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The embalmed body of Ch'an Master Wen Yen, founder of the
Y un Men sect at Yun Men monaster
, K wangtun
China, (Died in 949
Self-cultivation by Mind Control as taught in the
Ch'an, Mahayana and Taoist schools in China
Lu K'uan Yi
(Charles Luk)
York Beach, Maine
Firt American edition in 1969 by
Samuel Weiser, Inc.
Bx 612
York Beach, Maine 03910
Eighth printing, 1991
Charle Luk, 1964
All rights resered. No part of this publication may b
reprouced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical , including photoopy, without per
mission in writing from Samuel Weiser, Inc. Reviewer may
quote brief passage.
First published in England by
Rider & Co. in 1964
ISBN 0-87728-066-5
Prnted in the United States of America
To the memo
whose encouragement has sustained my humble
eforts to present to Wester Buddsts the
Dharma as taught i my country
Preae II
I Self-ultivation as taught i the Siragama Sitra 15
2 Sel-ultivation accordg to the Ch'an (Zen) school
Self-cultivation according to the Pure Land school 81
Self-ultivation according to the T'ien T'ai (Tendai)
school 109
5 Self-ultivation according to the Taoist school 16
6 Authentic experents with Buddst and Taoist
methods of self-ultivation 191
Physica and spitual cture accordng to Chiese
yoga 205
Conclusion 215
Glossar 219
Index 2
1111/l : . " t.
Sakyamuni Buddha
The late Ch'an Master Hsu Yun in 1959
: i -l 1 1 .
* 4 -
The three Hol
Ones of the Western Paradise
We take reuge in the Buddha,
We take reuge in the Dharma,
We take reuge in the Sangha,
We take reuge in the Triple Gem within ourselves.
THE Buddha Dharma i useless i it is not put into actual
practice becaue i we do not have personal experience of it,
it w be alen to us and we wl never awaken to it in spite
of our book-learg. A ancient said:
Sel-cultivation has no other method,
It requires but knowledge o the way.
I the way only can be known,
Birth and death at once will ed.
Terefore, i ou sel-cultivation, we should fst know the
way, and the Buddhas and great masters have taught u the
approprate methods i the sitras and treatises. The purpose of
this volume i to acquaint readers with variou method of
meditaton as practied in China so that they can choose ay
one of them for their sel-ultivaton.
At frst we hesitated to present version of Chee texts on
successful practces and on experences of dhyana as we have
been critcized for being unduly optimstc about the futue of
the Buddha Dhara i the West. Fortunately, a leared reader
of ous, Mr. Terence Gray, who recently paid a short visit to
the Far East, has written u: 'I myself believe tat even i it
were true that the East i weary after a thouad years of
eforts, those of the West are as fresh today as were the d
ciples of Hu Neng.' He has ao kindly sent us a copy of
Mr. D. E. Hardig's little book enttled On having no Head1 i
which the author relates his personal experience of dhyana.
We are gratef to M. Gray for the encouagig news and to
Mr. Harding for his book and have thus been emboldened
to present i th volume di erent methods of meditation
with the accounts of satisfactory results achieved by some
The Buddha Dharma has no room for race and nationalty
and nothig is more msleadg than the groundless contention
that Westerners are not ft to achieve enghtenment. I thei
former lves many were virtuous men and women who
practised the Buddha's Teachg but faied to attai enlghten
ment; their good karmas have caused them to be rebor i
countries where propitious conditions prevai so that they can
resume thei sel-ultivation. Those who have been rebor i
the West are capable of understandg the holy Teachig
and w certainy achieve satisfactory results in their present
life. Therefore, racial discrimnation should be cast away for
Lin Chi said: 'There is not a lvg beig who cannot be
Buddhism is in decline in the East because of the division of
the Dharma into dierent schools contradictory and hostie to
each other. There are people who, instead of practising the
methods taught in the sitras and treatises, indulge i endless
discussions which are empty and give no practical results.
Others only lear to recite the sitras by heart without strivg
to understand their profoud meangs. Many are those who
worship the Buddha, recite sitras and repeat mantras in the
I. The Buddhist Society, London, xgx.
2. Se Ch'an and Ze Teaching, Second Series, Rider (x96x), p. IIJ.
hope of reaping merits for themselves and their fames, with
out knowing that the World Honoured One teaches us to keep
fom illusions but not to cling to merits which are also i usory.
We are urged by H to forsake the cult of ego, then what
merit do we ear when we cease to be selh? What merit ca
a thief w when he stops steag? There are also those who, i
their study of Sanskrit and Tibetan, pass thei precious time in
practising the correct pronunciation either by pressing down
the tongue or by puttig it up agaist the palate or between the
teeth, not realzing that phiology has nothing to do with self
cultivation. Our moder students of sitras and treatises, i
stead of studying thei profound meanings, seem to be more
interested in obtaig hstorical, linguistic and geographical
dta whch have nothg to do with the Buddha Dharma
which is beyond space and time.
During the last few years, in spite of my secluded lie, I have
met some of my readers in the West and have received very
encouraging letters from others, and I have come to the con
clusion that many Occidentals are now mature and digest quite
well the Mahayana and Ch'an Teachings. At least half a dozen
of them have related their personal experience of the state of
dyana, amongst whom are two British readers in America.
My optimism about the future of the Dharma in the West is,
therefore, not groudless.
To prevent disbelief i the involuntary movements de
scribed in Chapters 6 and 7, I have given a sixty-fve-minute
demonstration of them to to British Bhikkhus, the V en.
Kema and the V en. Aruno who are graduates of Oxord and
Cambridge respectively and who hap
ened to be i Hong
Kong. The Ven. Aro is M. Harding's son. Before thei
arrval, I gave the same demonstration to M. Hugh Ri
a British banker, Mr. Paul H. Beidler, an American engineer,
Dr. Huston Smith, professor of phosophy, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, Mr. Holmes Welch, author of The
of the Way, Madame Maurice Lebovich, a French
paiter, and a few well-kown Chese Buddhists, including
Mr. K. S. Fug, chief delegate of the Chinese Buddsts of
the Hong Kong-Macao area at the Sixth Congress of the
World Felowship of Buddsts at Pnompenh, Camboda, i
A bracket are me.
ACCORDING to the Buddha, we all have ierent in ourselves
the Tathagata's wisdom which is unnown to us and which we
cannot use because of our ignorance. We are also taught how
to control our wandering minds so that our self-nature can
retur to its normal condition by which is meant a passionless,
sti and imperturbable state, free from all exteral infuences,
i which our immanent wisdom can manifest and function in
the normal way, that is the way of the absolute, beyond all
relativities and contraries.
Therefore, when discussing sel-ultivation, we canot
stray from the Buddha Dharma for the World Honoured One
taught us how to get out of sarsara for ever, whereas the
highest achievement by other religious doctrines is only a
temporary transmigration to the happy realm of devas from
which, when the beneft of our good karma has been enjoyed
to the ful, we will be sent down again to the lower worlds of
existence. For this reason, Y ung Cha urged us not to seek
happiness in sarsara and wrote i his Song of Enlightenment:
With force expended, a spent arrow's bound to fall and cause
Distasteul things to follow in the next incarnation.
How can it then compare with the wu wei reality
Which ensures a leap straight to the Tathagata's stage?1
I. See Ch'an and Zen Teachin
, Thd Seres, Rdr (1962), p. 127.
As regards self-cultivation, there are many methods of
practice which are found in the Chnese sitras and sastras
but it is a matter for regret that authentic versions i Wester
languages are not yet available. Although we Buddhists in the
East have access to the Chinese Tripiaka, it is impossible for us
to practse all the methods simultaneously or one after the
other i our quest of enlightenment (bodh). I Cha, many
Buddhists fai i self-cultivation because they choose wrongly
methods unsuitable for them. For ths reason, the late Master
Hsu Yun said at the Jade Buddha monastery at Shanghai a few
years ago:
Selcultivation has no other method;
It requires but knowledge o the way.1
Because of His great compassion for a livg beigs whom
He vowed to save, and in anticipation of our present confusion
ad perplexty i this Dharma ending age, the Buddha com
manded twenty-fve great Bodhisattvas and Arhats who were
present in the Siratgama _assembly to speak of thei methods
of practce and of their personal experiences.
The Sirangama Sitra lists twenty-fve ways of controlling
the md by meditaton on the si sense data, six sense organs,
s consciousnesses and seven elements-arth, water, fre, wid,
space, sense-percepton and consciousness. After each of the
tenty-fve great ones had related hs personal experience and
achevement, the Buddha ordered Maijusri to compare their
methods and to idicate the one most suitable for the beneft
of .nanda and those in the Dharma ending period, that i
After rejectng the twenty-four methods whch were not
sutable for untraied mids, Mafjusri chose the one followed
by A valoktdvara, whch he praised as the most convenient
for people on this earth. It consisted in disengaging the organ
of hearig from its object, sound, and then directing that
I. S Ch'an and Zen Teaching, Fist Series, Rder (1960), p. 62.
organ into the stream of concentration. When the conception
of both sound and stream-entry had been successfuly wped
out, the duality of disturbance and stillness became ilusor
and non-existent. By advancing step by step, the subjective
hearing and objective sound also vanished completely. This
was where many meditators lost thei way and were tued
back to the realm of birth and death, but A valokitdvara said
he did not stop there but strove to advance further. When the
subjective awareness of ths state and its object, that is the
state itsel were perceived as illusory and non-existent, the
awareness of voidness became all-embracig. However, the
fmest duality of subject and object, in other words the subtle
view of ego and things (dharma), mentioned in the Diamond
Sutra, still remained and when this also was elimiated, ths
Bodhisattva reached the absolute state wherein all pairs of
opposites, such as birth and death, creation and anation,
beginning and end, ignorance and enlightenment, Buddhas and
lvng beings, etc., have no room. Then the condition of
naa appeared, folowed by a sudden leap over both the
mundane and supramundane for realizing Absolute Universal
Enghtenment (for the self) and Wonderful Englightenment
(for others).l
Here are the relative passages in the Surangama Sutra:
'The W odd Honoured One said to the great Bodhsattvas and chef
Arhats i the assembly: "I wat now to ask you, Bodhisattvas and arhats
who have practised my Dharma and have reached the state beyond study,2
this question: When you developed your minds for awakening to the
eighteen realms of sense (datu),3 which one did you regard as the best
mea of perfection and by what methods did you enter the state of
I. Respectively the ffty-frst and ffty-second stages of a Bodhisatva's development
into a Buddha.
2. Asaika in Sanskrit; no longer learng, beyond study, the stte of arhatship, the
fourh of the sravaka stages; the preceding three stages requiring study. When an
arhat is free from al ilusions, he has nothing more to study.
3. Realms of sense, i.e. the six organs, their objects and their perception.
4 Interna state of imperturbabilty, exempt from all exterl senations.
I. Meditation on sound
'(Thereupon), Kat a (one of) the fst fve bhkus, rose fom his seat,
prostrated himself with his head at the feet of the Buddha ad declared:
"When, soon after His enlightenment, we met the Tathagata in t
Mrgadava and Kukkuta parks, I heard His voice, uderstood H teaching
and awakened to the Four Noble Trths.1 When questoned by the Buddha,
I interpreted them correctly and the Tathagata sealed my awaening by
namng me Ajfata (Thorough Knowledge). As H wonderful voice was
mysteriously a-mbracig, I attained arhatship by meas of sound. As the
Buddha now asks about the best meas of perfection, to me soud i the
best according to my personal experience." '
2. Meditation on form
' Upaniad then rose from hs seat, prostrated hmsel with his head at the
feet of the Buddha and declared: "I also met the Buddha soon ater H
enlightenment. Mter meditating on impurty whch I found repuive ad
from which I kept, I awakened to the underlying nature of a forms. I
realzed that (even our) bleached bones whch came fom impurity would
be reduced to dust and would fnally retur to the void. As both form ad
the void were perceived as non-xstent, I achieved the state beyond study.
The Tathagata seaed my understanding ad named me Niad.2 Mter
eradicating (relative) form, wonderful form (suipa) appeared mysteriously
all-embracing. Thus I attained arhatshp through meditation on form. As
the Buddha now asks about the best means of perfection, to me form is the
best accordng to my personal experience." '
3. Meditation on smell
'A son of Buddha (kumara)3 named "Fragrance Adored" then rose fom
hs seat, prostrated hmsel with hs head at the feet of the Buddha ad
declared: "After the Tathagata had taught me to look into a worldly
phenomena, I left H and retired to set my mind at rest. Whle observing
the rules of pure living, I saw bhkus burg sandal incense. I the stilless,
its fragrance entered my nostris. I enquired into this smel which was
r. Catvariarya-satyani, the four dogmas which are: sufering (dulkha}, its cause
(samudaya), its ending (nirodha) and the way thereto (marga). They are the docte
frst preached by the Buddh to his fve former ascetc companons, and alo those
who accepted them in the sravaka stge.
2. Niad: going to the source of the phenomenal.
3. Kumara: a Bodhata as son of the Tathagata; a son of Buddha.
neither sandalwood nor voidness, and neither smoke nor fre and which had
neither whence to come nor whither to go; thereby my intelect (manas)
vanshed and I achieved the state beyond the stream of transmigration
(anarava).1 The Tathagata sealed my awakenig and named me 'Fragrance
Adored'. Afer the sudden elimiation of (relative) smell, wonderfu
fagrance became mysteriously all-mbracing. Thus I attaied arhatshp
by means of smell. As the Buddha now asks about the best meas of per
fection, to me smell is the best according to my personal experence." '
4 Medtation on taste
'The two sons of the Dharmaraja2 called Bhaiajya-r:a and Bhaiajya
samudgata3 who were present with fve-hudred Braha-devas,' then rose
fom thei seats, prostrated themselves with their heads at the feet of the
Buddha and declared: "Since the tie without beging, we have been
skilful physicians in this world and have tasted with our ow mouths herbs,
plants and all kinds of mineral and stone found in the world, numbering
108,ooo i al;6 as a result we know perfectly thei tastes, whether bitter,
sour, salt, insipid, sweet or acrid, etc., their natural, changing or harmoniz
ing properties, and whether they are coolig, heating, poisonous or whole
some. We received instruction from the Tathagata and clearly kew that
taste was neither exstig nor non-xstent, was neither body nor mid and
did not exst apart from them. Sice we could discer the cause of taste, we
achieved our awakening which was sealed by the Buddha who then named
us Bhaiaya-raja and Bhaiajya- samudgata.We are now ranked among the
'sons of the Dharma king' in this assembly and because of our enlighten
ment by means of taste, we have attaied the Bodhisattva stage. As the
Buddha now asks about the best means of perfection, to us taste is the best
accordg to our personal experience." '
s. Meditation on touch
'Bhadrapala who was with siteen companions who were all great Bodhi
sattvas, rose from hs seat, prostrated himself with his head at the feet of
the Buddha and declared: "Wen the Buddha with awe inspiring voice
1. Anasrava: no leak; outside the passion-stream as contrasted with asrava,
'leaking' or worldly cause.
2. Dharmaraja: the Kg of the Law, Buddha; a son of the Dharmaraja is a
3. The two Bodhisattvas of medicine, whose ofce is to heal the sick.
4 Brahma-devas: the gods of the Brahma heavens.
s. 108,oo: the ten evils which are killing, stealing, carnality, lying, double
tongue, coarse speech, flthy language, covetousness, anger and wrong views; and
thei opposites in the eightfold path: correct view, correct thought, correct speech,
correct deed, corect livelihood, correct ze, correct remembrance and correct
meditton. These ten and eight are the characeristcs of lving beings on this earh.
(Bima-garjita-ghoa-svara-raja) appeared in the world, I head of the
Dharma and left home. At the time of bathg, I followed the rules and
entered the bathroom. Suddenly, I awakened to the causal water which
cleanses neither dirt nor body; thereby I felt at ease ad realized the state of
nothgness. As I had not forgotten my former practice, when I left home
to follow the Buddha in my present life, I achieved the state beyond study.
That Buddha named me Bhadrapaa because of my awakenig to wonderful
touch and my realization of the rank of a son of Buddha. As the Buddha
now asks about the best meas of perfection, to me touch is the best accord
ig to my personal experience." '
6. Meditaton on thigs (dharma)
'Mahakayapa who was present with the bhU "Golden Light" and
others (of his group) then rose from his seat, prostrated hmself with his
head at the feet of the Buddha and declared: "I a former aeon, when
Candra-sirya-pradipa Buddha appeared in this world, I had a chance of
following him and of hearing the Dharma which I practised. After he had
passed away, I revered hs relics, lt lamps to perpetuate his Light and
decorated hs statue with pure gold powder. Since then, in every subse
quent reicaation, my body has been radiant with perfect golden light.
Ths bhkUi 'Golden Light' and the others who are with her, are my
retinue because we developed the same mnd at the same time. I looked
ito the si changing sense data which can be reduced to complete extinc
ton only through the state of nv3a.1 Thus my body and mind were
able to pass through hundreds and thousands of aeons i a fnger-snap. By
eliminating athngs (dharma), I realzed arhatshp ad theW orld Honoured
One declared that I was the foremost disciplinarian (dhita).2 I awakened
to wonderful dharmas, thereby putting an end to the stream of trans
mgration (asrava). As the Buddha now asks about the best means of per
fection, to me thngs (dharma) are the best according to my personal
experence." '
7 Medtation on the organ of sight
'Aniruddha then rose from his seat, prostrated himself with his head at the
feet of the Buddha and declared: "After I left home, I was always very
1. Nivia: complete extinction of worldly feelings and passions, thereby ending
all return to reincarnation with its concomtant sufering for entry into the transcen
dental realm of absolute eternity, blss, self and purity.
2. Dhita: an ascetic who succeeds in removing the trials of life and atains
fond of sleep and the Tathagata scolded me, sayng that I was like an
amal. Ater this severe reprimand, I wept bitterly and blamed myself.
Because of my sadess, I did not sleep for seven successive nghts ad went
completely bld. Then the W odd Honoured One taught me how to tae
delght in the Enightening Vajra samadhi whch enabled me to perceive,
not with my eyes (but with my mid), the Pure Truth peradig the ten
diections, very clearly perceptible, as easy to see as a mango held i my
own hand. The Tathagata sealed my attainment of arhatship. As He now
asks about the best means of perfection, to me seeig is, according to my
personal experience, the best whch is made possible by turg the orga
of sight back to its source." '
8. Meditation on the organ of smell
'Kudrapanthaka then rose from his seat, prostrated himself with hs head
at the feet of the Buddha and declared: "I did not know much (about the
Dharma) for lack of reading and recitig (the Scriptures). When I frst met
the Buddha, I heard of the Dharma and then left home. I tried to memorie
a le of His gatha but failed for a hundred days, because as soon as I could
retain its frst words, I forgot the last ones, and when I could remember the
last word, I forgot the frst ones. The Buddha took pity on my stupidity
and taught me how to live in a quiet retreat and to regularize my breathig.
At the time, I looked exhaustively ito each i and out breath, and realized
that its rise, stay, change and end lasted only an instant (ka1a) ;1 thereby
my mid became clear and unhdered unti I stepped out of the stream of
transmigration and fnaly attaied arhatship. I came to stay with the Buddha
who sealed my realization of the statt beyond study. As He now asks about
the best means of perfection, to me breathing is the best according to my
personal experience i tug the breath back to the condition of nothng-
9 Meditation on the organ of taste
'Gavampati then rose from hs seat, prostrated hmself with hs head at the
feet of the Buddha and declared: "Because of my verbal sin when I tried
with monks in a former aeon, in every succeeding reincaration, I have
been bor with a mouth that always chews the cud like a cow. The Tatha
gata taught me the pure and clean doctrine of One Mind2 which enabled
me to eliminate the conception of mid for my entry into the state of
samadhi. I looked into taste, realized that it was neither (a subjective)
substance nor (an objective) thig and leaped beyond the stream of
I. KaQa: the shortest measure of time; sixty kaQas e
ual one fnger-snap, nnety
a thought, 4,500 a minute.
2. Lit. One-favoured Mnd-ground Dharma-door to enlightenment.
tramgration; I thereby dsengaged myself from both the inner body ad
mind ad the outer universe, ad was released from the three worlds of
existence.1 I was like a bird escaping fom its cage, thus avoidig i
purities ad defements. With my Dh eye2 now pure ad clea, I
attaied arhatship ad the Tathagata personally sealed my realizaton of the
stage beyond study. As the Buddha now asks about the best means of per
fection, to me the tug of taste back to it kower is the best according
to my personal experience." '
10. Meditaton on the body
'Pindavatsa then rose fom h seat, prostrated himself with his hed at the
feet of the Buddha and declared: "When I fst folowed the Buddha to
enter upon the Path, very often I heard the Tathagata speak about the
worldly which could not give joy and happiness. (One day) I went to tow
to beg for food, and as I was thg about H teaching, I stepped in
advertently on a poisonous thor that pierced my foot ad caused me to
feel pain alover my body. I thought of my body which knew and felt t
great pain. Although there was this feelg, I looked ito my pure ad
clean mind which no pain could afect. I also thought, 'How can this one
body of mine have two kids of feelng!', and after a short (mental) con
centration on this, al of a sudden, my body and mind seemed to be non
exstent and thee weeks later, I achieved the stage beyond the stream of
transmigration and thereby attained arhatship. The Budda personally
sealed my reaation of the stage beyond study. As He now asks about the
best mean of perfection, to me the pure awareness that wipes out the
(conception of) body i the best according to my personal experience."'
11. Meditation on the intellect (maas)
'Subhiti ten rose from his seat, prostrated himself with his head at te feet
of the Buddha ad declared: "As my mind was already fee from a
hndrances in former aeons, I ca now remember my prevou incaratons
as coutless as the sand i the Ganges. Even when I was a foetus in my
moter's womb, I was already awakened to the conditon of stil voidess
which subsequently expanded to fl all the ten diections ad which
enabled me to teach living beings how to a waken to their absolute natre.
Thanks to the Tathagata, I realized the absolute voidness of self-natured
awareness, and with the perfection of my immaterial nature, I attained
arhatship, thereby entering suddenly into the Tathagata's Precious Brght
ness which was as imense as space and the ocea, wherein I partaly
I. The three sttes of mortl exstence: world of desire, of form and beyond form.
2. Dharma eye whch is able to penetrate all things, to see the truth that releses
one fom reincarton.
achieved Buddha knowledge. The Buddha sealed my attainment of the
stage beyond study; I am therefore regarded as the foremost disciple be
cause of my understading of immaterial sel-nature. As the Buddha now
asks about the best means of perfection, according to my personal experi
ence, the best consists in perceiving the uneality of alphenomena, with the
eliation of even this ureality, i order to reduce al thigs to nothng-
' ness.
12. Meditation on sight perception
'Sarputra then rose from his seat, prostrated himself with his head at the
feet of the Buddha and declared: "I former aeons, the sight perception of
my mnd was already pure and clean, and in subsequent incarations as
coutless as the sands in the Ganges, I could see without hidrance though
a things either on a worldly or supramundane plane. {One day), I met
on the road the two brothers Kayapa who were both preaching the
doctrine of causality,1 and after listening to them, my mid awakened to
the trth and thereby became extensive and boundless. I then left home to
follow the Buddha and achieved perfect sight perception thereby acquiring
fearlessness (abhaya), attainig arhatship and qualifing as the Buddha's
'Elder Son'-'bom from the Buddha's mouth and by transformation of
the Dharma'. As the Buddha now asks about the best means of perfection,
according to my personal experience, the best consists in realizing the most
illuminating knowledge by means of the mind's radiant sight perception."'
IJ. Meditation on ear perception
'Samantabhadra Bodsattva then rose from his seat, prostrated himself
with his head at the feet of the Buddha and declared: "I was already a son
of the Dharma king when formerly I was with the Tathagatas who were
countless as the sands i the Ganges. All the Buddhas i the ten direction
who teach their disciples to plant Bodhisattva roots, urge them to practise
Samantabhadra deeds, which are called after my name. World Honoured
One, I always use my mind to hear in order to distinguish the varety of
vews held by living beings. If in a place, separated from here by a number
of worlds as countless as the sands in the Ganges, a living beig practises
Samatabhadra deed, I mount at once a six tusked elephant and reproduce
myself in a hundred and a thousand apparitions to come to hi ad. Even, i
he is unable to see me because of his great karmic obstruction, I secretly lay
my hand on his head to protect ad comfor him so that he can succeed.
I. i.e. the Four Noble Truths that put an end to birh and deth.
As the Buddha now ask about the best means of perfection, accordig to
my personal experience, the best conists in hearing with the mind, which
leads to non-discriminating discerment."'
14. Meditation on smell perception
'Sundarananda then rose from h seat, prostrated himself with his head at
the feet of the Buddha and declared: "When I left home to follow the
Buddha, although fully ordained I failed to reale the state of Samadhi
because my mind was always usettled; I was, therefore, unable to reach
the condition beyond the stream of transmigration. The World Honoured
One then taught me and Kaupla to f the mind on the tip of the nose.
I started this meditation ad some three weeks later, I saw that the breath
that went in and out of my nostrils was lie smoke; inwardly both body and
mind were clear and I looked though the (exeral) world which became
a pue emptiness lie crystal everywhere. The smoke gradually disappeared
ad my breath became white. As my md opened I achieved the state
beyond the stream of transmigration. Both my in and out breaths, now
bright, ilumied the ten directions so that I attained the arhat stage. The
World Honoured One prophesied that I would w enlightenment. As He
now asks abouts the best means of perfection, according to my personal
experience, the best is to elminate breath which w then tum radiant,
ensuring attainment of the stage of perfection beyond the stream of trans
migration." '
15. Meditation on tongue perception
'Piamaitrayaiiputra then rose from his seat, prostrated himsel with his
head at the feet of the Buddha and declared: "In former aeons, my power of
speech was unhindered and I preached the (doctrine of ) miser and u
reality, thereby peetrating deep into absolute reality. I (also) expounded
i the assembly the Tathagata's Dharma doors to enlightenment as u
coutable as the sands in the Ganges, ad thereby won fearlessness (abhaya).I
The World Honoured One knew that I had acquired the great power of
speech, and taught me how to carry out the Buddha work by preachng.
Therefore, in His presence, I assisted Him in turing the Wheel of the Law
and since I could give the lion's roar,2 I attained arhatship. He sealed my
1. There are two groups of fearlessness when expounding the Dharma to convert
deluded living beings: (I) the four knds of Bodhsattva fearlessness whch arise from
his power (a) of memorizing the Dharma to preach it to others; (b) of moral diagnosis
and application of the appropriate remedy in each case; (c) of ratiocinaton overcomng
al obstrcton; and (d) of cuting of all doubts harboured by listeners; and {2) the
four kd of Buddha fearlessness which arise from (a) his omniscience; (b) perfection
of character; (c) ability to overcome all opposition; and (d) to end al sufering.
2. To expound the Buddha Dharma without fear of men and things.
unexcelled skil i expoundig the Dharma. As He now asks about the best
means of perfection, accordig to my opinion, the best consists in employ
ing the Dharma voice to subdue the enmity of Mara1 ad to stop the
stream of tramigration."'
16. Meditation on the perception of objects of touch
'Upali then rose from his seat, prostrated himself with hs head at the feet of
the Buddha and declared: "I personally accompaned the Buddha, ad we
climbed the city wall to fee from home. With my ow eyes, I saw how He
endured hardshp in His practice durig the frst years of ascetic life, sub
dued ademons, overcame heretics ad freed Himself from worldly desires
and a impure efux (asrava) from the mind. He personaly taught me
discipline, including the three thousand regulations2 and eighty thousand
lines of conduct3 which pued al my innate and conventional subtle
karmas.4 As my body ad mind were in the nrv3ic state, I atained
arhatship and the Tathagata sealed my mnd because of my strc obser
vance of discipline and control of body. I am now a pillar of dicple i
ths assembly and am regarded as the foremost disciple. As te Budda now
asks about the best means of perfection, i my opinion, te best consists i
disciplning the body so that it can free itself fom all restraints and ten i
discipling the mind so that it can be al-perading, whch results i te
freedom of both body ad md."'
17. Meditation on the faculty of md (maovjia)
'Maha-Maudgalyayana then rose from hs seat, prostrated hmsel wit h
head at the feet of the Buddha and declared: "One dy as I wa beggig for
food in the street, I met the three Kyapa brothers-Uruviva, Gaya ad
Nadi-who preached the profound doctre of causality6 taught by te
Tathgata. Suddenly my mind opened ad becme al-peradg. Then,
I. Mara is the enemy of Buddha.
2. A monk's regulatons amount to 250; these are multiplied by four for the con
ditons of waking, standing, sitng and reclng and thus make I,o; aga mult
plied by three for past, present and future, they become 3,0regulatons.
3. A abbrevaton for 84,00. A monk's regulatons amount to 3,00 (see note 2),
these are multplied by the seven spreadig branches, i.e. thee sins of body (klg,
robbing, carnalty) and four of speech (lyig, slander, abuse, double-tongue), they
mke 21,0 ; again multplied by four, i.e. the three poisons (desire, anger and
stupidty) plus the ego idea, they make 84,0 in al. Accordig to the Ch'an inter
pretton, the digits eight and four stand for the eighth conciousness and the four
elements that make the body and mind, i.e. space, while the three zeros stnd for
tme. These 84,0lnes of conduct serve to wipe out space and time.
4 Karma against natural lw, e.g. stealing, and km agait convention res,
e.g. for a monk to et met.
s. The doce of cuity that reve the ucete.
the Tathagata gave me a mon's robe (kaya) and when I wore it, my
hair ad beard fell out. I rambled in the ten diections and met no obstruc
tion. I thus acquied trascendental power which proved the foremost ad
led to my attaiment of arhatship. Not only the World Honoured One,
but all the Tathagatas in the ten directions, praised my superatural powers
whch were perfect, pue, sovereign ad fearless. As the Buddh now asks
about the best meas of perfection, in my opinon, it consists of retg to
stless to allow the light of the mnd to appea, just as muddy water by
settlg becomes pue ad clea a cst." '
18. Meditaton on the element fe
'Ucchuma2 ten came forard in front of the Tathagata, joined the palms
of his two hads, prostrated himsel with hs head at the feet of the Buddha
ad declared: "I ca stil remember that in a very remote aeon I was flled
with sensual desire. At the time a Budda called 'The Kng of Immateri
aty' appeared i the world. Accordg to him, those havg lustful
deires, increased thei ow hell fes. He then taught me to meditate on the
bones in my body, on my four limbs and on my warm ad cold breaths.
So by tug inward the spiitual light for poited concentration, my
lutful mind tued into the fre of wisdom. Since then, I have been caled
'Fire Head' by all the Buddhas. Because of my powerful Firelght samad,
I attained arhatship. Then I took my great vow to become a demigod
(vira) so that when all Buddhas were about to attain enlightenment, I
would personally help them to overcome the enmity of Maa. 3 As the
Budda now asks about the best mea of perfecion, according to my
opion, te best consits in lookig into the non-xtent heat i my body
ad mind in order to remove ahindraces thereto and to put an end to the
steam of transmigration so that the great Precious Light ca appear and
lead to te realtion of Supreme Bodh." '
19. Medtaton on the element e
'Dhadhara Bodhisata' ten rose from h seat, prostrated hmsel
wth h head at the feet of the Buddha ad declared: "I stll remember that
formerly when the Budda of Unversal Light appeaed in the world, I was
I. Te seven element of the uverse: fe, e, water, wd, space, percepton
ad conscouness .
.. i.e. Fiehed.
3 See p . .s, not 1.
4 Ruer of the e.
a bhiu who used to level a obstacles, build bridges and c sad and
earth to improve the main roads, ferries, rice-felds ad dangerou pases
which were in bad condition or impassable to horses ad carts. Thus I con
tinued to toi for a long time in which a ucountable number of Buddhas
appeared in the world. I someone made a purchase in the market-place
ad required aother to car it home for him, I did so without charge.
When ViSvabhi Buddha1 appeared in the world ad famie was fequent,
I became a carier charging ony one coin no matter whether the distace
was long or short. I an ox cart could not move i a bog, I ued my super
natura power to push its wheels fee. One day, the kg invited that Buddh
to a feast; as the road was bad, I leveled it for him. The Tathagata ViSvabhi
placed his hand on my head ad said: 'You should level your mind-groud
(then), al things in the world wl be on the same level.'2 (Upon hearig
this), my mind opened ad I perceived that the molecules of my body did
not dif er from those of which the world is made. These molecules were
such that they did not touch one another ad could not be touched even by
sharp weapons. I then awakened to the patient endurace of the ucreate
(autpattia-dharma-kant) and thereby attained arhatship. Then by tu
ing my mnd inwards, I realized the Bodhisatta stage ad when I heard the
Tathagatas expound the Buddha's universal knowledge in the profound
Lotus Sitra, I was the frst lstener to be awakened to it and was made a
leader of the assembly. As the Buddha now asks about the best mean of
perfection, i my opinion, the best consists in looking ito the sameness of
body and universe which are created by infection from falehood arisig
fom the Tathagata store, util this deflement vanshes and is replaced by
perec wisdom which then leads to the realation of Supreme Bod." '
20. Meditaton on the dement water
'Cadraprabha Bodhisattva then rose from his seat, prostrated himself with
h head at the feet of the Buddha ad declaed: "I stil remember that in the
remotet of aeon coutless as the sad in the Gages, there was a Buddha,
ca ed Vaa, who appeaed i the world ad taught Bodsattvas to
contemplate the element water in order to enter ito the state of samadh.
' "Ts method consited i lookg ito te body wherei a watery
elemets do not by natue suppress one aoter, uing as subjecs of medta
ton fst tears ad snot, ad then sava, secetion, blood. ue ad excre
met, ad then reverg the order, thereby perceivg that this water
element i the body does not difer fom tat of the fagrat oe that
sur oud the Pue Lads of Buddas, sitated beyond ou world.
I. The thid of the seven Buddhas of antquit. Se Ch'an and Zn Teaching,
Second Seres. Par One.
2. Vivbhi Budda tught h to develop a univenl md.
' "When I acheved ths contemplation, I succeeded in reag ony the
sameness of the element water (everywhere), but failed to relinquish (my
view of
) the body. I was then a bhu practising dhyana (abstract medita
tion) ad when my dsciple peeped into the room, he saw that it was flled
entirely wth clear water, without anything else. As he was a ignorant boy,
he picked up a broken tile, threw it ito the water wth a splash, gazed
cuously ad left. When I came out of my dhyaa state, I suddeny felt
pa in my heart1 as i I had the same trouble which Sariputra had with a
wicked demon.2 I thought, 'Since I have realized arhatship, I should be
fee fom a causal ailments. Why tody, all of a sudden, have I a pain i
my heart; i it not a sign of backslding 1
When the boy reted and related
(what he had seen and done dung my meditation), I said: 'Wen next
you see water i my room, open the door, enter the water and tae away
the broken tie.' The boy obeyed, for when I again entered the dhyaa
state, he saw the same broken tile i the water. He then opened the door to
remove the tile. When I came out of dhyaa, my pain had vanshed. Later,
I met coutless Buddhas before I encountered Sargara-varadhara-buddh
vi<ita-bhijia Buddha (uder whose instrucion) I succeeded in relin
quishing (the conception of ) body, thereby realzig perfect unon of this
body ad the fagrant oceans i the ten directions with absolute voidness,
without ay further diferentiation. This i why I was caed a 'son of
Buddha's and was quaed to attend al Bodhisatta meetings.
'"As the Buddha now asks about the best meas of perfection, in my
opion the best conists i achevig the uindered universalig per
vasion of the element water, thereby experiencing the 'patent endurance
of the uncreate' (autpattka-arma-kanti)4 which ensure Complete
21. Meditation on the element wind
'The Bodhsattva of Crystal Light then rose from hs seat, prostrated hm
sel with hs head at the feet of the Buddha and declared: "I remember that
1. Becuse of his attachment to the false noton of the reality of an ego existing
in h body.
2. When Sariputra practised dhyana on the bank of the Ganges, due to an evi
karma in h previous life, he was slapped by a demon and was in great pain. The
Buddha said to him: 'Fortunately you were in a dhyana state, otherwise your body
would have been damaged and you would have perished.'
J. Lit. Chd-nture of simplicity. The stage of youth in Buddhahood, or the
eighth of the ten stges in Bodhisattva-wisdom.
4 Rest in the imperurbable reality which is beyond birh and death and which
requires a very patient endurance. The Prajia-parmita-!astra defnes it as the un
fichng faith and unperrbed abidng in the underlying realty of athgs, which is
beyond creaton and dction. It must be realized before attinment of Buddha
once, in the remotest of aeons countless as the sad in the Ganges, there wa
a Buddha caled 'Ite Voice' who appeared in the world to reveal to
Bodhisattvas the profoundly enightened fudamental awareness which, by
looking into this world and the bodiy forms of all living beigs, could per
ceive that all were created by the power of the wind arising from illusor
concurrent causes. At the time, I inquired ito the (illusory} setting up
of the world,1 chaging time, bodiy motion ad motionlessness, and
stirring of mind, in other words all kids of movement whch were funda
mentally the same and did not difer fom one aother. I then realized tht
these movements had neither whence to come nor whither to go ad tt
all lving beings in the ten directions, as ucoutable as dut, came fom
the same falsehood. Likewise, al livig beings in every smal world of te
great chiocosm2 were like mosqutoes in a trap i which tey humed
aimlessly and created a mad tumult. Soon after meeting that Buddha, I
realized the patient endurance of the uncreate. As my mind opened, I
perceived the land of the Imperturbable Buddha (Aobhya)3 in the easter
region where I was admitted as a son of the Dharma king, serig all the
Buddas in the ten directions. My body and mind gave out rays of light
that illumed everythig without obstruction.
' "As the Budda now asks about the best means of perfection, i my
opinion the best consists in looking into the power of the element wind
which has nothing (real) on which to rely, thereby awakening to the Bodhi
mnd so as tp enter samadhi and (then} to ute wth the Profoud One
Mind expouded by the Buddhas i te ten direction."'
22. Medtation on the element space
'Aaagarbha Bodhsattva then rose from his seat, prostrated hmself wth
hs head at the feet of the Buddha and declared: "When the Tathagata and
I were with Diparara Buddha and realzed our boudless bodies, I held
i my hands fou large precious gems' which ilued a Buddha land
I. To wipe out space fst and then tme.
2. Tri-sahasra-maha-sahasr-loka-dhatu. Mount Sumer and its seven suround
ing continents, eight seas and ring of iron mount form one smal world; 1,0 of
these form a small chilocosm; 1,000 of these smal chliocosms form a medum
chiocosm; 1,000 of these form a great chiiocosm, which consists of 1,0 ,0,0
smal worlds.
3 One of the fve Dhyani Buddhas, v. Vairocana, in the cente, Akobhya in the
east, Ratnasarbhava in the south, Amtabha in the west and Amoghasiddhi in the
north. He is the frst of the sixeen sons of Mahabhijia-jfnabhibhu, the great Buddha
of supreme penetraton and wisdom, who was also father of Amtbha and Sakyamuni
in thei former incartons.
4 Akigarbha had then succeeded in his meditaton on the four elements: ear,
water, fe and wind whch he could perceive as identc with the uderlyng principle
thus tansmutng them into fou precious gem.
in the ten directions, as uncoutable as dust, and tramuted them into the
(absolute) void. Then my ow mnd appeared like a great mirror emittng
ten knds of mysterious precious light1 which penetrated the ten directions,
reached the boudaries of space and caused athe pure lands of Buddhas to
enter the mirror and then to intermingle feely wth my ow body which
was le unobstructive space. (Then) my body could perfectly enter a
may (sararic) coutries as there are grains of dust to carry out far and
wde the Buddha work (of salvation) so that universalt could preva
(everwhere). Ths great trascendental power derved from my close i
qu ito the fou elements which had nothing real to rely upon and ito
fae tg that rose ad fel (alterately ad ended in nothngness). I
ree the non-dualty of space ad the sameness of the Buddhas' (pure
lnds) ad sarsac worlds, thereby achievng the patient endurance of the
'"As the Buddha now asks about the best meas of perfection, according
to my ow experence, the best consists in close examnation into boundless
space, leading to entr into samadh and perfectng thereby the mysterous
spitual power." '
23. Medtation on the element consciousness
'Mateya Bodhisattva then rose from his seat, prostrated himself with his
head at the feet of the Budda ad declared: "I remember that in the re
motet of aeons a ucoutable as the dust, there was a Buddha caled
Candra-sirya-pradipa2 who appeared in the world (to conver others). I
followed him in order to leave home. However, I (stil) cherished worldly
fame ad liked to m wth noble clas. Then the Tathagata taught me how
to practise abstruse meditaton (dhyaa) on the mid's consciousness8 i
order to realze the state of samadhi. Ever since in the following aeons, I
have used t samadhi to sere Buddhas as many as the sands in the Ganges,
thereby elnating completely my (previous) mind set on worldly fame.
