tg ( ) =

BC

tg ( ) =

f
.
x

, x 0 ,
lim tg( ) = tg ( ) ,

x0

,
lim

x0

f
= f (x0 ) = tg ( ) .
x

. 4.1
,
.
, , .
4.1 ( ). f (x) 0
, 0.
, y = |x| x = 0 ,
, . ,
.
, ,
.
4.2 (). [a, b] f (x), f (x) [a, b], (a, b). c (a, b) ,
f (b) f (a)
= f (c) .
ba

4.3 (). f (x) g(x) [a, b] (a, b), , ,


g ( x) 0 . c (a, b) ,
f (b) f (a ) f (c)
.
=
g (b) g (a) g (c)

(4.1)

. (4.1)
.
4.2.

. ,
, 1(x) 2(x) (. 4.2).
Y

1(x)

2(x)

1
0

x0
. 4.2

, , ,
= 2 1 .
,
. , , . , , , .
, , ,
, . , .
, [1, 4]:
1) y = f (x0 )(x x0 ) + f (x0 ) x0 ;
2) y =

( x x0 ) + f ( x )
0
f (x0 )

3) tg () =

, , x0 ;

k 2 k1
y = k1 x + b1 y = k 2 x + b2 ;
1 + k1 k 2

4) k1 = k 2 ;
5) k1 k 2 = 1 .
.

y = x3 2x + 3

3y 6x + 9 = 0.
.
y = 2x 3.
, , , 1/2.
y = 3 x 2 2 =

1
.
2


x=

5
.
6

. OY, . ,


5 , 5

6 6

5 5 5

5
+ 3
,
+ 3 .

6 6 6

4.3.

, , ,
. , ,
:
1. [5], .
, , :
1) (c ) = 0 , c (c = const);
2)

(x ) = x

3)

(sin( x) ) = cos( x), (cos( x) ) = sin( x) ;

( )

( )

4) a x = a x ln(x), e x = e x ;

5)

(log a ( x) ) =

1
1
, (ln( x) ) = ;
x
x ln(a )

1
1
, (ctg( x) ) = 2 ;
2
cos x
sin x
1
1

, (arccos( x) ) =
, x < 1 ;
7) (arcsin( x) ) =
2
1 x
1 x2
1
1
8) (arctg( x) ) =
, (arcctg( x) ) =
.
1 + x2
1 + x2
2. :
1) (U V ) = U V , U (x ), V (x ) ;

6)

(tg( x)) =

2) (U V ) = U V + V U , (C V ) = C V , C
;

V
1
U U V V U
= 2 .
3) =

2
V
V
V
V
.
3. . .
4.4 ( ). f () -

g () u () ,

f (x ) = g (u (x )) ,

f x = g u u x .

, , .
4.1. f (x ) = g (u (q(z ( p(x ))))) ,
f x = g u u q qz z p px .

, , , ,
.

. , . .
.

( )

f (x ) = sin 4 x 3 7 tg 6.5 (ln 5 x ) .

. . , ,
. , , ,
, . , (6,5),
, (7). .
4.4

f x ( x) = sin( x 3 ) sin( x 3 ) sin( x 3 ) x 3 x 3 x

7 tg 6,5 ( ln(5 x) )

) ( )

) tg(ln(5x))(tg( ln(5x)) ) ln(5x)( ln(5x)) 5x( 5x) x =

( ) ( )

= 4 sin 3 x 3 cos x 3 3 x 2 7 ( 6,5) tg 7,5 (ln 5 x )

1
1
5.
cos (ln(5 x )) 5 x
2

.
4.4.

, 0 f ( x0 ) ,

f ( x0 + x) f ( x0 ) = f ( x0 )x + (x)x ,

(4.2)

(x) ,
lim (x) = 0 .

x0

x .
4.1. (4.2)
, y = f (x) 0.
y = f (x) x x. df dy. , x
df = f ( x)x .

, dx = x, ,
df
= f (x) ,
dx

f (x).
:
1) d ( fg)) = df + dg ;
2) d ( f ) = df , const ;
3) d ( fg ) = dfg + fdg ;
1
f dfg fdg
dg
4) d =
, d = 2 .
2
g
g
g
g

4.5. .
4.5 ( ). f (x) g (x) a, , , a. , ,
lim f ( x) = lim g ( x) = 0 g ( x) 0

x a

x a

a. , lim

xa

), lim

x a

f ( x)
( g ( x)

f ( x)
,
g ( x)
lim

xa

f ( x)
f ( x)
= lim
.
g ( x) x a g ( x)

.
sin( x)
=1,
x
. ,
,
lim

x 0

sin( x)
sin ( x)
cos( x) 1
= lim
= lim
= =1.
x 0
x 0
x 0
1
1
x
x
lim

, ,

0
.
0


lim f ( x) = lim g ( x) = ,

x a

x a

lim

x +

ln( x)
1/ x
1
= lim
= lim = 0 .
x + 1
x + x
x

4.6. .
4.2. f (x) ( ) [a, b],
x1, x2 [a, b]

f(x1) f(x2), x1 x2;

(f(x1) f(x2), x1 x2).