When Diparkara Buddha appeared in the world, (under his istruction) I
realized the consciousness-perfectig supreme samadh of the mind which
enabled me to perceive that al Tathagata (stores) ad sarsaric worlds,
put and impurity ad exstence ad non-xstence were but appear
ances caused by my ow mind's transformations. World Honoured One,
because of my clear understading that only the mind's consciousness was
the caue (of all exterals, I perceived) a unlimited number of Tathagatas
I. To perceive the fundmentl sameness in the ten dharmadhatus, i.e. the s
samsic worlds and the four sindy realms.
z. Or Candrakdpa Buddha.
3 Md only, the doctrine that nothing exsts apar from mind, that the three
worlds of exstnce (of desire, of form and beyond form) come from the mind onl
tt a thgs (d) are created by consciousnss onl
comg out of the nature of conciouness, hence (the Buddha's) prophec
that I shal be His successor.
'"As the Buddha now asks about the best means of perfection, my opinon
is that the best conists of close examiation into a appearaces in the ten
directions, which are created by consciousness ony, in order to perfect the
conscious mid, thereby realzing complete reaty ad ensuring non
relace on exterals ad the breakig of al attachments caused by ds
cation, thus achevig the patiet endurance of the ucete." '
24. Medtation on the element perception
Masthama,1 a son of the Dharma Kg, who was the head of a group of
fy two Bodhisattvas, rose fom his seat, prostrated hmself with his head
at the feet of the Buddha ad declared: "I remember that in the remotet
of aeons coutless as the sads in the Ganges, there was a Buddha caed
Amitabha2 who was succeeded by eleven other Tathagatas in that kalpa.
The last one was called the 'Buddha whose light surpassed that of the su
ad moon'; he taught me how to realize the state of samadh by thg
exclusively of (Amitabha) Buddha. By way of ilustration, i a man con
centrates his md on someone else whle the latter is always forgetfu of
h, both may meet ad see, but without recognzing, each other. How
ever, i both are keen on thg of each other, their keenness will grow
from one incaration to another until tey become iseparable lie a body
ad it shadow. The Tathagatas in the ten dections have compassion for
a livng beigs and always th of them, like a mother who never
ceases tg of her son. If the son rus away, her thoughts of hm wl
not help. But i he also ths of her with the same keeness, they will not
be separated i spite of the passing of transmigrations. I a living beig
remembers and t of the Buddha, he is bound to behold H in h
present or future icaration. He wlnot be far from the Buddha ad thus
without the ad of any other expedient, his mid will be opened. He is le
a man whose body, perfumed by icense, gives out fragrace; hence h
name 'One gloried by (Buddha's) fragrace ad light.'3 From my
fundamental causeground and with a my thoughts concentrated on the
Budda, I achieved the patient endurance of the uncreate. (Ths is why) I
help al lvig beings of this world to control thei thoughts by repeatig
the Budda's name so that they c reach the Pure Land.
'"As the Buddha now asks about the best meas of perfection, I hold that
I. Or Mahasthamapripta, a Bodhsatta symboling the Buddha wdom of
Amtibha and standing on his right with Avaloktdvara on the left. They are called
the Trty of the Wester Paradise of Blss.
2. Buddha of Infte Lght.
3. A term meaning that one whose Ind medttes on Buddha becomes im
pregnted wth Budda-fagrance and glored by Buddh-lght.
notg can surpass the perfect control of the si senses wth continuous
pure thoughts in order to realize samad."'
25. Meditation on the orga of hearing
'Thereupon, Avalokitdvara Bodhisattva rose from hs seat, prostrated h
self with his head at the feet of te Buddha ad declaed: "I remember that
long before a uncountable a number of aeons as there are sandgras in the
Gage, a Buddha by the name of Avalokitdvara appeared in the world.
Wen I was with H, I developed the bodhi mind ad for my entry into
samadhi, I was instructed by H to practise sel-ultivation by means of
te orga of hearing.
'"At frst by directing the hearing (ear) into the stream
(Of meditation) this organ from its object was detached.
By wiping out (the concept of) both sound and stream entry,
Both disturbace and stillness
Were clearly non-xstent.
Thus advancing step by step,
Both hearing ad its object ceased;
But I did not stay where they ended.
When the awareness (of this state) and the state itself (were reaized)
A non-xstent, subject and object merged into the void
And awareness of that void became a embracing.
Then, when both creation and aniation
Vashed, the state of nv1a manifested.
' "Suddenly I leaped over both the mundane ad supramundane, I realized
a a -mbracing brightness perading the ten directions and acquired two
unsurpassed (merits). The frst was in accord with the fundamental Pro
foud Enightened Mind of a Buddhas high up in the ten directions and
possessed the same merciful power as the Tathagata. The second was in
sympathy with al living beings in the si realms of exstence here below
i the ten diections and shared with them the same plea for compassion.
'"World Honoured One, as I (followed ad) made oferings to the Tath
gata A valokitdvara He taught me how to use ilusory hearing to develop
(absolute) hearing in order to realize the Diamond (vajra) samadi which
was the same as that of all Buddhas and which enabled me to transform
myself ito t-two bodily forms for the purpose of visiting all countes
i sarsaa (to save living beings)." '
(The Bodhisattva then detaied the thirty-two diferent
forms which he could take and stated that with the profound
uncreative power of the same samadhi he could bestow fou
teen kinds of fearlessness upon all living beings, and that in
addition, he had acquired the four iconceivable and wonder
ful uncreative merits. He continued: )
' "As the Buddha now asks about the best means of perfection, according to
my ow experience, the best consists in employing the organ of hearing for
a all-mbracing concentration to ease the conditioned mind for its entry
into the stream (of meditation), thereby achieving the state of samadh that
led to my personal experience of bodh.
' "World Honoured One, that Buddha praised my skul realization of
Complete Enlightenment and, i the presence of the assembly, gave me the
name of Avaloktdvara, because of my ability to hear perfectly from the
ten dections. For ths reason, my name is know everywhere i the ten
'Thereupon, the Tathagata said to Mafju5ri: "Son of the Dharma King,
these twent-fve Bodsattvas ad arhats who no longer need to study and
lear, have related the expedient methods used by them at the start of thei
self-ultivation for thei realization of bodh. I reality, each of these
methods does not difer from, and is neither superior nor inferior to, the
others. Tel me which one of them is suitable to Ananda so that he can
awaken to it and which one is eay of achievement, for the beneft of lving
beings who, after my nirvana, wish to practise with the Bodhisattva
vehicle in their quest of Supreme Bodh."
'As commanded, Maju5ri rose from his seat, prostrated hmself with his
head at the feet of the Buddha and reverently chanted the following gatha:
' "Perfect and clear by nature is the Bod ocea,
Pure and faultless Bodhi is in essence wonderful.1
Its fundamental brightness shone, so by chance ceating
A object whch then obscured its radiant nature.
Thus in delusion there appeared one-sided emptiness
I which a imaginar world arbitrary was built.
Steadying itself the tg process made the continents
Wile the (ilusory} knower became a living being.1
The voidness so created withn Bodhi
Is but a bubble i t ocean. W oddly
I. These to lines describe the reality of the One Md.
2. Thes six lnes show how ilusion sprang from realty.
Coutries, coutless a the dut, aose
f this (relative) emptiess.
Wen the bubble bursts, the void's ureality
I exposed; how much more so i that of te three realmS11
Though al ret to One Nature at the souce,
There are may expedient methods for the purpose. 2
Though holy nature perades a, direct
Or iverse methods are expedients;
Hence newly itiated mids of diferet
Aptitudes ae quic or slow to enter samadhi.8
Form which from thought crystales
Is too difcult to look through.
How can perfection be achieved
Through this impenetrable form!'
Sound, voice, word ad speech are each confned
To specic defition
Whch by itself is not all embracing.
How c they help to achieve perfecion
Smell, perceived when in contact with the nose,
Without that contact i non-xstent.
How ca that which i not aways preset
Be a meas to achieve perfection 16
Taste exts not of itsel but is
Perceived when favour's present.
Since sense of taste is ever varied
How can it to perfection lead17
Touch exsts when there's a object touched;
Without a object touch is naught.
Since contact ad its absence are not constant,
How ca touch help to acheve perfection18
Dharma is iner deflement caed;
Reliance thereon imples a objec.
Since subject ad object are not all embracing,
How ca dharma lead one to perfection19
I. The three realm of desire, of form and beyond form are created in the unreal
2. Retr to the non-ual nature.
3 Stess on the choice of a suitble method of sel-cltivaton.
4 Comment on Upanipd's choice of form as means of perfection.
s. Comment on Kau1Qnya's medittion on sound.
6. Co=ent on Fragrance Adorent's medittion on smell.
7. Co=ent on meditton on tste by Bhaipjya-rija and Bhipjya-samudgat.
8. Comment on Bhadrapila's meditton on touch.
9. Co=ent on Mahikiyapa's meditton on thgs (dham).
The organ of sight, although perceivig clearly,
Sees thngs in front but canot see behind.
How ca partial (sight of) the four quarers
Help one to achieve perfection11
The inward and te outward breath
Have no _li uniting them.
How ca they, thus uconected,
Be used to achieve perfection11
The tongue is useless touching nothng;
When favour is present, there is taste
Wich vanishes when favour's absent.
How can this help to achieve perfection13
Body must be conditioned to the object touched;
Both canot be used for all-embracing meditation
Which is beyond both subject and object with their limits.
How can this sere to achieve perfection 14
The tumult of thg with the mind disturbs
The serenity of right perception.
Since stirring thoughts are most hard to eradicate
How can intelect sere to achieve perfection 16
Union of consciousness with eye and sight
Has three components that are not settled.
How can that which is devoid of substance
Be used as a means to w perfection 18
The hearing mind which reaches into space
Needs a great cause for it development;
But utrained men cannot realie it. 7
How can this help to achieve perfection18
Meditation on the nose is only an expedient
Means to control the mnd by fng it for the moment,
But wrong dwelng ca create a ilusory abode.
How c this be used to acheve perfection18
1. Comment on Arddha's medittion on the organ of sight. We can see
everything in front of us, but only pary on the right and left; how can incomplete
sight be used to achieve perfection I
z. Comment on Kudrapanthaka's meditation on the organ of smell.
3 Comment on Gavimpati's medittion on the organ of tste.
4 Comment on Pilindavatsa's medittion on the body.
S Comment on Subhiti's meditation on the intellect.
6. Comment on Sariputra's medittion on sight-perception.
7 Lit. Newly initiated men cannot realize it.
8. Comment on Samantabhadra's meditation on ear-perception. The hearing
mind can be perceived ony because of a great cause, i.e. after a very long traiing.
9. Comment on Sundrananda's medittion on the perception of smell.
Preachig the Dharma plays upon voice and word
But awakeng occurred durig practice long ago,
Words ad speeches never going beyond the worldly stream.
How ca t be a meas to achieve perfecton11
Obserace of rules of discipline controls
The body but never that whch is beyond it.
Since control of body is not a embracing
How c tis sere to acheve perfection18
Trascendental powers come fom a former cause;
How can they derive fom discating consciousness 13
Since tg from exterals caot stray,
How c it sere to achieve perfection 1
I the element of earth be used for contemplation,
It is solid ad cannot be penetrated;
Belongig to the worldly it lacks spiituality.
How ca it be used to achieve perfection15
I meditation be on the element of water,
The thoughts that then arise have no reality.
Beyond feelig ad seeig is the absolute;
How then c water help to achieve perfection16
I for meditation the element of fe be ued,
Dislie of desie is not complete renunciation;
'Tis no expedient for newly initated minds.
How then can fre become a meas to acheve perfection17
I meditation is on the element of wid,
Motion and stilness are a false duality
From whch Supreme Bodhi canot develop.
How ca wind sere to acieve perfection ,s
If the element of space be used for meditation,
Its dimess and duless cannot be enlightenment.
Since whate' er is unenlightened difers much fom Bodhi,
How can the element of space help to achieve perfection19
I on the element of conciousness you meditate,
I. Comment on PiQamaitriya.putra's meditaton on the tongue consciousness.
2. Comment on Upi's medittion on the body-perception.
3. 'Discriminatng mind' in the gatha is manovijnana, the sixth consciousness,
ment sens or intelect.
4 Comment on Mahi-Maudgalyayana's meditaton on the sixth consciousness.
S Comment on Dhara(irdhara's meditaton on the element earth.
6. Comment on Candraprabha's meditation on the element water.
7 Co=ent on Ucchum's medittion on the element fre.
8. Comment on Crystal-Light's meditton on the element wind.
9. Co=ent on Akagarbha's medittion on the element space.
It changes and i not permanent.
The mid fed on it being false
How then can that element help to achieve perfection11
Phenomena are impermanent;
Thg originaly comes and goes.
Since cause ever diers from efect,
How can sense achieve perfection 12
I now submit to the W odd Honoured One
That all Buddhas from ths world escaped
By following the teachng, here most suitable,
Which consists in sublimating sound.
The state of samadhi can be
Realied by means of hearing. a
Thus did A valoktdvara Bodhisattva win
Deliverance from sufering for self-liberation.
Durg aeons countless as the Ganges'
Sad, he entered as many Buddha lands,
Winning the power and comfort of h independence
And bestowing fearlessness upon a living beings.
0 you of pure and wondrous voice lie the ocean-tide,
You who look down on men of worldly speech,
Save us (poor) worldngs, give us security, ensure
Our liberation and attainment of eterty.'
Reverently I declare to the Tathagata
What A valokitdvara said:
When one dwells in quietude,
Rolls of drums from ten directions
Simultaeously are heard,
So hearing is complete and perfect. 5
The eyes canot pierce a screen,
But neither can mouth nor nose.
Body only feels when it is touched.
Md's thoughts are confused ad uconected,
1. Comment on Maitreya's meditation on the element consciousness.
2. Comment on Mahasthama's meditation on the element of sense.
3. These six lines show the Dharma most suitable for this world.
4 These ten lines praise the great achievements by A valokitdvara Bodhisattva.
Wonderful voice is the voice by means of which he realzed Supreme Bodhi for him
sel. Regarder of voice is his saving characteristic for the welfare of others. Pure voice
stands for freedom from all attachments. Ocean-tide voice is unfailing response to the
needs of men, like the ocean-tide which never fails to occur.
5. These six lines show the completeness of the faculty of hearing which nothng
can hinder.
(But) voice whether near or far
At al times ca be heard.
The fve other orga are not perect,
But heing realy i peraive.1
The presence or absence of soud ad voice
Is registered by ea as 'is' or 'i not'.
Absence of soud meas nothing head,
Not hearing devoid of nature.
Absence of sound i not the ed of hearg,
And soud when present i not its begin ng.
The faculty of hearing, beyond creation
And aation, truly is permaet. 8
Even when isolated thoughts in a dream arise,
Though the thg process stops, hearing does not end 8
For the facult of hearing is beyond
A thought, beyond both mind ad body.'
I ths Sa world
Teachg is by voice.6
Livng beigs who cogne not hearing's natre,
Follow sound to continue trasmgrating.
Though Ada memoried al that he had
Heard, he could not avoid pererted thoughts. 8
Ths is a fall into sarl sara by clging to soud;
Wlst realt is won agait the worldly stream. 7
Listen, Anada, listen closely.
I the name of Budda I prolai
The Vajra Kg of Enghtenment,
The inconceivable understandng tat illusions
Are unreal, the tre samadh that begets alBuddhas.8
You may hear of esoteric methods
I. These eight lines point out the pervasiveness of the facuty of hearg.
:. These eight lines point out the permanence of the faculty of hearing.
3. Even in sleep, one still hears the sound of a pestle pounding rice, which one
mistakes for the beatng of a drum.
4 The faculty of hearing really surpasses all other organs.
S While other means are employed to prach the Dharma in other worlds of
extence, voice alone is used to teach human beings.
6. Anand succumbed to tempttion when he knocked at the door of a Mataigi
girl to beg for food and was about to break the rule of chastty. The Buddha, who
knew ths, sent Mafjur to rescue Ananda and availed of ths happenng to preach the
Sirangama Sitra, laying stress upon the eradication of sexual desire, the main
obstrction to the realzation of bodh.
7 These eight lines show the main causes of delusion and enlightenment.
8. These fve les point out the true samidh.
From Buddha coWtless as te dust,
But i you caot eradicate
Desie, to hear much causes errors.1
To hear your very Self, why not tum backward
That faculty employed to hear Budda's words18
Hearing i not of itsel
But owes its name to soWd. 3
Freed from soWd by tug hearing backward,
What do you call that which is disengaged 14
When one sense orga has to its source retured,
All the six senses thereby are liberated.5
Seeig and hearing are like optical illusions,
Just as all thee worlds resemble fowers in the sky.
With hearg disengaged, the illusory organ vanishes;
With objects eradicated, perfectly pure is Bodhi.8
I utter purity, the brght light perades all,
With its shg stilless enfoldig the great void.
All worldly things, when closely looked at,
Are but il usions seen in dreams.
Dream-like was the Mataigi maiden:
How could she keep your body with hen7
Like a clever showman
Presenting a puppet play,
Though movements are many,
There is but one controller.
When that control is stopped,
Figures show no nature. 8
Liewise are the six orgas
Derived from one alaya
Which divides into six unions.
If one of these returs to source,
A six fWctions are ended.
With all infection ended,
1. These four lnes show the futility of hearing and learg without folowg the
corec method of practice.
2. These two lines point out the corect method of pracce.
J. These two lines show the inter-dependence of hearing and sound. Terfore
hearig does not lead to profound awakenng.
4 Profound awakening is beyond names and terms.
s. Instntneous enlightenment is past words and phraes.
6. This is medttion on the seeming, leadng to enty into the void.
7. Mataigi is the name of the low-caste girl who seduced Ananda. These si lnes
show medttion on the void, leading to enty into the seming.
8. Meditton on the void ad the seemng shed to that on the mea.
Bodhi is then realied.1
Any defng remnant requires further study
Whereas full enlightenment is the Tathagata.2
Ananda and all you who lsten here
Should inward tur your faculty
Of hearing to hear your own nature
Which alone achieves Supreme Bodh.
That is how enightenment is won. 3
Buddhas as many as the Ganges' sand
Entered this one gateway to Nirvia.
All past Tathagatas
Have achieved this method.
A Bodhsattvas now
Enter this perfection.
All who practise i the future
On this Dharma should rely.
A valokitdvara did not practise
It alone, because through it I also passed.
The Enlghtened and W odd Honoured One
Has asked about the best expedients
For those in the Dharma ending age
Who wish from sarsara to escape
I their search for niv3a's heart.
It is best to contemplate on worldly sound;
A other methods are expedients
Used by Buddha i particular cases
To keep disciples from occasional trouble.
They are not good for indiscrmnate practice
By men of derent types (or natures).
I salute the Tathagata Store
Whch is beyond the worldly stream.
Blessed be coming generations
So that they have (abidig) faith
I ths easy expedient.
'Tis good for teachng Ananda
And those of the Dharma ending age
Who should use their hearng organ
Whch surpasses al others
Ad with the Tre Mid accord."'
I. Resut of medittion on the mean.
2. This shows partial or complete achievement.
3 This is the way to reale Bodh.
The terms wonderul form, wonderul fragrance, wonderul
touch and wonderul dharma, mentioned i the above passages
from the Sirangama Sitra, refer to sense data whch have been
successfuly looked into durig meditation and have been
found to be illusory and non-existent, thereby becoming
identifed with the mind which created them and whch now
reverts to its absolute condition of purity and cleanness, free
from the duality of subject and object. The transmutation of
the six sense data into a state of purity and cleaness is ex
plained i the Sitra of Complete Enlightenment, presented i
the third series of Ch'an and Zen Teaching.
The method employed by A valokitdvara Bodhsattva
which consists in turg inwards the organ of hearing to hear
the self-nature, agrees perfectly with the Buddha's Teaching i
the Sitra of Complete Enlightenment whch says that practice
should begin from the self-moving cause-ground, that is
from the self-nature whch inadvertently moved and stirred
and thereby split into the subjective knower and the objective
relative voidness. This primal cause of separateness led to the
creation of al sorts of ilusion which are likened to the fowers
in the sky produced by an optical iusion. I order to recover
our inherent wisdom, it is necessary to realize the non-exist
ence of ilusions by stripping the mind frst of all coarse con
ceptions of subject and object and then by disengagig it from
the remaining subtle view of ego and thgs (dharma), as
taught in the Diamond Sitra.1 After al exterals have been
eradicated, that whch cannot be wiped out is the sel-mind i
its absolute condition, free from all relativties ad contraries;
this is Enlightenment.
Although all the above twent-fve methods of sel-culti
vation are excellent accordig to the Buddha, the one most
suitable to u in this period of the decline of Dharma is that
practised by Avalokitdvara. If we exame it closely, we w
fd that it does not difer from the Ch'an technque whch also
consists in disentanglng the self-mind from seeig, hearig,
I. See Ch'an and Zen Teaching, First Series, The Diamond Cutter of Doubts.
feeling and knowing to realize its absolute condition which
alone can lead to the perception of sel-nature and attainment
of bodhi. Therefore, the only derence between the Maha
yana Teachig and the Transmission lies in the latter's device
which is a short cut to Enightenment. The Teaching i com
plementary to the Transmission and seres to adjut the various
stages achieved during Ch'an traig and to seal, or to
testif its fal attaiment.
Since it is now almost impossible to fnd enlightened masters
to teach and guide us, it is imperative that we follow the
Teachng left behind by the Buddha in anticipaton of this
Dharma endg age. Many masters followed ths Teaching i
their practice of the Dharma and we can cite Master Han Shan
who practised it and realzed enlightenment (bodhi) by him
sel Even i enlghtened teachers were available, we would
still have to follow their istruction and undergo the traig
ourselves in our sel-ultivation for self-realization and self
Due o lack of space we are unable to present other passages
of the Siratgama Sitra which deal with the rules of morality
and dscipline but we should know that disciple begets an
unperturbed mind which in tur begets wisdom, and that we
should begin by keeping the frst fve precepts, or prohibitions,
agaist klg, stealing, caralt, lying and intoxcating
liquor. We should also develop an unshakeable faith in the
Dharma taught by the Buddha and great masters, and take the
great vow to enighten ourselves for the sole purpose of en
lighteng others. If we fail to obsere these preliminary
rules, we wnever succeed in self-ultivation and wcontiue
to drift about in the sea of sufering.
I the thd series of Ch'an and Zen Teaching we have pre
sented the Sitra of Complete Englightenment and the Altar
Sitra of the Sith Patiarch which all ancient masters in China
read before their ow enlghtenment and which are the best
guides for all students of the Supreme Vehicle in ths period of
the decle of Dharma.
THE Buddha attained Enlightenment after gazing at the stars at
night, that is after He had succeeded i stripping His mnd of
al feelgs and passions and after it had retured to its normal,
or absolute, condition and had resumed its undered function
of perceiving exterals. He then transmtted to Mahakasyapa
the Mind Dharma which was handed dow to folowing
generations until it reaches us today. The Buddha was not
enlightened at birth and had to udergo rigorou traing
before He won bodhi. He dd it alone without teachers and,
out of compassion for us i ths Dharma ending age, He left
behnd the Dharma so that we can follow His example to
escape from the realm of miseries and suferings. Therefore,
we would be ungrateful to Him and would do Him a very
great injustice i we now pretend that H Dharma is im
practicable or that we are unable to practse it because learned
teachers are not at hand.
According to the Ch'an method, sel-utivaton begis with
the control of mnd as the startig poit. By mid is meat the
waderig md, always i search of somethg i the realm of
treality. It is said that he who realzes his self-mind can per
ceive hs self-nature and attain enlightenment. By self-md is
meant the pure mind which is not stirred by a single thought.
As man has been so inextricably enmeshed by his false thoughts
sice time without begi ng, he fds it very difcult to free
hs mind from false vews in order to tcover his inherent
wisdom which they screen. He is, however, endowed with a
latent potentiality which no amott of teachig can reach
because of his obstinate clnging to the empty names and terms
implicit in human language. Even Ananda, who was one of
the most intelligent disciples of the Buddha, was reprimanded
by the World Honoured One for clging to names and terms
which caused h to neglect self-cultivation; how much more
so are men in this period of the decline of the Dharma?
This inner potentiality can, however, be aroused and vitaled
by the Ch'an technique and developed to the ful so that it can
absorb and unite with the Truth. This is the Transmission of the
Mind Dharma, outside of the Teachig, which the Buddha
handed down to Mahakasyapa when He held up a fower to
probe His disciples' abilities to perceive the substance of His
essential body (Dharmakaya) through its ftction of raising
the fower, and when His chief disciple tderstood His reveal
ig gesture and acknowledged it wth a broad sme.
This Transmssion was successively passed dow through the
Idian and Chinese Patriarchs and the techques used since the
beginning of the long Ch'an lineage ttil today have been
discussed in detail i the thee volumes of my Ch'an and Zen
Teachig.1 I ancient times, it was sufcient for an enghtened
1. Publhed by Rder.
teacher to give some hnt of the presence of the self-nature
ierent in his pupil who was immedately awakened to it,
thereby attained enlightenment and succeeded to the Md
Dharma. Such a student was likened to a good horse which
started galloping at the mere shadow of a whip. For life was so
simple in olden times that a disciple had only a few desires
which could be easily eliminated for the purpose of quieting
hs mid so that he could perceive hs self-nature and attai
enightenent (bodhi).
Later with the advance of materal civilization, when lfe be
came complicated with the result that spiritual awakening was
very difcult to achieve, the masters were compelled to change
their tactics by employing words, sentences, shouts, roars of
laughter, gestures and blows of the staf to awaken their
students so that the latter could perceive the essential bodies of
their teachers through their revealng functions of speaking,
shouting, laughing and gesticulating. All these acts were later
called kug ans (Japanese, koans), whch were concurrent
caues that provoked the awakenig of deluded disciples
whose mds were already disentangled from i usions and
whose potentialties were vitalized to the ful , ready to ute
wth the Truth. I fact, the kug an device had been used
long ago by the Budda when He held up a fower to cause
Mahakasyapa' s enightenment and later by Bodhdharma
when he said: 'So have I queted you md' to awake Hu
K'o, the fst Chnese Patriarch.
Kung ans are, therefore, not riddles and riddle-like prob
lems which students should solve before thei enlightenment,
for kung ans are full of meaning which is clear only to those
who have rd themselves of discrimation and discerment.
Obviously, they are incomprehensible to uenghtened
people who grasp at exterals and clg to the names ad
terms of conditioned human language. However, as soon as
they keep from illusions, that is when their mds are not
stired by thoughts, or when they have taken the 'host'
position, they wl uderstand all kung ans without making
the least efort.
Consequently it is misleading to pretend that Ch'an training
begins with the soalled solution of these so-alled riddles
ad that al the seventeen hundred kung ans, a number fre
quently mentioned in Ch'an texts, should be properly solved
before awakening (Chinese, w and Japanese, satori) can take
place. This is tantamount to putting the cart before the horse
and wl never lead to awakenng, for a student should frst
discipline his wandering md so as to disengage himself from
seeing, hearing, feelng and knowng for the purpose of
realing singleness of md, i order to be able to see clearly
and to take up the 'host' position before a kung an can be inter
preted correctly. He wl never understand it so long as his
mnd is screened by exterals and i he takes up the 'guest'
position, from which he canot comprehend the esoteric
meanngs of kung ans. After he has succeede in disciplig
hs mind, with no further thoughts arisig therein, he is able to
understand not only the seventeen hundred ancient kung ans,
but also all the others begin ng wth the seventeen hundred
and frst, without exception, and w see that there is nothing
strange, absurd or eccentric i ths Ch'an technque.
I instead of disciplining his mind, a student is urged to stir
it in search of the so-alled solution of kung ans, he will be
tred round by the unendig fow of his thoughts and wl
never be able to pause for a moment to see clearly; he wl
mistake a robber for his own son, as the masters put it. Con
sequently, the prerequisite of Ch'an trainng is to apply a brake
to the wandering mnd so that it can be quieted and that,
after all i usions have vanshed, the self-possessed wisdom can
retu to its normal state and function as it should. Therefore,
even before startig Ch'an practice, it is imperative that we
kow how to stop the ever-fowing thought that have been
stirring our mnds since time without begin ng. We 'live'
because we 'think', and i we want to escape from ths real
of sufering, the fst thing is to realie a mnd free from all
thoughts. We know that the human body and the ego whch
is supposed to be its owner are but phenomenal creations of
our deluded minds and are, therefore, false because they have
no permanent nature and no existence of their ow. The
sitra says: 'Just by mind control, all thgs become possible
to us.'
Since Md is an aspect of the self-nature, the Sixth Pat
rarch said to his disciples: Our selnatured bodhi is funda
mentally pure and clean. Use only this mind (of yours) for your
direct understanding and attainment of Buddhahood. He also said:
This business should begin with the selnature. At all times, instant
aer instant, you should puriy your own minds, practise sel
cultivation, realize your own Dharma-kiyas, perceive the Buddha
of your own minds, e ct your selliberation and observe sel
discipline so that you will not have come (to this meeting) in vain.1
We now know that we should control the wandering mind
and strip it of all thoughts before we can speak of Ch'an
practice. Therefore, the frst step is to put an end to the fow
of thoughts, but we also know that this is the most di cult
thg to achieve. I we fail to stop our stirring thoughts, we
wnot be able to practise self-cultivation. For this reason, the
ancients devised a techque which can help us to prevent
thoughts from arising in our minds. Ths is the hua t'ou
device. Hua t'ou means the mnd before it is stirred by a
thought or a mental word, and its English equivalent is ante
word or ante-thought. It consists i lookg into, or i con
centrating on, the self-mind and is also an impure thought
ued as a device to put an end to the thg process. It is a
1. See Ch'an and Zen Teaching, Seres Thee, Pa One.
pointed concentration to cut down al thoughts and eventual
visions which assail the meditator during his trainig. Since
the student cannot stop a his thoughts at one stroke, he is
taught to use this poison-against-poison device to reale
singleness of thought which is fundamentaly wrong but wl
disappear when it falls into disuse and gives way to singleness
of md which is a pre-condition of the realization of the sel
md for perception of self-nature and attainment of bodhi.
The late Ch'an Master Hsu Yu1 said:
All hua t' ous have only one meaning which is very ordinary and
has nothing peculiar about it. I you look into him ' Who is reciting a
sitra?', 'Who is holding a mantra?',' Who is worshipping Buddha?',
'Who is taking a meal?' ... or 'Who is sleeping?', the reply to
'WHO?' will invariably be the same: 'It is Mind.' Word arises
fom Mind and Mind is the head of (i.e. ante-) Word. Thought
arises fom Mind and Mind is the head of Thought. Myriad things
come fom Mind and Mind is the head of myriad things. In reality, a
hua t' ou is the head of a thought. The head of a thought is nothing
but Mind. To make it plain, beore a thought arises, it is hua t'ou.
From the above, we know that to look into a hua t'ou is to look into
the Mind. The fundamental face beore one's birth is Mind. To
look into one's fundamental face beore one's birth is to look into one's
mind. Selnature is Mind and to 'tur inwards the hearing to hear
the selnature' is to 'turn inwards one's contemplation to con
template the selmind'.
Thus we come exactly to the same method practised by
Avalokitdvara Bodhisattva (Kuan Yin) who tued inward
the ear to hear the all-embracing awareness, or the self
natued bodhi, as described in Chapter I. Therefore, the pre
tension that the Ch'an Transmssion is diferent from the
Teachig in the sitras is totally groundless, for the priciple is
the same i both.
z. See Ch'an and Zen Teaching, First Series, p. 23.
Even i we know how to look into a hua t'ou, or into the self
mnd, it is ver dicult to maitain this mental state all the
time, that is whe waling, standing, sitting or reclining.
Ch'an practice has nothng to do with whether one sits or not,
but sitting with crossed legs is the most convenient way for
beginners to control their bodies and mnds which can be
easily disciplined in that position. However, when they know
how to exercise this control while sitting in meditation, they
should continue to do so while walking, standing, reclining or
performg al the common acts of daiy le. For this reason,
the ancients taught their students to give rise to a gentle feeling
of doubt (i ch'ing) about the above-mentioned 'WHO?' at
all times, so as to strip the mind of seeing, hearing, feeling
and knowig and to ensure its constant rest, or undisturbed
It is necessary to remember the warnng given by Master
Hsu Y u when he said that we should not push up the hua
t'ou for this would cause its dimness, that we should not hold
it in the chest where it would cause pain and that we should not
push it down, for it would expand the belly and cause us to
fall into the realm of the fve aggregates, resulting i al kinds
of defect. The reason is that the prila, or vital principle, will
follow our mental concentration and wil afect the head,
chest or belly. Years ago I was very impatient during my
Ch'an practice and wrongly concentrated wth force on my
hua t'ou, thus inadvertently pushg up the pria which
caused my lower teeth to loosen, with the result that I had to
have three of them pul ed out. However, this smal sacrice
was worth while for it enabled me to make some little progress
in my practice. Therefore, when looking ito a hua t'ou, we
should not fx our mds anywhere, but should concentrate
without using force solely on the I Ch'ing after givig rise to
I order to acquaint readers with the proper methods of
practice at the start of training, we translate below some of the
instructions given by enlightened masters to thei dscples.
I. Instruction given by the late Master Hsu Yu (z84o1959)1
'When one looks into a hua t'ou, the most important thing i to give rise
to a doubt. Doubt is the crutch of hua t'ou. For instance, when one i
asked: "Who is repeating Buddha's name!" everybody kows that he him
self repeats it, but is it repeated by the mouth or by the mind! I te mouth
repeats it, why does it not do so when one sleeps 1 I the mind repeats it,
what does the mid look lke 1 As mind is intagible, one is not clear about
it. Consequently some slight feelg of doubt arises about "WHO 1
This doubt should not be coarse; the fner it i, the better. At all times and
i all places, t doubt should be looked into unremittingly, like a ever
fowing stream, without giving rise to a second thought. If this doubt per
sists, do not try to shake it; i it cease to exst, one should gently give rise
to it again. Beginners wil fnd te hua t'ou more efective in some stl
place than amidst disturbace. However, one should never give rise to a
discriminating mind; one should remain indierent to either the efectve
ness or inefectiveness (of te hua t'ou) and one should take no notice of
either stilness or dsturbace. Thus, one should work at the traing wth
singleness of md ....
'Usualy beginners give rise to a doubt which is very coarse; it is apt to
stop abrptly ad to continue again, ad seems suddenly famiar and sud
deny uamar. This is (cerainly) not doubt and ca only be tei thg
(process). When the mad (wandering) mind has gradualy been brought
under control, one wil be able to apply te brake on the tg process,
ad ony thus can this be caled "looking into" (a hua t'ou). Furhermore,
little by little, one will gain experience in the training and then there wlbe
no need to give rise to the doubt which wl rise of itself automaticaly. In
reality, at the beginng, there is no efective traing at all as there is ony
(a efort) to put an end to false tg. When real doubt rises of itself
this can be called true training. This is the moment when one reaches a
"strategic gateway" where it is easy to go out of one's way (as follows).
'Firstly, there is the moment when one will experience utter purity and
boundless ease ad if one fails to be aware of ad look into this, one wl
slip ito a state of dulless. I a leed teacher is present, he w immedi
ately see clearly that the student is in such a state ad wl strike te medi
tator wit the (usual) fat stick, thus clearg away the confusing dullness;
a great may are thereby awakened to the Truth.
'Secondly, when the state of purity and emptiness appears, i the doubt
1. See Ch'an and Zen Teaching, First Series, pp. 38-40.
ceaes to exist, this is the Wrecordable state i which the meditator is
lkened to a withered tree which is lifeless and to a stone which cannot
be soaked with water. When one reaches this state, one should arouse the
doubt to be immediately folowed by one's awareness and contemplation
(of this state). Awareness (of this state) is freedom from ilusion; this i
wdom. Contemplation (of this state) wipes out confusion; this is imper
trbabity. Ths singleness of md wil be thoroughy still and shing, in
it imperturbable absoluteness, spiritual clearess ad thorough under
stadg, le the continuous smoke of a soltary fre. When ths state is
ataed, one should be provided with a diamond eye (i.e. the indestruc
tible eye of wisdom) and should refrain from giving rse to anythg else,
a if one does, one will (simply) add another head (i.e. a ilusory exteral)
upon one's head (i.e. one's own mind).
'Formerly, when a monk asked (Master) Chao Chou: "What should one
do when there is not a thing to bring with the Self1" Chao Chou replied:
"Lay it down." The monk said: "What shal I lay down when I do not
brig a thng with md' Chao Chou replied: "If you cannot lay it down,
car it away." This is exactly the state (above mentioned) which is like
tt of a driker of water who alone knows whether it is cold or warm.
Th ca ot be expressed in words and speeches, and one who reaches this
state w clearly know it.'
2. Istruction given by Master Han Shan (1546-1623)
(From Han Shan's Journey in Dreamland-Han Shan Meng Yu Chi)
(a) The Ch'an sect transmits the Buddha's sealing of mind and is no small
matter. When Bodhidharma came from the West (India), he set up only the
doctrie of the Transmission of Mind and used the four books of the
Latkavatara Sitra to seal the Mind. Athough Ch'an is a Transmission out
side of the Teachg, it uses sitras to testify spiritual awakening. Therefore,
the Buddha's Teaching and the Patriarchs' Transmission are one (and the
same).1 As to Ch'an practice, it also derives from the Teaching. The
Lakavatara Sitra says: 'When one sits i meditation in a mountain grove
ad practises all-embracing self-cultivation, one perceives the endless fow
of fae thoughts arising in the self-md.' Thi is the World Honoured
One's revelation of the secret of self-ultivation.
The sitra contiues: 'As md, thought and perception are realized as
fae states of the self-nature appearing in the self-mind, one is liberated
from all causes (producig) the samsarc sea of exstence and ignorant kar
mc desire.' This is the Tathagata's profoud teachg of the method of
awakeng to the sel-mid.
I. Sakyamuni Buddha was also a Patriarch of the Tranmission school. (See
Ch' an and Zen Teachin
, Second Series, Part I.
It says: 'From olden times, the saints haded dow, from one to another,
the teaching accordig to which all false thinking is devoid of independent
nature.' Ths is the esoteric sealng of mind.
The above are the essentials of self-ultivaton taught by the yellow
faced Grad Old Ma.l
When Bodhidharma said to the (Chnese) Second Patriarch: 'Put a end
to the formaton of all causes without and have no panting heart (mnd)
with; ten with a mind lke an (impenetrable) wall, you will be able to
enter the Tao (Truth),' ths was the essence of sel-ultivation as taught by
When Huang Mei sought for a succesor to his Dharma, the Sixth
Patriarch ierited the robe and bowl after merely saying: 'Fundamentally
there is not a thing.' This was the Transmssion of the Sealing of Mid.
When the Sixth Patriarch retued to the South, he met Tao Ming and
said to h: 'Do not thi of either good or evil, at t very moment,
what is te Venerable Sir's fundamental face!' This was the Sixth Patriarch's
fst revelation of the secret of self-realzation.
Therefore, we know that formerly the Buddha and Patrarchs taught
only how to awaken to the self-mnd and how to cognize one's Self. There
were then neither kung as nor hua t'ous. Later at the time of Na Yo and
Ch'ing Yuan,2 and after them, when a master trained his disciples, he took
advantage of teir giving rise to doubts to hit them in their weaer spots
i order to tur them away from their thoughts so that they could set their
md at rest. I the case of those who could not be awakened at once, the
master, although continuig to press them hard, had to wait for opportune
tes and concurrent circumstances. It was Huang Nieh who taught
people to look into hua t'ous and then Ta Hui3 deftely decided on the
use of this device. He taught hs students to use an ancient kung an as some
thg to lay hold of called a hua t'ou on whch they were urged to con
centrate thei attention. The reason was that i the store (alaya) of the
eighth consciousness the seeds of ev habits, contracted since time without
beging, continued to exercise their contamnating infuence, thus sus
taig the fow of false thoughts. Since there was no other alterative, a
meaningless sentence was given to students to grasp frmy. As they had to
lay down all false thoughts of inner mid and outer objects, but sice they
could not do so, they were taught to use ths hua t'ou to cut all these
'ravelled threads' at one stroke, so that the fow of thoughts could not
1. i.e. Sakyamun Buddha.
z. The two great Dharma successors of the Sixth Patriarch, whose Dharma
descendants founded the Five Ch'an Sects of China. See Genealogical Chart of the
Five Ch'an Sects in Ch'an and Zen Teaching, Second Series, p. 56.
3 Ta Hui: an eminent Ch'an master in the Sung dynasty; died in II63 in his
svent fth year.
continue. This is exactly what Bodhidarma meant by: 'Put an end to the
formaton of acauses without and have no panting mind withn until your
mind becomes lie an impenetrable wal.' I one does not proceed i this
maer from the start, one will never be able to perceive one's funda
mental face. This does not mean that you are taught to t of a kung an
ad to regard this thg as a feelg of doubt that will give a result. This
is aso what Ta Hui meant when he used a poison-agaist-poison method
by uging his students to look into a hua t'ou so that they could cut of
thei remss minds. For instance, he once said to them: 'Ch'an practice
consists solely in emptyig the mind; you should f on your foreheads the
two words "bi" and "death" and remember them as i you owe a debt
of ten thousand strigs of (threaded) coins (which you must repay). Day
and night, while drinkg or eatig; when waling, standing, sitting or
reclining; when receiving friends and chatting with them; as well as in a
stlor moving state, you should give rise to the hua t'ou: "Does a dog have
the Buddha nature! Chao Chou replied: 'Wu.' (No.)" Look into it again
and again, until you are completely disgusted with it and this is the moment
when you seem to come into colsion with an (impenetrable) wall, lie a
mouse trying to enter the hor of a cow, resulting in all your attempts
recoig upon themselves. You are required to develop a long-nduing
body and mind to keep on lookg into the hua t'ou, and all of a sudden,
the mind-fower wil blossom and radiate, iluminatig all the ten directions.
Thus once awakened, you wil be so thoroughly for ever.' This was the
usual method employed by the old master Ta Hui to press hard those com
ig for his instruction. He meant this: 'You should use a hua t' ou to cut
dow al false thoughts arising in your minds so that they cannot continue
to fow and should then perceive your fundamental face by lookng into
where they cease.' This does not mean that you should thik about a kung
an and regard this (thing) as a feeling of doubt that can give you an
expected result. When he said that the mid-fower blossomed and radiated,
did this imply somethig gained from without/ When the Buddha
and Patriarchs gave instruction, they wanted you only to look into your
own Self but not to grasp at beautiful and wonderful words and phrases.
Nowadays, everyone practising Ch'an says that he looks into a hua t'ou
and gives rise to a doubt, but instead of concentratig on the fundamenta,
he ony seeks (somethig) from the hua t'ou and continues seekng it again
and again. If suddenly he succeeds in visualizing some (mental) state, he wil
immediately speak of his awakeng, will write gathas and hymns, wil
regard this as a remarkable achievement and will pretend that he has
attaied bod, without knowig that he has already been caught i the net
of false thoughts and perverted views. Will not such a Ch'an practice be
harmful to the comng generation al over the countr1 Nowadays, even
before they are properly seated on their mats, the yoWg practisers boast of
teir awakening to the Tao and talk nonsense which they claim to be the
product of their (so-aled) spiritual dialectics. They write empty sentences
which tey read loudly and call them their hymns in praise of the ancients.
A t comes from thei wrong thing; have they ever dreamt of
(uderstading) the past masters! If people can be so easily awakened now,
ad i we compare them with those acient disciplinarians such as Ch'ang
Ch'ig1 who sat i medtation Wtil he had wor out and tor seven mats
ad Chao Chou2 who spent t years without allowing his mind to be
strred by a single thought, the latter would be realy stupid and would not
even be qualied to carry straw sandals for the former. These people are
ony arogat for they claim that they have won bodhi although they are
still ignorant. Is it not a dreadful thng 1
It is true that durig te traig when a hua t'ou is looked into, it is
imperative to give rise to a feeling of doubt. It is also known that a little
doubt leads to a minor awakenig, that a great doubt leads to a maor
awakeng ad that absence of doubt leads to no awakening, but the
essential les i te su use of this feeling of doubt and when this doubt
bursts, all te noses of the Bud&a ad Patriarchs can be pierced ad tied
together wit a strig.
For istance, when employing the kWg a: 'Who is the repeater of
Buddha's name!' it is essential to look into H who repeats it but not to
doubt about who Buddha is. I you give rise to a doubt about who the
Buddha is, you can go and listen to any commentator who wl explain
tat Amitabha Buddha is the Buddha of Inte Light. If you then write a
few gathas on the Ite Light and claim that this is your awakening to
te Tao, those who were to be so awakened would be as coWtless as hemp
(seeds) and (grains of ) maize What a pity, what a pity!
The acients lkened the hua t'ou to a (broken) tile which one picks up to
kock at the door so that when the door is opened one can see the man i
side te house, istead of remaing outside and playing with exera
tngs. Thus we kow that the feelng of doubt (in conection with) a
hua t'ou is not a doubt about its meaning, but about the fundamental
(face). For istance when Chia Sh3 called on the Boat Monk,' the latter
asked h: 'When a tousand feet of fshng line is let down, the quarr is
I. Ch'ang Ch'ing: an emnent Ch'an master, Dharma successor to Shueh Feng.
Died in 932 in his seventy-ninth year.
2. Chao Chou: an eminent Ch'an master, Dharma successor to Nan Chuan. Died
i 894 in his uoth year.
3 Chia Shan: emnent Ch'an master, dsciple of the Boat Monk. Died in 881.
4 Te Boat Mon: Ch'an master Teh Ch'eng ofHua Ting, nicknamed the Boat
Mon, was Dharma successor of Yo Shan and teacher ofChia Shan-ninth century.
Sec Ch'an and Zen Teachin
, Fist Series, pp. 123-8.
deep in te pond. Three inches beyond the hook, why don't you spea1'
Cha Shan (guessed ad) was on the point of openng his mouth, when the
Boat Monk gave hm, with the paddle, a blow that knocked him ito the
water. As soon as Chia Shan scrambled back into the boat, his master said
agai: 'Speak! Speak!' Before the pupi could open hs mouth, the master
ht hm again. Thereupon, Cha Shan won a major awakenng and nodded
tce (in approval ad gratitude). His master said: 'You can play with the
sien lne at the end of the rod, but so long as you do not ditub the clear
water (i.e. the mnd), the meang will be diferent.' I Cha Shan only
played with the lne ad hook, how would the Boat Monk agree to sacrice
the pupi's le solely for the latter's enghtenment1
This shows how the acients were skful and quick i fding their own
ways. Formerly, when the Ch'an sect fourished, enghtened teachers
could be found everywhere, and a over the country there were many
cases of real awakeng. Hence the saying: 'There is no lack of Ch'an but
ony of teachers.'1 Nowadays, true practisers of Ch'an are very rare, and
although there are may who wish to practise it, their teachers merely
make a rough estimate of the capabities of the pupils, give way to worldly
feeligs ad seal their achievements; the latter, because of superfciality,
(wrongly) think that they have achieved rel success. Moreover, because of
their contempt of the Tathagata's holy Teaching,2 these instructors do not
seek the right Way but act carelesly, thus using a pumpkin-sea to testiy
oters' achevements. 3 Thus not ony do they mislead themselves but they
also misguide their students. Is this not a dreadful thing 1 The ancient
scholars and upasaas whose names are recorded i the Transmission of
the Lamp were very few, but nowadays worldlings, who do not even care
to obsere the elementary precepts but who indulge in stirrg their md
aimlessly and ony rely on their intellect, just read a few ancient kung ans,
boast of their own superior roots, delight in a sorts of argument when
meeting a member of the Sangha and claim that they have realied the Tao.
Ths is not only a sign of the tmes, but is also the result of a blind ma
leadng a group of blind people.
I conformity with the right metod of trang as taught by the Buddha
:d Patriarchs I now poit out what is essential for your study ad those of
high spirituality wil certainy not disagree with me.
(b) I your Ch'an practice, when for a tme thoughts cease to rise, t
I. A quottion from Huang Po's Essentials of the Transmission of Mind.
2. This is also the case of people who now pretend that ma and sitra can be d
pensed with in Ch'an practice.
J. This is wrong testifying for a pumpkin-seal is an external and leaves traces
behind whereas the correct sealng of mind by mind leaves no traces due to the im
materialty of both minds. A pumpkin-seal is a Ch'an term frequently used by en
lightened master when rebuking impostors.
does not mean that they have really stopped, but that the hua t'ou has begun
to take efect. This efectiveness is not permanent for it can be swept away
if you tind yourselves in an (adverse) causal state or it can be weakened by
exterals. I such cases, there will be produced the two states of stilless and
disturbance which wi appear and disappear alterately without inter
ruption. If you can make efective use of your mind, by concentratig on
(that which is self-existent) before a thought arises, you will gradually
become accustomed to it, and with the passing of time, will realize your
personal experence of it. When thoughts no longer arise, your (spiritual)
substance will appear bright and clear, without being afected by either light
or darkness, and will remain in its thusness amidst stillness or disturbance.
Only then can you realize the oneness (of mind and its objects). This is the
culmination of concurrent causes and is beyond all control; it automaticaly
unites with the Tao.
The Ch'an training consists solely of concentration on that which is
(self-exstent) before your mind is disturbed by a thought, and if you exert
yourself unremtt;"gly, self-realization is bound to follow very quickly.
However, i you regard a transient stiless i a fash of lighming as real
attainment, you will slip into the realm of feelings and passions.
(c) A student determined to escape from the wheel of birth and death,
shoud know that, because of the unceasing fow of his thoughts, he is un
able to put an end to samsara. If he now wishes to stop it, he should lay
down all h feelings and passions, and lay them down again and again until
he is rid of them all. However, there still remain the seeds of his old habits
whch he cannot destroy at one stroke. He is, therefore, required to look
into a hua t'ou. He can fmd hua t'ous in the books but he does not know the
secret of their practice. Consequently, he should call on leared masters
who already know the method of practice.
For instance, when the Sixth Patriarch heard the sentence: 'One should
develop a mind that does not abide anywhere', he was instantaneously
enghtened. Deluded people mistake this for an abstruse doctrine. In reality,
there is nothing abstruse in it, because formerly the Sixth Patriarch had
tought of an abiding (place) but since he now heard that there was none,
he merely laid dow everythig and was thereby enlightened. So where is
al this abstruseness 1
Ordinary people mistake Ch'an for a doctrine, without knowing that
Ch'an is but the self-mind which is beyond birth and death according to the
sitra. If you want to be clear about the important question of birth and
death, you should respect and obsere the precepts and prohibitions and
shoud never break them. You should develop a frm faith, have a dogged
determnation and lay down al abstruse words and profound doctrines as
wel as a worldly feelings and passions. The Ch'an practice has nothng
abstruse, wonderful and extraordinary i it for it is very simple, but will
you beleve me 1 I you really do, just lay dow all you old thoughts with
out alowing new ones to arise. Then, slowly, call: 'Amtabha !' and wthout
loosening your grip on this word, look into where this thought arises, with
the same keeness as when you let down a fshng lie into a deep pond.
If a new thought arises, this is because of your habits contracted sice the
time without beginning. You should lay it down at once but on no
account use your mind to cut it of Just sit up staight wthout thg of
anythng and look into where this thought arises. Then lay down every
thing again and again. Call the Buddha's name once more and strive to see
where ths cal comes from. Repeat ths fve or seven times and your
thoughts will cease to arise. Now give rise to this doubt: 'Who is repeating
the Buddha's name!' People mistake this for a sentence of the hua t'ou and
do not know that the efectiveness of traing comes solely from this feeling
of doubt. If another thought arises, shout at it and ask: 'Who are you1' and
it wil vanish at once.
The Buddha said: 'Except when you sleep, you should control your mid
unceasingly.' You cannot control you md in your sleep, but when you
wake up, you should again look into the hua t'ou not only when you are
sitting, standing, drinng or eatig but also when you are in the midst of
stillness or disturbance. Thus you winot notice a single man while passing
through a crowd and wil not perceive any motion in the midst of disturb
ance. I you can achieve this, you will gradualy advance further until you
come to where your seventh consciousness becomes impotent. Then, day
and nght, you will continue your training wthout loosening your grip
(of the hua t'ou), and one day, your eighth consciousness (alaya-vijfaa)
wil suddeny burst, exposing your fundamental face. You wl then be
clear about birth and death and wil realize the goal for which you left
During your training, do not wait for your awakeng. If you behold the
Buddha, Patriarchs or demons appearing i your meditation, just remai
unperturbed and do not loosen your grip of the hua t'ou. Thus without
straying from the hua t'ou and with ubroken singleness of mid, your
eforts wil be successful.
(d) When the ancients discipled their mds, they employed a sentence
of the hua t'ou which they regarded as an iron wall or a siver h, agaist
which they could lean as a prop in suppor of their eforts. When you
succeed in realizing the non-arising of thoughts, ths shows only the
efectiveness of your training but should not be mstaken for the ultimate
result. Even when you can practise without ivolvg the thinig process,
thereby disengaging yourselves from body and mind, this shows further
advanced progress but not the ultimate state. When you come to ths, you
wl automatically experence weightlessness, bliss and a comfortable in
dependence. You will be fl ed with joy but t is the characteristic of you
Self which h nothg exaordiar in itsel I you regard it a extra
ordinary, you wlslip ito the real of joyful demons ad wil be involved
i all sorts of wrong vews. Th i the most dangerou pass which I have
myself experienced. A acent sad:
Beore the grotto with withered logs1 fale paths are many
On which all who a"ive are liable to slip and fall.
'I you have enough vigour to pass tough al sor of states, exert your
selves in your training to presere the good results you have so far achieved,
but you have not yet reached home. If you think that your realation i
complete, you will give rise to all kids of wrong tg which are pre
cisely the causes of the fve desires.1 This pass is the most difcult one to get
through ad only one or two per cent of practisers succeed in negotiating it.
I you have not obtained the same result achieved by the ancients, do not
pretend that some smal progress of yours i complete attaient.'
3 Instructions given by Master Kao Feng (1238-1295)
(From The Sayings of Ch'an Mater Yuan Miao of Kao Feng peak
Kao Feng Mao Ch'an Sh Yu Lu)
(a) The practice of self-ultivation is lke throwg into a deep pond a
stone that goes straight to the bottom. I self-ultvation, practised in this
maner, with unbroken continuity, i not succesful, I shall consent to fall
into the avici hell8 for my deceitful si.
(b) I we train in self-ultvaton, we shoud strve like a prisoner con
demned to death ad awaiting execution in a jail. It happens that one even
ig the jailer has a few d, gets du ad falls into a heavy sleep.
Taking advatage of this unique chance, the prisoner rds himself of te
cangue and fetters ad escapes uder cover of darkness. The place is i
fested with tgers and poisonous snakes but he runs away without payig
attenton to them. Wy i it possiblel Because his keeness is to escape at al
costs. If we develop te same keen mind in our self-ultivaton, we are
boud to succeed.
(c) Usua y students are taught to look into the kug a: 'A thgs are
I. i.e. when the mind is stripped of a feelings and passions, it is as dead as a
wthered log, before the resurrecton of the self-nature.
z. Ariing from the objecs of the fve senses, thngs seen, heard, smelt, tsted or
3. Avci hell: the last and deepest of the eight hot hells, where siners sufer, die
and are instndy rebor to suferig, without iterpton.
retuable to the One, to where does the One retr' Vyou look into
this kug an, you should give rise to a great doubt (by askng yourselves):
'A worldly thngs are returable to One thing, to where doe this One
tg retur'1 So, while you are walking, standing, sitting or reclig,
when you are wearing you robes ad tking your meal, and whether you
are stooling or urinating, you should raise your spirits and contnue to
harbour your doubt about 'To where does that One retumr' as uyou are
determined to be clear about this at all costs. You soud give way neither
to indference nor to confused and aess thought. You doubt should be
fe ad continuous, like a homogeneous block, cauing you to look lke a
ma gravely devoid of the sense of taste when eatg or dg, ad
with a stupid and idiotic mien. While i m state, you w be uable to
distinguish between east and west or between north and south. you ca
achieve this, your mnd-fower will (open and) radiate ad you will be
thoroughly awakened to your fundamental face. Lay dow a thoughts
and feelings about the worldly and your inclination for the Tao wauto
matically grow stronger. A ancient said: 'One should be intimate with the
unamiar and distant toward the famiiar.' I you leisue moments, do
not read sitras to kthe te, because uyou do, you wnever achieve the
state of homogeneity (i.e. oneness). Just get up to tread the Path, raise you
spirits and look into: 'To where doe that One retumr' There i no need to
read sitras (at this juncture) for the kung an i also a sitra whch has no
beging and which turs roud day and night;1 why should you add
aother head to your own1 If you practise self-ultivation in m man er,
al devas and nagas will automatically be your guadias ad there w be
no need to ofer prayers. The only thg is to cut of all worldly causes and
you can thu save many words ad speeches. An ancient said: 'For twenty
years, I have not opened my mouth to speak; uyou can do this, even the
Buddha wbe unable to contradict you.' The question of birth and death
is important and impermaence is fast closig i. Lie those climbig a m,
you should strive ad exert youselves. Listen to my gatha:
In this bustling world stive a on a hill to dwell;
Still mind and body, your Tao will lack naught.
Just em
ty your mind of all you like an hate,
Thi is training too, though Ch'an is not ytmuc4.
I. Aphenomena are cretd by, and can be retured to, the One Md, but where
is this One Md?
2. A sttra is a sermon on the Dharma and since the Dharma is inherent in our
selves, when we realize our mind and perceive our self-nature, our self-ntured
Dharma wl manifest itself as an eternal Dharm which has neither beging nor
end and which t round day and night, i.e. fction in ubroken contuit.
4. Instruction given by Master ChWg Feng (1263-1323)
(From The Sayings of Chung Feng-ChWg Feng Kuag Lu)
(a) To upasaka Hai Yi
'My late Master Kao Feng stayed thirty years in his monastery without
descendg from the moWtai. He taught his disciples to look into the
kWg an: "All thigs are retuable to the One, to where does the One
retu!" He urged them to look into it with all their energy and to forget
all about the length of time requied for the purpose, Wti they were
awakened to it. (Thus} they should, i their daily activities, hold on to ths
kWg an which should be fed in their mds ad held frmy i silence
without interruption. He compared this to one losing control of both hads
while hanging from the top of a clif to one ready to step forward from the
top of a high pole, to one defending a pass alone against assault by ten
thousand enemies and to one trying to make fe by rubbig two pieces of
wood together. This is how the ancients exerted themselves to the utmost
so that what they said accorded well with the truth and their words were
certaiy not deceitul. Hence, an ancient said:
He also said:
I intense cold strikes not to the bone,
How can plum blossoms fagrant be11
Though the pavilion's old and the surroundings quiet,
One should continuously strive until they are won back. 2
Are these deceitful words 1
'Another ancient said: "There is no secret i Ch'an traing which re
quires but keenness i (solving the question of ) birth and death." Why so!
Because the Buddhas of the pat, present and future and the Patriarch and
great masters in succeeding generations set up so many rules and spoke in so
may ways to wipe out all worldly feelings and passions (which cause) the
birth and death of al lvng beings. If not so, why should they establish
asorts of Dharma! If students of this generation are not really keen about
their ow busiess, what ca they expect from their morg ad evening
I. A quotaton from Huang Po's sayings. See Ch'an and Zen Teaching, First Seres,
Part I, p. 63.
2. Although the self-nature is self-possessed and its condition is etem y still, one
should practise self-cultivation in order to recover both (i.e. sel-nature and its still
(b) To the Japanese ascetic Tig I (Tei-ich)
'Sangha is not Sargha and laity is not laity (for) six times six is t-six.1
Laity is laity and Sangha is Sargha (for) the thd night watch is struck at
noon accordig to the Teachng.2 Either Sangha or laity is acceptable for
fundamentally there is no separateness. 3 I one is suddenly awakened
to this absence of separateness, one wil laugh at te sight of an (old)
tiger with two wings. 4 Do you understad 1 I not, you shoud not be
'Why have you left behind al your fa duties to follow a master and
stay in a monastety 1 Is it because you search for food and clothg or for
fame and wealth 1 I not, then why 1 You have come thousands of miles by
sea solely because there was close on your heels something pertaing to the
impermanence of birth and death (i.e. lfe). For aeons til ths day, the more
you have tried to be awakened to the Great Cause, 6 the more you have been
confused and have sunk deeper in your fall.6 From now on, cast away (all
your ideas of ) body and lie, exhaust al your energy to look silently and
closely into a meangless ancient kung an and to continue so doing in un
broken contiuit with a mid expecting nothg, an itellect (manas) free
fom wandering outside, a consciousness no longer seekng exerals ad al
thoughts that have stopped fowing. Be indi erent to your surroundings,
whether in a silent mountai grove or a noisy town, whether in the midst of
stiless or disturbace and whether you are working or at leisure. Look into
this kung an today, do the same thng tomorrow and continue without
interruption. Suddeny, your eyelids wbe pierced and your skul broken. 7
You will then behold the Tao whch wil be obvious and w prevail
everywhere. 8 When the Tao is evident, al sorts of things wbe auspicious. 9
From the Easter Sea, a black Persia wil emerge with eyebrows ad
1. Sangha and laity are two empty names and are just a dualty that does not
exist in the absolute noumenon. Noumenon cannot be named but can be perceived
through its function of saying that six by six equals thiry-si. This is the real which is
inconceivable and inexpressible.
2. It is through the phenomenal that the noumenal can be revealed according to
the expedient Teaching, for the stil self-nature, symboled by night, can be revealed
in the midst of activities, symbolized by noon. This is the seeming whch springs from
the real.
3 Both noumenon and phenomenon come from the undivded whole which is
beyond both. Ths is the mean which is inclusive of the absolute and the relatve.
4 'An old toothless tiger' is a Ch'an term for self-nature powerless in the midt of
ilusions caused by attchment to dualties, symbolized by the two wings.
s. i.e. the discovery of the self-natured wisdom inherent in every being.
6. i.e. into the sea of suferng. This is the phenomenal realm with derenttion.
7 This is how to destroy al obstrctions, i.e. discrimination and prejudces.
8. This is the noumenal realm with unity.
9. The noumenon and phenomenon are iterdpendent.
nostris three feet long, 1 speaking of birth, death, transmigration, empty
falsity and real truth. The two eyelets of your straw sandals wi suddenly
hear hs voice but both Sangha and laity are completely unknown.a But
who is aware that they are unown13
'When the spring breeze scatters the fowers in Ling Nan
The plugging o all leaks brings tidings that are true.''
s. Itrcton given by Master Ta Kuan, alas Tsu Pai (1543-1604)
(From The Sayings of Master Tsu Pai-Tsu Pai Lao Jen Chi)
(a) Instruction given to one of his disciples.
'If you take Master Chao Chou's "Wu" (No} as a hua t'ou for your
continued training, with the passig of time your thoughts wl become
identical with the hua t'ou and the hua t'ou with your thoughts, amdst all
states such as birth or death, and in adverse or favourable cicumstances.
Then, everhere you wl fnd yourself in the condition of oneness.
'The secret ofCh'an training lies in your mind's ability to realize the one
ness of a contraes such as adversity and prosperty, etc., and i you can
achieve ths, your awakening wl be immnent.'
(b) The Story of Master Ta Kuan's awakening.
One day, the master heard a monk reading Chang Chue's Gat of
A waening. When the reader came to the lines:
To stop wrong thinking aggravates the illness
But to seek the absolute i alo wrong. 5
Ta Kuan observed:
'Thee are wrong and should read:
1. The Persian gulf was called the Wester sea by the ancients. After enlighten
ment, alphenomena are tured upside down with elimintion of location and direc
ton, because alsprngs fom the noumenl.
z. A phenomena are also interdependent. Thus the teching reveal the four
Dhana re: (a) the phenomenal realm, with diferentiation; (b) the noumenal
ream, with unty; (c) both the noumenal and phenomenal are interdependent; and
(d) alphenomena are also interdependent.
3 This is the 'mean' which is inclusive of both phenomenon and noumenon.
4 Sprng stnd for Enlightenment, and breeze, for its function that disperses the
fowers, symbol of ilusions, according to the Souther school of the Sixh Patriarch
Hu Neng in Ling Nan, i.e. south of the range of mountins, or Kuang Tung pro
vice. Wen te steam of tranmgration stops fowing, the One Reality is bound to
s. To stop thg and to sek the abslute imply subjecs and objecs ad do not
enue the realition of abslute bodh.
To stop wrong thinking avoid illness
But to seek the absolute is right.'
The monk retorted: 'You are wrong but Chang Chue was not.' Ths retort
caused a great doubt to rise in Ta Kuan's mind ad after that, wherever he
went, he wrote these two les on the wall. Hs doubt was so itene that
hs head became swollen. One day, while eating, he was instantaneously
enghtened ad the swelling disappeared. He said: 'Had I been with (en
lghtened masters like) Lin Chi or Te Sh, a slap would have awaened me
imediately and saved me a great deal of trouble.'1
From the above istructions given by enlightened masters,
we kow that a kung an is a sentence or any concurrent cause
that leads to enlghtenment, and that the hua t'ou is a technique
devised to strip the md of hearig, seeing, feelig and dis
cerg so that it can retur to its absolute state, the pre-on
dition of awakening. I olden times, lfe was not so compli
cated as it is today and a student had so few desires that he
could forsake them without much difculty to achieve single
ness of md; hence his abity to w bodhi without having
recourse to the hua t'ou technique which was later devised to
deal with recalcitrant pupis who were unable to look directly
ito their self-mds. With the successful use of this technque,
the mid, releved from al hindrances, resumes its function of
seeig and hearing without further handicap; thus the sight of
one's refection in the water or the sound of a stone hitting a
bamboo w sufce to cause istantaneous enlghtenment.
These sights and sounds are also kung as, or concurrent
causes leading to the perception of self-nature and attainment
of bodhi. The blow given by an enlightened master to clear
away the confusing du ness of his student and to provoke hs
awakening, mentioned earlier in our translation of Master
Hsu Y un' s instruction, is also a kung an which contributes to
the enlightenment of a pupil who has reached the 'strategic
gateway' where he is about to go astray. It is, therefore,
wong to think that kung ans can be dispensed wt when the
hua t' ou technique is employed.
I. Quottons fom Hn Shn's Foreword to T Sayings of Master Tsu Pai.
According to astronauts, beautiful colours are seen and
weightlessness is experienced when fyig in space. It is im
possible for all of us to be spacemen and although many are
eager, only a very few are chosen for this type of travel. There
is, however, no need to go to this expense since i we practise
the Ch'an Dharma seriously, we too, without leaving ou
homes, can see colours more beautiful than any we have seen
before. If we close our eyes and concentrate on the 'thrd eye'
between the eyebrows, we too wl see very attractive colours
and those perceived by the mind are much more beautiful than
those seen by the eyes. These colours, however attractive they
may be, are only illusions and we should on no account cling
to them, but remain indiferent to al visions seen during our
meditation in order to disengage ourselves from exterals.
As to weightlessness, any serious Ch'an practiser can experi
ence it as soon as he succeeds in realzing sigleness of mind and
in enterng the dhyana stream. By relquishing all his attach
ments to the world and laying dow both body and mind
which suddenly vanish to be replaced by the brightness of his
inner wisdom, he wl experience a weightlessness and bound
less bliss which no scientists can provide and which no earthly
wealth can buy. He w be an 'unconcered man' as the
ancients cal it, and this is the key to our escape from sarsara.
Moreover, with this partial appearance of his self-natured
wsdom, he is able to interpret correctly sitras and kung ans,
as well as Dharma words, that is the language of the ucreate,
as upaaka P'ang Yun called it, used by enlightened masters
when giving instruction to their disciples or when probing
their spiriual achievements. This experience wil not cost him
a penny and can be realized while sitting before his home
shrine or i his bedroom. However, he should be indiferent
to all such attractive states which unfold during his medita
tion, for they are but i usions which can hinder him in his
quest of the utiate goal.
Mter the mind has been disengaged from seeing, hearing,
feelg and discerg, that is after it has been frozen in the
training, the student reaches a state where he perceives only hs
eighth consciousness (alaya-vijfana), a storehouse holding the
germs of al things, on which he depends for existence in the
realm of ilusions. It is here that the subtle and imperceptible
dualsm of ego and thngs (dharma) still remains. Although
he has, when enterig upon the stream of meditation, been
able to distinguish between the coarse aspects of 'host' and
'guest', as taught in the Siratgama Sitra,1 he is now con
fronted with their fme aspects, and if he is unable to disti
guish between them, he wl remain stationary and so be
unable to advance. Ths is the state reached by Avalokitdvara
Bodhsattva who said:
Thus advancing step by step
Both hearing and its object ceased:
But I stopped not where they ended.
This is what the ancients called 'stagnant water', 'a withered
log', 'the top of a hundred-foot pole', 'a stone girl', 'a wooden
horse', 'an incense burer in an ancient temple', 'an iron tree',
etc., and is but the wandering mind reduced to impotence,
for it sti retains a subtle view of ego and things (dharma)
which is imperceptible to the practiser. It is the last of the fou
aspects of an ego, whch are the I, a man, a beig and a life,
mentioned in the Diamond Sitra.2 If the practiser fais to get
out of ths state which still belongs to sarsara, and since he
who does not advance w backslide, he wl fall into one of
I. See Ch'an and Zen Teaching, First Series, Part I, Master Hsu Yun's Discouses
(p. 94).
2. See Ch'an and Zen Teaching, First Series, Par
, The Diamond Cutter of
the six heretical ways mentioned i the sitras. He is con
fronted with a dull emptiess, or the relative voidness whch
imples a subjective awareness of ths state. I he does not
loosen hs grip of the hua t'ou, he will be aware of this pitfall
and wi strive to leap over it; then he wil reach the stage
which A valokitdvara Bodhisatta descrbed i the following
When the awareness (of this state) and this state itsel were
A non-existent, subject and object merged into the void
And awareness of the void became all embracing.
The1 when creation and annihilation
Vanished, the state of nirvara manisted
Ths state is called Relative, or Partial Niv:a, and although
it is already beyond the realm of birth and death, it is not the
aim of enlghtened Ch'an masters who seek nothg short of
the Dharmakaya. After this stage has been attained, a student
shoUld advance further and here a very great and long en
durance is required so that he can reach the state of the un
create; this is caled anutpattika-dharma-kanti, or patient
endurance of the uncreate, a pre-condition of the realiation of
absolute nirvaa.
Here, Y un Men gave the following warg:
When light does not penetrate, there are two kinds of illness. The
frst is when there is absence of clearness everywhere with the
presence of something ahead. The other is when although the liht
penetrates the void, there is still the semblance of something through
which the light does not entirely penetrate.
The Dharmakaya has also two kinds of illness. The frst is that
when reaching the Dharmakaya, one cannot forsake the reality of
things (dharma), thereby preserving the conception of an ego; one
thus stops on the borderline. The other illness is that even afer one
has penetrated through the Dharmakaya, one still grasps it and
pants for the hereafer.
The Yun Men Dharma is not easily understood by beginners
as it is rather for men of high spirituality. It is noted for its
cakes, its one-word answers, its Three Gates and its seemingly
ofensive words which have only one aim, to wipe out the
disciples' prejudices and hesitations when distinguishg
between the immutable Self and changig ilusions; in other
words, to remove al remaining traces of the subtle view of ego
and. things (dharma), so that the disciples can realze the
absolute Dharmakaya. This is what Han Shan called the self
preservation and self-awareness of the ego.1
I an advanced disciple stil clung to the remaining traces of
ego and things (dharma), Lin Chi, in order to wake him up,
would give a shout whch the master called 'a shout not used
as a shout'2 in performance of the teacher's 'great function' of
awakening the fuly vitalized potentiality of a student so that
it could unite with the absolute. Lin Chi taught his pupils not
to cling to anythng in order to get out of the realm of illu
sions. He said:
Sometimes the subject is snatched away but the object is not;
sometimes the object is snatched away but the subject is not; some
times both subject and object are snatched away; and sometimes
both subject and object are not snatched away.
I. See Ch'an and Zen Teachin
, First Series, Par Ill, The Diamond Cutter of
Doubts, p. 189.
:. See Ch'an and Zen Teachin
, Second Series, The Li Chi Sect.
His Dharma consists, therefore, in eradicating the subject
when there is no attachment to an object; in eliminating the
object when there is no attachment to a subject; in wiping out
both subject and object when there is attachment to both; and
i forsakig nothing when both subject and object are not
He urged his disciples to iterpret the Dharma correctly,
that is from the 'host' position, and to disregard all illusions
whch are but aspects of the non-existent 'guest'. He taught
them to hit the frst rate meaning i order to reale the
absolute, for the second rate meang leads only to the reali
zation of the non-existence of phenomena and the third rate
meaning only to the comprehension of the teaching without
experiential realzation of it. He then explained that in order
to realze the frst rate meang, they should pass through
Three Profound Gateways, each with three Vital Stages, that
is ne vital phases of traiing, in order to realize the Dhar
makaya. These nine Vital Stages include both the Hnayana
and Mahayana Teachigs. Readers will fmd an account of al
the fve Ch'an sects with detailed explanations i Series Two
of my Ch' an and Zen Teaching.
Li Chi is noted for his use of fou kinds of shout in his
teaching. He also urged hs disciples to distinguish clearly
between 'host' and 'guest' i order to avoid confusion in their
meditation. Accordig to his Dharma, relations between
'Host' and 'Guest' are classifed into four positions: that of
guest lookng at host; that of host looking at guest; that of
guest looking at guest and that of host looking at host, so that
students can be clear about the absolute Sel and relative
A student should overcome the last obstructions-go and
things (dharma)-to realie hs Dharmakaya, or essential body,
which is called 'Substance' in Buddhist terminology. A sub
stance which is icapable of performing its savig function is
ueless, and a master should trai his disciples in the right per
formance of 'Function'. The story of the Kuei Yang sect
relates how Kuei Shan traied his disciple Yang Shan in the
realation of Substance and Function. For instance, he woud
say to his pupil that the latter only realized function but did not
reale its body or vice versa so that the student became well
versed in the doctrie of Substance and Function. As substance
soud be all-embracig in order to realize Universal Enlight
enment, that is the f-frst stage of Bodhsattva development
for welfare of Self its function should also be universal for
realizing Wonderful Enlightenment, that is the ffty-second or
last stage of Bodhisattva development into Buddhahood for
the welfare of all living beings. When Yang Shan asked about
the abode of the real Buddha, hs master Kuei Shan replied:
Tur inward the subtleness of your thoughtless thinking to think
of spiritual brightness until your thinking is exhausted, then return
it to its source where the fundamental nature and its formal expres
sions eterally abide, where activity and principle are not a dualism
and where is the suchness of the real Buddha.
This is the region where the fundamental nature, or Sub
stance, and its benefcial activit, or Function, are but the One
Realit of the absolute Dharmakaya.
I order to make the Dharma more clear, Tung Shan and his
dciple Ts'ao Shan classifed the progressive stages of sel
cutivation ito fve positions of (I) Host, or Prince, or the
real containg the seemg; (2) Guest, or Minister, or the
seemg containing the real; (3) Host comg to lght, or
Prce looking at Mister, or Resurgence of the real; (4) Guest
returg to Host, or Mster returg to Prince, or the
seeming uniting with the real; and (5) Host i Host, or Price
and Minister in harmony, or Integration of the real and the
seemg. I practice, these fve progressive positions are:
Shit, Submission, Achievement, Colective Achievement and
Absolute Achievement. These fve positions serve to enable a
student to distinguish between the Host, or Self and the Guest,
or illusory exterals, and if he can do so in practice, he wnot
be msled by his old habits contracted since time without
Followers of the Ts'ao Tung sect should know its Dharma
which is sumarized i Tung Shan' s Gatha of the Seal of the
Precious Mirror Samadhi.1
This Dharma is based on the Buddha's teaching according to
whch the triple world of desire, form and beyond form are
but creations of the One Mnd and all phenomena are but the
product of its consciousness. It urges all students to realize the
identity of this One Mind with its surroudings for realzig
the absolute state ard he who succeeds in personaly experienc
ig this Dharma w remain immutable in the midst of
changing phenomena. This is the state where the fundamental
nature and its formal expressions eterally abide, where
activit and principle are not a dualism and where is the such
ness of the real Buddha as taught by the Kuei Yang sect.
Absolute, or fal, n:a is attaied when there are no further
traces of the real and the seeming, that is when a disciple
reaches the source of all, where te fundamenta nature ad its
I. Ch'an and Zen Teaching, Sere Two, p. 149 f
formal expression eternally abide, where activit and principle
are not a dualsm and where is the suchness of the real Buddha,
according to the Kuei Yang sect; when he hts the frst rate
meanng or has reached the fmal stage of the Third Profound
Door to Enlightenment accordig to the Li Chi sect; when
he reaches the position of Host i Host accordig to the Ts'ao
Tug sect; when he realizes the identity of Mid with cakes or
when he succeeds in following an arrow shot through the
Three Gates according to the Y un Men sect; and when he has
personal experience of the doctrine of only One Md accord
ig to the Fa Yen sect.
Ths Final Nirvaa was realzed by A valokitdvara Bodh
satta and described by him in the followig lines:
Suddenly I leaped over both the mundane and supramundane and
realized an all-embracing brightness pervading the ten directions,
acquiring two unsurpassed (merits). The frst was in accord with the
fundamental Profound Enlightened Mind of all Buddhas high up in
the ten directions, possessing the same merciul power as the Tathi
gata. The second was in sympathy with all living beings in the six
realms of existence here below in the ten directions, sharing with
them the same plea of compassion.
According to the Ch'an sect, this absolute nirvaa is attaied
when a disciple is thoroughly awakened to hs enlghtened
master's 'Final Sentence' or 'Real Aim', or, in plai English,
the object of his doctrine, that is 'the object of the coming from
the West', and if he does not understand it, he is not qualfed
to be hs master's Dharma successor.
I order to give an idea of the term 'Fial Sentence', we present
the story of Master Tao Ch'ien of Chu Feng peak.1
I. From The Imperial Selection ofCh'an Sayings-Yu Hsun Yu Lu. Tao Ch'ien
was an eminent master who died about 921.
Master Tao Ch'ien was Shih Shuang's attendant and when the
latter died, the community invited its leader to succeed him as abbot.
The master said to the monks: 'The leader should realize the aim of
our late master beore he is qualied to be his Dharma successor.'
The leader retorted: 'What was the aim of our late master?' The
master replied: 'Our late master said: "Halt and rest;1 be cold and
indirent;2 equate the moment of a thought (kaia) with a myriad
years (kalpa);3 go your way like cold ashes and a withered log;4 be
like an incense burner in an ancient temple ;5 and like a thread of
white silk.''6 I do not ask you about all this, but tell me what did he
mean by "Be like a thread of white silk?" ' The leader replied:
'This is only understanding uniormity.' The master said: 'So you
do not really understand the aim of our late master!' The leader
said: 'I you do not agree with me, let me light an incense stick and
i I fail to depart beore it burns out, this will mean that I do not
understand the aim of our late master.' Then he lit an incense stick
and beore it burnt out, he passed away. The master patted him on the
back, saying: 'There are cases of those who pass away while sitting
or standing, but you have not even dreamt of our late master's aim!'
This shows that the leader did not understand the silk thread
that was realy white and stood for the al-embracing purity
and cleanness of the Dharmakaya, which he mistook for one
sided uniormity, hence his realization only of dhyana which
enabled him to pass away at w, without achieving wisdom
(prajfa) i the same proportion, for he was not completely
awakened to Shih Shuang' s aim. We know that dhyana
should be on an equality with wisdom, as the Sith Patriarch
taught us, i order to realize absolute nirvala.