, , . , , , , . , .
4.6 ( ). ( ) [a,
b],
f (x) > 0 ( f (x) < 0),

x1 [a, b].

, (. 4.3).
5
4

f(x) < 0

f(x) > 0

3
f(x) > 0

2
1
0

. 4.3

.
f ( x) = x 3 6 x 2 + 9 x + 1 .


f ( x) = x 3 6 x 2 + 9 x + 1 ,

x1 = 1, x2 = 3.
, :
f ( x) > 0 x (,1) (3,+) ;
f ( x) < 0 x (1,3) .
. 4.3.
4.7. .

, ,
. , , - . , -

, . :
1) ;
2) , , , .

, , .
4.3. x0 D( f ) () f (x ) , , x
f ( x ) < f ( x0 ) ;

( f (x ) > f (x0 )) .

4.4. .

. .
,
.
4.7 ( ). 0 f (x )
, ,
f (x0 ) = 0 .
(4.3)
4.5. ,
f (x0 ) = 0 ,

f ( x ) .

4.7, . 4.4.

5
4

f(x) < 0

f(x) > 0

3
f(x) > 0

. 4.4
, , , . , . .
, OX. , .
, f ( x ) ,
f (x ) = 0 .

.
1. ()
f ( x) = x 3 6 x 2 + 9 x + 1 .

2.

y = (x 2)2 + 1.

y = 2(x 2) = 2x 4.

, y = 0 x = 2 , x = 2 . . 4.5 , , x = 2 , .
, 4.7 , .

4.6. f ( x ) , , .

x0 , . , . 4.6

y = (x 1)3 + 1 ,

x = 1 ,
y = 3 (x 1)2 .

, x = 1 , .

, .
Y

1
2

0
. 4.5

. 4.6

4.8. , .


.
4.7. , f (x) () (a, b ) D( f ) ,
() , .

0 a

. 4.7

4.7 . 4.7. (a, b ) , (b, c ) . .


4.8. .

f (x ) f (x ) .
, , , . , .
.
4.8 ( , ). (a, b)
f (x) <0 ( f (x) >0),

f (x ) () .
, , , , ,
.
.

f ( x) = x 3 6 x 2 + 9 x + 1 .


f ( x) = 6 x 12 = 0 ,

x1 = 2.
, :
f ( x) < 0 x (, 2) ;
f ( x) > 0 x (2, + ) .
. 4.3.
4.9.

, , . .
, .
4.9 ( ).
, . , , ;
, .

4.7 . , ,
, , . ,
. .
.
4.10 ( ).
, . , , ; , .

.
.
f ( x) = x 3 6 x 2 + 9 x + 1 .

4.6 : x1 = 1, x2 = 3.

f ( x) = 6 x 12 = 0 .

,
f (1) = 6 < 0 x1 = 1 ;
f (3) = 6 > 0 x2 = 3 .

, ,
, .
4.9. , f (x) , .
4.10.

. , , . f (x ) , , [a, b] R1 . , .

:
1. II- f (x), , .
2. II- , ,
. + , , .
, , + , , + . ,
, , .
3.
. .
4. f(x) [a, b], a b.

5. , II- , .
. f (x ) = (x 2)2 + 3 , [2, 5].

.
1. f (x ) = 2 (x 2) = 0 , , x = 2 . .
2. f (2 ) = 2 , ,
f (2) = 3 .
3. f (2) = 19, f (5)=12.
4. , , x = 2 3,
x = 2 19. :
min f ( x) = 3 ;

x[ 2, 5]

max f ( x) = 19 .

x[ 2, 5]

4.11.

. , , ,
. .
4.10. y = a f (x ) ,
lim f (x ) = a .
x

4.11. x = x0 f (x ) ,
lim f (x ) = .

x x0

4.12. y = a x + b f (x ) ,
f (x )
lim
=0.
x + b

x a

, , + .
, :
1) II- ;
2) ,

f (x )
lim
=a,
x x

, , . b
lim [ f (x ) a x ] = b ;

3) .