When the absolute state is achieved, one will be sovereign,
that is one w be free to go and to come. Enlightened masters
I. Lay down body and mind and cease discrimating.
2. To perceive the emptiness of phenomena to realize transcendental wu wei.
3 To wipe out the element of time in order to realize eternity.
4 To realize the impotence of the mid.
5 To cut of all feelings and passions.
6. To realize the condition of purity and cleaness of the Dharmakiya which is
likened to a sik thread which is white throughout.
used to probe their disciples who had just passed away by say
ig, for instance: 'You know only how to go but you do not
know how to come.' We cite below cases of those who en
joyed complete freedom to go and to come.
r. When Ch I passed away whe standing in front of
Master Ts'ao Shan, the latter said: 'You know only how to go
but you do not know how to come.' Thereupon, Ch I
opened his eyes, saying: Venerable Master, please take good care
of yoursel and departed.1
2. Although Master Tung Shan had been dead for some
time, his disciples continued to weep bitterly without inter
ruption. Suddeny he opened his eyes and said: Those who leave
home should be mindless of illusory externals; this is true practice.
What is the use of being anxious for li and death?1 He then
postponed his death for seven days.
3 When Master Ta Kuan was falsely accused and jailed,
he heard that a government ofcial wanted to put him to
death. He took a bath, sat erect and chanted the followng
gatha before passing away:
A smile comes not without a special cause.
Who knows that Nothingness contains no dust?
Henceorth I tuck up the fet my mother gave me:
The iron tree waits not for the spring to blossom.2
When a friend heard of hs death, he hurried to the prison,
patted the body and said: 'Your leave is well taken.' Thereupon
the master opened his eyes, smied and departed.
The above show that when a man is completely enlightened,
I. See Ch'an and Zen Teaching, Second Series, The Ts'ao Tung sct.
2. The frst line means: 'I have appeared in the world to teach deluded beings to
realze their self-natured bodh'; this is a special cause. The second lie means: 'The
absolute immateriality of the self-nature does not admt any foreign matter', i.e. al
iusory externals, including the kil ing of my illusory body, are non-xistent in the
Nothngness. The third line means: 'I am returning Function to Substance'. To let
down the feet is a Ch'an term meaning the performance of Function, and to draw
them up is to return its activity to the still self-nature. Iron tree is a Ch'an idiom
meaning the md stripped of all feelngs and passions, ready for enightenment,
without depending on the spring, or changig phenomen.
he is free to die or to retur to le without hidrance. This is
true realization of a teacher's last sentence or the true aim of his
Dharma, without whch a pupil is not qualed to be hs
We now kow the pre-ondition of Complete Enlghten
ment and present below a few cases of Ch'an masters attaig
I. The Late Master Hsu Y u
After feeing his home at the age of neteen, Master Hsu Yu
went to Ku Shan monastery where he joined the Sangha and
received full ordination. He hd himself i a grotto for three
years and lived as a hermt. Then he returned to the monastery
where he stayed for about four years, after which he started on
hs long journey to Hua Tig mountain at Wenchow. There
he met Master Yang Chg, of the T'ien T'ai (Tendai) school,
who taught him to look ito the kung an: 'Who is draggig
this corpse of yours?' He also practised the T'ien T'ai system of
meditation. He then went to other places to study the Ch'an
and Lotus doctrines and began his pilgrimage to P'u T'o, the
holy place of A valokitdvara Bodhisattva; to the monastery of
kig Asoka at Ningpo where the relics of the Buddha were
kept for worshp; to Wu T'ai mountai, the holy place of
Mafjusr; and to mout 0 Mei, the bodhimaala of Saman
tabhadra Bodhsattva. Thence, he went to Tibet, Bhutan,
Idia, Ceylon and Burma and retured to Cha where he
passed through the provices ofYu an, Kweichow, Huan,
Anhwei and Kiangsi and stayed for two years on Ts'u Feng
peak to read the Tripiaka. Durig his travels, the master
succeeded i realizig sigleness of mind, and in his ffty-sixth
year, one evening, i Kao Mig monastery at Yangchow, after
a long meditation, he opened his eyes and saw everythg
iside and outside the monastery. Through the wall, he saw
a monk urinatig outside, a guest monk in the latrine and
far away, boats plying on the river and trees on both its banks.
On the third night, at the end of a long meditation, an attendant
came to pour tea into his cup. As the boing water splashed
over his hand, he dropped the cup which fell to the ground and
broke. Instantly, he cut of his last doubt about his Self and
rejoiced at the realization ofhs cherished aim. He said he was
le someone awakening from a dream, and chanted the
followng gatha:
A cup Jll to the ground
With a sound clearly heard.
A space was pulverized,
The mad mind came to a stop.
He chanted a second gatha whch reads:
When the hand released its hold, the cup Jll and was shattered;
'Tis hard to talk when family breaks up or someone dies.1
Spring comes with fagrant fowers exuberating everywhere;2
Mountains, rivers and the great earth are only the Tathagata.3
2. Master Han Shan4
When Master Han Shan was nne years old, his mother sent
him to a monastery where he was taught sitras and literatue.
At nineteen, he was urged by a leared mon to read The
Sayings of Chung Feng and to practise Ch'an meditation. Since
he did not know its essentials, he concentrated hs md on the
repetition of Amitabha Budda's name continuouly for days
I. It is impossible to describe the state atained after one has cut of al erhy
feelings and passions.
z. Ths is the condton of nrvata, ful of blss.
3 A phenomena are identical wt the suchess of the self-nature from whch
they spring.
4 See alo Han Shan's autobiography-ontacted for publcton by Charles
E. Tuttle, Tokyo, Japan.
and nghts on end. One night in a dream he beheld Amitabha
Buddha with his two attendant Bodhisattvas. After that the
three saints of the Wester Paradise appeared constantly before
his eyes and he was condent that he would succeed i his self
One day, as he was listenig to a commentar on the
samadhi of the Ocean Symbol as taught in the Avatamsaka
Sitra, he awakened to the profound meaning of the u
hdered iterdependence of all phenomena in the Dharma
realm. The enlghtened lecturer, Master Wu Chi, urged him
to attend a meditation meeting and to look into the kug an:
'Who is the repeater of the Buddha's name?' Han Shan
succeeded in achieving singleness of thought and for three
months he did not notice the presence of the community and
was midless of their activities. After this long meditation,
when he left his seat, his mid was in the same state as when he
sat. He went out and did not see a single person in the crowded
market place. At twenty-eight, he went to Wu T'ai mountain
wth the intention of staying there to meditate but he could not
stand the bitter cold and proceeded to the capital. One day, he
climbed the peak ofP'an Shan mountain where he met a her
mit who refused to tal with hm. However, he stayed with
his speechess host i a grotto, and one evening, he went out
for his usual walk. Al of a sudden, his forehead seemed to
burst with a loud noise lke thuder, and hs surroundgs dis
appeared completely. This state of voidness lasted about half
an hour, and gradually he felt again the presence of hs body
and mind and became aware of hs surroundigs once more.
He experienced weightlessness and blss which were beyond
description. The hermit began to talk and wared him that the
state he had just experienced was only the manfestation of
the aggregate of 'form' which should not be clung to.1 From
the capital, he retued to Wu T'ai mountai, passig through
I. Master Hsu Yun alo advised his disciples not to push down the hua t'ou into
the belly in order to avoid the bad infuence of the fve aggregates. (See Ch'an and Zen
Teaching, First Series, Part I.)
Shao Lin monastery where Bodhdharra once stayed and Ho
Tung where he stopped to supervise the carving of printig
blocks for an edition of Chao Lun1 with a commentary. He
was stil not very clear about the doctrine of the immutability
of all phenomena, but after reading the treatise agai he was
instantaneously awakened to the profound teachg. He got
up from his meditation bed and went to the Buddha shrine
but perceived motionlessness everywhere. He raised the blnd
and leaves whrling in the wind seemed to stand stil. From that
moment all his doubts about birth and death disappeared.
Then he went on to W u T' ai mountain in his thirtieth year, and
frst felt disturbed by the loud roar of water rushig down the
mountain. He remembered the story of A valokitdvara' s Com
plete Enghtenment by means of the hearing faculty and went
to a wooden bridge where he sat in meditation. The noise was
very disturbing but with his pointed concentration, after a
long while, he only heard it when his mid was stirred by
thoughts. All of a sudden, his body seemed to vanish and the
noise was no longer heard. One day, after a meal, whle he was
standing, suddenly he entered the state of saradhi and his body
and md disappeared completely and were replaced by a vast
brightness, lie a round mirror wherei hs surroundings
appeared. He then felt at ease in this serent without meeting
any hindrance from exterals. He was alone and did not kow
how long he was i ths samadh state, and when he care out
of it, hs hearth was covered with a layer of dust. He opened the
Siratgara Sitra to check hs awakenig. Soon afterwards, he
contracted the Ch'an illness2 and rid himself of it after sitting i
medtation for fve consecutive days and nights, after which he
experienced an indescrbable blss. He had many experiences
I. A treatise written by the eminent master Seng Chao who was Kumirajiva's
chief disciple and helped him to translate Indian sitras into Chinese.
2. The Ch'an illness is sometimes contracted after a major awakening, when the
vt principle does not circulate freely through the psychic centres in the body. The
medittor is then seied with an irresistable desire to dance, jump, gesticulate, hum,
tlk and act strangely without apparent reason. Words that he has read before come
to him in an endless succession and canot be stopped. See alo Chapter 6 and the
preface to Ch'an and Zen Teaching, Series Two.
but two of them were of special signifcance. I each he sat
cross-legged, face to face with another enlightened friend, for
forty successive days and nghts, without sleeping.
3. Master San Feng (1573-1635
(From Master San Feng's Autobiography-Sa Feng Ho Shang Nien P'u)
At the age of thirty, Master San Feng isolated himsel in seclusion to look
into the kung an: 'A thigs are returable to One, to what does the One
retu!' and he trained for days and nghts without interruption.
When he was forty he decided to live i silent seclusion with anoter
monk. As soon as he sat on h cushion, he felt dizzy, vOinited and fell
asleep, feeling as i he was falng into a very deep pit without anytng on
which to hold for support. On the ffth day, as he was sleeping soudly,
two monks outside the window broke a large bamboo with a loud crack
which struck h lie a clap of thunder. Instantaneously, he perceived the
pulverization of space, the disappearace of the great earth, the vashig
of ego ad things (dharma), the invalidity of the One Reality and the non
exstence of even traces of imperfection-al this beig beyond decription
and compaison. To h, al the scriptues he had read before were but
prited paper, for the profound meaning was beyond thought. He sat i
this state the whole night which passed le a fnger-snap. In t conditon
of thoughtlessness, he remembered ancient kug ans, such as Chao Chou's
'At Ch'ig Chou I bought a robe weighing seven (Chese) pounds',
'A old cypress', 'A toiet stick', 'A bride riding on a donkey led by her
mother-i-law', 'A octagonal mistone turg in the a', including
Yun Men's 'A fan that jumps up to the thirty-third heaven', so tat he
experienced alkds of samadhi.1
As a result, he understood that arguing back and forth, blows and shouts,
etc., did not reach the transcendental; that even Yun Men's saying: 'The
great earth is completely free from al imperfection' was just a way of
tug words; that the non-seeing of unformty was only partial achieve
ment and that there was the transcendental whole which could be ex
perienced only at a propitious moment.2 If Li Ch did not understand that
'Huang Po's Buddha Dharma was mainly so lttle',s and i Te Sha stl
harboured 'doubts about the tips of the tongues of old monks al over the
cout',' how could a shout or a stroke of the staf provoke the reazation
x. If these si meaningless kung ans are skifully looked into, they can be traced
back to that which speaks of them; this is direct pointing at the self-mind.
2. Ths stte is indescribable and he who atains it is like a driker of water who
alone knows whether it is cold or warm.
J. Se Ch'an and Zen Teaching, Second Series, The L Chi sec, p. Ss.
4 See Ch'an and Zen Teaching, Fit Series, Part I, p. 60.
of Universal Enlightenment/ When asked about which sentence he foud
the most efective, the master replied: 'When I got out of bed, I trod on and
fattened my rush sandals.'1
4 The
apaese Zen Master Yi Yua (I-gen)
(From the Supplementary Edition of A Finger Pointing at the Moon-
Hsu Ch Yueh Lu)
The master was a native ofHsiang Chou (SO-shi now Kamakura) i
His lay suame was T'eng (Fujiwara) and the T'engs (Fujiwara clan) were
noblemen. There were auspicious signs when the master was bor. At
theen, he left his parents, had h head shaved and received full ordination.
Then he crossed the sea to Chia where he caled on abbot Wu Chien at
T'ien T'ai. Wu Chen urged h to see Chug Feng at T'ien Mu. The
latter received h and alowed him to be his attendat.
The master had several times submitted his understanding (of the
Dharma) to Chug Feng and one day the Chiese teacher scolded him,
sayig: 'How can you be free fom bondage if you are not disengaged from
sense organs and sense datal' The master withdrew sadly and wept bitterly.
After that, he had no mind to eat and sleep. Chung Feng was compas
sionately impressed by his earestness and said to h: 'The Mind contai a
myrad phenomena; when it is deluded, it is subject to bith and death and
when it is enghtened, it is nirv:a. Although the sararic delusion cannot
be easily cast away, yet the nratlc enlightenment is lkened to gold dust
throw in the eyes. You should know that wisdom (prajia) is like a mass of
fre that burs everything touchng it. If you give rise to a thought that
does not tur back and can presere it in you transmigration through
bith and death, you wi naturally be i accord with the Tao. But
before your awakening, even if a thousad Sakyamunis and ten thousad
Maitreyas poured all the water of the four great oceas into you organ of
hearing, it would stil be falsity and infection which are far away from the
utimate.' These words frightened the master so much that he perspired
profusely. One day, he awakened to the profound meang and came to
see Chug Feng, saying: 'I have colded with ad penetrated the siver h
ad the ion wal.' Chung Feng said: 'I you have penetrated the silver h
I. Te most efecve thing is that which speaks these words, or performs it
functon. If function can be traced back to its source, that is substance, realization of
the slf-mnd wi be possible; this i s Bodhdharma's direct pointing at the Mind.
:. Presumably the master was so atched to the idea of enightenment that Chung
Feng's words about the absolute, which could not be described even by the Buddha
and Maitreya, made such a strong impression on him that he perspired profusely. A
profuse perspiration always precedes awakening and this explains why the master was
awakened afer leaping over al obstrctons, symboled by the siver h and iron
and the iron wall, why do you come and see me1'1 The master immediately
understood what hs teacher meant and the latter said: 'Take good care of
your awakening and do your best to presere it.'2
One day, the master felt unwell and said to his attendant: 'The tie has
come; bring me pen and i.' He added: 'My stipa is ready but lacks a
inscription.' Then he wrote the two characters 'hsin yin' (mental impres
sion), sat erect and passed away.
Before his death, as his disciples intended to paint a porrait of him ad
asked him to write an inscription i his ow calligraphy, the master drew a
ccle3 on te paper and wote the following gatha:
Mysterious form is crystal clear,'
Absolute is it and unchanging.6
It is fund everywhere ;6
What then is its jace17
I. Chung Feng urged the mater to cast away even the idea of overcoming a
obstctions in order to wipe out hs last clinging.
2. Afer awakening, one stil has to cut of gradually old habit contraced since
the time without begin g. Therefore, one should be very careful in order to pre
srve the 'holy foetus' and to nourih it, as the masters put it.
3 A cicle stnds for the a -mbracing Dharmakaya whch has neither beginning
nor end.
4 Mysterious, or wonderf, form is that which is inclusive of both noumenon
ad phenomenon. Se ao p. 41 for explanaton.
s. It is the i=utable thatness.
6. It i omipresent.
7. It is inconceivable and indescribable but is cxpediendy clled 'the fudment
fc'. According to the tex, the mter did not retu to Japan ad passd away i
THE chief tenet of the Pure Land school (Chin T'u Tsug) i
salvation by faith in Artabha Buddha, noted for his fort
eight great vows taken in a previous incaration when he
was Bhu Dharmakara (Fa Tsang or Dharma Store). H
eighteenth vow was:
Afer my attainment of Buddhahood, i living beings in the ten
directions-xcept those committing the Jve rebellious acts1 and
viliying the right Dharma-who have developed their unshakeable
faith in me, who desire to be reborn in my realm and who have re
peated my name ten times, fail to reach their goal, I shall give up
I anticipation of the Dharma endig age when al sitras
and sastras, beginning with the Siraigama Sitra, w gradu
aly disappear, Sakyamun Buddha expounded:
I. the Sitra of Amitabha (0 M T'o Ching) whch describes
the Pure Land of the Buddha of Ite Light:
2. the Sitra of Amitayus (The Buddha of Boundless Age
W u Liang Shou Ching) which tels the stor of Bhu
Dharmakara and his forty-eight great vows; and
3 the Sitra of the Contemplation of Artayus (Kuan Wu
I. The fve rebellous acs are: parricide, matricide, king a arhat, sheddg the
blood of a Buddha and destoying the harmony of the Sangha.
2. Sarbodi: perfec unversal awareness; perfec enlghtenent.
Liang Shou Chig) which teaches the method of meditation
on this Buddha, so that all living beings can have somethg to
hold on to when the right Dharma is about to be buried in
oblivion. It is said that in this period of darkness, when hatred
and harm prevail everywhere, only very few fortuate beings
will remember even the name of Amtabha and wil sti have
the chance of calling it.
Accordig to records, Samantabhadra Bodhisattva founded
the Pure Land school. I his treatise 'The A wakeng of Faith',
Asvaghoa. the twelfth Patriarch of the Ch'an sect, urged
Buddhists to strive for rebirth i the Pure Land. I their
writings, Nagarjuna and V asubandhu, respectively the four
teenth and twenty-frst Patriarchs of the Ch'an sect, also gave
the same advice to those who are unable to awaken to the
mnd Dharma.
I Cha, the Pure Land school began to fourish with Master
Hui Yuan1 who was regarded as its second Patriarch, after
Samantabhadra Bodhisattva. Hui Yuan was followed by T'an
Luan2 and Tao Ch'o3 who were regarded at the time as the
third and fourth Patriarchs.
This school is also caled the Lotus sect (Lien Tsung) i
Cha and its nine Patriarchs, now recognized, are: Hu
Yuan,1 Shan Tao,4 Ch'eng Yuan,5 Fa Chao,6 Shao K'ang,7
Yen Shou;8 Hsing Ch'ang,9 Lien Ch'i,1o and Hsing
J. Died i 416 at the age of eighty-three.
z. Died i 542 at the age of sixy-seven.
3 Died i 645.
4 Died in 681.
s. Died i 802 at the age of ninety-ne.
6. Died i 772.
7 Died i 8os.
8. Died in 975 at the age of seventy-two.
9 Died i 1020 at the age of six-two.
10. Died in I6IS at the age of eighty-ne.
u. In the Ch'ing dynasty {r662-I9II).
Among them, Yen Shou and Lien Ch'ih were two enlightened
Ch'an masters, and they spread the Pure Land Teaching
because the Ch'an Transmission was not suitable for men
having afmity with and faith in Amitabha Buddha.
The three well-known methods of practice are:
I. Repetition of Amitabha's Name.
It consists in calling, either mentally or in a loud or low voice,
the name of Amitabha Buddha, the repetition of which, with
or without the aid of a rosary of 108 beads, will enable a
practiser to concentrate all his attention on that Buddha,
thereby realzing singleness of thought. It is an excellent way
of controling the mind and many a devotee thereby succeeds
in beholding Amitabha and the two assistant Bodhisattvas,
Avalokitdvara and Mahasthamaprapta.1
Followers of ths school usually set a fxed number of
repetitions a day, from 50,000 to 500,000 or more, and wher
ever they may happen to be, they mentally call the Buddha's
name without interruption. This enables them to put an end
to all other thoughts and to purif their mds wthout
difculty. This practice is supported by ushakeable faith i
Amitabha' s forty-eight vows and by strict observance of the
fve precepts. Devotees usually vow to save all lvig beigs
after their ow self-enlightenment and when their vows
uite with those of Amitabha, the combined power of thei
devotion will enable them to experience an all-embracig
state of purity and cleanness. The Chese fouder of ths
school, Master Hui Yuen, beheld Amitabha thrice and when
he was about to die, he saw the three Saints of the Wester
Realm of Bliss who came to receive him. The Second Patriarch,
1. Before his Ch'an practice, Han Shan beheld the Three Holy Ones of the Rea
of Bliss when he concentrated hs mind on them. See p. 75.
Shan Tao, repeated the Buddha's name for days and nights
without interruption, and each time he called it, a ray of light
came out of his mouth. For ths reason, emperor Kao Tsung
of the T'ang dynasty gave him the name of Great Master
'Kuang Mig' (Bright Light). There are many adherents of
this school who succeed in purifing their minds with the aid
of ths practice and who know i advance the exact time of
their death. There are numerous cases of old people who
bathed, put on their best clothes, sat cross-legged and passed
away peacefully. To preserve stiess of mind they did not
tell their familes that they were about to die, lest their last
moments be disturbed by weeping.
The method of silently calg the Buddha's name is the
most convenient for people in a walks of life who wish to
control their minds and can be practised even i ties of
2. Repetition of the Mantra of Amitabha
(Chnese, Wang Sheng Chou-mantra for rebirth i the Pure
This mantra is very popular in Cha and when I was only
seven years old my mother taught me to recite it and I could
repeat it by heart. Its Chiese transliteration is as corrupt as
that of any other, but in spite of this, mantras are said to be
very efective when the repeater has realized singleness of
mind for they work exactly like the hua t'ou or any kung an.
Consequently, a corruptly translterated mantra can become
full of wonder i the same way that the sense data can be
sublimated and made wonderful as explaied on p. 4I. When
a devotee is about to die, either the Buddha's name or this
mantra is repeated by himself his faily or his Buddhist
We are indebted to the Venerable Bhikkhu Aryadeva who
sent us from India a few years ago a correct translteration of
this mantra which we reproduce below for the beneft of
those who folow the Pure Land school:
Namo Amitabhaya Tathagataya Tadyatha Amrtabhave Amrta
sambhave Amrtavikrante Amrtavikrantagamini Gagana Kirtichare
The Indian masters who came to China to translate Siddham
texts into Chinese never translated mantras because they said
it was impossible to fmd Chinese equivalents. Nevertheless
Bh hu Aryadeva rendered it thus:
We take reuge in the Tathagata Amitabha. Be it thus: that
Immortality has become, that Immortality has perectly become,
that Immortality has progressed, that Immortality is progressing,
going forward in the glorious Transcendental Way-Swaha!
According to the Venerable Bhikkhu, the above translation
is ony approximate because it is impossible to put into words
the esoteric meanng of mantras. It is said that when a devotee
succeeds in realizing sigleness of mind by repeating a mantra,
its profound meaning w be clearly revealed to hm.
3 The Contemplation of Amitayus Buddha
We now translate the Sitra of the Contemplation of Amitayus,
which teaches sixteen methods of meditation leading to the
realzation of either one of the followig nine stages of re
birth i the Pure Land of Amitabha:
r-3. The high, medium and low stages of the superior class
of birth;
4-. the high, medium and low stages of the middle class of
7-9 the high, medium and low stages of the inferior class
of birth.
{Kua Wu Liang Shou Chig)
Thus have I heard. Once upon a time, the Buddha sojoured on Grdhraia
{Vuture) mountain, near Ragrha {city), with a assembly of twelve
hundred and fty bhilus and a company of thrty-two thousad Bodhi
sattvas under the leadership of Maijusri, a son of the Dharmaraja (Kng of
the Law).
At the time, in Rajagrha (city) prince Ajatasatru,1 encouraged by his evi
frend Devadatta,2 arrested his ow father, king Bimbisara, and held him in
a room inside a sevenfold enclosure, where al the ministers and ofcials
were forbidden to go. The queen, Vaideh, sered the king with great
respect and, after bathg him, aointed his body with an ointment made of
cream and roast rice powder and ofered him grape-juice i a jade vessel.
After taking the grape-juice, the king rinsed his mouth, tured towards
Grdhraki mountain, brought his two palms together and knelt dow to
pay i the distance his reverence to the World Honoured One, saying:
'May my relative and friend Maudgalaputra3 be compassionate enough to
teach me the eight prohibitions.'4
Thereupon, Maudgalaputra went to the palace with the speed of a fying
eagle; ad thus every day, he came to teach the eight prohbitions to the
king. The World Honoured One also ordered Piamaitrayaliputra6 to
expoud the Dharma to the king. Thus thee weeks passed, durig which,
thans to the ointment, grape-juice and Dharma, the prisoner contiued to
look cheerful. (One day), prince Ajatasatru asked the door-keeper: 'Is the
king still alive!' The door-keeper replied: '(Each day) the queen anoints
hm with an ointment of roast rice powder and gives him grape-uice in a
jade vessel. The two mons, Maudgalaputra and Piamaitrayalputra, fy
every day to expoud the Dharma to him. I regret nothg can be done to
prevent them.' When Ajatasatru heard this, he was enraged and said: 'My
mother is just a bandit, keepig company with another bandit, and the
mons are wicked men using unorthodox mantras to help this wicked king
escape from death for so long.' After sayig this, he drew his sharp sword
wth the intention of killg his mother.
Moon-light, an iteligent and wise minster, and Jiva6 made obeisance
to the prce and said: 'Your Majest, we have read in the Vedas that from
I. Ajatsat: kg of Magadha who kled his father to ascend to the throne. At
fst hostle to the Buddha, later he was convered and became noted for liberalty.
z. A cousin of the Buddha, of whom he was an enemy and rival.
3 Or Maha-maudgalyayana, one of the ten chief disciples of the Buddha, especi
aly noted for his miraculous power.
4 Prohibitions against (1) kling, (z) stealing, (3) sexual intercourse, (4) lying,
(5) intoxicating liquors, (6) using garlands or perfumes for personal adornment,
singing and dancing, (7) sitting and sleeping on luxurious beds, and (8) eating after
5 Or MaitrayaQputra, son of Bhava by a slave girl; he was the chief preacher
among the ten great disciples of the Buddha.
6. Or ]vaka, son of Bimbisara by the concubine lapi, noted for his medical
te begin ng of ths aeon, there have been 108,ocases of prices usurpig
te throne by ki ng thei royal fathers but no price has murdered his
mother the queen. I you now commit t rebellious act which wil brng
dsgrace upon the katriya (royal) caste, we cannot bear to wimess tis
lowest ad most despicable of acts. We must leave.' The two msters
then grasped their swords and began to withdraw. Ajatasatru was as
touded and scared, and said to Jiva: 'Are you going to desert mel' Jiva
replied: 'Your Majesty should be very careful not to k your mother.' At
t, Ajataatru, now i deep remorse, put away his sword and gave up the
idea of murderig h mother. He then ordered a court ofcial to confne
her i an inner courtyard ad to forbid her to leave it.
As Queen Vaidehi was now a prisoner, her heart was full of sadness ad
anety, and turg towards Grdhakita mountain, she kelt down ad
fom the distace, said to the Buddha: '0 Tathagata, the World Honoured
One used to send .ada to comfort me. I am now very sad and wil have
no chace of seeing the World Honoured One agai. Please send Maud
galaputra and .ada to come and console me.' Then she wept bitterly and
te tears ran dow her cheeks; she bowed upon her knees, but even before
she raised her head, the World Honoured One who was on Grdhrakita
mountain and knew the queen' s thoughts as they rose i her mind, ordered
Maudgalaputra and .anda to fy to comfort her. The Buddha also left
the moutain and appeared in the palace. When the queen looked up,
she saw the golden body of the World Honoured One, seated on a hundred
gemmed lotus, with Maudgalaputra on His left and .anda on His right,
while the guardians of the Dharma, including Indra and Brahma, ofered
celestial fowers which rained from the heavens. She thew away her neck
lace of precious stones, cast herself at His feet, wept and cried out, saying: '0
World Honoured One, what sin have I committed to be given ths wicked
sonl World Honoured One, what causes led to my becomg a relative
of Devadattl Please tell me of a place free from troubles and afictions,
where I can be rebor, because I do not like this impure earth (Jambudvipa)
where there are so many hells, hungry ghosts and animals which are al
ev. May I not hear wicked voices and see evil people i future ! I now
tow myself at the feet of the World Honoured One and beg for a chance
to repent and reform. May the Buddha teach me every day how to look
where there is ony pure and clean karma!'
Thereupon, the World Honoured One sent out from beteen His eye
brows a radiant ray of golden light which lit up an icalculable number of
worlds i the ten directions and then retured to the top of His head where
it tued into a golden tower le mount Sumeru, wherei the mysterious
Pue Lands of Buddhas in the ten directions appeared. Some of these
Budd lands were made either of the seven precious gems or of lotus
fowers; some were lie the heavens of Ivaradeva while others resembled
crstal mrrors refectg a the worlds in the ten direction. When queen
Vadehi saw these countless Buddha lands, she said: 'World Honoured
One, although these Buddha lads are pure ad bright, I hope to be bor
i Amtabha Buddha's Real of Bliss. Wi the World Honoured One
teach me how to control my thoughts so as to realize the right samadhi (for
t rebih)?'
Thereupon, the W odd Honoured One sent out from Hs mouth rays of a
fve coloured lght which lit up the top of king Bimbisara's head. Although
the kg was shut up, his mind's eye was not obstructed and, in te distace,
he beheld the W odd Honoured One. He then bowed hs head to pay
reverence to H, and thus makg spiritual progress, he realized the
aagami stage.1
The W odd Honoured One then said to Vaidehi: 'Know you not that
Amitabha Buddha is not distantl2 Fix your md on and contemplate his
realm which i the produce of pure deeds. I will now use expedients to give
you ful instrcon, ad also for the beneft of those in the comg genera
tons who wish to act purely so that they can be bor in the Wester Realm
of Blss. Those seeking rebirth i that Buddha's land should practise three
kd of blessed vues. Firstly, they should fulfl their fa duties by tang
good care of their parents, obey their teachers, be kind (to others), refrain
fom klg and perform the ten good deeds.3 Secondly, they should
prace the three formulas of refuge (in Buddha, Dharma and Sangha),
keep a precepts ad refrai fom breaking the rules of discipline. Thdly,
they should develop the bodh mid, believe in the law of causality, read
ad recite te Mahayanf sitras ad encourage practisers (of Dharma).
These are pure deeds.''
The Buddha continued: 'You should know that these three virtues are
te dec causes of the pure deeds of a Buddhas of the past, present and
The Buddha then said to Aanda and Vaidehi: 'Listen carefuly and give
serous thought to what the Tathagata is telng you about these pure deeds
for the beneft of a living beings who wl sufer from troubles (klda) in
the comng generations. It is good that you, Vaidehi, have asked about this.
Ad you, Aanda, should keep these words of the Buddha and spread them
x. Anagamn: the stge of a 'non-returng' arhat who will not be reborn in this
world, but i heaven where he will attain to nirvala.
z. See also Ch'an and Zen Teaching, Third Seres, the Altar Sitra of the Sixth
Patirch, chapter III, Queres.
3 The ten good deeds are strict observance of the ten prohibitions against klling
stealing, carality, lying, double-tongue, coarse language, flthy language, covetous
ness, anger and pervered views.
4 These words of the Buddha refute the groundless contention that sitras and
ia cn be dispensed with in the practice of the Supreme Vehicle.
wdely. I wl now teach Vaideh and also a living beings i coming
generations how to contemplate the Wester Realm of Blss so that,
with the aid of the Buddha's (transcendental) powers, they wil behold that
Pue Land as easily as they can see their ow faces in a mirror. After they
have experienced the wonderful blss of that land, they wil be fed with
joy ad wil reale te patient endurace of the ucreate.'1
The Buddha then said to Vaidehi: 'Your worldly (faculty of ) thg is
inferior and since you have not realized divine sight, 1 you are unable to see
(things) from a distance. (But) all Buddhas have wonderful expedients
whch can cause you to see clearly.' Vaidehi said: 'World Honoured One,
by means of the Buddha's transcendental powers, I have been able to see
that Land, but after the Buddha's nirvJa, how can impure and pererted
lving beings who are subject to the fve forms of sufering2 perceive
Amitabha Buddha's Realm of BliSSI' The Buddha replied: 'You and all
living beings should concentrate your minds pointedly on the sole thought
of the West. What does "thought" mean! It means that all livig beigs are
not bor blind and all those who have eyes can see the setting sun. You
should give rise to a thought of it, sit erect with your face towards the
west, and direct your mind pointedly to where the sun usually sets like a
hanging (red) drum. After you have succeeded in visualizing it, it should be
clearly visible whether you open or close your eyes. This is visualization
of the sun and is caled the First Contemplation.'3
'Next visualize pure and limpid water which should be clearly seen and
absolutely still. After beholding water, visualize ice which should be clear
and transparent. After seeing ice, visualize crystal. Then visualize the
I. Deva eye: divine sight, unlimited vision.
:. The fve forms of sufering in each of three categories:
a. ( I ) Birth, age, sickness and death; (2) parting with those loved; (3) meeting
the hated and disliked; (4) inabity to satisfy one's desires; and (5) mental and
physical sufering from the fve aggregates.
b. Birth, age, sickness, death and fetters.
c. Sufering in the fve realms of hels, hungry ghosts, animals, asuras and
human beings
3 This frst contemplation is easy to achieve and he who practises it seriously will
have no difculty in beholding the settng red sun which is a very pleasing sight, but is
usualy followed by profuse perspiration.
groud as crystal whch should be really transparent and below it, suppor
ing fagstafs made of diamonds and seven other gems. Each fagstaf is
octagonal, with a hundred gems on each side. Each gem emts a thousand
rays of light. Each ray has 84,000 colours and lights up the crysta groud,
thus revealing myriads of suns which are too numerous to be all seen.
The crystal ground is bounded by a golden rope adored with seven gems
each of whch emits fve hundred coloured lights which look like a fower,
a star or a moon hanging i the air. They form a radiant tower with tens
of thousands of upper chambers each made of a hudred gems. The sides
of the tower are ornamented with a hundred lacs1 of fagstafs and countless
musical istruments, played by eight clear breezes produced by these bright
lghts, and proclaimng {the doctrine of ) "sufering, ureality, impermanence
and absence of ego". This is visuazation of water and is the Second
'When the (above) contemplation has been achieved, the visualization
should be clearly seen whether you open or close your eyes, and should be
constantly kept in your mind except when you sleep. Ths is a coarse view
of the Realm of Blss. 2 If you succeed in realizing the state of samadhi, you
will perceive very clearly that Realm which it is impossible to describe
fully. 3 This is visualization of the Ground and is the Thrd Contemplation.'
The Buddha said to Aanda: 'Keep these words of the Budda; for the
beneft of those of comig generations who wish to escape from suf erings,
teach them ths method of visualizing the groud. He who achieves it wi
be rid of samsaric sins committed in eighty lacs of aeons and when he dies,
he will be rebor in the Pure Land about which he wil no longer have
doubt. This contemplation is right and any other is wrong.'
The Buddha then said to Ananda and Vaidehi: 'After achieving this con
templation of the Ground, you should visualize its jewelled trees. They
should be seen clearly in seven lines {or avenues), each tree reaching the
height of eight thousand yojanas.4 These trees have their seven gemmed
I. Lac or lakh: a hundred thousand.
2. This is still the realm of relativities.
3 This is the realm of the absolute.
4 Described as a distance covered by a royal day's march for the army.
leaves and fowers, each leaf and fower being of di erent colours. I (each
leaf or fower) is made of lapis lazuli, it emits a ray of golden light, if of
crystal, a ray of red light. If it is made of corelian, it emits a ray of agate
light, if of agate, a ray of pearl-green light. Above these trees are pearl nets
adored with coral, amber and all other gems. Above each tree, there are
seven layers of nets. Each net contains fve hundred lacs of beautiuly
decorated palaces like those of Braha and each has its complement of
youths. Each youth wears necklaces of fve hundred lacs of mali pearls,
which light up the land for a hundred yojanas, and the whole thing re
sembles an indescribable mass of myriads of bright suns and moons. These
gems are mixed together and their colours are incomparably beautiful. The
lnes of jeweled trees are in perfect order and so are their leaves. Amidst
these leaves are beautiful fowers above which are seven gemmed fruits.
Each leaf is twenty yojanas long and wide and has a thousand colours and a
hundred ribs, similar to the necklaces of the gods (devas). These beautiful
fowers are of the colour of the Jambi river's gold and look lie turng
torches shining amidst the leaves and producing fruits which resemble
the vase of Sakra.1 There is (also) a great light which produces banners and
countless canopies. Inside each canopy can be seen all the Buddha works
(of salvation) in al the worlds of the great chliocosm and all the Buddha
lands in the ten directions. When these trees appear, they should be dis
tinctly contemplated, one by one, with their trunks, branches, leaves,
fowers and fruits which should be clearly visible. Ths is visualization of
trees and is the Fourth Contemplation.'
'Next visualize merit-giving water. In the Realm of Bliss, there are eight
pools, and the water of each consists of seven gems in liquid form, be
gotten by the royal mali pearl.2 The water of each pool fows into fourteen
channels, each of which has the beautiful colours of the seven gems, with a
golden gutter and a bed of diamond sands. In each pool, there are sity lacs
of seven gemmed lotus, each being perfectly round and twelve yojanas
(across). Its pearly water fows amidst the lotus, rising and falling between
their stals and producing mysterious voices which proclaim the (doctrine
of) sufering, unreality, impermanence and absence of ego, tell of the various
perfections (paramita) and praise the physical marks and excellent charac
teristics of Buddhas. The royal mal pearl emits wonderful rays of golden
lght which tur into multi-coloured jewelled birds which melodiously
1. The vase of Sakra, from which come all thigs required by him.
2. CintamaQi: a fabulous gem, responding to every wish.
sing praise to the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. Ths is visualization of the
eight pools of merit-giving water ad is the Fifth Contemplation.'
'I this Real of precious gems, there are overhead fve hundred lacs of
precious palaces, with upper chambers wherein countless devas play
heaveny music. Musical instrument hang in the a, lie heavenly fag
stafs, producing voices that proclai the Buddha, Dharma ad Sangha.
The realzation of this vision is called the coarse view of the Realm of Bliss
(with its) precious trees, ground and pools. This complete visuaation is
called the Sixth Contemplation. He who acheves it, rids hself of the
most evi karmas formed in coutless lacs of aeons and w, at hs death,
be rebor i that Lad. Such a contemplation is right and any di erent one
is wrong.'
The Budda then said to Ananda and Vaidehi: 'Listen carefully and give
serious thought to what I now tel you about how to escape from troubles
and afctions so that you can remember and expound it widely to others.'
As the Buddha was speakg, Amitayus appeared i the ai, fanked by the
to attendant Bodsattvas, i a mass of brightness whch was so vast that
it could not be seen completely and outshone the hundreds and thousands
of briliant gold pieces in the Jambi river.
Upon seeing Amitayus, Vaidehi prostrated herself with her head at the
feet of the Buddha, sayig: 'World Honoured One, thaks to the Budda's
transcendental powers, I can now behold Amitayus with the two attendant
Bodhisattvas. What should living beings of future generations do in order
to see them!' The Buddha replied: 'He who wishes to behold that Buddha,
should visualize a lotus on the seven gemmed ground. Each of its petals is
of the colour of a hundred gems and has 84,000 veins which seem to have
been drawn by the devas and send out 84,000 rays of light whch make them
clearly visible. Each smal petal is two hundred and fty yojanas long and
wide and each lotus has 84,000 such petals. Each petal is adored with a
hundred lacs of ra pearls and each pearl emts a thousand rays of lght.
These lights form an umbrella which seems to be made of seven precious
gems and whch covers the whole ground. The seed case (of the lotus) is
surrounded by and adorned with a net of 8o,ooo gems, such as diamonds,
rubies (kirua), cintam and beautiful pearls. From the seed case rise
four precious fagstafs, each of whch looks lke a hundred, a thousad, ten
thousand ad a hundred thousand mout Sumerus, with at the top of each, a
precious tent simiar to (that of ) Yama's heaven,1 and adorned with fve
hundred lacs of precious pearls. Each pearl emits 84,000 rays of light, each
ray having the same number of golden colours. These golden lights pene
trate everywhere and tur ito various forms and shapes, such as diamond
seats, nets of pearl and clouds of mxed fowers appearing in the ten
directions and performg the Buddha works. Ths is visualaton of te
lotus seat and is caled the Seventh Contemplation.'
The Buddha then said to Aad: 'This lotus i te crystallation of
Bhku Dharmakara's former vows, and those thing of that Buddha
shoud frst visualize his lotus seat. When so doig they should refrain fom
contemplatig anything else. I this visualization, every leaf every gem,
every ray of lght, the lotus seat and each fagstaf should be clearly visible
as when one sees one's own face in a mirror. Realization of this vision wi
eradicate a karmic sis committed in ffty thousand lacs of aeons and wi
ensure rebirth i the Realm of Blis. Such a contemplation is right whereas
ay other is wrong.'
The Buddha then said to Ananda and Vaidehi: 'After seeing all ths, one
should thi of that Buddha (Amitayus). Why1 Because the Buddha
kayas of al Tathagatas are but the Dharmadatu which contains and per
vades the thg minds of all living beings. Therefore, when the mnd is
set on thinkig of (that) Buddha, it is identical with the thrty-two physical
marks and eighty excellent characteristics (of a Nirm3aya-Buddha),
because Mind realizes Buddahood; Mid is Buddha; and the Buddha's
ocea of unversal knowledge comes from Mind's thought. Therefore, one
shoud concentrate one's mind exclusively on contemplating that Buddha
(as) Tathagata, Arhat and Samyak-sambuddha.2
'When contemplating that Buddha, the frst step is to visualize hs
precious golden image seated on a lotus (unti) one beholds it with either
open or closed eyes. When ths image is seen, the mind's eye will open ad
wil see clearly the Realm of Bliss with its seven gemmed groud, precious
I. Yama heaven, or Yamaloka, the third devaloka, the place where the season are
always good.
2. The frst three of the ten titles of a Buddha: (1) Tathigata is he who came as dd
all Buddhas, who took the absolute way of cause and efect and attained to perfec
wisdom; one of the highest titles of a Buddha; (2) Arhat is he who overcomes
morlity; the second title of a Buddha and (3) Samyak-sambudda is he who hs per
fect universal knowledge; the thrd title of a Buddha.
pools and avenues of precious trees, covered by heavenly jewelled tents,
with nets of gems fil g the whole of space. This visualization should be as
clearly visible as one's own hand.
'Mter achievig this contemplation, visualze another great lotus,
identical with the frst one, on the left of the Buddha and then another
identical one on his right, then the image of A valokitdvara of the same
golden hue (as the Buddha), seated on the left lotus and then the image of
Mahasthama on the right lotus. After ths has been visualized that Buddha
and the two attendant Bodhisattvas send out rays of golden light which
il uminates a the precious trees. At the foot of each tree appear three
lotus with that Buddha and the two attendant Bodsattvas seated on them.
Thus the Realm of Bliss is fed with an uncountable number of lotus with
the three holy ones seated on them.
'When this visualization is achieved, the practiser wil hear the Profound
Dharma intoned by the fowing waters, rays of light, precious trees, wild
geese and mandarin ducks. Thus he will constantly hear the wonderful
Dharma whether or not he sits in meditation.1 At the end of hs con
templation, he should remember what he has heard during it and should
not stray from the Dharma whch should accord with the sitras.2 If it dis
agrees with the sitras, this (comes from) hs wrong thg and if it agrees,
this is a coarse form of meditation. 3 This seeing of the Realm of Bliss entails
the visualization of images and is called the Eighth Contemplation. It
elimiates karmc sins committed in countless former aeons and ensures
the practiser's realization in hs present bodily form of the samadi (due to)
poited concentration on the Buddha.'4
The Buddha then said to Ananda and Vaidehi: 'After achieving this con
templation, you should visualize the radiant body of Amitayus Buddha.
Ananda, you should know that his body is coloured like the pure gold in a
hundred, a thousand, ten thousand and a hundred thousand Y amalokas
(making a pile reaching the height of ) as many yojanas as there are sand
I. Lit. whether he enters into meditation or comes out of it.
2. Here the contemplation taught by the Buddha is the corect one, and if the
Dharma heard by the practiser does not accord with the sutras, this shows that the
practiser gives rise to discrimination and so strays from right concentration; hence the
heterodox doctrine arising in his mind in contrast with the profound Dharma.
3. Meditation in its coarse aspect.
4 This samadhi results either from the above visualzation or from constnt
repettion of the Buddha's name until singleness of mind is achieved.
grais in six hundred thousand lacs of nayutas1 of Ganges rvers. The whte
hair between his eyebrows2 curls fve times to the right lie fve mount
Sumerus. His eyes are le the water of four oceans with the blue and white
clearly distinguishable. The pores of hs body send out rays of light as great
as mount Sumeru. The halo (round his head) contains a hundred lacs of
great chiliocosms, wherein appear Nirma!akaya Buddhas as many as there
are sandgrais in a milon lacs of nayutas of Ganges rivers. Each Nir
m:akaya Buddha has a folowing of countless Trasformation Bodhi
sattvas sering him. Amitayus Buddha has 84,000 (physical) marks; each
mark has 84,000 excellent characteristics; each characteristic sends out
84,000 rays of light; and each ray of lght ilumines and attracts to it a
living beigs in al the worlds in the ten drections who (earestly) th of
him. The radiant marks and characteristics of these Nima!akaya Buddhas
cannot be detaied, but the meditator should just keep (the visualzation) i
mind and remember it so that his mid's eye wi (ultimately) see them.
When ths is acheved, he wil behold all the Buddhas in the ten diections.
When al the Buddhas are seen, it is caled the samadhi of pointed concen
tration on the Buddha. This visualization is called contemplation of all
Buddhakayas. As the Buddakaya is seen, so is the Buddha's mind, by
which is meant the great kidness (maitri) and compassion (karu!a) which
consist in the uncaused merciful reception of living beings. This con
templation ensures, at the end of one's present life, rebirth in front of all the
Buddas, with realization of the patient endurance of the uncreate. Wise
men therefore should concentrate their minds on the contemplation of
Amtayus Buddha, which consists in frst visualizing a single mark, that is
the white curl between his eyebrows until it is clearly seen. When this is
achieved, all the 84,000 marks appear. When Amitayus Buddha is beheld,
countless Buddhas in the ten directions wil be perceptible. Because count
less Buddhas arc beheld, they wil come to predict the future attainment (of
the practiser). Ths is the all-mbracing visualization of the bodiy forms (of
al Buddhas) and is called the Ninth Contemplation. Such a contemplation
is rght whereas any other is wrong.'
The Buddha then said to Ananda and Vaidehi: 'After clearly beholding
Amitayus Buddha, one should visualize Avalokitdvara Bodhisattva whose
golden body reaches the height of 8oo,ooo lacs of nayutas of yojanas, with a
feshy lump on the top of his head3 and a halo round his neck. Hs face,
1. Nayuta: a number, roo,ooo or one milon or ten mi ion.
2. White curl or irta, one of the thiry-two signs of a Buddha.
3. U(a, one of the thirty-two physical marks of a Buddha.
feshy lump and halo are each a hundred and a thousand yojanas high.
Within the halo, there are fve hundred Nirmakaya Buddas who look
le Sakyamuni Buddha. Each Nirmalakaya Buddha has a folowing of
fve hundred transformation Bodhisattvas together with an incalculable
number of devas who serve him.
'The body of Avalokite5vara Bodisattva sends out rays of light i which
al lving beings in the fve worlds of exstence appear. His deva crown is
made of mali pearls, in each of which stands a Nirmakaya Buddha whose
body is twenty-fve yojanas high.
'The Bodhsattva's face is of golden hue and between his eyebrows a
curl of seven colours emits rays of
4,000 kinds of lght. Inside each ray
there is a countless number of Nirmakaya Buddas. Each Buddha is su
rounded by an incalculable number of Transformation Bodisattvas who
sere him and reproduce at Wathe transformations that m the world
i the ten directions.
'The (two) arms of the Bodsattva are red lie a lotus and adored with
bracelets whose majesty is revealed by eight lacs of beautiful rays of light.
'The Bodisattva's palms are coloured lie fve hundred lacs of many
hued lotus. Each fnger tip has
4,000 lnes as (clear as) uthey had been
printed thereon. Each line has
4,000 hues each of which sends out
rays of soft lght which ilumine everything. With these precious hands he
receives and delvers living beings.
'When the Bodhisattva raises his foot, its sole is seen to be marked wit a
wheel of a thousand spokes which tur into fve hundred lacs of shing
towers. When he lowers it, lotus made of mal pearls are scattered every
where and m the whole realm. The other marks and characteristics of m
body are identical with those of the Buddha, except that the feshy lump on
te top of his head and the smallness of his brow cannot be compared to
tose of the World Honoured One. Ths is the vsualization of the body
form of Avalokite5vara Bodisatta and is called the Tenth Contem
The Buddha then said to Ananda: 'He who wishes to vsualize Avalo
kte5vara Bodhisattva should make this contemplation. He who does so,
vescape from acalamities, rid himself of karmic obstructions and wipe
out z mortal sins committed i countless aeons. Just to hear this Bodh
sattva's name wins boundless blessings; how much more so does con
templatig upon him. This contemplation begins with visualizing the
feshy lump on his head, then his heaveny crown and then gradualy his
other physical marks until he is seen as clearly as the palm of one's ow
had. Such a contemplation is right whereas any other is wrong.
'Next visualize Mahasthama (or Mahasthamaprapta) Bodhisatta whose
body is the same size as that of Avalokitcvara. His face and halo are ech
twent fve yojanas hgh and send out rays of light for two hundred ad
mQyojanas. His radiant body illumies z contients in the ten directions
and those living beings having causal aties wth him can behold m
golden body. He who sees only a ray of light coming from one of hi pores,
W behold the pure light of boundless Buddhas in the ten drection;
hence, this Bodhisattva's name of "Boundless Light". As he ues the light of
wisdom to illumine z living beings and to lead them out of the three
lower realms (of hungry ghosts, anmals and hells) so that they can acqure
unsurpassed powers,1 he is called the Bodhsattva whose power of wisdom
reaches everywhere (Mahasthamaprapta). His heaveny crown conists of
fve hudred precious lotus, everyone of which has fve hundred precious
towers. Inside each tower appear z the wondrous Pure Lands i the ten
directions, with Buddhas revealg their broad and long red tongues. a The
feshy lump on the top of his head is lie a red lotus with, above it, a precious
vase of all kinds of light revealg all the Buddha works. 3 His other physical
marks are identical with those of A valokitcivara. When he walk, a the
worlds i the ten directions shake, and wherever the tremor is felt, fve
hundred lacs of precious lotus appear, each as majestic as te Real of
Bliss. When he sits, the seven gemmed ground shakes and from the lower
land of the Golden Light Buddha to the upper land of the Buddha of Glory,
a countless dust-like number of Transformation Alitayus Buddhas, each
with A valokitcivara and Mahasthama, gather i the Realm of Blss ad m
the whole space, seated on their lotus seats and proclaiming the Profound
Dharma to deliver sufering people. This is the visualization of Mahathama
Bodhisattva or the contemplation of his bodily form ad i called the
Eleventh Contemplation which roots out mortal sins comlited in count
less endless aeons (asanya). He who so contemplates w never abide
again in the womb and walways enjoy mwals i te Pue Lad of M
the Buddhas.'
'By the above successful visualization, the practiserwil have acheved (what
is) caled the complete contemplation of the two attendnt Bodsattas,
I. e.g. to eradicate miseries.
2. One of the thry-two marks of a Buddha; this tongue is big enough to cover
hs face to prove that his words are true and not deceitful.
3. Of delivering livng beings.
A valoktcvara and Mahasthama. Then one should give rse to a wish
for rebirth i the Wester Realm of Bliss where one will fnd oneself
seated with crossed legs withi a lotus, the fower of which then opens
and closes. When it opens rays of fve hundred coloured lights illumie
one's body. Then one visualizes one's own eyes tat open and the (count
less) Buddhas and Bodhsattvas flling the whole space with waters, birds,
trees, groves and the voices (of these Buddhas) proclaimig the Profound
Dharma which accords with the teachg in the twelve divisions of the
Tripi!aka. If after this meditation,1 one can presere it, this is the vision of
Amitayus' Realm of Bliss. This is its complete visualization and is called the
Twelfth Contemplation. Amitays Buddha (will then tur into) a bound
less number of Nirm:akaya Buddhas and will, with Avaloktcivara and
Mahasthama, always come to the meditator's dwelg place.'
The Buddha then said to Aanda and Vaideh: 'He who i determied to be
rebor in the Wester Realm should frst visuae a siteen-foot image
(of Amitabha Buddha) above a pool as described earlier, for it is impossible
for the worldling's mind to reach the boundless body of Amitayus Buddha.
However, because of the powerful vows taken in a former lfe by that
Tathagata, those who think of and concentrate on him wilhave thei wishes
answered. Even mere visualzation of hs image can result in boundless
blessings; how much more so contemplation of his complete Buddha
kayal Amitabha Buddha, by means of his transcendental powers, can re
produce at will his Nirm:akayas in the ten directions, either appearig i
a boundless body f g the whole of space or in a small one, eight or six
teen feet high. The golden body, halo and lotus seat of his transformation
body have been described earlier. As to Avolak.tcivara and Mahasthama,
thei bodies are alike but can be distinguished by looking at their heads.
These to Bodhsattvas assist Amitabha Buddha to convert and deliver all
living beings. This is a multiple visualization and is called the Thteenth
I. Lit. 'If after coming out of this stil condition'.
2. Before his Ch'an practice, Master Han Shan succeeded in visualizg the te
Saints of the Western Realm of Bliss when he began his mental concentaton on
them. See p. 76.
(a) The hgh stage of the Superior Class of Birth
The Buddha then said to Ananda and Vaidehi: 'The high stage of the
superior class of birth (in the Realm of Bliss) is attainable by those who, in
their quest for rebirth there, develop three kinds of mnd: the truthul mind,
the profound mind and the md fxed on the vow to devote all one's
merits to being rebor there. He who develops these three kinds of mnd is
bound to be bor in that Pure Land.
'There are also thee classes of living beings who wil be rebor there,
namely: he who refrains from kilig because of his compassionate heart and
who observes all the other prohbitions; he who reads and recites (i.e.
practises) Vaipulya and Mahayana sitras; and he who does not stray from
the six kinds of thought1 and devotes all the merits derived therefrom to his
rebirth in that Realm of Blss. The accumulation of al these merits ensures
hs rebirth there withn one to seven days, and because of his intense zeal
and devotion, the Tathagata Amitabha will, together with his two attendant
Bodhisattvas, A valokitdvara and Mahasthama, an incalculable number of
Nirmaiakaya Buddhas, hundreds and thousands of devotees including
bhikus and sravakas and countless heavenly palaces made of the seven gems
wil (appear to) welcome him. Avaloktdvara Bodhisattva, holdig a
diamond seat, wi come with Mahasthama Bodhsattva in front of hm.
Amitabha Budda will send out rays of great light to illume his body
whle he and the Bodhsattvas (present) will extend their hands to receive
him. Then Avaloktdvara and Mahasthama and countless Bodhisattvas will
praise and comfort the practiser who, on seeing them, feels great joy and
(suddenly) fmds himself riding in the diamond seat which then follows that
Buddha; in a fnger-snap, he wil be rebor in the Realm of Bliss.
'At his birth there, he will behold that Buddha and a Bodhisattvas in
their completely perfect bodily forms, while the radiant precious groves
proclaim the Profound Dharma. After hearing it, he wil realize the patient
endurance of the uncreate and, in an instant, he will be able to sere all the
Buddhas in the ten directions. After receiving their predictions of his future
attainment, he will retur to his Realm (of Bliss) where he wlimmediately
understand an incalculable number of dharali doors (to enghtenment).
This is the high stage of the Superior Class of Birth.'
(b) The medium stage of the Superior Class of Bith
'The medium stage of the Superior Class of Birth is attaiable by one who,
wthout studying the V aipulya sitras, understands ver wel the path of
I. The six thoughts of Buddha, Dharma, Sangha, discipline (il), charty (dana)
and heaveny happiness.
truth, whose mind remains unshakeable in the Supreme Reality, who has
deep faith in the law of causality, who does not criticize the Mahayana
and who devotes al the merits thus accumulated to hs rebirth i the Realm
of Bliss. When he is about to die, Amtabha Budda, fanked by the two
attendant Bodisattas, A valokitcvara ad Mahasthama, with thei count
less followers, wl come with a golden seat to praise h, sayng: "Son of
Dharma,1 because of your practice of the Mahayana and your understanding
of Supreme Realty, I now come to receive you." (Thereupon), together
wth thousands of Nirmaakaya Buddhas, they extend their hands to wel
come hm, and he wil fnd hself seated on the golden seat, and wl
bring his two palms together, with crossed fngers, praising all the Buddhas.
I the time of a thought, he will be bor in that Realm, seated on that seat,
above a seven gemmed pool. Ths seat is lie a great precious lotus whch
will open the following day. Hs body will be golden hued and under each
of his feet there will be a seven jewelled lotus. Then the Buddha and
Bodhsattvas will i umine him with rays of light which cause his eyes to
open. Because of his former practice, he will hear voices proclaimng the
very profound Supreme Reality. He will then descend from his golden
seat, put his two palms together, pay reverence to the Buddha and prase
the World Honoured One. With seven days, he will develop a u
fnchig faith in the unexcelled Universal Enghtenment (auttara
samyak-sambodhi) which wil enable hm to fy in the air and to go every
where in the ten directions to (revere and) sere all Buddhas under whose
teachng he w practise al knds of samadh. At the end of a small aeon
(atara-kalpa), he will realize the patient endurance of the uncreate ad wl
be told of hs future attainments.
Ths is the medium stage of the Superior Class of Birth.'
(c) The low stage of the Superior Class of Birth
'The low stage of the Superior Class of Birth is attainable by h who
beleves i the law of causality, refrains from criticiing the Mahaya,
determies to seek Supreme Tao and devotes all the merts tus accumu
lated to hs rebirth in the Realm of Bliss. When he is about to die, Amtabh
Buddha; fanked by his two attendant Bodhisattvas, Avaloktcivaa ad
Mahasthama, and followed by other Bodhisattvas, appears wth a golden
lotus and causes, with his transformation powers, fve hundred Nimaa
kaya Buddhas to come ad extend their hands to welcome and praise the
practser, saying: "Son of Dharma, as you live i purity and are deter
med to seek Supreme Tao, we now come to receive you." Upon behold
ing them, he wl fnd himself seated on the golden lotus which wl close
and follow the World Honoured One. He wl then be bor on a seve
1. Son of Dharma: a pracser of the Buddha Dharma.
gemmed pool, and ater a day and night, the lotus wl open. Seven days
later, he wl behold the Buddha, and although he sees him, the latter's
physical marks and excellent characteristics are stil dim and wi not
become clearly viible for twenty-one days. Then he wil hear voices pro
claiming the subtle Dharma and will be able to roam in the ten directions
to mae oferings to all Buddas, under whose guidance he wlhear about
the very Profound Dharma. Three small aeons later, he will be awakened to
the door to Correct Understanding of the Hundred Divsions of Pheno
mena1 and wil realize the stage of joy (pramudita).2 Ths is the low stage
of the Superior Class of Birth.'
'The above are (visualzations of ) the Superior Class of Birth and are
(jointly) called the Fourteenth Contemplation.'
(a) The hgh stage of the Middle Class of Birth
The Buddha then said to Ananda and Vaidehi: 'The high stage of the Middle
Class of Birth is attainable by him who receives and observes the fve
precepts, 8 keeps the eight commandments, 4 practises the other rules of
morality, does not commit the fve rebelous acts, is free from other faults
and devotes athe merits derived from these good roots to achieving his birth
in the Wester Realm ofBliss. When he is about to die, Amitabha Buddha,
wth his folowing of bhkus, wlsend out rays of golden lght to illume
te devotee's place of abode, teaching him the doctrine about sufering,
I. The hundred divisions of all mental qualities and their agents, classifed into fve
groups: (I) the eight consciousnesses; (2) the ffty-ne mental ideas; (3) the fve
physical organs and their six modes of sense; e.g. eye and form, etc.; (4) the twenty
four indefnities; and (5) the six inactive concepts.
2. The frst of the ten stges of a Mahayana Bodhisatva's development which are:
(I) pramudita, joy at having overcome all obstructions for present entry upon the
path to bodhi; (2) vimala, a state of purity free from all defement; (3) prabhakari,
appearance of the light of wisdom; (4) arcimati, glowing wisdom; (5) suduraya,
overcoming utmost difculties; (6) abhimukh, appearance of the absolute; (7)
diramgama, condition of immaterialty, beyond the worldly, sravaka and pratyeka
buddha states; (8) acala, state of immutability in the midst of changing phenomena;
(9) sadhumati, acquisition of the four unhindered powers of interpretation with
ability to expound all Dharma doors everyhere. The four unhindered Bodhisatva
powers of reasoning, or pratisarvid, are: (a) in the Dharma, the letter of the Law;
(b) artha, its meaning; (c) nirukti, form of expression and (d) pratibhana, in eloquence,
or pleasure in preaching; (Io) dharmamegha, the stage of Dharma clouds raing
amra to save living beings.
3 Prohibitions against klling, stealing, adultery, lying and intoxcatig liquor.
4 Agaist (I) killing, (2) stealing, (3) carnality, (4) lying, (5) drining we,
(6) personal adorments, singing and dancing, (7) sleeping and siting on luxurious
beds, and (8) eatg out of regulaton hours.
uealty, impermanence and absence of ego, and praising those who leave
their homes to escape from mseries. After seeing this, the practiser wi be
fled with joy and will fnd hmself seated on a lotus seat. He wil bring
hs two palms together and kneel to pay reverence to the Buddha and, even
before he raises his head, he is aleady bor in the Realm of Bliss where the
lotus will open. As it opens, he wil hear voices praising the Four Noble
Truths,1 and will realize arhatship, thus perfecting the three isights,2 the
si superatural powers3 and the eight forms of liberation.' Ths is the hgh
stage of the Middle Class of Birth.'
(b) The medium stage of the Middle Class of Birth
'The medium stage of the Middle Class of Birth is attainable by him who,
in a day and night, faultlessly observes the eight commandments, the ten
prohbitions of the sramalera,6 and the complete set of discipliary rules,6
does not fail to remain dignifed (when walking, standing, sitting and
lying) and devotes all the merits derived from his correct conduct to
realizig his birth i the Realm of Bliss. Being thus puried by the
fragrance of disciplie, when he is about to die, he will behold Amitabha
Budda, surrounded by his retiue, who will send out a ray of golden light
and will come with a seven jewelled lotus i front of the practiser. The
I. Catvariarya-satyani: sufering (dula) its cause (samudaya), its endig
(nirodha) and the way thereto (mirga). These four dogmas were frst preached by the
Buddha to his fve former ascetic companions, and those who accepted them in the
sravaka stage.
2. Insight into (r) the mortal condition of self and others in previous lives; (2) into
future lves, and (3) into present mortal suferings to put an end to al passions.
3 a<abhijii: (I) divine sight; (2) divine hearing; (3) knowledge of the minds of
al other living beings; (4) knowledge of all forms of previous existences of sel and
others; (5) power to appear at wil in any place and to have absolute freedom; and
(6) insight into the ending of the stream of birth and death.
4 Aravioka. the eight stages of meditation leading to (I) deliverance when
there is attachment to form by examination of form and realization of its fthiness;
(2) deliverance, when there is no attachment to form, by examination of form and
realiztion of its flthiness-these two are deliverance by meditation on impurity,
the next on purity; (3) deliverance by meditation on purity and realization of a state
free from desire; (4) deliverance in realization of boundless immateriality; (5) deliver
ance in realization of boundless knowledge; (6) deliverance in realization of nothg
ness; (7) deliverance in the state wherein there is neither thought nor absence of
thought; (8) deliverance in the state wherein the two aggregates, feelng (vedana) and
ideation (saijia) are entirely eliminated.
5 The ten commandments of the religious novice against (r) k g, (2) stealng,
(3) carnality, (4) lying, (5) drinking wine, (6) taking food out of regulated hours,
(7) using garlands or perfumes, (8) sitting and sleeping on luxurious beds, (9) takg
par in singing, dancing, musical or theatrical performances, and (Io) acquiig gold,
siver and jewels.
6. 250 for a monk and 50 for a nun.
latter wilhear a voice in the ai praisig h: "Virtuous man, as you hve
kept the Teachng of a the Buddhas of the three times, I now come to
receive you," and will fnd himself seated on the lotus. Then the lotus wl
close and he wl be rebor in the precious pool of the Realm of Bliss.
Seven days later, the lotus will open and he will open his eyes, bring his
two palms together and praise that Tathagata. He will hear about the
Dharma, wil be filed with joy and will attai the srota-apana stage,1 ad
half a aeon later, he wil realize arhatship.2 Ths is the medium stage of the
Middle Class of Birth.'
(c) The low stage of the Middle Class of Birth
'The low stage of the Middle Class of Birth is attaiable by a virtuous
man or woman who fulfs all f al duties and practises worldly com
passion. 3 When about to die, he or she will meet an enlightened teacher
who will tell him or her about the blissful conditions i the Real of
Amtabha Buddha and also about Bhiku Dharmakara's forty-ight vows.
After hearing this, that person will die and, i the short time that a strong
man (vira) takes to bend and stretch his arm, wil be bor i the Wester
Realm of Bliss where, seven days later, he or she will meet the two Bodhi
sattas, Avaloktdvara and Mahasthama, who will expound the Dharma to
the practiser. The latter wil be flled with joy and will attain the srota
apana stage. After the passing of a smal aeon, the devotee will reaze
arhatship. This is the low stage of the Middle Class of Birth.
'The above are the visualizations of the Middle Class of Birth and are
(jointly) caled the Fifteenth Contemplation.'
(a) The high stage of the Inferior Class of Birth
The Buddha then said to Ananda and Vaidehi: 'The high stage of the
Inferior Class of Birth is attainable by him who does not criticize the
Vaipulya sutras although he has created (other) evil karmas. In spite of his
stupidity and of his many evil actions, he is not ashamed of hs conduct.
(However) before he dies, he meets an enlightened teacher who tells him the
ttles of the sutras of the twelve divisions of the Mahayaa canon. Because
1. One who enters the stream of holy living, the frst stage of Hnayaa, that of a
2. A saintly man, the highest type or ideal saint in Hnayana in contrast wth a
Bodhisattva as the saint in Mahayana.
3. The conditoned compassion on earh, in contrast wii the uncused com
passion of the Bodhisatva.
he hears the names of the sitras, the evil efects of h actions committed i
a thousand aeons wil be wiped out. The teacher wil also instruct h to
join together his two palms with crossed fngers, and to call: "Namo
Amtabha Buddhaya!" By thus calng the Buddha's name, he will wipe
out the evi efects of samsaric sins committed in ffty lacs of aeons. There
upon, that Buddha will send a Nirma:akaya Budda who wil come with
two transformation Bodhisattvas, A valokitdvara and Mahasthama, i
front of that person to praise him: "Virtuous man, your calling the Buddha's
name has wiped out all your sins and I now come to welcome you." After
heag this, the practiser wl see his room flled with the light of the
Nirma:akaya Buddha. He will be fed with joy and wl pass away. He
wil fnd (himself) riding in a precious lotus and will follow that Buddha to
be bor in the precious pool. After forty-nie days, the lotus w open and
he wil behold the compassionate Avalokitdvara ad mighty Mahathama
who wil send out rays of light to illumine him. The two Bodhisattvas wl
expound the very profound Teaching of the twelve divisions of the Maha
yana canon. Upon hearig it, he wlbelieve and understand it, and will set
his md on the quest of Supreme Tao. Mter ten small aeons have passed,
he will be awakened to the Door to the correct iterpretation of the
hundred dvisions of phenomena and will enter upon the frst stage of
Bodisattva development. This i the hgh stage of the Inferior Class of
(b) The medium stage of the Inferior Class of Birth
The Buddha then said to Ananda and Vaideh: 'The medium stage of the
Inferior Class of Birth is attainable to him who, i spite of havig broken
both the fve and eight commandments and the complete set of rues of dis
ciplne; of his stupid usurpation of monastic property and theft of the
monks' personal possessions; and of his "unclea" preaching,1 without being
ashamed of the evi conduct that stains him, wl, when he is about to die
and ready to fall into hell as retribution for his bad karma and when the
fres of hell are already apparent, meet a leared teacher who takes pit on
h, teaches him the awe-ispiring ten powers (dasabala) of Amitabha
Buddha and the transcendental power of that Buddha's lght, and praises the
teachig of discipline, meditation, wisdom, liberation and knowledge of
liberation.2 The efect of what he thus hears wipes out his karmic sins i
eighty lacs of aeons, and the ferce fre of hell wil be transmuted into a cool
breeze that fans the heavenly lotus (causing) the appearace thereon of a
I. Preching of the Dharma, whether righdy or wrongly, from selsh and im
pure motives, e.g. for money or reputtion.
2. Paica-harmak ya, the fve attributes of the essential body of the Buddha. See
Ch'an and Zen Teaching, Thrd Series, The Altr Sitra of the Sith Patriarch.
Nimaaaya Buddha wth transformaton Bodhisattvas coming to receive
hm. In the fash of a thought, he wbe bor i a lotus i the seven gemmed
pool. After the passing of six aeons, the lotus w open and A valokitdvara
ad Mahasthama Bodhisattvas wil come to comort him with their deep
and resonant voice1 and to teach him the very profoud Mahayana sitras.
Mter hearing the Dharma, he wil be able to set his mind on the quest of
Supreme Tao. This is the medium stage of the Inferior Class of Birth.'
(c) The low stage of the Inferior Class of Birth
The Buddha then said to Ananda and Vaidehi: 'The low stage of the
Inferior Class of Birth is attainable by h who, i spite of his evi karma,
ad of h having committed the fve rebellous acts and broken the ten
commandments, the retributive efect of which should cause his fal into
the realms of mseries where he would endure endless sufering in many
aeons, will, when he is about to die, meet a leared teacher who wilcom
fort him, wilexplain the Profound Dharma to hm and will teach him how
to thi of the Buddha. As the man is sufering so much that he is i
capable of tg of Buddha, that teacher wil say: "If you cannot th
of Amitabha Buddha, you should cal hs name." Then by concentrating
on repeating aloud ten times: "Namo Amitabha Buddhaya!" he wil each
time cancel the efect of karmic sins committed in eighty lacs of aeons, and
w , when he is about to die, see a golden lotus similar to the (setting) sun
appear before him. In the fash of a thought, he wil be bor in the Rea of
Blss and wil stay (asleep) i the lotus for twelve great aeons. At the end of
this long period, the lotus wi open and he wil see Avalokitdvara and
Mahathama who w , wth their merciful voices, expound to him the
fudamental realty of al phenomena and teach him how to eradicate his
sis. After hearing ths, he wil be f ed with joy and will be able to develop
the bodhi mind. Ths is the low stage of the Inferior Class of Birth.
'The above are the visualzations of the Inferior Class of Birth and are
(joitly) called the Sixteenth Contemplation.'
Mter the Buddha had spoken these words, Vaideh and fve hundred
maids of honour beheld the immense Realm of Blss with (Amitabha) and
the two Bodhisattas. They were fled with joy and praised the remarkable
occurrence whch they had never witnessed before. Thereupon, they ex
perienced a great awakening and realzed the patient endurance of the
ucreate. The fve hundred maids developed the highest universal bodhi
mind and vowed to be bor in the Real of Bliss. The World Honoured
One then foretold their future realization, after thei birth i that Realm,
I. Lit. Brahman voice, pure, clear, melodious, deep and fr-reaching; one of the
thiry-two marks of a Buddha.
of the samadh for attaing the absolute (bhitatathata}.1 A countless number
of devas developed minds (set on) the quest of Supreme Tao.
Ananda then rose from hs seat and said: 'World Honoured One, what is
the name of this sitra; how should we receive and obsere the essentials of
its Dharma 1
The Buddha replied: 'It is the Sitra of the Contemplation of
Artayus Buddha and Avalokitdvara and Mahasthama Bodhisattvas in the
Realm of Bliss-also called the Sitra of the Eradication of karmc hindrance
for birth i the presence of all Buddhas-under which names you should
receive and obsere it, without allowig it to be forgotten. He who
reaes the (above) samadhi wil, in his present le, behold Artayus ad
hs two attendant Bodhsattvas. A virtuous man or woman who only hears
of their names is able to eradicate karmic sins i countless aeons; how much
more so i one who remembers and calls their names 1 You should know
that he who cals that Buddha's name, is a real white lotus fower (pll4a
ria}2 amongst men and the two Bodisattas wil be his best friends. He
wilsit in a Bodhimal4ala and will be born in the Family of Buddhas.'
The Buddha then said to Aanda: 'You should keep my words and to
keep them is to hold (in mind) the name of Artayus Buddha.'
Mter hearig this sermon, Maudgalaputra, Aanda and Vaideh were
fed with joy. Then the World Honoured One waled in the a to re
tur to Grdhraki! moutai.
Aanda then spread ths sitra widely and a countless number of
heavenly dragons (naga) and demons (yaka)3 who heard of it, were fled
with joy, paid reverence to the Buddha and withdrew.'
When I was young, I frst read the Diamond Sutra and then
the Sutra of Amtabha Buddha. Although I did not understand
the Diamond Sutra very well, I knew that its meang was very
profound and that if one put it into practice, one would be
bound to attain enightenment. Then I read the Sutra of
Amitabha Buddha but after only a few pages I was so shocked
that I put it aside for several years because I could not reconcile
the Enlightened One's Teachg of the absolute Buddha
nature inherent in every being with His description of the
Wester Realm of Blss which pertains to the region of
I. The sixh of the ten stges of Bodhisatta development.
2. An unexceled man.
J. Yak: a demon in the earh, air or lower heavens: they are crel and violent
and et human fesh.
4 Cf. C. G. Jung, Collected Works XI: Psychology and Religion: West and East,
p. 558, for his interestng commentry on the Sitra of Contempltion of Amitayus.
relativities. I caled on a Dharma master who, however, faied
to give satisfaction and it was only after I had read other
sitras, such as the Altar Sitra of the Sixth Patriarch, the Sitra
of Complete Enlightenment, the Mahaparinirvaa, A vatar
saka and Sirangama Sitras, etc., that I realized that the
Buddha was compelled to expound the Sitra of the Buddha
of Infte Light to those who were unable to be awakened to
the Absolute Reality but who, after developig an unshakeable
faith i Amitabha, would also be able to relinquish their earthy
attachments and to develop singleness of mind. Thus though
the means are diferent, the ultimate result is the same i both
Sitras, that is attainment of the pure, still and imperturbable
condition leading to enlightenment.
I the Sitra of the Contemplation of Amitayus Buddha
numbers such as 6, 8, 25, sao, 6oo, 8o,ooo, 84,000, etc., etc., are
symbolc and stand for the six consciousnesses, the eight dis
tresses, the eighteen realms of sense with the seven elements
that make a universe, the fve aggregates, the sixth conscious
ness, the alaya-vijiana or eighth consciousness, and the eighth
consciousness abiding in the illusory body of four elements;
that is space, whereas the zeros stand for time. These numbers
suggest relativities whch are sublmated by a trustful and pro
found mind, by a mid fxed on the vow for rebirth i the
Realm of Bliss, by observance of the rules of disciplin( and by
the accumulation of other concurrent merits. They are then
transmuted into the six thoughts of Buddha, Dharma, Sangha,
discipline, charity and blessings; the eight pools of merit
giving water or eight forms of liberation; a halo reaching a
height of twenty-fve yojanas; sao transformation Bodhi
sattvas or Nirma9akaya Buddhas; 6oo lacs of precious pearls;
8o,ooo gems and 84,000 kinds of lght or excellent bodily
Although the mind is now fxed on the Realm of Bliss
which is beyond birth and death, it is still i the region of
relativities. Hence, the Buddha said: 'This is only the coarse
view of the Realm of Bliss. If you succeed i realizing the state
of samadhi, you wil perceive very clearly that Real which
it is impossible fuy to describe.' Therefore, after a devotee's
birth in that Realm, he w meet either Amtabha Buddha or
the two attendant Bodhisattvas who wil teach him the right
Dharma and he w then realize Samadhi which w enable
hm to reach the region of the absolute which is inconceivable
and inexpressible.
Ananda and V aidehi were also urged to refrai from
visualizing diferently from that taught by the Buddha, be
cause He taught the correct meditation which put an end to
discrimination and discerning and because if the mind strays
from ths right contemplation, it w wander outside in
search of al mental states, will again abide in illusion and
falsehood and wbe bound to return to sarsara.
THE T'ien T'ai (Japanese, Tendai) school bases its tenets
maily on the Lotus Sutra and also on the Mahapcriirva
Sutra, Nagarjuna' s commentary on the 'Long Chapter' of the
Mahaprajfaparamita Sutra1 and his Madhyamia Sastra. For
this reason, Nagarjuna was regarded as the frst Patriarch of
the T'ien T'ai school.
When Hui Wen of the Pei Ch'i dynast (55078) read the
above commentary, he awakened to the profound meanig of
Nagarjuna' s words: 'The three wisdoms2 are realzable in the
One Mind.' He then read the Madhyamika Sastra and achieved
perfect insight ito the three aspects of the One Mid3 when
he came to the following gatha:
All things causally produced
I say are void,
I. Ta Chih Tu Lun, a commentary by Nagaruna on the 'Long Chapter' of the
Mahaprajfi aparamita Sitra.
2. The Three Wisdoms: sravaka and pratyeka-buddha wisdom, Bodhisattva
wisdom and Buddha wisdom. The T'ien T'ai school associates them with worldly
wisdom, supramundane wisdom and Supreme Wisdom.
3. Also caled the combined triple insight, the inconceivable triple insight and the
simultaneous triple insight whch is the meditative study of the T'ien T'ai school,
appropriate for those of high spirituality and derived from Nagaruna's commentary
on the 'Long Chapter' of the Maharprajfaparamita Sitra. It is a simultaneous insight
into the three aspects of the mind, i.e. insight into the void, the unreal and the Mean,
wthout passing through stages and accords with the Buddha's Teaching in the
Sitra of Complete Enlightenment. (See Ch'an and Zen Teaching, Third Series).
Are but false names
And alo indicate the Mean.
Hence, Hu Wen was regarded as the second Patriarch.
Hui Wen transmitted the Teaching to Hui Szu of Nan Yo
who became the thrd Patriarch.1 In one of his meditations,
Hui Szu realzed the Lotus Samadhi.2 He was the author of the
Ta Ch'eng Chih Kuan (the Mahayana's samatha-vipasyana).
The successor to Hui Szu was Chih I, also caled Chih Che,
who became the fourth Patriarch. 3 He also practised the
Lotus Samadhi and realized withn two weeks hs major
awakening. He was the author of many treaties of which the
Mo Ho Chih Kuan (Maha-samatha-vipasyana), the T'ung
Meng Chih Kuan (Samatha-vipasyana for Beginners) and the
Lu Miao Fa Meng (the Six Profound Dharma Doors) are the
most widely read in Chna. As he stayed and died on T'ien
T' ai mountain, 4 the school was named after the mountain.
The T'ien T'ai lieage continued with Kuan Tig as its
ffth Patriarch, Fa Hua, its sixth, T'ien Kung, its seventh, Tso
Ch'i, its eighth,5 Chan Jan, its ninth,6 and Tao Sui, its tenth
Patriarch7 whose Japanese disciple, Dengyo Daishi, itro
duced the Teachng to Japan in the nith century.
The T'ien T'ai teaching of meditation is the most compre
hensive of all and i order to acquaint readers with its methods
of practice, we present below versions of two of the treatises
by its fourth Patriarch, master Chih I, also caled Chih Che.
I. Died in 577
2. A state of samadhi wherein the meditator looks into the void (noumenon), the
unreal (phenomenon) and the Mean (the absolute) that unites them. It derives from
the sixteen samadhis in the Lotus Sitra, Chapter 24.