3
0
2
0

. 4.8

y=x+2

. 4.9

. :
1
+ 3 , . 4.8,
1. f (x ) =
(x 2)2
) x = 2 II- ;
1

) lim
+ 3 = 0 , y = 3 ;
2
x ( x 2 )

) ;
x2 + 2 x 1
2. f (x ) =
, . 4.9, :
x
) x = 0 II- ;
x2 + 2 x 1
= , ;
x
x
)

lim

x2 + 2 x 1

x
= a = 1;
lim
x
x

y = x + 2 .

x2 + 2 x 1

lim
1 x = b = 2 ,
x
x

4.12.

R1 . .
, , , .
:
1. I- II- .
2. .
4.13. f(x) (), x D(f)

( f ( x ) = f (x )) .
f ( x ) = f (x ) ;
3. .
4. , ,
.
5. .
6. .
7. .
. y =

(x + 1)2

.
x2
1. , x = 2, II- ,
lim

x 2

(x + 1)2
x2

= .

2. .
3. :
1
1

x = 0 y = , 0, Y;
2
2

y = 0 x = 1, (1, 0) .
4. ()

y =

2 (x + 1)(x 2 ) (x + 1)2

(x 2)

(x + 1)(x 5) .
(x 2)2

, x = 1 x = 5 . . 4.1.

4.1
x

(;1)

(1; 2)

(2; 5)

(5; +)

f (x )

max

min

f (x )

5.
y =

18

(x 2)3

,
f (x ) < 0 x ( , 2 ) , f(x) ;
f (x ) > 0 x (2, + ) , f(x) .

4.10

6. .

x=2.

lim

(x + 1)2

x2

= .

(x + 1)2 = 1 ;
x (x 2 ) x
lim

(x + 1)2

x = 4 ,
lim

x x 2

y = x + 4 .
7.
(10 15) . . 4.2.

4.2
x

f(x)

0,49

1,5

0,8

0,5

12

. 4.10 .
4.13.

, , . . ,
V = f ( p, ) ,

V ; p ; .
4.14. f n ,
x1

x = M , D (f) Rn, , x
n

y R1, .
y = f (x1 , x2 , L , xn ) .
, . ,
, . , f(x, y, z) . , .
, () ,
. . , , . , , , .
. , . ,
y=5

u3 x
sin x z 2

+ tg
xz u +2
z 8

.
, .
,
.
f (x, y, z).
4.14.

.
4.15. u = f (x, y, z) x M(x0, y0, z0) D (f) Rn
( )
f ( x0 + x, y0 , z 0 ) f ( x0 , y0 , z 0 )
,
x
x - .
lim

x 0

f (x, y, z) y z.
, ( ) . .
, , f x ( x, y, z ) , u x , f z . , ,
:
f
= f x ( x, y, z ) .
x

4.15 , , - , ( ,
). ,
, .
.
z2
f ( x, y, z ) = x 2 y 3 + z ln( y ) +
cos( x 2) .
y
. ,

f
z2
= 2 xy 3 sin( x 2) ;
x
y
f
z z2
= 3x 2 y 2 + 2 cos( x 2) ;
y
y y

f
z
= ln( y ) + 2 cos( x 2) .
z
y

, ,
. , , . ,
x

2 f

= f xx ( x, y, z ) .
x 2
, . x y ,
2 f
= f xy ( x, y, z ) .
xy

.
4.11 ( ). u = f ( x, y, z )
,
M ( x0 , y0 , z 0 ) , f xy = f yx
f x , f y , f xy , f yx

,
2 f
2 f
.
=
xy yx

, .
. .

. ,
z2
3
=
2

cos( x 2) ;
y
y
x 2

2 f
z2
= 6 xy 2 + 2 sin( x 2) ;
xy
y

2 f

2 f
z
= 2 sin( x 2) ;
xz
y

2 f
y 2

= 6x2 y

z
y2

+2

z2
y3

cos( x 2) ;

1
2 f
z
= 2 2 cos( x 2) ;
yz y
y

2 f
z 2

=2

cos( x 2)
.
y

,
2

f
2 f
=
xy yx
..

4.15. . .

4.16. u = f ( x, y, z ) M ( x0 , y0 , z 0 ) ,
, , .
u = f ( x, y, z ) .
u = f ( x, y, z ) u, x, y, z . , u . , , u = f ( x, y, z )
( ), .
f
M ( x0 , y0 , z 0 ) , , ,
y
, u = f ( x, y, z ) , zOu . , .
, , , ( ), Ou , , .
4.12 ( ). u = f ( x, y, z ) M ( x0 , y0 , z 0 )
, .
,
f
x = 0 ;
f

= 0;
y
f = 0.
z

, , , .

. ,
. .
.
.
u = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 xy + x 2 z .

.
u
x = 2 x y + 1 = 0 ;
u

= 2y x = 0;

y
u = 2 z 2 = 0.
z

, .

x=

2
;
3

1
y = ; z = 1.
3


1
4
2
u , , 1 = .
3
3
3

, . , .
4.16.
, , .
4.13 ( ). f (x) a
n + 1 . x , x a. a x
, ( )
f ( x) = f (a ) +
.... +

f (a)
f (a )
( x a) +
( x a) 2 + ...
1!
2!

f ( n +1) ()
f ( n) (a)
( x a) n +
( x a ) n +1.
(n + 1)!
n!

, , x = x a 0 ,
. , ,
( ) x . , a (
),
x = x a , .
.
. -

(x a )n . , , , . , , , .
, .


.. , , :
x
m

m f

f = m ,
x
x

.
4.14 ( ). f (x)
a = ( x0 , y 0 , z 0 ) , , m + 1 . ( x, y, z ) -

, ( x, y , z ) a . 0 < 1 ,

f ( x, y , z ) = f (a) + ( x x0 ) + ( y y0 ) + ( z z 0 ) f (a) + ....


1! x
y
z

... +
+

( x x0 ) + ( y y0 ) + ( z z0 ) f (a) +
m! x
y
z

( x x0 ) + ( y y0 ) + ( z z0 )
(m + 1)! x
y
z

m +1

f (a + a ) ,

a = (x, y, z ) .
, , . ,
,
a . , , .
4.17.

.
4.17. A ( ),
x
xAxT > 0 ( xAxT < 0 ).

4.18. A
, .
An , , n .

, An n , , a11 .
4.15 ( ). A . A a11 < 0 ,

.
, ,
2 f
2 f
2 f

x 2
x y x z
x
2
f
2 f
2 f
(4.4)
f ( x, y, z ) f (a) = (x y z )
y + R3 ,
y x
y z
y 2
z
2
2 f
2 f
f
z x z y
z 2

R3 . (x y z ) ,

lim
2

x + y + z

R3

x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 0 ,
0

( x, y, z ) a , R3
(4.4). , , a ,
f ( x, y, z ) (4.4).
, , .
4.16 ( ). (4.4) , a f (x, y, z), , . , .
. , .
u = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 xy + x 2 z

, ,
2 1 0

f = 1 2 0 .
0 0 2

. ,
, , . , , , , .
.
4.18.

4.16, ,
. . .
. . ,
, n- , 3n . , ,
, .
. , , 3-4.
.
.
f ( x, y, z ) = y x (z + 2 )2 + (x + 2)2 (z + 2) .

, . .

. :
f
x = y + 2(x + 2 )(z + 2 ) = 0 ;
f

= x = 0;
y
f = 2(z + 2 ) + (x + 2)2 = 0.
z

, ,
x = 0;

y = 0;
z = 2.

, :
2(z + 2) 1 2(x + 2 )

1
0
0 .
2(x + 2 ) 0
2

(H ) =

:
1 = 2(z + 2 ) = 2(2 + 2) = 0 ; 2 = 2 ; 3 = 4 .

, , , .
,
. 0,02. . 4.3.
. ,
, . , .

4.3
xi

yi

zi

fi

xi

yi

zi

fi

xi

yi

zi

fi

0,01

0,01

2,01

0,0396

0,01

2,01

0,0401

0,01

0,01

2,01

0,0406

0,01

0,01

0,0001

0,01

0,01

0,01

0,0001

0,01

0,01

1,99

0,039601

0,01

1,99

0,0399

0,01

0,01

1,99

0,040201

0,01

2,01

0,03971

2,01

0,0401

0,01

2,01

0,0405

0,01

0,01

0,01

1,99

0,039501

1,99

0,0399

0,01

1,99

0,040301

0,01

0,01

2,01

0,0398

0,01

2,01

0,0401

0,01

0,01

2,01

0,0404

0,01

0,01

0,0001

0,01

0,01

0,01

0,0001

0,01

0,01

1,99

0,039401

0,01

1,99

0,0399

0,01

0,01

1,99

0,040401

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

?
?
, ?
.
?
.
?
?
, ?
?
?
?
, ?

5. .

5.1.