3 Died in 598 at the age of sixty.
4 T'ien T'ai or Heaven Terrace, is a district south-west of Ningpo in Chekiang
5 Died in 742 at the age of eighty-three.
6. Died in 782 at the age of seventy-two.
7. In the eighth century.
(by Master Ch I of Hsiu Ch'an monastery on T'ien
T'ai mountain)
To avoid evil actions,
To do actions that are good
And to puriy the mind
Is the essence of Buddha's Teaching.
The attainment ofNira is realizable by many methods whose essentials
do not go beyond the practice of chih (samatha) and kuan (vipasyana:
Chh is the frst step to untie all bonds and kuan is essential to root out
delusion. Chih provides nourishment for the preseration of a knowing
mind2 and kuan is the sklful art of promoting spiritual understanding. Chih
is the unsurpassed cause of dhyana and kuan begets wisdom. He who
achieves both ch and kuan is fully competent to work for the welfare
of self and others. Hence the Lotus Sitra says: 'The Buddha while dwelg
i Mahayana used the transcendental power of the dhyana and wisdom
(prajia) which he had realized to liberate living beings from birth and
death.' Therefore, we know that this twin realization is lie the two wheels
of a cart and the two wings of a bird. Partial practice of them is wrong.
Hence the sitra says: 'The practice of dhyana alone, while wisdom is dis
regarded, (causes) stupidity and the practice of wisdom alone, whie
dhyaa is disregarded, causes infatuation.' Although stupidity and infatua
tion are relatively minor faults which difer from each other, thei contri
bution to recurrent wrong views is identical.
If dhyana and wisdom are not i equal proportion, the practice is de
fcient; how can it lead to speedy realization of the Supreme Fruit I This is
why the sitra says: 'Sravakas cannot perceive the Buddha nature because
of their excessive dhyana; Bodhsattvas of the tenth stage do not perceive it
clearly because of their excessive wisdom; (and) all Tathagata Buddhas per
ceive it clearly because their dhyana and wisdom are i equal proportion.'
Therefore, chh-kuan is the main gate to the great nirvaJa, the unsurpassed
I. Chih Kuan: !matha-vipasyana. Chih is siencing the acive mind and geting
rid of discrimination, and kuan is observing, examning, introspecting. When the
physical organism is at rest, it is called chih and when the mind is seeing clearly it is
kuan. The chief object is the concentration of mind by special methods for the purpose
of clear insight into the truth and to be rid of ilusion.
2. Or discering mind, as contrastd with the diferentiating, or discriminting,
path of self-ultivation, the index to perfection of all excellent vue ad
the true substance of the Supreme Fruit. Consequently the chih-ku
Dharma door to enlghtenment is not shalow. When receiving beginners
to intiate them to the Path, it is easy to preach the Dharma whch is, how
ever, very difcult to practise. How, then, is it possible to expoud i full
what is deep and subtle! For the beneft of beginners, I now briefy present
the following. ten essentials for treadig the right Path so that they c
achieve the progressive stages leading to (their realization of) niv3a. In
stead of slghting the seemg shalowness of the text, Truth seekers should
blush to fmd that these steps are dicult to practise. However, i their
minds are ripe for the teachg, in the twig of an eye thei sharp w
dom1 wil have no limit and their spiritual understandig w become un
fathomable. I they aimlessly drag about words and terms and allow their
feelgs (and passions) to distort the teachg, they wil fritter away their
time and wil fail to acheve realation; thus they are lie a man who counts
the treasures belonging to others. What advatage can they expect there
from! (These ten essential steps are:)
1. Formation of concurrent causes,
2. rebukg al desies,
3. removal of screens,
4 regulating (food, sleep, body, breath and mind),
5 expedient lines of conduct,
6. the main practice,
7 manifestation of good roots (qualties),
8. discerg the harmful iuence of mara,
9 healig of ailments, and
I o. fnal realization.
These ten steps are given to elucidate the Teaching of ch and kuan and
are essential for those who begin their practice of meditation. If they really
understand and follow them in thei sel-tivation, they wil be able to
quiet their mids and avoid all difculties; will realize dhyana and acheve
understanding; and wil attai the transcendental holy stage.
Those who resolve to practise the chi-kuan method should provide them
selves with fve concurrent causes:
I. Lit. 'their wisdom that cuts of al miseries wbecome boundless'.
2. Concurrent causes: a Buddhist term equivalent to 'favourable condition' which
cuses the practce to succeed. According to Buddhist teaching, the law of causality is
in force in the realm of illusions wherein nothing occurs by chance.
(a) Strict obserance of discipline and moraty (sila),
(b) adequate supply of food and clotng,
(c) leisure in a tranqui place,
(d) lay dow all causal actvities, and
(e) search for helpful friend.
(a) Strict obserance of sila
The rules of discipline and moraty (sila) should be kept strictly. A te
sitra says, discipline causes the realzation of dhyana and the mafetaton
of wisdom that put an end to al sufering. Therefore, a bhu shoud
keep Sla strictly. There are thee categories of people who obsere the pre
cepts i diferent ways:
The frst category comprises those who, before being admited as ds
cples, do not commt the fve rebelous acts ad later meet enlghtened
teachers who istruct them i the three formulas of refuge and te fve
commandments, thereby entitlng them to be disciples of Buddha. I tey
leave their homes, they wil receive frst the ten precepts of a novice
(sramalera) and then ful ordation to become bhikus or bhiki. Mter
their ordination, they wi keep a the commandments and will refrai
fom breaking them; they are the best keepers of sila. you should know that
when these people practise ch-kuan, they are boud to reaze the Buddha
Dharma, like immaculate clothes that dye well.
The second category comprises those who, after receiving the precepts,
break only the mor rules but not the important ones. Before thei
practice of meditation, if they carry out correctly the rites of repentance
and reform, theirs is that strict observance which caues dhyana and w
dom to manifest. They are lke dirty and greasy clothes that have been
washed clean and can be wor after being dyed again.
The thrd category comprises those who after receivig sila are unable to
obsere it and break many minor and grave prohibitions. They canot
follow the Hinayana rules whch do not provide for repentance and reform
after committing the four grave prohbitions.1 I they follow the Mahayana
rules, they will be able to root out their sins. Hence the sitra says: 'Accord
ing to the Buddha Dharma, there are to kinds of virile men, those who
never commt ev acts and those who repent after commtting them.'
True repentance and reform are possible if the following ten condition
are fuled :
1. Belief in the law of causality;
2. great fear (of consequences) ;
I. Parijikas: ki ing, stealng, carnality and decepton under the msk of te
3 strong feelig of shame;
4 keen search for the methods of eradicating sin, such as tose taught
in the Mahayana sitras whch should be strictly followed;
5 exposure of all sins committed;
6. stopping al evil mental activities;
7 keeness to protect the Dharma;
8. takig the great vow to delver all livig beigs;
9. constat remembrance of all Buddas i the ten dectons, ad
10. introspection into the non-xstent nature of si.t
I these ten condition can be ful ed, the repentant disciple should, after
tng a bath and putting on clean garments, ofer incense and fowers to the
Three Precious Ones (Buddha, Dharma ad Sangha) and (pray for) true
repentance and reform. For seven to twenty-ne days, one to three months,
or sometmes a year, he should concentrate his md on repetce ad
reform because of the grave prohibitons he has broken util his sis are
rooted out. How w he know that all his sins have been eradicated 1 I
while he concentrates on true repentance and reform, he feels that both his
body and md are lght and at ease, has auspicious dreams, sees remarkable
tgs, perceives some manifestation of hs excellent mental state, feels as i
h body is lie clouds and shadows thereby gradually realizing the various
stages of dhyana, suddeny awakenig to ad understanding all thngs
(dharma), or easily grasping the profound meaning of sitras when he hears
them-he wil feel joy i the Dharma ad wil be free from anety and
remorse; all this proves that he has really removed all siful obstructions to
the Tao, previously caused by hs breakg of sila. From then on he keeps
fmly all the precepts; h Sla is also spotless and he can practise dhyana.
Ths is like a ragged ad di robe which can be mended, washed, dyed
ad wor again.
I a man, after breakig the grave prohibitons, is afraid of the resulting
obstrction to h (achievement of ) dhyaa, and instead of following te
methods of rooting out si as taught i the sitras, he repents biterly for the
wong done of whch he is now sicerely ashamed, exposes hs weakness
to the Thee Precious Ones, vows to cut of his evi mnd, sits erect to con
template the non-xstent nature of sins, thks of the Buddhas i the ten
dectons and, at the end of each meditation, with the same eageress for
repentance and reform, he bums icense and pays reverence (to the Buddha),
recites the rules of discipline and reads the Mahayana sitras, a hndraces
to hs realization of the Tao wil be gradually eliminated, so that hs sila also
becomes spotless and he reales the state of dyana. The sitra says: 'I a
ma is seied with great fear after breaking the grave prohibitons ad
1. Ts last conditon is the basic repentnce and reform of the Mahayana which
difer gready from thos ofHnayina and other relgions.
hopes to elmnate the evil efects, he has no other way than to practise
dhyana which alone can root out his sis.' This man should sit in a quiet
place to control his mind at al times and recite the Mahayana sitras; al his
sins wil then be wiped out and the state of dhyana wil manfest to hm.
(b) Adequate supply of food and clothing
There are three kds of garments (for a monk): fstly, the single robe wor
by the greast masters in the Snow Mountains (i.e. the Himalaya), just
enough to cover their bodies because they have cut of al contact with te
world and because of their great endurace; secondly, the thee garments of
cast-f rags1 wor by Mahakayapa who had no other clothes when
keeping the rules of austerity; and thirdly, the three usual garments2 with
an extra supply of 101 other kids of clothng permitted by the Tathagata
for disciples lving in cold countries who are not yet able to achieve en
durance. I a monk is greedy and keeps more clothes than he needs, ths wil
upset his mind and hinder hs practice of Tao.
As regards food, there are four proper ways of obtaig it:
1. The great masters who stay deep i the mountai to retire from the
world, eat ony herbs and fruits to preserve their bodies.
2. The ascetics who beg for food and whose way of life enables them to
abstain from improper ways of making a livig and to adhere to right
lvelhood3 which contrbutes to their realization of holy Tao. There ae
four improper ways (for monks) to obtai a living: by working with thei
hands, by astrology, by magic and soothaying, and by guie and fatter,
al of whch was taught by Sariputra to the blue-yed maiden.
3 Those livig in places of retirement where they receive food ofered
by the patrons (danapati) who support them.
4 Those living in a community where the way of le is prescribed by
the monastery's regulations.
Wen devotees are provided wth clothes and food, this is adequate for
thei needs (and a causal condition for their successful meditation). Why sol
Because without this concurrent cause, teir md ca ot be set at rest ad
thei Path wilbe blocked.
(c) Leisure i a tranqui place
'Leisure' implies the absence of a(worldly) activities and 'tranquil' suggests
freedom from disturbance. There are three places where dyaa ca be
I. Cast-f rags were picked up i cemeteries, washed and mended to mke
2. These are: (1) antarvisas or antrvasaka, an inner garment, the fve-piece
cssock, (2) utrasalga, an outer garment, the seven-piece cassock, and (3) sghap,
an assembly robe of from nine to twenty-fve piece.
3 The fth of the Eightold Noble Path.
practised: on a retired ad uhabitated mountain; i an ascetic's hermtage
some three or four miles from an inhabitated area, too far away for herds
men to visit and where stilless prevails; and i a quiet monastery far away
from the dwellngs of laymen.
(d) Lay down al causal activities
To lay down al causal occupations consists of: ending all causal means of
lvelihood by giving up work on the earthly plane; cutting al links with
worldlgs icluding relatives, friends and acquaintances; relinquishng all
cause-producing arts and crafts, such as worldly sk, ingenuity, quackery,
magic, divination, physiognomy, writing, counting and recording; and
stopping the search for earthly knowledge by giving up alreading, recitg
and listenig.
A the above concer the laying down of causal activities which, if con
tiued, will block the Path ad make it difcult to control the stirred mind.
(e) Search for helpful friends
There are thee kids of helpful friends: outsiders who provide you with al
the necessities of lie and look after you; felow-practisers who give you
good advice and never disturb you; and enghtened teachers who are keen
to employ all expedients to teach you how to practise dhyaa.
The above (
(a) to (e)) are the fve concurrent causes (in the practice of
The desires that should be rebuked are the fve kinds of cravig whch
should not arise during chih-kuan practice. They are longings for form,
sound, smell, taste, and touch which deceive all worldligs into clingig to
them. I desires are known as wrong, they should be repulsed and ths is
called rebuking.
1. To repulse craving for form involves al pleasant appearances of the
male and female, with attractive eyes and brows, red lips and white teeth as
wel as precious gems of beautiul colours, such as blue, yelow, red, whte,
purple, green, etc., whch can deceive the ignorant into craving to possess
them so that they commt evi karmc actions. For instance, kg Bi
bisara who, to satisfy hs sexual desie, went to a hostile countr to have
itercourse with a prostitute, and kig Udayana who was defled by for
ad cut of the hads ad feet of fve hudred seers (ni). Ths shows the
mistakes ad erors caused by form.
2. To rebuke al longing for sound involves music, male and female
voices and songs which can cause the worldlings who hear them to cling
to tem, thereby committng evil karmic deeds. For instance, the fve
hundred seers (l1i) who succumbed to the melodious songs of a kiara1
maden which disturbed their mids so that they failed to reale dhyana.
This shows the mstakes and errors caused by sound.
3 To rebuke a desire for smell involves the odours of male and female
bodies and all fragrances of worldly drs and food as well as all kids of
perfume. The ignorant who are not clear about the (evil efects of) smells,
le them and clig to them, thereby openig wide the door to the 'i
stigator of passions'.2 For instance, once when a bhiku came to a lotus
pond and liked its fragrance, its spirit guardian reprimanded him for stealing
the perfume that belonged to him. Thus by clging to smell, athe dormant
instigators of passions wake up (ready for mischef ). Ths shows the mistakes
and errors caused by smell.
4 To rebuke a desire for taste involves all the favours of dri, food
and delicacies which can stain the minds of worldlings and cause them to
commit evi karmic actions. For instance, once a novice who was very fond
of sour m was reincarated as a worm in sour m. Ths shows the
mistakes and errors caused by taste.
5 To rebuke all desire for touch involves discrimination between the
bodes of both sexes; the illusion that they are soft, smooth, warm in winter
ad cool in summer and other pleasant sensations of touch. The ignorant,
who do not understand all ths, are immersed i touch and are thereby
hndered in their practice of Tao. For istance, Eka5pga ni3lost hs super
natural power because he was ensnared by a prostitute and allowed her to
rde on his neck. This shows the mistakes and errors caused by touch.
The methods of rebuking desires are taught in the Mahayana sastra
which says: 'It is a great pity that living beings are constantly disturbed by
the fve desires for which they unceasingly look.' These fve desires are thus
lke additional faggots that make a fre bigger. They do not give joy and
are like (hungry) dogs bitng a dry bone. They incite disputes like birds
strugglng for a piece of meat. They bum men lie torches held i a con
trar wind. They are as harmful as poisonous snakes. They are ueal, like
things seen i a dream. They are not permanent and are like sparks seen
when fint is struck. So the sages regard them as their bitter enemies (but)
worldngs are ignorant and seek for and keep them until their death,
thereby sufering from boudless miseries. Amals also possess these fve
1. Knr: heavenly musicians noted for their songs and dances.
2. Lit. 'a binding messenger', a Buddhist term meaning an inciting agent that
urges the medittor to discrimnate and so disturbs the sti ness of md.
3 Lit. 'unicorn seer', an ascetic born of a deer, who was seduced by a woman, lost
h supernatural power and became a high mtr; he was one of the previous
incrtons of the Buddha.
desire. Aliving beings act according to teir desires of which they are the
wl g slaves. He who clngs to desires is boWd to fal into the three lower
realms of miseries. Wen we practise dhyana, we are handicapped by these
bandits ad so shoud avoid them, as taught in the folowig gatha of the
Dhyaa-paramita Sitra:
Continuity of births and death
Comes fom craving for (the sense of) tast.
When wrong doing is carried to the grave
All miseries are uselessly endured.
Te human body is like a stinking corpse
With nine openings to discharge its flthiness.
Like a worm enjoying dung in a latrine
Is the body of a man who's ignorant.
A sage should meditate upon his fesh and bones
Renouncing attachment to all earthly pleasures.
Freedom fom caving and fom
Bondage is True Nirva1a.
A taught by all the Buddha, the practice
Of singleness of thought and mind by counting
Breaths while sitting in dhyana is called
Perormance of acetical (dhita) conduct.
There are fve kids of screen to be removed:
I. The screenng desire. We have aleady dealt with the fve desires
arsing fom the fve sense data and here 'desire' originates in the intellect
(maas). This meas that, when sitting in meditation, i we give rise to a
desire for enlightenment, Wending thoughts wll result whch wl hinder
our self-md ad prevent it from manifesting. As soon as we are aware of
ths, we should give up this desire. For instance, Subhakara,1 who stirred up
sxa thoughts, was but up by his ier desire; how much more so wl
the fe of desie, aroused in our md, destroy al our goodness. The
greedy stray far fom the Tao because their desires are the cause of al
passions and troubles. I the mind clngs to desire, it can never come near
to the Tao, as said in the folowing gatha of The Destruction of Screens:
A man who humbly entes on the path
Hold a begging bowl to help all beings.1
I. Subh: a fherman who was but by h sexual love.
z. So that a livg beings c give hin food thereby sowig i the feld of
How can he cave for those sense data
Through which he fall into Jve pasionSl
He has rejected Jve desires
On which he now ha turned his back.
Why should he then revive them
Like one who eats his vomit1
Hardhip is caused by seeking object of
Desire which are a source of dread when won;
When lost, they create grie and resentment,
None of them ever can bring happiness;
This is the trouble which desires confr.
The problem is to cast them all away
So that real bliss in dhytma-samidhi can be
Enjoyed whilt deception disappears for evermore.
2. The screening hatred which is at the root of our loss of the Buddha
Dharma is the cause of our fal into the realms of miseries, an obstacle to our
quest for joy in the Dharma, a great robber of al morality and the prime
mover of evil speech. Therefore, a student should, when sitting in medita
tion, give rise to this thought: 'My opponent now iritates me and my dear
ones and delights in wronging me: he did so in the past ad wi continue
to do so in the future. These are the nine kinds of iritations which cause
anger, and anger leads to resentment which incites to retaliation. Thus
hatred veis my mind and is caled its screen. Conse
quently, I should remove
t screen so that it canot thcken.' Hence, when Sakra 1 asked the Budda:
What is that which destroys happiness
And kills feedom fom anxiety?
What is the root of that poison
Which wipes out moral excellenc!
the Budda replied:
To root out hatred brings happiness
And gives feedom fom anxiety.
Hatred is poion's root, to destroy
It brings moral excellence.
Wen we know the evil of hatred, we should pracse compassionate en
durance to root it out, thereby puriing our minds.
3 Screening sleep ad drowsiness. When the mind is inactive ad dull,
ad when the fve passions2 are gloomy ad confused, one feels inclned to
I. Ruler of the thiry-three hea'ens, conidered as a protector of the Buddh
2. Stired by the fve senses.
relax by drowsig. This is the causal sleep and drowsiness that can damage
our tue joy (found) in the Dharma i present and future transmigrations,
our happiness in our rebirth in the heavens or the bliss in nirvala attaiable
i a comig incaration. It i the worst evil because while al other screens
cn be destroyed as soon as one i aware of them, sleep and drowsiness are
le a dead ma who is unconscious. For lack of consciousness of this evil,
it is very dicult to root it out. It is described i the following gata which
reprmads al sleepy disciples:
Embrace not a stinking corpse in sleep for it contains
Impurities and is miscalled a human being.
Like one gravely ill wounded by an arrow
How can you sleep peaceully with all this pain!
Like one tied up about to die, how can
You sleep when calamity beall?
While the binding robber is not killed and harm still prevail,
You arc like one who shares his home with poionous snakes.
I you lie between crossed sword
How can you sleep serenely 1
Drowsiness is like great darkness that hides everything,
Ever deceiving you and robbing you of perception.
With mind screened by drowsiness that keeps you blind,
How, mindless of your own ruin, can you sleep 1
Thus with al these causal wargs about screens, you should waken to
impermaence and reduce your drowsiess to avoid duness of mind. I
fondness for drowsiness is great, a Ch'an staf should be used to dispel it.
4 Screening by restlessness and grief. There are three kids of restless
ness: ( 1) that of the body which is responsible for fondness of walg and
strollg and for uneasiness in sitting; (2) that of speech which gives rise to
delight i humming, arguing about right and wrong, aimless sophsty and
worldly tal; and (3) that of the mid which clings to exterals and i
dulges in worldly arts and skil s as well as wrong views. Restlessness
damages the state of md of those who have joied the Sangha. It is
dif cult enough to realize dhyana by controlg the mnd; how much more
so i restlessness is indulged in durg self-ultivation. Restlessness is like a
mad unbridled elephat, rabbit or camel which cannot be checked. A
wag is given i the following gatha:
With shaven head and with dyed robes
You take earthen bowl to beg for food.
How can you dlight in restlessness by giving
Rein to passions, losing all Dharma's benets 1
Mter losing all benefts of the Dharma and a worldly happiness, you
should realze your errors and eliminate restlessness. However, i you
grieve about your faults, this grief wi act as a screen (to your mnds). I
retlessness is not followed by grief there will be no screen. Why so 1
Because no cause was formed during your restlessness, but i afterwards,
during your meditation, you realize your restlessness and are grieved at it,
your worry wil hinder your minds; hence an (additional) screen.
There are two kinds of grief: one is that felt after noticig your restless
ness as already dealt with, and the other is grief after breaking a grave
prohbition of which you are in awe and fear. In the latter case, the arrow of
grief has entered your mind and canot be extrated, as explaied in the
following gata:
To do what you should not,
To do not what you should,
Cause bitter grie that burns like fre,
You then fall into evil realms.
I you repent of wrong already done
Worr not afer your repentance.
With heart thus set at rest
You should not cling to grie
I with two kind of grie for former sins
You once more abstain fom doing what you should
And do what should be avoided,
You are indeed a stupid man.
I there be no thought of repentance,
You can repeat what you should avoid.
Once an evil ha been wrought
It can never be undone.
5. The screening doubt. Once doubt veils the mind, no faith in the
various Dharma (doors) is possible. For lack of faith, no advantages can
derive from the Buddha Dharma. For instance, if a handless man enters a
moutai of precious gems, he cannot carry away any treasure. There are,
however, many kds of doubt and not all of them1 hinder (the practice of)
dhyana. Those that do so are these:
1. Doubt about the self when the practiser thks: 'Am I a man of dull
roots and with great sins 1' If he harbours ths doubt, he can never achieve
dhyana. For he who meditates, should not slight himsel, as no one knows
i he has planted good roots i former lives.
2. Doubt about the teacher, of whom the student may t: 'If his
I. For instnce the i chg is also a doubt which does not hder dhyana but
causes it to manifest in Zen meditation.
appearace ad deportment are such and such ad i he has not acquied the
Tao hmself how can he teach me!' If he harbours ths doubt and con
tempt, they will hinder his (practice of ) dyana. The way to eliiate
(doubt and contempt) is taught in the Mahayaa Sastra which says: 'Like a
stg s bag containg gold pieces, it should not be tow away, if
its gold i wated.' Likewise, although a teacher may not be perect, the
student should regard h as a Buddha (when leag the Dharma tough
3 Doubt about the Dharma. Most worldgs grasp their mds ad
have no faith in the Dharma whch has been taught to tem ad whch they
canot receive ad practise with reverence. I they doubt about it, the
Dharma wil not penetrate their minds. Why so 1 Because of the obstructing
doubt as explaied in the followig gatha:
A when a man a"ives at some coss-road
His hesitation lead him to no place;
So in the Reality by Dharma
Taught, doubt alo to negation lead
For it remissness causes.
When seeking the Reality in
Dharmas, ignorance produces doubt;
This is the worst of evil.
Amongst good Dharma and their opposites,
A 'twixt nirvita and samslra,
In truth there is but one tue Dharma
About which you should never doubt.
But i you still suspect it,
You will be bound by Yama,1
Like a deer caught by a lion
Never can you hope to escape.
Though in this li you may have doubts,
You should reJoice in perct Dharma,
Like one who at the cross-road chooses
The way that is most proftable.
Faith alone can enable one to enter te Budda Dharma and without
faith, no beneft can derive from it. Therefore, when doubt is know as
wong, it should be cast away.
Question: Since there are so may kds of evil, why do you urge the
removal of only fve of them 1
Aswer: These fve screens comprise the three poisons and represent a
group of fou main troubles (kle5a) involvig a the 84,0 defements.
I. Lit. 'You wlbe bound by the god of the dead and hel-keepers'.
Th group of four main troubles consists of deie that hders; ager ad
reentment; drowsiness and doubt caused by stupidity; and restlessness and
grie Each mai ke5a comprises 21,0 evis1 and the four together ivolve
84,00. Therefore, the removal of these fve screens destroys al (the
84,00) evils. He who accomplshes it is lke a debtor who is rid of all his
debts, a sick man freed from il ess, a staring man who arrives i a country
fulof food and a man who escapes from badits and is out of danger. Lie
wise, he who is rid of a fve screens enjoys rest and happiness. When the
su ad moon are veiled by the fve screens of smoke, dust, cloud, fog ad
eclipse, they lose their brightness. Likewise, the mind of ma is in the dark
when it is hidden by the fve screen.
Before sitting in meditation to practise the Dharmas of all Buddhas of the
past, present and future in the ten directions, a beginer should take the
great vow of lberating all lving beings and of seeking the Supreme Buddha
stage with a md frm as a diamond, set on perfecting all Buddha Dharmas
without the least backslding. Then while sitting in dhyana, he should give
rise to the right thought about the true reality underlying aldharmas, that
is about a good, evil and neutral (lit. unrecordable) thgs; about the
interal sense organs, exteral sense data and false consciousnesses; about al
earthly troubles and afictions; and all causes and efects of births and
deaths in the three reals of exstence whch are created by te mind.
Hence, the Dasabhimi Sitra says:
The three world are not elsewhere,
They're created by One Mind.
I the mind is known a being without nature,
The unreality of all things is exposed.
If t
e mid is fee from pollution and attachment, al samsara producig
kamic actions wi come to an end. It is ony after ths meditaton that the
next practice of regulating (food, sleep, body, breath and mid) can be
What does 'regulatig' mean1 As illustrations, a potter who wants to
make earthenware should frst prepare proper clay that shoud be neiter
too hard nor too soft so that it can be cast in a mould; and a lute player
I. 21,000 evis = 250 X 4 X 3 X 7: i.e. 250 precepts for a monk, multipled by
the four states of walking, standig, sitting and reclnng; then by the three propen
sities of those decided for the Dharma, those for heresy and the undecided; and then
by the seven deeds, namely: k g, stealng, unchastity, lying, doubletongue,
coarse tal and flthy language.
should frst tue the strings i he is to ceate melody. Likewise, i the control
of mind (the following) fve things should be regulated so that unperturbed
stillness can be realed as otherwise the inner excellent roots (qualities) ca
not manifest.
1. Regulating food. Food is to nourish the body so that it becomes ft to
enter the Tao. I too much is taken, the stomach wil be ful and wil keep
one out of breath, with the result that the in er psychic centres will be
blocked and the mind obstructed, thereby interferig with the meditation.
I insufcient food is taken the stomach is not full enough and the mid and
its cognition wl be usteady. These two conditions do not help one to
realize dhyaa. Impure food causes conusion of the mnd and its cognition.
Unsuitable food causes a relapse into sickness and keeps the four elements i
dsharmony. A student therefore should be very careful about a this when
begin ng to practise meditation. Hence the sitra says: 'I the body is at
ease, the Tao wil prosper. If food and drik are properly regulated, happi
ness wil be enjoyed in quiet and the stil mind wil make a great show of
zeal. This is the teaching of all the Buddhas.'
2. Regulating sleep. Sleep results from ignorance that screens (the mind)
and should never be encouraged. He who sleeps too much wl not only
cast aside the practice of holy Dharma but will also lose the abilty to
practise so that his mnd becomes confused and al good roots disappear.
Therefore, one should awaken to the impermanence (of life) and regulate
one's sleep i order to keep one's spirit high and one's mid clear, for the
purpose of abiding in the holy state which leads to the manfestation of
imperturbable stilness. Hence, the sitra says: 'Self-ultivation should not be
given up before or ater midnight (and the habit of) sleeping should not be
aowed to cause one's life to pass aimessly without gaining anythig from
it.' One should think of the (destructive) fre of impermanence that scorches
the whole world and strive to be liberated from it as soon as possible in
stead of indulgig in sleep.
3, 4 and 5 Regulating body, breath and mind. These three practices
should not be separate but concurrent. However, the prelmary, inter
mediate ad fal methods dif er; hence, the diference between entering
and coming out of a state of meditation.
Now about the method of regulating the body at the beginning of
meditation. I the meditator wishes properly to control his body for its
entry ito the state of imperturbable stil ess, he should, even before sitting,
examine closely to fnd out whether or not his acts of walking, standing,
movig or staying are rough. I they are, his breathg wil be coarse so that
h mind wilbe usettled and unrecordable, ad when he sits, it will be per
plexed and ueasy. Therefore, before sitting, he should expediently visuaze
hs body as relaxed so that it is at ease during the meditation.
When goig to his meditation i bed,1 he should arange h cushons so
that they are ft for a long sitting. Then he should know how to sit cross
legged. I a half lotus posture, the left leg should be placed on the right one
ad draw close to the belly so that the toes of the left foot are paralel to the
rght thigh and those of the right foot to the left thigh. If a full lotus postue
(padmasana) is desired, he should also place the right leg upon the left one.
The next thing to do is to loosen his belt but just enough to prevent it from
slpping. Then his left hand should be laid upon the right one, both being
placed on the legs and draw close to the belly. After this, the body should
be adjusted by keeping it straight and by shaking it and the limbs seven to
eight times to relax them. Thus the body will be erect with the backbone
being neither bent nor raised. After that, the neck and head should be held
i the proper position, so that the tip of the nose and the navel are i line.
The head should neither slant nor inclne to one side, and neither bow nor
raise, but should be perfectly level. Next he should exhale aimpure air
through his mouth, not in haste, but slowly and continuously, visualing at
the same time all obstructions to the psychc centres in the body as folowing
the breath ad beig thereby ejected. Then he should shut hs mouth to i
hale fresh air through the nostris. Ths should be repeated once or twice
more, but if his body and breath can be regulated after doing so once, that
will sufce. When he closes his mouth, the upper lip and teeth should touch
the lower ones, and the tongue the palate. Then he should close his eyes to
shut out the light.
Thus he should sit erect like an ianmate boulder without alowing his
body, head and limbs to shake. This is the proper way of regulatig the
body at the start of meditation and is essential to avoid both strain and
4 Regulatig the breath at the beginng of meditation. There are four
knds of breath: audible, gasping, coarse and restful. The fst thee are
improper and the fourth is correct. What is audible breath! When one sits
i meditation, if the breath is perceptible to the ear, it is audible. What is
gasping breath 1 When one sits i meditation, although the breath is not
audible, if it is not free and is obstructed, it is gasping. What is coarse
breath 1 When one sits in meditation, although the breath is not heard and is
free, if it is not fme, it is coarse. What is restful breath! When it is neither
audible nor obstructed nor coarse, but is continuous, being barely per
ceptible and so fme that it is almost imperceptible, with the resultant com
fort and easiness, it is restful.
An audible breath scatters (your composure}; a gasping breath ties you
up; a coarse breath tires you; and a restful breath quiets your mind. If the
frst three are present, they show that your breathing is not regulated, and i
I. Lit. 'rope-bed' formerly used to sleep on at night in China.
you use your mind to stop them, it wil be upset and it will be very dicult
to quiet it. If you wish to regulate them, you shoud follow three methods:
calmig the mind by concentrating it below (i the body), relaxig the body
ad visualizing the breath comig i ad going out through al your pores
freely and unobstructedly. If you concentrate your mid on a fne breath,
it wil be properly regulated and athe troubles wilbe avoided; then it wil
be easy for you to quiet the md.
Ths is how to regulate your breath at the start of meditation for it is
essential that it should be neither rough (i.e. obstructive) nor smoot (i.e.
5 Regulatig the mid at the beginning of meditation. Ths ivolves
three phases: entry into, stay in and comg out (of the state of meditation).
(1) Entry into the state of meditation implies control of confused thnk
ig to prevent the md from wadering outside, and adjustment of the
sing, foating, strained or loose mind to normalize it.
What is a sining mind 1 I durg the meditation the mind is dull, con
fused and urecordable, while the head drops, ths shows a sig mnd.
I such a case, it should be fxed on the tip of the nose to nail it there and to
prevent it from wanderig elsewhere. This is the way to regulate a sing
What is a foating mind 1 If during the meditation, it drifts about and the
body is uneasy, whle thoughts follow externals, this shows a foating mid.
I such a case, it should be pushed down and fxed on the navel to prevent
thoughts from rsig; thus the md wil be stabiized and wil be easily
quieted. Therefore, the absence of the sig or foating state shows a
regulated mind.
A stabiized mind may be either straied or loose. It is strained when,
during the meditation, a thoughts are tured on regulating it to ensure
its stabilzation; thereby briging (the vital principle or pr:a) up to the
chest in whch pain is felt. I this case, you should relax the md by visualz
ig the praa as descending and the trouble will disappear at once.
If the mid is loose, it either jumps about while the body sways ad the
mouth waters or it becomes gloomy. I this case, the meditator should
compose his body and f his mind as aforesaid, using the body as its
support. It can thus be deduced that the mind is either rough or slippery.
The above are methods of regulating the mid at the begining of
meditation. Entry into its stillness is from a coarse state to a fne one. Since
the body is coarser when the breathing process is functioning inside it,
while the mid is fner, the preliminary step of entering the state of dhyana
consists of adjusting the coarser to the fer for the purpose of queting the
(2) Durig hs 'stay' i the state of meditation, the practiser should
regulate three things. Whether the meditation is long or shor, lasting either
for twenty-four, or just one, two or three hours, the practier, whe con
trolg his thoughts to master his mind, should be wel aware whether his
body, breath and mind are properly regulated.
I, after havig reguated hs body, he notices that it is either straied or
loose, is inclned to one side, bent, drooping, raised, or not erect, he -should
adjust it at once to stabize it.
It may happen that, although the body is regulated, te breath is not. We
have already dealt with varous unregulated aspects of the breath which may
be either audible, gasping or coarse, so that the body is iated. I such a
case, he should use the methods mentioned earlier to adjust the breath so
that it wibecome continuous and so fne that it is half perceptible ad hal
It may happen that though the body and breath are regulated, the mid is
either foatig, sining, loose, strained or unsettled. I such a case, the
methods earler mentioned should be employed to regulate and normalie
the mind.
The above three ways of regulating body, breath and mind are not to be
employed successively one after the other; either one or all of them shoud
be ued when necessary so that body, breath and mind wil be all well
adjusted, wi not hinder each other and can be brought into perfect har
mony during the meditation. Thus all previous troubles wil be eliminated
and a obstructions removed, ensurng the realization of the state of
(3) When coming out of the state of meditation, body, breath and md
should also be regulated beforehand. Before the meditation is ended,
the practiser should lay down his mid to release it from this state and open
his mouth to let out the breath, vsualizing the air as leavig the psychc
centres. Then the trunk followed by the shoulders, arms, hands, head ad
neck should be shaken gently. Next the two feet should be moved to relax
them. Then the meditator should rub hs body with hs two hads, chafe
his palms ad place them over his eyes before openig them. He should
wait util his body has cooled before leaving hs seat. If he does not follow
ths method, although his mind may have been stabilized whe in the state
of meditation, his abrupt comng out of that state may leave i hs body an
impure element which can cause headache and rheumatism in the joits.
I his next meditation, he wil feel agitated and his mid wil be impatient
to end it as soon as possible. You should pay attention to all this. This is the
method of regulating body, breath and mind before coming out of the state
of meditation, which means retung from the fner to the coarser (state).
The above are the perfect ways of entering, staying i and coming out of
the state of sti ness as explained in the followig gatha:
Entry and exit should both be orderly for then
The states o coarse and fne do not impair each other.
This is like a horse that's tamed
At your will to stay or go.
The Lotus Sitra says: 'All the Bodhsattvas in ths assembly have, for
coutless thousands, tens of thousands and hundreds of thousands of aeons,
diligently practised zeal and devotion whch have enabled them to enter,
stay i and come out of countless hundreds, thousands, tens of thousands
and hundreds of thousands of states of sama, thus wg all the great
transcendental powers; all this is possible because of their unfinching pure
living ad their skul practice of aexcellent methods (Dharmas) i good
The practice of chh-kuan is conditional upon fve expedients:
1. A vow to keep from all worldly wrong thiing to realze all Dharma
doors by means of dhyana and wisdom (prajfa). This is also called (right)
determiation, (right) vow and delght or fondness (for the Dharma). This
means the practiser's 'determination' in his 'vow' to take 'delight' in hs
'fondness' for al profound Dharma doors; hence a vow. As the Buddha
said, a vow is essential for all excellent Dharmas.
2. Unremitting zeal in the strict obserance of all prohbitions so as
always to avoid the fve screens without backsliding.t Unremitting zeal is
likened to the friction (of two pieces of ) wood which must be continued
unti fre is obtaied. Ths is unremitting zeal in the praccice of excellent
3 Remembrance that the world is deceitful and despicable whereas
dhyana and wisdom are two precious thgs worthy of reverence. If
dyana-samadhi is attained, the practiser will be able to develop trans
cendental wisdom, to acquire all supramudane powers, to achieve universal
enightenment and to liberate living beigs. Ths is the most excellent
thg, hence (right) remembrance.
4 Skful discerment whch distinguishes worldly happiness from the
blss i dhyana-wisdom with the resultant loss or gain. It enables the
practiser to realize that there is more sufering than happiness on the worldly
plane which is deceitful and unreal, hence the loss; and that the bliss i
dyana-wisdom, whch is beyond the earthly stream, is non-active, still and
boundless; is above birth and death; and is free from all miseries for ever;
1. Lit. 'without backslidig before and after midnight'.
hence the gain. Ths abity to distinguish between the two plaes is ca ed
sklful discerment.
5 Lucid single-mindedness by means of which the practiser can see
clearly that the world is harmful and abhorrent and that merits derived from
dhyaa and wisdom are precious and exalted. Therefore, he should deter
mne to practise ch-kuan with a single mind as indestructible as a diamond
(vajra), a mind which cannot be deterred by either heretics or heaveny
demons and which will refuse to backslide even when no resut seem to be
obtained. This is single-mindedness.
For instance, a traveller shoud kow fst i the road is open or closed
before developing a single mind to make a long jourey. Hence, skfu
discerment and lucid single-mindedess, the meaning of which is found i
the sutra's words: 'Without wisdom, there is no dyana and without
dhyana, there is no wisdom.'
The chh-kuan method can be practised either whie sitting in meditation,
or when ivolved in causal activities and facing phenomena.
I. Practice of chi-kuan while sitting in meditation
Although the chh-kuan method can be practised whie walkng, standng,
sitting or reclining, the sittig position is the most appropriate for student
of the Tao and is now dealt with to explai this method of meditaton
which aims at the following fve objectives:
(a) mastering the coarse and disturbed mid of a beginner;
(b) checking the sining and foating mind;
(c) (stabilizing the mind) as occasion requires;
(d) normalizing the fne md;
(e) equalizing dhyana and wisdom with each 0ther.
(a) Practice of chih-kuan to master the coarse and disturbed md of a
When a beginer sits i meditation, his md is usualy coarse and usettled.
To put an end to these two states, he should practise chh, and if he fail,
he should (immediately) practise kuan. Hence, it is said that chih ad ku
are practised to regulate the coarse and unsettled mind of a beginer. Lt u
see how this is done.
First, the practice of chih, of which there are three methods:
(i) Fixing attention on an object, that is fg the mnd on the tip of te
nose or on the navel so that the mind canot wander elsewhere. The sita
says : 'A fxed mnd that cannot stray i le a boud money.'
(i) Restraining the mid, that is subduing it as soon as it moves i order
to stop it from wadering. The sitra says: 'The fve sense orgas are acon
trolled by the mid; therefore, you should put a stop to you (wadering)
The above (i) ad (ii) pertain to the phenomena ad need not be
(ii) Stopping al rising causes to ensure the embodient of (absolute)
realt by realizing that al thigs (darma) arise from the mind, due to
direct and circumstantial causes, and are devoid of any nature of their own.
(If this is uderstood), the mind wlnot grasp them and its stirred condition
wil come to an end. Hence (chi or) stopping. The sitra says:
Causes that are ownerless and empty
Create phenomena. Whoever calms
His mind the fundamental
To attain a true monk is called.
During his meditation, a beginer wil fd that not even one of the
thoughts arising i his mid stays for an instat. I his use of the above chih
method (iii) of stopping all rising causes fails to stem the fow of false
thoughts, he should employ the kua method and look into the mind from
which they arise. He wilfd that the past mind has gone, the present mind
does not stay and the future mind has not yet come. He wil dscover that
it cannot be found anywhere after an exhaustive search for it i the three
times. As it canot be found, it folows that it is non-xstent and that all
thigs (darma) are so as wel. Although his itrospection (kuan) proves
that the mind does not stay and is consequently non-xistent, there is,
however, the thought of his awareness that rises of itself. He should then
look (kuan) into ths thought and wil fmd that the contact of the six iner
sense organs with the six outer sense data creates the intermediary con
sciousness which fundamentaly does not arise without this contact. As
creation has been thus looked ito, so is now anlation in the same
manner. Therefore, creation and anhiation are but arbitrary inventions.
When the creatig and anatig mid vanishes, the niralic condition
of voidness and extiction (of passions) becomes manifest, wherein not a
tng (darma) obtains. This is the principle of immaterial and still nir:a
and (when it is realized), the mind wilcome to a stop (chh). The Awaen
ing of Faith says: 'If the mind wanders outsie, it should be brought under
control and fxed on right thought. By rght thought is meant the mnd
outside of which there are no phenomena. Even this mind i devoid of
1. The phenomenal, or exteral activity, as contrasted with the noumenal, or
undamental principle.
entty1 and cannot be found in a moment of thought.' Th meas that it i
d cult for a beginner to stabie his mind at the start of meditation, whie
i it is unduly repressed, derangement may result. This is like archer which
ca be mastered only after long traing.
Second, the practice of kuan of which there ae to methods:
(i) Contemplation of the opposite, for istance, of flthiness to elimiate
desire and love; of a compassionate heart (mind) to eradicate anger ad
resentment; of limitation in the realms of existence2 to wipe out attachment
to the ego; and of counted breaths to put a end to fowig thoughts. A
this excludes discrimination.
(i) The right contemplation whch consists in lookg ito all thngs
that have no reality of their ow but are creations due to direct and circum
statial causes. Since causes also have no nature, they are identical with te
(underlyig) realit (from which they arse). As the objects thus contem
plated are ureal, it follows that the mind which contemplates them wil
cease to arise. This doctrine is frequently discussed in the text and readers
should be clear about it. Hence the following gatha in the sutra:
All things are unstable
But in our thoughts appear.
When perceived a unreal
No thoughts of them remain.
(b) Practice of chih-kuan to check the sinking and foating mind
When a practiser sits in meditation, hs mnd may be either dull and
blocked; unrecordable, obscure and torpid; or drowsy. In such cases, he
should practise kuan to shine upon (i.e. waken) it. If during the medita
tion, hs mind is driftig, restless and uneasy, he should practise chi to
check it.
This is the usual way of checking a sinking and foating md by means of
chh-kuan practice, but the meditator should know how to take the rght
medicine appropriate for the moment and to guad agaist using the wrong
(c) Expedient practice of chih and kuan as occasion requires
When a practiser sits in meditation, although he uses the kuan method to
adjust his sing mind and awaken it, it may not become bright and clear.
I this case, he should try the chih method (to put an end to this state). If
I. Svalak!aQa, or individuality.
2. i.e. limited regions divided into realms of desire, of form and beyond form, a
contrasted with the pure, universal and boundless re gion of the Buddhas whch i
beyond these three limitation.
after the chi method has been used, he feels that his body and mnd are at
ease, this shows that chih is appropriate and shoud be practised to cam his
If during his meditation, although chh has been employed to adjust hs
foating mind, the latter may remain unsteady. This proves that chih is not
appropriate and, in this case, he should try the kuan method. I after using
kuan, he feels that his md becomes bright, clear, stil and stabized, this
shows that kuan is appropriate and should be practised to calm hs mind.
The above is the expedient use of chh ad kuan which should be pro
perly practised as occasion requires, to ensure stabization of mind and
eradication of troubles (klda) for realizig the various Dharma doors (to
(d) Practice of chh and kuan to normale the fme mind
Previously the practiser has employed the chih-kuan method to master the
coarse and unsettled mind, and after its stabiation he enters the state of
stillness (dyana). As his mind is now refned, he feels that his body is void
and sti, fled with joy and happiness. Or, due to ths refned mnd, he may
be tempted to slip into heterodoxy. If he does not know that the purpose of
quieting the mind is to put an end to adeceptive falsehood, he may become
fond of the latter ad grasp it as the real. On the other hand, if he knows
that a deceptive falsehood is unreal, he wil avoid both kd of trouble
(kda), (false) love (of the ureal) and wrong views (about it). This is the
practice of chh.
I after practising chh, his mind stil grasps these two kids of kda,
thereby creatig more karma and being unable to rest, he should practise
kuan by contemplating his refmed mind in this state of stillness. I he canot
fnd it, he will cease clinging to the idea of stillness, and if this idea of stiless
is not grasped, the two kd of klda wil vansh. Ths is the practce of
The above are the usual ways of practising chih and kuan to normae
the refmed mind. They are similar to those previously taught, except that the
notion of stilness is discussed here.
(e) Practice of chih and kuan to equalize stilless with wisdom
When a practiser sits i meditation, he may realize dhyana by either chih or
kuan. Although he has achieved this state of stilness, he may not realie the
contemplating wisdom. This is a dul dhyana which cannot help hm to
untie bonds. Or it may be that he has realized too little wisdom to undo h
bonds to understad the various Dharma doors. I such cases, he should
practise kuan to break this stalemate so that dhyana and wisdom wil be in
equal proportions for these purposes.
I i his meditation, because of hs practice of kuan, he is suddeny awak
ened with his wisdom clearly manifest but with his dhyana dispropor
tionately d, hs md wil move lie a candle i the wind which cannot
illumne surrounding objects; he wil be unable to escape from bith and
death. I such a case, he should practise chih to stil hs mid which wil
then be lie a candle in hs ow room that can destroy darkness and iumine
aobjects inside. The above are the usual ways of practising chi and kuan
to equale dhyana with wisdom.
If a practiser whle sittig in meditation can make proper use of the above
fve modes ({a) to (e)) of practising chih and kuan, he wil be able correctly to
practise the Buddha Dharma, and because of his right practice, he wil not
pass his life in vain.
I. Practice of chih-kuan when ivolved i causal activities and facing
Athough the above method of sitting cross-legged is the most appropriate
one, a practiser is burdened with a physical body which canot avoid being
involved in all causal activities. I he folows them and thereby faces ex
teral objects, without continuig to practise chih-kuan, his training will be
itermttent, and he will thereby form new karma; how then can he
awaken to the Buddha Dharma as speedily as he wishes! If he can continue
at all times (and under all cicumstances) to practise the expedient method of
achievig dhyana and wisdom, he wil thoroughy understad all Buddha
How should one practise chih-kuan when involved in causal activities
of whch there are six kids: walkg, stayig, sitting, reclg, workg
and speaking 1 How should one practise chih-kuan when facig exteral
objects 1 There are six kinds of objects to be faced by the sense organs,
namely form that confronts the eyes: sound, the ears; smel, the nose;
taste, the tongue; touch, the body; and thgs (dharma), the intellect
(manas). If the meditator while being involved i these twelve (common
acts of daiy life) practises the chih-kuan method, this is practice while in the
state of causal activity and when facing exteral objects (as explainedbelow).
( r) While walg
The practiser whie walg should give rise to ths thought: 'Why am I
now walking 1 Is it because I am pushed by kda or because of my desire to
do evil or unrecordable (neutral) things! If so, I should not walk. If not so
ad if it is for the beneft of the Dharma, then I should walk.'
How should one practise chih whie walkg 1 If the practiser clearly
knows that because he is walking, al kda as well as good ad evi thgs are
created, and if he perfectly understands that his mid set on wag ad on
al thgs arisig therefrom canot be foWd anywhere, his wrong thoughts
wl come to an end. This is the practice of chih.
How should one practise kuan while walkg I The practiser should give
rise to ths thought: 'As the md causes the body to move, there is advanc
ing whch is caled walng. Because of this walg, all klda as well as
good and evil things are created.' He should then turn iwards his con
templation to look into his mind set on walkg, which has neither form nor
shape. He withus realize that that which wals and athings arising there
from are fWdamentally immaterial.1 Ths is the practice of kuan.
(2) Whe staying
The practiser while stayig should give rise to this thought: 'Why am I
now staying 1 Is it because of my desire to create klda as well as evil or
neutral things 1 If so, I should not keep on stayig. If it is for some pro
ftable objective, then I should contiue so doing.'
How shoud one practise chih while in the staying state 1 If the practiser
knows that because of his staying, all sorts of trouble (kda) as wel as good
and evil things will result and i he clearly knows that his md set on stay
ig and that all thgs arisig therefrom canot be foWd anywhere, hs per
verted thoughts will come to an end. This is the practice of chi.
How should one practise kuan while in the staying state 1 The practiser
should give rise to ths thought: 'As the mind halts the body, there is stay
ing. Because of this stayig, all klda as well as good and evil thigs wi
result.' He should then tum iwards his contemplation (kuan) to look into
the stayig mind which has neither form nor shape. He wil thus realize
that that which stays and all thgs arising therefrom are fWdamentally
immaterial. Ths is the practice of kuan.
(3) Whe sittig
The practiser while sitting should give rise to this thought: 'Why am I now
sitting I Is it because of my desire to create klda or to do evil or unrecord
able tngs 1 I so, I should not sit. If it is for some proftable objective, then
I should sit.'
How shoud one practise chih whe sitting 1 I the practiser clearly knows
tat, though it can create klda and good and evil thgs, there is not a
sigle thig (darma) that can be foWd anywhere, his pererted thoughts
wilnot arse. Ths is the practice of chih.
How should one practise kuan whe sitting 1 The practiser should give
rse to ths thought: 'As my md ths of restig, I am sitting with my
legs placed upon one another to keep my body at ease, and because of ths,
al kds of good and evi thngs wil result; hence ths is caled sitting.' I
I. A void and sti condton beyond al dturbance, the condton of ni.
he tus inwards h contemplation (kuan) to look ito hs mid set on
sitting, he wil not discover its form and shape. Thus he will realize that
that whch sits and a things arising therefrom are fundamentally im
material. This is the practice of kuan.
4) Whle reclg
The practiser while reclig should give rise to this thought: 'Why am I now
reclining 1 If it is because of my delight in evil things or i self-indulgence,
I should not continue to recline. If it is to harmonze the four elements
(earth, water, fe and air), I should continue to recline le the lion kg.1
How should one practise ch whie recling 1 I the practiser clearly
knows that when he reclines, although all good or evil dharmas arise there
from, there is in reality not a single thing (dharma) that can be found any
where; hs false thoughts will cease to arise. This is the practice of chih.
How should one practise kuan while reclining 1 The practiser should
give rise to this thought: 'Because I am tired, I feel gloomy and give rei to
the si passions, 2 thereby creating all kds of klda as well as good and evil
things.' If he turs inwards his contemplation (kuan) to look into the mnd
set on reclining, he will fmd that it has neither form nor shape. Thus he wi
realize that that which reclines as well as all thngs arising therefrom are
fundamentally immaterial. This is the practice of kuan.
(5) Whe working
The practiser while working should give rise to this thought: 'Why am I
now working 1 If it is for evil or unrecordable purposes, I should refrain.
I it is for some proftable reason, I should keep on working.'
How should one practise chih while workg 1 If the practiser clearly
knows that while he is workg, although good and evi things arse
therefrom, there is in reality not a single one that can be found anywhere,
his false thoughts will then cease arising. Ths is the practice of ch.
How should one practise kuan while working 1 The practiser should give
rise to this thought: 'Because my mind causes my hands to move and
work, good or evil thngs wil result; hence I am working.' If he turs i
wards his contemplation (kuan) to look into this mid set on workig, he
will perceive neither its form nor its shape. Thus he will realze that that
which works and all things arising therefrom ae fundamentally im
material. This is the practice of kuan.
( 6) While speaking
When he is about to speak, the practiser should give rse to this thought:
'Why am I now talng 1 I I delight in klda and speak of things tt are of
I. i.e. the Buddha who reclined on his right side.
2. Arising from the six sense organs.
evil or neutral efect, I should stop talng. I my speech is for some pro
ftable purpose, I should speak.'
How should one practise chih while speakig 1 I the practiser knows that
when he talks, klda as wel as good or evil dharmas arise therefrom, he
w clealy know that the mind set on speakg and al the above efects
canot be found aywhere; his false mind will come to a end. This is the
practice of chih.
How shoud one practise kuan while speaking 1 The practiser should give
rise to this thought: 'Because the mind discrimnates and causes the inner
a to rise and the throat, tongue, palate, teeth and lips to produce soud
and voice, there is speech which w result in good or evil efects.' I he
tus inwards hs contemplation (kua) to look into the mind set on
speang, he will fd that it has neither form nor shape. Thus he w
reae that that which speaks a well as al things arising therefom are
fudamentally immaterial. Ths i the practice of kuan.
The above si methods of practising chih and kua are to be employed as
occasion arises. Each of them involves all the fve objectives
(a) to (e))
of the Main Practice (See p. 129
. Now the (control of the) six sene orgas
wll be dealt with
to (rz)).
Whle seeing
When the eyes see a form, for instance the moon (refected) in water, the
practice of ch consists in looking into the unreal refection. If the eyes
meet a pleasant form, the practiser should not give rise to feeligs of like
and when they meet an unpleasant one, he should refrain from feelings of
dislike. I the form seen is neither pleasant nor upleasant, he should abstain
from stupid and confusing thoughts. Ths is the practice of c.
How should one practise kuan when the eyes see a form 1 The practiser
should give rise to this thought: 'When a form is seen, its nature is im
material. Why is it so 1 Because in the clear emptiness between the organ of
sight ad form, there is nothing to be seen and discered, but when ccm
stantial causes interene and unite them, perception of sight (i.e. the frst
conciousnes) w" result, followed by the faculty of mind (i.e. the in
tellect) which then distinguishes all forms. Hence, the creation of al kds
of klda as well as good and evil things (dharma).' The practiser should then
tu inward his contemplation (kuan) to look into the mid that per
ceives forms and wfnd that it has neither form nor shape. He will thus
reae that that which sees and al things seen are fundamentally im
material. This is the pracce of kua.
(8) While heang
We the ears hear a soud, the practce of c consists in abstaing fom
lke when a pleasant one is heard, fom dislie when an unpleat one i
heard and from dif erentaton when a soud that is neither pleasant nor un
pleasant is heard.
How should one practise kuan when a sound is heard! The practiser
should give rise to this thought: 'The sound heard is void and unreal by itself
but when the organ of hearing and the sound unte, the perception of
sound (i.e. the second consciousness) wil result, folowed by the faculty of
md which arbitrary diferentiates. Hence al kinds of klda as well as
good and evil dharmas are created.' The practiser should then tum inwards
the contemplation (kuan) to look into the mind that hears the sound ad
will fnd that it has neither form nor shape. He wil thus realize that that
which hears and asouds heard are fundamentaly immateral. This is the
practice of kua.
(9) Whie smellg
When the nose perceives a smel, the practice of ch consists in lookig into
the smell whch is unreal lie a fame. The practiser should abstain from
liking a smel that is fragrant, from disling one that is ofensive and from
confusing thoughts when it is neither pleasant nor unpleasant. This is the
practice of chh.
How should one practise kuan when a smell is perceived? The practiser
should give rise to this thought: 'As I am smeling an odour, it is deceitful
and uneal. Why 1 Because of the uon of the organ of smel and the odour
smelt the perception of smel (i.e. the third consciousness) will result,
folowed by the faculty of md which arbitrariy grasps the odour; hence
the creation of al kinds of klda as wel as good and evil dharmas.' He
should then turn inwards his contemplation (kuan) to look into the mnd that
smels and wil fnd that it has neither form nor shape. He will thus realze
that the perception of smell and all odours are fundamentally immateral.
(ro) Whe tasting
When the tongue perceives a taste, the practice of chi consists i looking
into the taste which is like a thg existing only in a dream or an ilusion. He
should abstain from liing a taste that is pleasant, from disliking one that is
unpleasant and from diferentiating thoughts when it is neither pleasant nor
unpleasant. This is the practice of chih.
How should one practise kuan when the tongue perceives a taste! The
practiser should give rise to this thought: 'The taste I am perceivig cannot
be found. Why1 Because the (tmderlyig) nature of the si tastes1 does not
diferentiate and because the unon between tongue and taste begets the
perception of taste (i.e. the fourth consciousness): folowed by the faculty of
mnd whch arbitrarily grasps taste, thus creating al kind of klda as wel
I. i.e. biter, sour, sweet, acrd, salt and insipid.
as good ad evil tll ngs.' He should then tur inwards his contemplation
(kuan) to look into that which perceives taste and wil fd that it has
neither form nor shape. He wi thus realize that that whch tastes and the
taste itself are fudamentaly immaterial. Ths i the practice of kua.
(u) While touchng
When the body is touched, the practice of ch consists in lookig into this
touch which is but a shadow that is illusory and unreal. He should abstain
from liing ths touch when it is pleasat, from disliking it when it is un
pleasant and from thg of it when it is neither pleasant nor upleasant.
This is the practice of chih.
How should one practise kuan when the body is touched! The practiser
should give rise to ths thought: 'Physical sensations such as lghtness,
heaviness, coldness, warmth, roughess and smoothess are felt when
touch is experienced by the body whch comprises the head, tru and four
limbs. The nature of touch is non-xstent and the body also is unreal.
When touch and body are unted by causal circumstances, consciousness of
the object of touch (i.e. the ffth consciousness) will result, followed by the
faculty of mnd whch remembers and distinguishes all pleasant ad un
pleasant sensations.' The practiser should then tum inwards his contem
plation (kuan) to look into the md which feels ths touch and he will fnd
that it has neither form nor shape. He will thus realize that that whch feel
physical sensations and these sensations themselves are fundamentaly
imaterial. Ths is the practice of kuan.
(12) While being conscious of thngs
When the facult of mind is conscious of thgs (dharma), the practice
of chh is the same as that taught before to beginners when sittg in
The above si methods (
12)) of chh and kuan in respect of the six
sense organs are to be employed as occasion arises. Each method involves
all the fve objectives ((a) to (e)) of the Main Practice (see p. 129).
He who practises chih and kuan whe walking, staying, sitting, reclining
seeing, hearig, feelig and discerg, really treads the Maayaa Path.
This is dealt with in the followig passage quoted from the long chapter
(of the Mahaprajfapararta Sitra):
'The Buddha said to Subhiti: "I a Bodhisattva while walking is aware
of his act of walkig; while sitting is aware of his act of sittig; and whie
wearing a robe keeps an eye on his One Mind that enters and comes out of
hs state of stilness, he is a true Mahayana Bodhsattva. He who ca prac
tise Mahayaa in ths manner under all circumstances is the unsurpassed
and most excellent ma without equal in the world.'
I his Commentary on the Mahaprajiaparamita Sitra, Nagarua wrote
the folowig gatha:
To sit careee in a grove (of trees)
For silent removal of all evils
And attainment of a mind that's still
Earns bliss that is above the heavens.
All men seek only worldly weal
Caused by good clothes and bedding,
But such happiness is insecure
For desire can ne'er be satised.
To wear the salgha robe fees one fom all cares and brings
One-mindedness in stillness and disturbance.
With wisdom clear and bright one contemplates
Reality that underlies all things.
Thus all the vast variety of things
Impartially can be looked into.
With wisdom realized, the mind is still;
In the three world there's no comparison.1
I the meditator can thus practise properly the chih-kuan method in his con
templation of the seeming to enter the void (the real), he will, while sitting,
perceive the purity and brightness of his body and mind. At the same time
his excelent roots (dormant qualities} wil manifest themselves; he should
know how to recognze them. There are two kinds of these manifest
qualties which difr from each other:
1. The exteral manfestation of (dormant} qualities which causes the
meditator to practise charity (dana), discipline and morality (sila) and flial
piety; to respect his superiors and make oferings to the Three Precious
Ones2 and to folowers of the Teaching. These are outer manifestations but
i his practice is not proper, he wil fall into the real of demons; this will
be explained later.
2. The interal manifestation of (dormant) qualties i the state of
dhyana, which should be interpreted in three ways as follows:
(a) manifestation of excellent roots;
(b) genuine and false manifestation; and
(c) practice of chih-kuan to preserve and develop these excelent
r. Worlds of desire, form and beyond form .
.. Buddha, Dharma and Sangha.
(a) Maestation of excellent roots
There are fve kinds of excellent qualities which are:
(i) The manfestation of excelent qualities due to the (efective) control
of breathg. Because of his proper practice of chih-kuan, the meditator
succeeds in regulating his body and mind, thus stopping the fow of
thoughts, and so causig his mind gradually to enter the state of dhyana
which stil pertains to the realm of desie before he has achieved the
(dhyana) stages of Bodhisattva development. I this stiless, both his body
and mind (seem to) vanish and become immaterial. His stabilized mind is
now at ease, and in this dhyana condition, the form and shape of his body
and mind canot be perceived. Thus after one or two meditations, or in one
or two days or months, his breath (seems to be) imperceptible. This
dhyaa condition will not disperse but will last, and suddenly, his body and
md wil react to it with (involuntary) movements producig eight
physical sensations such as pai, itchg, coldness, warmth, lightness (or
weightlessness), heaviness, roughness, and smoothness.1 When these
sensations are felt, h body and mind are incomparably easy, calm, void,
subtle, joyful, blissful, pure and clean. This is the manestation of excellent
qualities due to basic dhyana produced by restful breathg.
The practiser may also, whie stil in the realm of desire and before
attaing the stages of Bodhisattva development, suddeny be conscious of
the length, either long or short, of each i and out breath and feel that all the
pores of his body are open and unobstructed, so that in his mnd's eye he
sees clearly everything inside his body as if he had opened a warehouse to
see distinctly al the hemp, cereals, etc., stored therei. He wi be startled
and overjoyed and his md will be calm and happy. This is the mani
festation of excellent roots caused by the stabiization of breathg.
(i) The manfestation of excellent qualities due to the contemplation of
flthiness. The practiser may, whie still in the realm of desire and before
attaining the dhyana stages of Bodhisattva development, perceive the im
materiality of his body and mind in their still condition, seeig suddenly
the swolen and decaying corpses of men which discharge worms and pus
and expose a mess of white bones. With grief and joy intermgled, he will
now detest a that he previously treasured. This is the manestation of
excellent roots due to the ninefold meditation (on corpses).2
The meditator may also, while in ths still condition, suddenly see fth
i h body and messy swelngs on it, and become aware of how h whte
r. See Chapter 6 for detiled explanation.
2. Navasarjia, one of the meditations on fithiness, or the ninefold medittion
on a dead body: (r) its tmefaction; (2) its blue, mottled colour; (3) its decay; (4) its
mess ofblood, etc.; (5) its rotting fesh and discharges; (6) its beig devoured by birds
and beasts; (7) it dismemberig; (8) its white bones; and (9) their crematon and
return to dust.
bones suppor each other from his head to hs feet. After ths vision, whe
hs mid is stabilized, he wil be startled and awaken to impermanence and
so hate the fve harmful desies and discard the notion of self and others. This
is the manifestation of excelent roots as a result of renunciation.
Or, he may, while in this stilless of mind, see that the inside and outside
of hs ow body; all birds and beasts; food, drink and clothig; and houses,
huts, hs and groves are all unclean. This is the manfestation of excellent
roots due to (total rejection of) all impurities.
(i) The manfestation of excellent qualities due to (inherent) kindness
(maitri).1 Because of his (successful) practice of chih-kuan, the meditator
realizes the condition of stillness in the realm of desire, prior to achieving
the dhyana stages of Bodhisattva development. While dwelng i this
state, he may suddeny give rise to kid thoughts of living beings, or be
cause of the happiness of some relative, he will achieve a profound dhyana,
thereby experiencing joy, bliss, purity and cleanness which are incom
parable. Likewise he will achieve the same attainment in the case of the
happiness of a neutral, 2 an opponent, or any living being in the fve worlds
of existence. After his meditation, his mnd will be joyful and happy, and
when he meets others, hs men will always be friendly and sympathetic.
Ths is the manfestation of excellent roots due to the practiser's (inherent)
kindness of heart.
Likewise, the same excellent roots also manifest because of the practiser's
(inerent) compassion (karla), joy (mudita) and renunciation (upeka).
(iv) The manfestation of excellent qualities as a result of awakening to
(the twelve liks in the chain of ) causalty.3 Because of his (efective)
practice of the chi-kuan method, the meditator achieves the condition of
stilless i the realm of desire, prior to his realzation of the dhyaa of body
and md i the stages of Bodhsattva development. While in this state, he
(may) awaken suddenly and, by lookig into the (twelve liks i the chai
of exstence such as:) ignorance (avidya), activity (sar1Skara), etc., of the
past, present and future, he wil fail to perceive the existence of self and
others; he thus succeeds in avoiding mortality and immortality, i re
lquishg a bigoted views, i becoming stabilized and at ease, i de
veloping correct understanding through wisdom, in experiencing joy i the
I. The frst of the four immeasurables, four universals, or four infnite Buddha
states of mid: boundless kindness, maitri; boundless compassion, karufa; boundless
joy, mudita, on seeing others delivered from sufering; and boundless indiference, or
renunciaton, upeka.
2. A person who is neither friendly nor hostile.
3. Nidana, causes or links in the chain of existence: (I) ignorance or unenlighten
ment; (2) action, activity, concepton or disposition; (3) consciousness; (4) name and
form; (5) the six sense organs, i.e. eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind; (6) contact
or touch; (7) senstion or feeling; (8) desire or craving; (9) grasping; (Io) being or
existng; (u) birth; and (n) old age and death.
Dhma ad in being unconcered about the worldly. He (may) come to
the same result by looking ito the fve aggregates,1 the twelve entraces, 2
ad the eighteen realms of sense. 3 Th is the manifestation of excelent
roots through the twelve nidanas.
(v) The manifestation of excellent qualities due to remembrance of
Buddha. Because of his (efective) practice of the chih-kuan method, the
meditator realizes the (worldly) dhyana in the realm of desire but not yet
that of the stages of Bodhisattva development. Whie his body and mind are
i ths state of stiimmateriality, he suddenly remembers the inconceivable
merits, physical marks and excelent aspects of all Buddhas; their u
fathomable (ten) powers, (four kinds of ) fearlessness, (eighteen) usur
passed characteristics, samadhis and liberation; and their mysterious powers
of transformation and unobstructed widespread preaching for the beneft
of living beings. While recollecting these, he gives rise to feelgs of re
verence and devotion; thereby developig his own state of samadhi which
causes his body and mind to be joyful, happy, easy, stabilized and free from
a evils. When he comes out of this condition of stillness, he feels com
fortable and light (weightless), and is aware of his imposing merits which
commad the admration and respect of others. This is the manifestation of
excellent roots due to the realization of the samadhi of remembrance of
Furthermore, if a meditator, because of his (efective) practice of the chi
kuan method, realizes the state of purit and cleanness of both body and
mind, he may awaken to the Dharma doors such as (the doctrines of ) im
permanence, sufering, unrealit and non-xistence of ego; of fthiness and
the repulsive and unclean (way i which) the worldly feed; of(what follows
when) mortalit ends; of the constant recolection of Buddha, Dharma,
Sangha, precepts, renuciation and heaveny (blessings); of the (four) sub
jects of refecton (or fourfold objectivity of thoughts), the (four) proper
lines of exertion, the (four) advanced steps to powers of ubiquit, the (fve)
positive agents, the (fve) powers intensifing the (fve) positive agents and
the (seven) degrees of enightenment;6 of voidness, immateriality and in
activity; of the six perfections and other paramtas; and of superatural
I. The fve aggregates, or skancha, are: form (ripa), reception (vedana), discern
ing (saijia), discrimination (sarskara) and consciousness (vijiana).
2. The twelve entrances, or ayatana, are: the six organs and six sense data that
lead to discriminaton.
3. The eighteen realms of sense or dhatu are: the six sense organs, their objecs
and their perceptions.
4. A samadh realized by a meditator who concentrates his attention solely on the
Buddha by calling his name endlessly. (See Chapter 3, the Pure Land School.)
s. See Ch'an and Zen Teaching, Third Series, the Sitra of Complete Enghten
ment, p. 193, note 2, for detaied explanations.
powers and transcendental transformations, etc., which should be ds
tinguished properly from one another. Hence the sitra says: 'When the
mind is brought under complete control, all things are possible.'
(b) Genuine and false manifestations
There are two ways of distinguishing between false ad genuine mani
1. A evil manifestation can be recognized when the meditator, while
experiencig the above state of dhyana, feels that his body is either restless or
seems to be laden with a heavy burden, is so light that it is inclined to fy,
seems to be tied up, or sways to fall into a sound sleep, or when he senses
bitter cold or intense heat. At times, he sees strange visions, or his mid is
dim ad stupid: he gives rise to evil feelings, or mixed and confused
thoughts of good actions. At times, he is flled with joy and is thereby
agitated or he gives way to sadness and depression. At times he experiences
evil sensations that cause all his hair to stand on end or he is muddled through
rapture. Such manfestations in the state of stiless are false and come from
evil dhyana. If the meditator delights in and clings to them, he will be
responsive to the ninety-fve ways of ghosts and spirits, and may contract
an illness of mind and so become insane. Or he may come under the evil
infuence of ghosts and spirits who know of hs clinging to their heresies
and wil increase their power to hold him fast to compel him to realize evil
dhyana and evil knowledge, thereby acquiring the power of (evil) speech
that impresses worldlings. The ignorant will regard this as attainment of the
Tao and will believe and submit to him. However, his inner mind is already
pererted and he will tread the ways of ghosts to deceive and disturb
worldly men. At his death, he will not meet the Buddha but will fall into
the realm of hungry ghosts. If he practises heresies when meditating, he will
fall ito the realm of hells.
If a practiser of the chih-kuan method experiences these states of evil
dhyana, he should drive them away. How? If they are known as deceitful,
he should correct his mind by not accepting and cliging to them and they
wil vanish of themselves. He should then contemplate (kuan) properly to
break up this evil dhyana which will disappear.
2. A genuine manifestation is recognizable by the practiser if his state of
dhyana is free from the above experiences. In the right dhyana, each of its
successive manifestations accords well with the state itself which is im
material, bright, pure and clean, and in which his inner mind is joyful
with feelings of ease and bliss; freedom from hindrance; emergence of
good-heartedness; increase in faith and devotion; clear perception and i
sight; and his body and mind being mild and in the condition of im
materiality and stillness. He has an aversion to the worldly, being inactive
wth no desire, and able to enter or leave this state of dhyana at wil. These
are the manifestations of genuine dhyana. As an iustration, when you work
with an evi man, he wiirritate you but if you work with a good man, his
excellent behaviour will satisf you. Distinction between an evi and a
genuine dhyaa is made i the same way.
(c) The practice of ch-kuan for preserg manifestly excelent roots
When his in er excelent qualties manifest during meditation, the practiser
should employ the chih-kuan method to advance further. He should
practise ch or kuan as the case requires, as taught above.
The Sanskrit word 'mara' means 'murderer' i Chiese. Mara robs the
practiser of his wealth of merits and destroys the life of his wisdom,1 hence
the aims of evil demons. The Buddha's aim is to lead, by means of merits
and wisdom, al living beigs to nirva1a, but mara's target is to destroy thei
good roots so as to condemn them to drift in the stream of birth and death.
I we can quiet the mind to practise the right Tao, we wil fnd out that
mara grows fercely as our Tao progresses higher; hence the need to dis-
- '
cer mara s a1m.
There are four kinds of mara: the demon of trouble (kda), the demon
of the fve aggregates, the demon of death and demoniac spirits. The frst
three are common being created by the self-mid and should be eradicated
by it. They are (wel know and are, therefore) not dealt with here. As to
demoniac spirits, they should be known and are now discussed. There
are three kinds:
1. The mschievous maras who are typied by the twelve anmals which
stand for the twelve hours of day and nght and which take various bodily
forms, either as girls or elderly men and various frightening appearances to
deceive and trouble the meditator. These demons choose thei characteristic
times to come and anoy him and should be recognized. If a demon comes
between 3 and 5 a.m., he stands for a tiger; between 5 and 7, a rabbit:
between 7 and 9, a dragon: between 9 and II, a snake: between II a.m. and
I p.m., a horse: between I and 3 p.m., a sheep: between 3 and 5, a monkey:
between 5 and 7, a chicken: between 7 and 9, a dog: between 9 and I I, a pig:
between II p.m. and I a.m. a rat and between I and 3, a bufalo.2 If the
I. Wisdom life, a Buddhist term, means wisdom as life, being the basis of spiritual
2. These twelve symbolic animals can be lkened to the twelve signs of the zodiac:
ares, turus, gemi, cancer, leo, virgo, libra, scorpio, sagittrius, cpricorn, aquarius
and pisces.
practiser regularly sees them coming at specic hours, he w know tat
they are animal spirits. He should name and shout at them and they wi
disappear at once.
2. The harassig mas who aim to trouble the meditator and who appear
as worms and grubs that sting his head, tickle him under the arms, clutch at
him, make a disturbing noise or appear as beasts or in other strange forms
to annoy him. He should recognze them, close hs eyes, concentrate on hs
single mind and scold them, saying: 'I know you; you are the fre-atg,
incense-smelig and oferings-stealing demons of this world, who hold
evi views and delight in breaking the precepts. I keep the commandments
and am not afraid of you.' If the practiser is a monk, he should read the
sila text, and i he is a layman, he should recite the three formulas of refuge
and the fve prohibitions, whereat these demons wi crawl away. There
are many ways of getting rid of them which are taught in the sitra.
3 The confusing maras who create conditions of sense data to destroy
the meditator's mental progress, such as: ( 1) an adverse surrounding of fve
fearful sense data to scare him; (2) a favourable surrounding of fve pleasant
sense data to incite him to cling to them; and
a surrounding of ordinar
sense data, which is neither favourable nor adverse, to confuse him. Hence,
they are called murderers, fowery (i.e. attractive) arrows, or the fve
arrows that hit a man's fve senses.
They produce al kinds of states to deceive and mislead the meditator,
such as: friendy states in which his parents, his brothers, Buddhas and
respectable men and women appear to arouse his attachment to them;
hostile states in which wild beasts such as tigers, wolves, lions and malignant
spirits (rakasas) come in frightful forms to terrify him; and ordinary states
that are neither friendly nor hostile to divert and confuse his mind, causing
his faiure to realize dhyana; hence they are called maras. Sometimes they
make pleasant or unpleasant speeches or sounds, give of fragrant or ofen
sive smells, produce good or bad favours and create happy and unappy
situations that afect his body; these are demonic infuences which are too
many to be counted. To sum up, they assail the senses i all kinds of ways to
annoy and upset the meditator, causing him to deviate from al good
Dharmas and to get involved in all sorts of klda. They all belong to mara
armies that aim to destroy the unversal Buddha Dharma and to obstruct
the Tao by causing desire, sadness, hatred, sleep, etc., as said in the followig
Desire is the frst of your armies;
Wo"y and sadness is the second;
The third is thirst and hunger;
Craving for love's the fourth:
The ffh is sleep and drowsiness;
While awe and fight compose the sixth;
Doubt and repentance are the seventh;
Anger and resentment make the eihth;
Gain and preservation form the ninth;
While pride and selimportance are the tenth.
With so many troops you aim
To destroy the Sangha.
I use strong dhyina wisdom
To break up all your stength
And when I am a Buddha
To fee all living beings.
When the practiser is aware of these mara distrbances, he should avoid
them. There are two ways of so doing:
(i) By the practice of chh. When encountering these exteral mara
states, he should know that they are all unreal and should never worry or
be frghtened. Neither should he accept or reject them and give rise to dis
crimation. Directly he stops all the activities of h mind ad sets it at rest,
they w disappear of themselves.
(i) By the practice of kuan. When these mara states appear, i he fails to
avoid them by means of chih, he should look into the subjective mind that
beholds them. He wfd that since his mid leaves no traces, 1 no demon
can trouble it. By so practising kuan, these states wvanish.
If they do not disappear, he should set his md arght and avoid givig
rise to fear. He should, even at the sacrce of h ow life, rema unper
turbed in hs right thought. For he should kow that the (fudamental)
condition of suchness of the mara real is identical with that of the region
of Buddhas. Sice both conditions are of the same absoluteness, they are but
one and are, therefore, non-dual. Thus he wil understand that while the
mara realm should not be rejected, the region of Buddhas should not be
grasped and, as a result, the Buddha Dharma wmanifest itself before him,
with all mara states vanishig of themselves.
If these mara states do not disappear, he should not worry ad if they
vanish, he should not be delighted. Why1 Because, up to now, no meditator
has actually seen a demon take the form of a tiger or a wolf to come and
devour him. Neither has a meditator actually seen a demon take a huma
form of the opposite sex to come and live with him (or her) as wife or
husband. An ignorant man who does not know that these transformations
are illusory is scared or gives rise to attachment, thereby upsetting his ow
mind and becomig inane (i the worst case). Thu he harms hself
1. Lit. has no whereabouts.
because of his ignorace ad his troubles are certainly not caused by
I these mara states last for months or even a whole year without ay
likelihood of their disappearance, the meditator shoud set his mid aright
and frmly abide i the right thought, even at the peri of his body ad life,
without giving way to worry and fear. He should recite the Mahayana and
Vaipulya sitras, silently repeat the mara-repulsing mantras and f hs mid
on the Thee Gems. After h meditation, he should repeat the mantras for
self-protection, obsere the rules of repentance and reform and read the
pratimoka.1 Sice wickedness i no match for righteousness, these mara
states wil sooner or later disappear of themselves. They are too numerous
to be listed, but they shoud be recognzed by beginners who should cal on
leared masters for guidance. These difcult situations show that maras
have entered the mind of the practiser to deceive and disturb him and to
cause him to be either happy or sad, thereby bringing harm or even deat
to the victim. Sometimes they mislead him so that he realizes evil dhyana,
evil knowledge, evi spiritual power and evil dharaiis (i.e. black magic},
preaches wrongly and leads others to evil ways. He then believes in and sub
mits to them and they encourage h to break the sangha' s rules of conduct
and to destroy the right Dharma. There are so many of these states that
they cannot be given in ful. I have mentioned only the important ones so
that students sitting i dhyaa can know how to avoid them. To sum up,
the avoidance of depraviry in order to retur to righteousness consists i
looking into the (underlyig) realiry of all tgs (dharma} in the practice
of ch and kuan which wi destroy all depraviry. Hence, Nagarjua said
i his Commentary on the Mahaprajiapararta Sitra: 'Besides the rear
underlyig all dharmas (i.e. the Bhitatathata), there is not a thing that does
not pertain to mara.' This is explained in the following gatha:
Discimination, thought and recollection
Are the net of Mara.
Imperturbability and non-direntiation
Are the seal of Dharma.
During hs practice of self-ultivation, the meditator may fall ill because of
either his (wrong} contemplation of mind and counting of breaths which
may brig ito play disharmony between the four elements or because of h
1. The 250 precepts for monk i the vinaya; they are read i asembly twice a
(improper) control of body, breath ad mind, thereby afecting his heath.