[1, 4] , . . .
5.1. F (x) f (x) (a, b) R1, F (x)
F ( x) = f ( x) .
, F (x) f (x), F (x) + C
f (x), C . .
5.2. , F (x) + C, F (x) f (x), C
, f(x).
5.3. f (x) (a, b) R1 f(x)

f ( x)dx = F ( x) + C .

, f(x) - , f(x) dx

, x - .
5.4. .
, , , .
:

1. f ( x) dx = f ( x) f ( x) dx = f ( x) + C .

2.
3.
4.

dF ( x) = F ( x) + C .
f ( x) dx = f ( x) dx .
( f ( x) g ( x)) dx = f ( x) dx g ( x) dx .

5.2. .

, , , . . [5].
:
1.
2.

x +1
+C .
+1

x dx =

dx
= ln( x) + C .
x
dx
= arctg( x) + C .
1 + x2
dx
= arcsin( x) + C .
1 x2

3.

4.

5.
6.
7.

sin( x)dx = cos( x) + C .


cos( x)dx = sin( x) + C .
dx
2
x 2 + k = ln x + x + k

+C.

( 3, 4). , .
.

1.

2
2
(2 sin( x) + 6 3x )dx = 2 sin( x)dx + 6 dx 3 x dx =

= 2 cos (x ) + 6 x x 3 + C .

2.

3x 4 x 3 + x + 2
x2

1 2

dx = 3x 2 x + + 2 dx =
x x

2
x2
+ ln( x) + C .
2
x
, , . . -

= 3 x 2 dx xdx +

x dx + x 2 dx = x

, . ,
, ( )

I = e x dx .

5.3. .

,
. ,
. ,
, .
, , , , .
5.1. ( ) x = (t) ,
f (x) ,

f ( x)dx = f [(t)](t)dt.
.

1. I = cos(2 x )dx = ... ,

t = 2 x dt = 2dx ,

... = cos(t )

2. I =

xdx
1+ x2

sin (t )
sin (2 x )
dt
=
+C =
+C .
2
2
2

. , x . -

dt
= 2 x dt = 2 xdx .
dx
,
t = 1+ x2

I=

3. I =

x 3 dx

(2 x )3

1
dt
2 = 1 ln(t ) + C = 1 ln(1 + x 2 ) + C ;
t
2
2

t = 2 x x = 2 t dt = dx .

,
I =

(2 t )3 dt =
t3

(8t

= 4t 2 12t 1 6 ln(t ) + t + C =

12t 2 + 6t 1 1 dt + C =

12
6 ln(2 x) + (2 x) + C .
2 x

(2 x )
, ,
.
2

5.4. .

, u (x ) v(x) ,

u( x)v( x)dx = u( x)v( x) v( x)u ( x)dx ,


. :

udv = uv vdu .
(
).
, , . , ,
..

1. I = xe x dx .

dv = e x dx

u = x,

du = dx ,

v = ex

I = xe x dx = xe x e x dx = xe x e x + C = ( x 1)e x + C

, x , , , ..;
2. I = ln( x )dx .
u = ln(x) ,

dv = dx

du =

dx
, v=x
x


dx
=x ln( x) x + C = x(ln( x) 1) + C .
x
, , , , .
. .
, ,
.

I = ln( x)dx = x ln( x) x

5.5.

,
.
[5].
, n ax + b , x , (
) t = n ax + b . x
t dx ,
t = n ax + b x =

tn b
n t n 1
dx =
dt .
a
a

ax + b

ax + b ,

t = ax + b , N n m . x , dx .

1.

x 1dx = t = x 1, =
2

x = t + 1 dx = 2tdt

(t

+ 1 t 2tdt = 2

(t

+ t 2 dt =

2
2
2
2
= t 5 + t 3 + C = (x 1)5 2 + (x 1)3 2 + C ,
5
3
5
3

2.

1+

x
x

dx = t = 4 x , =
x = t 4 dx = 4t 3 dt

4 4

t 4t 3dt

1+ t4

=4

t 4 dt

1+ t2 =

1
1

dt = 4 t 3 t arctg(t ) + C =
= 4 t2 1+
2
3
1+ t

( )

= 4 4 x 3 4 x arctg 4 x + C .
3

x
x = a cos(t ) ( x = a sin (t ) ),
x

x 2 a 2 , x =

a 2 x 2 ,

a 2 x 2 = a sin (t ) , dx = a sin (t )dt .

a
a
( x =
),
cos(t )
sin (t )

x 2 a 2 = a tg (x ) , dx = a

sin (t )
dt .
cos 2 (t )

x 2 + a 2 x = a tg (x ) ( x = a ctg(x ) ),
x2 + a2 =

a
a
, dx =
dt .
cos(t )
cos 2 (t )

.
.

t = 3cos(t ),

9 x dx =

9 x = 3sin (t ) dx = 3sin (t )dt


2

= 27 cos(t ) sin (t ) sin (t ) dt = 27 sin 2 (t ) d (sin (t )) = 9 sin 3 (t ) + C =


3

3
1
1

9 x 2 = C 9 x 2 .
= 9

3
3

cos(x ) sin (x ) ,
x
2t
1 t2
2dt
t = tg ; sin( x) =
;
cos(
x
)
=
; dx =
.
2
2
2
1+ t
1+ t
1+ t2

x
dx
t = tg ,
=
=
2
1 + sin (x )

2
(t + 1)1 + C = C 2 .
dt
2dt
1 + t 2 dt =
2
=
=
=
2
x
2t
1
1 + 2t + t 2
(t + 1)2
1 + tg
1+
2
2
1+ t

,
.
5.6.

.
5.5. f (x ) [a, b] R1 , F (x) ; :
b

F (b) F (a ) =

f ( x)dx .
a

(5.1)

. 5.1

(5.1) -. :
b
F (b) F (a) = F ( x) .
a
(5.1). [a, b], f (x) N
ba
x =
, . 5.1.
N
S , f (x) [a, b] OX, . , , ,
S

i =1

f ( xi ) + f ( xi + x)
f (a) + f (a + x)
x =
x + ... +
2
2
+

f (b x ) + f (b )
x ,
2

x1 = a. , , x =

(5.2)
ba
, N.
N

, , (5.2), x 0 N , S:
N f ( xi ) + f ( x i + x )
x .
S = lim
N
2
i =1

f (x ) ,
f ( x) = F ( x) ,

N F ( xi ) + F ( xi + x)
x .
S = lim

N
2
i
=
1

x 0 N , ,

i =1

F ( xi ) + F ( xi + x)
x =
2

F ( xi + x) F ( xi ) F ( xi + 2x) F ( xi + x)

+
N

x
x
x =
= lim
x0

2
i=1

N F ( xi + 2x) F ( xi )
.
= lim

x0
2
i =1

, ;

N F ( xi + 2x) F ( xi )
= lim F (b + x) + F (b) F (a + x) F (a ) =
lim
x 0
x 0
2
2

i =1
= F (b) F (a).
,

S = F (b) F (a) ;

, f (x) [a, b] OX . , .
, , , , . , (5.2), , , , . .
,
, , , .. (5.2) .
.
1, 2

x sin(6 x) dx .
0

. , , 15 .

. .
1,2 1,2
1,2
1, 2
cos(6 x )
x cos(6 x )
x cos(6 x ) sin(6 x )
+
=

+
x sin(6 x)dx =
dx

=
6
6
6
36

0
0 0
0

= 0,1 0 = 0,1.
[0;1,2] (. 5.2).
15
xi , i = 0,15 . . 5.1.
Y

0,5

X
a=0

b = 1,2

. 5.2

5.1
xi

f (xi)

xi

f (xi)

0,0000

0,0000

0,6400

0,4115

0,0800

0,0369

0,7200

0,6653

0,1600

0,1311

0,8000

0,7969

0,2400

0,2380

0,8800

0,7420

0,3200

0,3007

0,9600

0,4797

0,4000

0,2702

1,0400

0,0449

0,4800

0,1241

1,1200

0,4738

0,5600

0,1213

1,2000

0,9524

S i ,
Si =

x =

f ( xi ) + f ( xi +1 )
x ,
2

ba
. . 5.2.
15

5.2

, Si

, Si

, Si

0,0015

0,0158

11

0,0616

0,0067

0,0001

12

0,0489

0,0148

0,0213

13

0,0210

0,0215

0,0431

14

0,0172

0,0228

10

0,0585

15

0,0570


S=

15

Si = 0,0969.
i =1

. ,

= 0,1 (0,0969) = 0,0031,

0,0031
100 % 3,1% .
0,1

5.7. .

, () .
, . , (5.2), S ,
S

f ( xi ) x .
i =1

N f ( xi ), i = 1, N , x . . , ,
x 0 N , S , :
b
N
lim f ( xi )x = f ( x)dx .

x 0
a
i =1

(5.3)

.
S , , .
, , , ,
: . , .
. , ( ) .
L - , f (x) [a, b] D ( f ) R1 .
. 5.1 , , .
l , ,
N

l = x 2 + ( f ( xi )x )2 = 1 + f ( xi ) 2 x .

i =1
i =1

(5.3), ,

lim 1 + f ( xi ) 2 x = L =
x 0

i =1

1 + f ( x) 2 dx .

, , . ,
W =

x2 y2 z2

f ( x, y, z ) dx dy dz

x1 y1 z1

W =

x2

y2

z2

x1

y1

z1

dx dy f ( x, y, z ) dz .

[ x1 , x2 ] , [ y1 , y 2 ] , [ z1 , z 2 ]
. , ,
, f ( x, y, z ) . , , . , ,
.
.
, ,
.
:
a

1.

f ( x)dx = 0 ,

f (x ) x = a .

2.

f ( x)dx 0 ,

f ( x) 0 [a, b] ,

f ( x)dx 0 ,

f ( x) 0 [a, b] .

3.

4.

f ( x) dx = f ( x) dx .
b

f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx + f ( x)dx , c [a, b] .

5.8.

, () [1, 4, 6]. - , , .
5.6.
F (t , y, y) = 0 ,

(5.4)

y (t ) t , F() ,
. y (t ) , (5.4) , .
, , y (t ) , ,
.
, y (t ) t , y (t ) y (t ) ,
.
.

1) t y (4 + y 2 ) ln(t ) = 0 ;
cos(t )
2) t y + t y =
,
y 1
cos(t )
y =
y.
( y 1)t

t . , ,
. y .
. , - . , , .
5.7. y (t , C ) , C , . C , .
y (t , C ) - ( ), , t ( ),
. , ,
, . ,
y = f ( y, t ) ;

y (t0 ) = y0 ,

.
, , .
. ,
.
5.9.

, , .
y = f (t ) g ( y ) ,

f (t ) g ( y ) , .
dy
dy
= y = f (t ) g ( y )
= f (t ) dt
g ( y)
dt

dy

g ( y) = f (t )dt .
.

1. t y (4 + y 2 ) ln(t ) = 0
(4 + y 2 ) ln(t )
dy (4 + y 2 ) ln(t )
=

t
t
dt
dy
ln(t )
dy
ln(t )

=
dt
=
dt
2
2
t
t
(4 + y )
(4 + y )

y =

2
1
y ln (t )
arctg =
+C ,
2
2
2

, y t , , ,

y = 2 tg ln 2 (t ) + 2C .

2.
(2 xy + x )dx ( x 2 + 1)dy = 0 ;

y (0) = 1,
y x .
, ,
x

dy

( x 2 + 1) d x = 2 y + 1

1
1
ln(2 y + 1) = ln x 2 + 1 + C
2
2

2 y + 1 = e 2C x 2 + 1 y =

1
1
C1 x 2 + 1 .
2
2

, (
); ,
1
1
C1
3 = C1 .
2
2
,
1=

y=

3 2
x 1 .
2

5.10.


y
y = f ,
t

. , x =

(5.5)
y
,
t


yt = x + xtt ,

(5.5) .
.
y
y
y
1. ty y + t cos 2 = 0 y + cos 2 = 0 ,
t
t
t
; ,
dx
x+t
x + cos 2 x = 0 ,
dt

dt
dx

=
tg (x ) + ln (cx ) = 0 ;
2
cos x t
,
y
cy
tg + ln = 0 .
t
t

y , , .
y
2. y =
.
x+ y
5.11.


y + p ( x) y = g ( x) ,

. , , p (x) g (x )
, .
.
y ( x) = u ( x) v( x) ,

( x )
y = u v + uv


u v + u (v + pv) = q ,

v(x) ,
(v + pv) = 0 ,
. , , .

.
y

= 2e x ,
2 x
; y ( x) = u ( x)v( x) ,
y

u v + uv

uv
2 x

= 2e

v
u v + u v
2 x

= 2e

v
2 x

=0.


v( x) = e

, u ( x ) , ,
u = x2 + C .

,
y ( x) = e

(x

+C .

5.12.

, . , , , , , , .

. ,
,
y (t + t ) y (t )
.
t
, , y (t ) ,

y (t )

t0 , t0 + t , t0 + 2t , t0 + 3t , ... ,

.

y (t ) = f ( y, t )


y (t 0 ) = y 0 ,

y (t ) , ,
y (ti +1 ) y (t i ) + t f ( y (t i ), t i ) ,

(5.6)

ti +1 = ti + t ; t 0 .
, , y (t ) , t , . (5.6) .
, . ,
y (t )

y (t + t ) 2 y (t ) + y (t t )
t 2

, .
. ,
(2 xy + x )dx ( x 2 + 1)dy = 0 ;

y (0) = 1,

. . 5.3 5.4. , . 5.3 ,


N = 50 , . 5.4 N = 15 .

t=1

t=5

t=1

t=1

. 5.3

t=5

. 5.4

, , . . , , N .
(5.6) , , , , .
5.13.

, . ,
( ) ,
. , .
, y (t ) z (t ) ,
dy
dt = f1 ( y, z , t ) ;
(5.7)
dz
= f 2 ( y, z , t ).
dt
,
y (t , C1 , C 2 ) , z (t , C1, C2 ) , .
, t . , y (t 0 ) = y0 z (t 0 ) = z 0 .

(5.7) y (t ) z (t ) .
,
dy1
dt = a11 y1 + .... + a1n y1 ;

.........................................
dyn = a y + .... + a y .
n1 1
nn n
dt

, . , , .
, , , . , (5.7)

y (ti +1 ) y (ti ) + t f1 ( y (ti ), z (ti ), ti ) ;

z (ti +1 ) z (ti ) + t f 2 ( y (ti ), z (ti ), ti ).

, . , , , , .

5.14.

. .
.
, ,
[6].
: X
(); C ; I , L ; K () . , , :
; ; p
( ).
,
-
X = K L ,

, , , .
t Kt It ,

K = Kt + It ,

t ,
K
= K + I
t


K (0) = K 0 .

, , ,
:
L(t ) = L0 e t ;

K (t )
= K (t ) + I (t ) , K (0) = K 0 ;
t
X (t ) = [K (t )] [L(t )] ;
I (t ) = p X (t ) ;
C (t ) = (1 p) X (t ) .
,
, .
, ,
V (t ) . :
V (t ) = I (t ) ,

. ,
, , . t , ,
t

V (t ) =

N (t ) I ()d ,

N (t ) . , ,
N (t ) = e (t ) .

(5.8)

(5.8)


t
t
dV (t )
(t )

=
e
I ( )d = e


dt

= e

e I ( )d =

t
t

e I ( )d + e t e I ( )d = I (t ) V (t ) .

, , ,
:
L(t ) = L0 e t ;
K (t )
= K (t ) + V (t ) , K (0) = K 0 ;
t
dV (t )
= I (t ) V (t ) , V (0) = V0 ;
dt
X (t ) = [K (t )] [L(t )] ;
I (t ) = p X (t ) ;
C (t ) = (1 p) X (t ) .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

? ?
, .
, ?
? ?
?
?
? -

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

?
?
, .
, ?
?


() .
, , , ( , ) , .
()
. , , () .
, , ,
, .
,
, . , , . , , (
) , . , , . .
.

1. , .. : / .. . . : -, 1999. 464 .
2. , .. : / .. . . :
, 2004. 304 .
3. , .. : / .. . . : , 1973. 279
.
4. , .. : . 5- ., . / .. . . : . 2001.
479 . : .
5. , .. / .. , .. , .. ; . .. . . : , 1980. 336 ., .
6. , .. : / .. . . : , 1998. 240 .


.
1.
...
1.1.
1.2. .
1.3. .
1.4. .
.
1.5.
1.6. ...
1.7. .
1.8. ..
1.9.
1.10. ..
1.11. ...
1.12. ...
2. ...
2.1.
....
2.2. ...
2.3. ..
2.4. ..
3. .
.
...
3.1. ...
3.2. .
3.3. ...
3.4. ...
3.5. . ...
3.6. .
...
3.7. .
3.8. ..
3.9. .
4. .
...
4.1.
4.2.
.
4.3. ..
4.4. ..
4.5. . .
4.6. . ...
4.7. .
4.8. , . ...
4.9. .
4.10. .
4.11. ...
4.12. ...
4.13. .
4.14. ..
4.15. .
.
4.16.
4.17.
..
4.18.
5. .
-

3
4
4
5
6
8
10
13
15
15
18
18
20
23
27
27
29
31
33

37
37
39
40
42
42
45
46
49
51
54
54
56
57
59
60
61
62
65
66
67
68
70
73
74
76
78
79
81
85

...
5.1.
5.2. . ...
5.3. .
.
5.4. .
...
5.5. .
5.6. ..
5.7. .
...
5.8.
5.9. ...
5.10. ..
5.11. ...
5.12. ..
5.13. .
5.14.
.
...
..

85
86
87
88
89
91
95
97
99
100
101
102
104
105
109
110