If the md is properly controlled durig the meditation, al the 404 ai
ments1 wil be elated, but if it is wrongly regulated, they wil man
fest. Therefore, durg hs own practice or when teachig others, the
meditator should know the origins of ailments and the method of healg
them by means of mind (control) whe sitting in dhyana, because not only
do il nesses hinder hs self-ultivation but also (i the worst case) they may
endanger his life.
To heal ailments requires the knowledge of diagnosis ad treatment.
(a) Diagnosis of ailments
I spite of a great number of ilnesses, diagnosis does not exceed the follow
ig two modes: the condition of the four elements and of the fve viscera.
Chih I here details in tum the ailments due to an excess i
the body of the elements of earth, water, fre and air and those
which are caused by some irregularity i the heart, lver, lungs,
stomach or kidneys. He then continues:
Furthermore, there are thee diferent causes of ailments: excessive or
defcient conditions of the four elements and fve viscera, as already ex
plained; harmful interference by ghosts and spirits; and karmic infuences.
Aents are easy to elimate if they are treated at the very beginning,
but if they are allowed to worsen with the passing of time, when the
body is greatly afected and becomes emaciated, it is very dicult to cue
(b) Treatment of ailments
Mter diagnosis has determined the origin of an aient, a method should be
employed to cure it. There are many ways of treating il esses, but essenti
ay only two are expedient, chih and kua.
(i) Treatment by chih. How should one employ chih to cure ailments!
A master said: 'ust fx the mind on the afected spot and the aient wl
be cured.' Why so 1 Because mind is mainly responsible for the rewards
and punishments i a lifetime. 2 It is like a kng from whom, when he comes
to a place, bandits fee in all diections.
Another master said: 'Wit an inch below the navel is the udaa,
I. Ech of the four elements (earh, water, fe, wind) is responsible for IOI
aients; thus IOI X 4 = 404 aiments in all .
.. Lit. is the chief in a retibutve lifetme.
caed ta, 'ien i Chnese.1 If the mnd is deftely fed there, a aients
ca be cued in time.'
A (thd) master said: 'If, while walg, standing, reclg and sleepig,
the mind is fxed on the sole of the feet, one wilcure all aents.' Why sol
Because illnesses are caused by the four elements being out of order. Ths is
due to the mind and its cognition that foat up to folow extera cause and
so upset the four elements. If the mnd is brought down, the four elements
wlnot be afected and wil be i their proper workg condtion, with the
elnation of all ailents.
A (fourth) master said: 'I athgs (dharma) are perceived as unrea and
non-xistent and i no aiments are thought of (astiring) will cease in the
state of stiless; many aiments are thereby eradicated.' Why sol Because of
the stirring mind that rouses the four elements and so produces il esses. I
the mind is at rest and in a happy state, al aients wil dsappea. Hence,
the Vimalakirti Nirdda Sitra says: 'Where do aients originatel From
attachment to (external) causes. How is this cut ofl By realzing that te
md does not gai anythig therefrom.'
The above are diferent methods of curing il nesses by meas of chi. There
fore, we know that if chi is properly practised, aaients ca be eradcated.
(ii) Treatment by kua. A master said: Just visualize your thg md
as defeating aiments by either of the six kinds of breath.' This is cure by
kua. The si breaths are the pufmg,2 expelling,3 shouting,' sighing,6
soothig6 and restfu7 breaths which are expediently iagined as comng
from the mouth and thrown out continuously to drive away a ilness.
Hence, ts stanza:
All sages know that a sigh heals the heart; a puf the kidneys;
Breathing out will cure the stomach and a restul breath, the lungs;
A soothing breath cools heat in the liver,
While indigestion is stopped by a shout.
Ch I here quotes at len
th fom another master who listed
twelve other types of breathin
and the respective aients
whch each could cure.
I. Tan t'ien: a reservoir of the vitl principle that can be transmuted ito the
Eir of Life according to the Taoists.
2. A pufmg breath: a shor quick blast of cold breath to blow ailments away.
3. An expelng breath: an audible exhalation, expressive of discharge.
4 A shouting breath: an audible exhalation, expressive of driving away.
5 A sighing breath: an audible expiration of warm breath, expressive of relief.
6. A soothing breath: a slow expiration of warm breath to soothe.
7 A restful breath: a fne breth to harone body and mind and so to enure
A (thd) master said: 'I visuation is efective, it can cure al illesse.'
For instance, when a ma sufers from a shivering fever, he should (men
tay) visualie a rising fe i hs body and so get rid of the chl. This i
taught in the Samyuktagama Sitra1 which lists sevent-two secret methods
(of visualiation).
A (fourth) master said: just employ the chih-kua method to examine
and analyse all illnesses due to the four elements (because these) ailments
cannot be foud in either body or mid, ad you are on you way to
These are diferent methods of treating illnesses and i they are well under
stood (and properly employed}, they can all cure aients. So we know
that with the efcient use of chh-kuan, there is not a sigle il ness that
cannot be healed. Nowadays, however, ma's roots are very shallow ad
so these methods are not practised properly; hence they have been for
gotten. Since people do not follow (the Taoist} method of developing the
vital principle (pra.a) and of abstaig fom cereals, lest they fall into
heresy,8 they use medicial herbs and minerals which ca ao ce
I ilnesses are caused by the harmful iuences of demons, one's md
should be strengthened by repeating mantras to overcome them. If they are
due to karmc iuence, one should repent, reform and cultivate one's feld
of blessedness (with moral actions), thereby rooting them all out. I we
understand ony one of these two courses, we ca practise it efectively for
our own beneft and can also teach it to others; how much more so if
both courses are wel uderstood and folowed 1 I we do not know them,
we wlbe unable to cure our ilesses; and then, not ony wwe be com
pelled to give up the right Dharma, but our lives may even be i danger.
How then can we practise the Dharma and teach it to others 1 Therefore,
i our practice of chih-kuan, we should understand perfectly the methods
of treating diseases by meas of ou inner minds. These methods are may
and comprehension of them depend on individual (responiveness); how
can tey be handed down by writing 1
Furthermore, the mental treatment of il ness duing meditation shoud
iclude ten benefcial essentials which are: faith, practice, exertion,
non-deviation, discerment of the causes of iless, expediency, long
endurance, abiity to retain or drop, taing care ad awareness of
Wat is faith! Faith i this method which ca heal illnesses. What is
practice! Practice of the method as occasion requires. What is exertion!
I. A miscelaneous treatse on abstrac medittion, one of the four Agamas.
2. The Taoist practce referred to is not that tught by Laotzu but was kow
before h.
Exertion in the corect pracce until recovery. Wat is non-eviation! The
md i close conormity with t method without deviating from it for
even a instat. What is discerment of the causes of iless 1 Discerment as
explained in the earler paragraph on the diagnosis. What is expediency!
Expediency i proper breathg and in skilul visuazation for recovery.
What is long enduace 1 If the practice does not give a immediate result,
it should be continued uremittingly, without tag into accout the
number of days or months required for success. What is abilty to retain or
drop 1 This means that in the subtle state of the mind concentrated on the
cue of iles, whatever proves benefcial to ultimate recovery should be
retained whereas whatever proves harmful should be dropped. What is
takg care! It is the skiul discerent (and avoidance) of all discordt
causes. What is awareness of hindrances 1 Whatever is proftable should not
be (lightly) disclosed to others; before (a method) is proved harmful, there
should be neither distrust nor criticism (of it). I tese ten essentials ae ful
flled, recovery from the illness is assued.
If the meditator so practise the chih-kuan method, he wlbe able clearly to
reale that all thigs are ceated by the mind and are void because all the
de and circumstatial causes of their creation are unreal. As they are
void, their names and terms are also unreal.1 This is the stopping ( chih) of
all rsig causes for apprehension of Reality.2 He who achieves this stage
w perceive neither the Buddha fruit, high above, that can be realized,
nor lvg beings, here below, who can be liberated. This is meditation on
the ureal resultg in realization of the void, whch is also called medtaton
on the void, or wisdom's eye, or al-knowledge. 3 If you stay in t medita
tion, you will fall into the sravaka and pratyeka-buddha stages. Hence the
sitra says: 'The sravakas declared: "If we hear about (the teaching whch
conists in) puing Buddha lands and i teaching and converting livig
beings, we are not happy. Why1 Because all things are i te nrac
condition whch is beyond creation and destruction, whch is neither large
nor small and whch is above the worldly plane and in te trascendenta
I. Lit. 'their nmes and designations cnnot be found anywhere', becuse they do
not show anything that really exists. We live in the world of iusions because we clng
to names and terms which hve no substance of their own.
2. S a p. I JO, paragraph (ii).
3. The frst of the three kinds of wisdoms which are: (I) ravaka and prtyek
buddha knowledge that all things are void and unreal; (2) Bodhstva knowledge of
al things i thei proper dicriminaton and (3) perfec Buddha knowledge of al
things i thei every aspec and relatonship past, present and future; omniscience.
(wu wei) state. Thg thus, we are unhappy." You should know tat
he who perceives the wu wei state and thereby reachs the right position,
will never be able to develop the sambodhi mid.1 This is due to excess
of dhyana (i.e. stil ness over wisdom), hence inability to perceive the
Buddha nature.
I for the beneft of al living beings, a Bodhisattva achieves all Buddha
Dharmas, he should not grasp the w wei state for self-attaiment of
nvaa. He should shift his contemplation of the void to that of the seem
ing and thereby realize that although the nature of his mind2 is void, it ca,
when encountering exteral causes, create all phenomena which are le
illusions and transformations, ad, though not in a fed and real state, can
perform the various functions of seeing, hearing, feeling and kowing. In
such a meditation, although he knows that fundamentally all thngs are in
the void state of nirvala, in this voidness, he is able to do everthing per
fectly, lke someone planting trees i the emptiness (of space), and to discer
the dierent roots (propensities) of all livig beings because of the coutless
desires that arise in thei natures. He w exoud (to them) coutless
Dharmas and i he realizes the unindered power of speech, he wbe able
to look after the welfare of living being in the si realms of exstence.
This is the expedient method of folowing exteral causes in the practice
of chih meditation, which consists in shifting the contemplation of the void
to that of the seeming, called universal meditation, or Dharma mind or
wisdom of the Tao seed.3 Wle staying in this meditation, because of
excess of wisdom (over dhyana), although a Bodhittvas perceives the
Buddha nature, he does not see it distinctly.
Although the practiser achieves these two knds of meditation, they are
only expedients and are not the right insight. Hence the sitra says that they
are two expedient paths and that contemplation of the emptiness of both
leads to right insight into the 'Mea' whch is inclusive of both ad wherein
the mind in its nirvac condition wof itself fow into the sarajfa ocea
(omence). If a Bodhisattva wishes to achieve in the fash of a thought
te wholeness of al Buddha Dharmas, he should practise laying down
(c) the two extemes to achieve right insight into the Mean. What does
the practice of right insight mean 1 I the nature of mid is cognized as being
neither real nor unreal, the mind that ceases to grasp both the real and the
false is right. Insight into the nature of mind which is neither void nor flse,
free from the anton of both te void and the seeming, will ensure
I. As he cligs to the w wei stte, this atchment hinders his reton of
stbd, or universal enightenment which is free from all diferenttion. The
rght positon is the Buddha stge or Buddhahood which should not be grsped.
z. The self-xg fundamentl pure mind, or Tathagat-garbh.
3 Or Bodhistva knowledge, the second of the te kd of knowledge. Se
ap. ISI, note 3
attaent of the Mean that includes both. If the Mean inclusive of both the
void ad the seeming is perceived within the self-mnd, it is also perceived
wthi athings (dharma), but should not be grasped for its fed nature is
undiscoverable. This is caled right isight into the Mean as explained in the
followg gatha of the Madhyamka sastra:
All things causally produced
I say are void,
Are but fale names
And alo indicate the Mean.
Ponder over the deep meanig of ths gatha whch not ony fuly defnes
the Mean but also the ais of the other two expedient meditations (on the
void and the uneal). You should kow that right contemplation of the
Mean i the Buddha's eye or omniscience (sarvajia). He who stays in this
meditative stage wil equalie dhyana with wisdom, wil clearly perceive
the Buddha nature, will abide comortably in (the state of ) Mahayana, wil
tread the Path evenly and correctly and, advancing like the wind, wil
automatically fow into the sarajia ocean (where) he wil act lie the
Tathagata (by) enterig the Tathagata abode, wearing the Tathagata robe
and sittig on the Tathagata thone.1 Thus he wil ador hmself with the
Tathagata majesty, purify his six sense organs, enter the Buddha realm and
fee himself from defement in the midst of al phenomena (dharma). Since
he i now well versed in a Buddha Dharmas,2 he wlachieve the samadhi
of the Remembrance ofBuddha3 and wilabide in the Siraigama Samadhi.
Thus he wil (be able to) appear in bodiy forms in aBuddha lands i the
ten directions to teach and convert living beings, embelsh aBuddha
realms, make oferings to all Buddhas in the ten directions, receive and up
hold the Teachngs of all Buddhas, achieve al perfections (paramta) and
awaken to and enter upon the great Bodhisattva (Mahasattva) stage where
he will keep company with Samantabhadra and Majuri, wil not stray
from the Dharmakaya, wil receive praise from a the Buddhas who wil
foretell his future attainments, that is his embellishment of the Tuita
heaven (with hs savg work), his coming birth from the sacred womb of a
mother, hs retirement from the world, his sitting at a holy site (bodhimai
gala), his overcoming of all demons, his realation of Universal Enlighten
ment, his turg of the Wheel of Dharma, hs entry into Nirv1a, his
I. A quotation from the Lotus Sitra. Tathigata abode stnds for universal com
passion for all living beings; Tathigata robe, for kndness and forbearance; and
Tathagat throne, for immutbity withn the voidness of all thgs.
2. Lit. 'Since al Buddha Dharmas now apper in front of him'.
3 A samidhi red by contemplatg the Buddha and by repetng h name.
See Chapter 3, The Pue Lnd School.
accomplishment of a Buddha works in a lands in the ten direction ad
hs acquisition of the two bodies.1 Therefore, he i a Bodisattva whose
mnd is newly intiated (into the Mea).
The Avatamsaka Sitra says: 'At the time of his mnd's itiaton (to the
Mean, a Bodhisattva) realies the right bod, clearly perceives the true
nature of al things and uderstands that hs body of wisdom2 is self-be
gotten.' It also says: 'A newly itiated Bodsatva who realizes one
Tathagatakaya3 can transform it into coutless Nirmalakayas.'' It further
says: 'A newly itiated Bodhisattva is but Buddha.' The Mahapa
Sitra says: 'The newly iitiated mind and the ultimate mind do not difer
from each other; of the two, the former i dcult (to realze).' The Sitra
of the Long Chapter says: 'Subhiti, there are Bodhisattvas ad Mahasattvas
who, from the moment their minds are initiated (to the Mean), sit i the
bodhim34ala and tum the Wheel of Rght Dharma;6 you should kow
that they act like the Buddha.' As said in the Lotus Sitra, Nagakanya7 pre
sented her gem to the Buddha to bear wtness to her speedy realization.
These sitras clearly show that a newly itiated mind is complete wth a
Buddha Dharmas. This is but the frst letter A8 mentioned i te Sitra of
the Long Chapter; the openg up of Buddha knowledge iherent in a
living beings, in the Lotus Sitra; and the perception of Buddha nature for
abidng in Final Nirva, in the Mahapara Sitra.
We have exlaied briefy the realzation of (bodh) fuit as a result of the
practice of chi-kua by Bodsattvas whose minds are newly itiated
I. Real body comprising the Dharmakaya, Sambhogakaya and Niiakay or
transformation body.
2. The frst of the fve kinds of Dharmakaya: (r) the spiritual body of exstent
wisdom, (2) of all meritorious achievements, (3) of incaration, (4) of united power
of transformation and (5) of boundless space. The frst and second are defned as
Sambhogakaya, the third and fourh as NirmaQakaya, and the fth as Dharmkaya
which possesses all the others.
3 Body of suchness, or absolute body.
4 Transformaton body.
s. Kumarjiva translated into Chinese two chapters of the Mhaprjnpamit
Sita (6o chuan or rolls) and edited them separately: the long one is called Ta Pi
Chng or the Sitra of the Long Chapter (27 chuan) and the shor one, called Hiao Pi
Chng or.the Sitra of the Shor Chapter (ro chuan).
6. In contast with worldlgs who are tured upside down by the wheel of birh
and death.
7 A naga maiden who, according to the Lots Sitra, presented her precious gem
to the Buddha who imediately accepted it i the presence of His dsciples to ber
witness to her realiton of enghtenment in the time that it took for the gem to
pas from her hands to those of the World Honoued One.
8. A is the ft letter of the Siddham aphabet and stands for the uncreate. It has
seven megs: (r) Bodh md, (2) Dharma, (3) Non-uait, (4) Dharadhat or
re of dlrm, (5) Dhar, or Dharma nate, (6) Sovereignty and (7) Dhr
makaya, or essentl body.
(to the Mea). We w now dea wth thei realzation of Ultate
The stage attained by the Ultimate Mind canot be kown, but one can
deduce from the Teaching that it does not stray from the twi method of
ch and kuan. Why sol Because the Lotus Sitra says: 'Persistent glor
fcation of the wisdom of all Buddhas is what kuan (vipa.yana) meas.'
This is kuan, a term used to describe the fruit realized. The Mahapar:a
Sitra makes an extensive use of terms and expressions conveying the mean
ig of lberation to explai the Final Nirva1a, and by nir:a1 is meant chi
(samatha) which is a term employed to describe the fruit attained. Hence,
this sitra says: 'Mahaparinrv:a is called the eterally stil samadhi.' By
samadhi i meant chih.
Although the Lotus Sitra uses the word kuan to describe the fruit realized
that word also includes chih. Hence, this sitra says: 'Even the eteral still
ness and extiction (of passions} of Ultimate Nirv:a fally revert to the
void.' Although the Mahaparinir:a Sitra uses the word chih to describe
the fruit attained, that word also includes kuan. Hence, this sitra defnes
Mahaparirv:a as possessing al three of the (meritorous) virtues.2 Al
though the explanations i these to great sitras difer, both use the two
methods of chih and kuan to discuss the Ultimate and both depend on tig
(dhyana-samadhi) and hui (prajia} to describe the Supreme Fruit. You
should know that the initial, intermediate and fnal attainments are all in
conceivable. Hence, the Suvafa-prabhasa-uttamaraja Sitra3 says: 'The past
Tathagata was inconceivable, the present Tathagata is adored with all
forms of maesty and the future Tathagata wil be eteral, being free from
decay.' Thus the two ch and kuan states of mind are used to distinguish
the (Supreme) Fruit.
A gatha in the Pratyutpana-samadhi Sitra says:'
All Buddhas won liberation through the Mind
Which, when pure and clean, is also undeled. 6
The fve world,6 when spotless, are devoid of form:
He who studies this will realize great Tao.
1. The nirviQc state of stilness and extncton of all passions.
2. The virtue of (r) the Buddha's Dharmakiya, (2) of his wisdom and (3) of his
liberaton from all bonds, i.e. Sovereignty.
3 Caled Chin Kuang Ming Ching, or Golden Light Sutra, translated in the sixh
century and twice later, and used by the founder of the T'ien T'ai school.
4 A sttra teachng the samadhi in which all the Buddhas in the ten directions are
sen clearly like the stars at night. Its practice requires ninety dys during which the
pracer does not rest but persistently thinks of Artibha Buddha and calls his name.
s. The stage of undefement is the fal one before attaining Buddhahood.
6. The fve worlds of existence of (1) the hel, (2) hungry ghosts, (3) animals,
(4) men and (5) asuras and devas.
Those who vow to tread this Path shoud elmiate the three obstrc
tions1 and the fve screens2 and if they fai to do so, al thei eforts wil be i
When studyig the above comprehensive treatise, we
should not allow ourselves to be misled by the words 'For
Beginers' i the title and think that it is ordinary and simple,
for the practice of the Teachig is far from easy for beginers.
Master Chih I wared h disciples against 'slighting the seem
ig shallowness of the text', for as he said, they 'would blush
when fmding its practice very dicult'. To make the text more
clear, we divided the chapter into sections and subsections
marked with numbers and letters. This important treatise of
the T'ien T'ai school should be studied wth the greatest care
and attention so that it is thoroughly understood before one
begins to practise it.
When I was young, I practised ths T'ien T'ai meditation
but failed mserably because of impatience for quick results
which has always been my great weakness. Impatience is a very
great obstacle i our spiritual traig and should be overcome
at al costs i the practice of any Dharma door. Once ths
obstruction has been removed and when the md is free from
all impediments, the various states described i the text wl
ufold of themselves, with the meditator as an unconcered
spectator. Ony then can the traing be efective.
After we have disengaged ourselves from all worldly
feelgs and passions, the excellent roots or qualties which lie
dormant within us w manifest as described i section 7
(. 139). The involuntary movements producing eight phy
sical sensations will be described in full in Chapter 6 and show
that the practiser, at this stage, is wel on the right path. These
experiences come automatically and unexpectedly to the
practiser who should never intentionaly wait for the outcome
of his traiing in order to ser his mnd at rest. It is like fowing
water which forms a channel of itself without outside help.
I. Self-importnce, jealousy and desire .
.. See p. II 8, Removal of Scren
Hence the ancients' repeated wargs agaist adding a second
head to one's own, for if the mind is set on results, the practice
w be handicapped and wi lead nowhere.
For the beneft of practisers of T'ien T'ai meditation, we
quote below some passages from the book Yin Shih Tsu' s
Experimental Meditation for the Promotion of Health (Yin Shih
Tsu Ching Tso Wei Sheng Shih Yen T'an) by the late upasaka
Chiang Wei Ch'iao who was well known for the thee
books that he wrote after his successful practice of meditation
according to the Taoist, T'ien T'ai and Tibetan schools. The
above volume is his third book, under his usual nom de
plume of Yin Shh Tsu, publshed in Taiwan and Hong Kong
after his death on the Chese mainland a few years ago.
When a practiser sits in meditation, he should keep his body ad limbs i
the proper position and reguate his breath because his mid is very d cut
to control. As man's mind is always accustomed to wander out in search
of exerals, it is realy not easy to collect and hold it. Therefore, he should
be very patient in his practice of the chi-kua Dharma door. After he has
made some progress in reguating his body, breath and mnd, his traing
should be complemented with the chi-kuan method. Even i he fails to
regulate hs body, breath and mind, he can always practise chi-kuan.
Ch is stoppig, that is halting the false (and misleading) mid. The
mid is like a monkey and does not stop for an instant. What then should
we do 1 We should prevent this monkey from moving by tying it to a
stake and it wil cease jumping about aimlessly. I the practice of ch, the
frst step is to f the mind on an object (hsi yuan chh). When the false
mind moves, it looks for something that is called its object. When all of a
sudden it thiks of one object, then of aother, ad then of a third and a
fourth; this is its clinging to objects. The purpose of the chih method is to
f the wanderig mind to a post in the same way that a monkey is tethered
to a stake; this stops it wandering. There are several ways of stoppig (ch)
the mind but the two usual ones are:
( 1) By fg it on the tip of the nose where the meditator does not see hs
breath coming i and out, nor its whence ad whither; thus his mid wil
be gradually brought under control, and
( 2) By fg it on the spot just below the navel. As the body's centre of
gravity i i the belly, it i the most appropriate place in which to fx the
mnd. Then the practiser shoud visualize each in and out breath as passing
i a vertical lie from the nostris dow to the belly and vice versa, and as
time passes, hs wadering md wil be brought automaticaly to a stop.
Ths exercise also helps to regulate the breath.
Wen the meditator is famar with either of these two exercises of
fng the mind on objects, he should practise the (c) method of restrain-,
ig it (chh hsi ch). What is this restraig method! We have dealt with
the method of tg the mid to (exteral) objects but the present one con
sists i grasping at the mid itsel. This meas that we should look into it to
fd out where a thought arises, thereby stopping it and preventing it from
folowing exterals. This method i much more subtle than the previous one
of fng the mind on a object: t is a shift from a coarse to a subtle
As a further step, the meditator should practise the ( chi) method of
embodyng the real (t'i chen chih) which is much more advanced than
restraing the mind. The frst two methods are prelmar and the third
one is the real method of stoppage (chih). What is this method of embodying
te real1 'Embodying' means understadig or realizig, and 'the rea' is but
realty. It means close understanding that al passig thoughts belong
aeady to the past as soon as they arise i the md ad are, therefore, u
real and devoid of reality. By not clinging to them, the mid wil be void
and thus there is no need to stop falsehood which wil vanish by itsel
When there is no more falsehood, that is reait. As the md is i this
state, this is 'embodying reality'.
The traing according to the method of embodying the real consists,
while sittig i meditation, in closing the eyes and in turg backward the
contemplation to ponder over this huma body which grows from child
hood to manhood and then to old age and ends i death, and over each of
its cells which changes and is replaced by a new one every second, without
iteruption, and whch is, therefore, totally uneal: this shows that there
i no realty of an existing ego that can be evidenced.
Then the practiser should t inwards the contemplaton to look into
the thoughts that arise i his mid ad fow without interruption; he wil
fd that past thoughts have gone, that present ones do not stay and that
future ones have not yet come. Then he should ask himself: 'Which of
these thoughts is my mid1' Thus he wlrealze that his false md which so
rses and fis also unreal and devoid of realty. Gradualy, he will become
famiar (with this urealty) and his false md withen come to a end by
itsel Where the false mind stops, reality appears.
At the begin g of his meditation, his md is usettled and canot be
easily controlled; t i te usettled mind which always tends to soar. The
way to set it at rest is by means of stoppage ( ch). If it is stopped agai ad
again, the thg process wgradually come to an end. A lttle later, he
wlbe uaware that he is already inclined to drowsiness; this is the sinkig
mnd. The way to awaken it is by contemplation (kua). Contemplation
does not mea looking outwardly; it consists in closing the eyes and tug
inwards the contemplation to look into the self-mind. There are three kids
of contemplation (kua):
(1) Contemplation of the void, which consists i lookng ito a things
within the uverse, from the largest including the great earth, mountains
and rivers, to the smallest, including his ow body and mind; he wil per
ceive that a of them change every instant and are thus non-xstent and
void. So when h mind looks into this voidness, this i called contemplation
of the void.
(2) When he is famar wt this contemplation of the void, he should
look into his mind from which thoughts arise and he wl fmd that each
thought has its object which is either one thig or aother. He wl thus
realize that al phenomena owe their existence to a uon of ier direct
cause and outer concurring cicumstance.
For instance, a grain of rice sprouts because of a union of iier direct
cause which is the seed, wth outer concurring condition in the form of the
water and mud that moisten and nourish it. If the grain is not sown and is
left in the warehouse, it will never sprout because there is only a ier
direct cause without an outer concuring condition and for lack of a uon
of both. If there are only water and mud without the seed beig sown, they
alone cannot produce the sprout because there is only an outer concurring
ccumstance without an inner direct cause and for lack of their uon.
Ever phenomenon in the world is created by the union of direct ad cir
cumstantial causes and vanishes as soon as they disunte, Likewise, thoughts
tat rise and fall i the mind canot be grasped. Contemplation in this
maner is ca ed looking into the ueal.
Thus viewed from opposite positions, contemplation of the void
pertains to one side and that of the ueal to another. When this stage is
reached, the achievement is stil incomplete, and the meditator should take
a step further with zeal and dgence. When he achieves contemplation of
the void, he should not clng to the void and when he achieves contempla
tion of te ueal, he should not grasp the unreal. When he succeeds i
keeping fom both exemes, the void and the unreal, his non-relying ad
non-lnging mnd wilbe really bright; this is called contemplation of the
' '
At frst glance, the above chih-kuan Dharma door seems to imply
df erent successive stages. I practice, the employment of either chih or
kua depends solely on the inclination of the mnd durng the meditation.
As a matter of fact, the purpose of chi is to retur all thoughts to one
(mnd) and that of kuan is clear insight (into the truth for rddance of
i usion). When stoppage (chi) is practised, it should not stray from con
templation (kua) and when contemplation is practised, it shoud not stray
from ch. Readers should not grasp at prted words but should practise
te metod itellgently according to ccumstances.
(taught by Master Chih I, or Chih Che, at Wa Kuan
fstead of translating this treatise, which is full of Buddhist
terms and may not be very clear to readers unfamiar with the
Mahayana, we give below Chapter 6 of Yin Shih Tsu' s
Experimental Meditation for the Promotion of Health (Yi Shih
Tsu Ching Tsu Wei Sheng Shh Yen Y'an) which explais
clearly the Six Profound Dharma Doors as taught by Master
Ch I.
Breath is the source of life. When breath stops, the body is just an
(iamate) corpse, and since the nerous system no longer works, the mind
vashes ad lie comes to a end. Life (therefore), is presered by breath
whch ls body with mind and thus ensures its existence.
Though imperceptble to the eyes, the air is actually inhaled and exhaled
through the nostris by the fuction of breathing. Thus we know that a
huma being i made of body, breath and mid and that breath plays the
iportat role of uniting the other two components.
The si Profound Dharma Doors centre on breath and are a thorough
method of meditation. It can be practised after traing in the chih-kuan
metod as taught in the T'ung Meng Chi Kuan (p. III) , or alone without
previous ch-kua meditation.
Ths method consists of (I) countig, (2) following,
stopping (chil),
(4) contemplating (kuan),
returg and (6) purifing.
) What is countig! This i the couting ofbreaths, of which there are
to phses:
(a) Practice by coutg. Ater a meditator has regulated h breath so
tt it i neiter tight nor loose, he should cout slowly, from one to ten,
eiter his ispiration or expiation, choosig whichever he le, but on no
accout both. He should f his attention on this countg so that his md
w not wander elsewhere. I before coming to the number ten, h md
suddenly thks of somethig else, he should tum it back and sta coutg
again fom one. This is practice by counting.
(b) Realization by counting. As times passes, te meditator becomes
familiar with this countg from one to ten which wi be orderly, unti h
breath is so fne that it becomes uncountable. This is realization by countg.
(z) Then he should stop countig and practise the method of followig
(the breath) of which there are two phases:
(a) Practice by followig (the breath). After stopping to cout hs breath,
he should concentrate h mind on folowing each in and out breath. Thus
hs mnd will accompany his breathing which also follows it until both
mid and breath become mutually dependent closely ad contiuously.
Ths is practice by followig (the breath).
(b) Realization by folowing (the breath). As his mid gradually becomes
refned and subtle, the meditator w notice the length of his breath, either
long or short, and then wil feel as i his breath passes through all the pores
of his body. Hs intellect (or sith consciousness) is now frozen, quiet and
still. This is realzation by following the breath.
(3) Gradually the meditator wil notice that ths method of followig the
breath is stil coarse and should be given up and substituted with the
practice of chi (stopping) of which there are two phases:
(a) Practice of chi. After ceasing to follow the breath, the meditator
should, as if intentionally yet unitentionally, f his mind on the tip of his
nose. This is the practice of chih (stopping).
(b) In the course of this exercise, the meditator will suddenly perceive
that his body and mind seem to vanish completely and he wil thereby
enter a state of sti ness (dhyana). This is realization by the practice of
(4) At this stage, the meditator should know that though the state of
dhyana is good, he ought to tum back the light of his mind upon itself so
that he can be clear about it and wil not remai caught in this stiless. Thus
he should practise contemplation of which there are two phases:
(a) Practice by contemplation (kuan). In this still state, he should look
closely into his refned and subtle inspiration and expiration whch are like
wind in the void ad have no reality of their own. Ths is the practice of
(b) As time passes, little by little, the eye of his mind will open and he
will clearly feel as i his breath enters and leaves his body through all its
pores. This is realization by contemplation (kuan).
Although the two words ch and kuan are the same here and i the
Samatha-vipa5yana for Beginers, tere is a slight diference i their mean
ing, becuse i that treatise they idicate the control of mind whereas here
they concer the regulation of breath.
Mter a long practice of contemplaton, it should be followed by the
method of retug, of which there are two phases:
(a) Practice of the returg method. When the mnd is set on con
templatig the breath, there are created the subjectve mind that con
templates ad the objective breath that is contemplated, which are the two
extremes of a duality and are not i the absolute state; they should, there
fore, be retured to the fundamental mnd. Ths is the practice of the re
tg method.
(b) Since ths kower that contemplates (the breath) rises from the mnd,
it wil also folow the mind in its fal. Since rise ad fal are fudamentally
ilusory and ueal, the rising and fa g md is like water that rises in
waves; wave are not the water whose fudamental face ca be seen only
after they have subsided. Therefore, the mid that rises and falls like waves
is not the true self-mind. We should look into this true self-md which is
ucreated. As it is uncreated, it is beyond 'is' and is, therefore, void. Since
it is void, it folows that there is no subjective mind that contemplates.
Since there is no contemplating mind, it also folows that there is no object
contemplated. Since kowledge and its object vanish, ths is the reali
zation of the retug method.
( 6) After this realization, there remains the idea of returg whch
should be wiped out by meditation on purity of whch there ae two phases:
(a) Practice of the puing method. When the mind is pure and clean
and ceases discriminating, this is the practice.
(b) Realizig the state of purity. When the mind is still lke calm water,
with complete absence of false tg, folowed by the manfestation of
the real md which does not exist apart from this false tg, the retur
of the false to the real is like subsidig waves that reveal water. Ths is the
realzation of purity.
Of the above six Profound Dharma Doors, the counting and folowing
methods are the prelimary practice, the stoppig ( chih) and contemplating
(kuan) methods are the main practice and the returg and purig
methods are the concluding practice. Hence, stopping ( chih) is the chef
meditation with contemplating (kuan) as its support unti clear perception
is realized. Only then can returg and purfyig bring about the ultimate
WE CANNOT deal with this subject without mentionig
Lao Tsu's Tao Teh Ching which is regarded as the most im
portant book of the Taoist school, but which for lack of space
we cannot translate here. However, he who understands the
frst paragraph of the Tao Teh Ching has a general idea of the
whole teaching in the book which contains more than 5,000
Chinese characters. Its frst paragraph reads:
The Tao that can be expressed in words is not the eternal Tao
(and) the name (given to it) is not (that of the) eternal. That which
cannot be named is the beginning of heaven and earth. That which
can be named is the mother of all things. I always look into that
which 'is not' (the immaterial) to contemplate (the Tao's) wonders,
and into that which 'is' (the material) to contemplate its bounlcries.
Both 'is not' and 'is' are one and the same, from which all things,
with di rent names, arise. This sameness is wonderul, more than
wonderul-the door to all wonders.
Lao Tsu was born in 604 B.c. Named Li Erh and also called
Li Po Yang, he was a native ofK'u district in Ch'u state (now
Hupeh province). He was for a long time a censor under the
Chou dynasty, but seeing that it began to decline, he left the
country for an unknown destination. At the request of the
ofcial defending the pass at the frontier, he wrote the Tao
Teh Ching. According to the legend then current, he was
already old at birth, hence he was caled Lao Tsu, or 'Old
The profound meaning of the frst paragraph of the Tao Teh
Ching is as folows:
The eteral Tao is inexpressible and since it has neither
form nor shape, it cannot be caled by any name. If a name is
arbitrarily given to the eteral Tao, it w be a false one for
the eteral is indescribable. This is the substance of immaterial
Though this eteral Tao is immaterial, heaven and earth,
that is the material universe, arise from it by transformation,
with the creation of al phenomena with di erent names.
This is the Junction of immaterial Tao.
Thus Lao Tsu deals with both the substance and function of
eteral Tao. Then he teaches the method of practice for
realzing this Tao, saying: 'I practice, I always look ito the
immaterial aspect of the Tao to contemplate its profundit and
wonderfuless, and ito phenomena to contemplate their
boundaries or manfestations. In other words, I alo look into
both the substance and function of eteral Tao. Since the
immaterial substance of the Tao creates al phenomena which
are material and can be caled by names, they are al contained
i its substance.' Consequently he who looks into its activities
can trace them back to their source, or substance: hence, the
Tao is all embracing and prevails everwhere. For this reason,
Chuang Tsu says: 'The Tao is in grass; it is in excrement and
urine.' If contemplation is made in this maner, the wonderful
Tao w be perceived.
As Lao Tsu is apprehensive that practisers of hs doctrie
may cling to the two extremes, the immaterial and material,
he wars them: 'Both the immaterial and the material are one
and the same.' By this he means: 'When I look into the
immaterial, I do not contemplate only its imperceptible sub
stance, but also al phenomena created by and contained in it.
When I look into the material, I do not contemplate merely
perceptible forms but also the immaterial from which al
phenomena arise.' I other words, a simutanous contem
plation of both the immaterial and the material which are of
one substance.
Beig again apprehensive that they may ask why names are
ivented if the immaterial and the material are the same, he
explais that phenomena risig from the Tao have diferent
forms and are, therefore, called by dierent names to dis
tinguish them.
He is further apprehensive that they may thik that if there
realy exist the immaterial and the material whch show the
existence of relativities and contraries, there can never be one
ness and sameness; if so, how can the Tao be so wonderful? He
explains that when heaven, earth and al thigs are perceived
as arisig from the same underlyig Tao, their sameness is
really wonderful. Ad to wipe out clgig to the idea of the
wonderful, he says: 'More than wonderful.' When all clgings
have been eradicated, this wonderful Tao is but 'the door to al
If we understand the frst paragraph of the Tao Teh Ching,
we w, without difculty, comprehend the aim of Lao Tsu's
profound teaching in the rest of his work. Commentig on the
Tao Teh Ching, the Ch'an master Han Shan (1546-1623)
Lao Tsu teaches the immaterial sel-existing Tao which the
Siratgama Sitra describes as the non-direntiating that is neither
form nor voidness, or the substance of the eighth consciousness
(alaya-vifana). This non-discriminating consciousness is very
subtle, wonderul and unfathomable and can be looked through only
by the Buddha who transmutes it into the Great Mirror Wisdom . .
This Tao is neither form because it is extensive nor voidness for it
creates all things . . . He who studies the works of Lao Tsu and
Chuang Tsu should frst understand the Suratgama Sita in
which the Enlihtened One broke up all worldly attachments, and
then practise the right dhyana correctly, beore he can be clear about
Lao Tsu' s great achievement.
The enlghtened master also wrote: The meaning of the Tao
Teh Ching can be grasped only afer one has had a personal ex
perience of it. . . . When writing a commentary on a sitra, I would
concentrate my mind in order to see into it and be in accord with the
Buddha-mind. By so doing, the clue to the correct meaning would
jump out instantly and I would write it down on paper. I the
thinking process had been involved, it would not have served the
Lao Tsu only reached the state of alaya-vijiana or store con
sciousness, an aspect of the self-mnd which is deceived by the
ilusion of voidness and is still free from discrimnation. Un
fortunately, he did not meet the Buddha and was unable to
transmute this state ito the Great Mirror Wisdom. Accordig
to Han Shan, Lao Tsu was determied to revive the ancient
traditions prevalent at the time of emperor Huang Ti
(2698-2597 B.c.) and left the country when the dynasty began
to decline. Sice Huang Ti was the founder of Taoism which
Lao Tsu later revived, it is called the doctrine of Huang-Lao.
The method of Taoist meditation was, therefore, kown in
China long before Lao Tsu ad was responsible for the hgh
spirituality of the followers of ths school. The great Indian
masters who foresaw the decline of the Buddha Dharma in
their own country, came to the East to spread it i this pro
mised land where Taoism already prospered and where its
adherents were mature to awaken to the Mahayaa and
Ch'an Transmssion. It is a matter for regret that even today
some people still hold the wrong view that Taoism is heretical
and should be discarded entirely when studying the Buddha
Dharma. They forget that i the practice of the Dharma they
should frst realize the eighth consciousness i order to trans
mute it ito the Great Mirror Wisdom. The stage of aaya
vijiana is, therefore, one through whch they must pass to
realize Complete Enightenment. The question is whether
they stay i ths state and regard it as fnal achievement or
strive to advance further to attain bodhi.
We present below the method of Taoist meditation prac
tised by Yi Sh Tsu as related i his fst volume published
m 1914.
From Yin Shih Tsu's Method of Meditation
(Yi Shih Tsu Chig Tso Fa)
There are two important poits with regard to te practice of Taoist
meditation: regulating the bodly posture and the breath.
1. Before and after the meditation
(i) Meditation should be made i a quiet place or i the bedroom, the
door of whch should be closed to avoid iterference from outside but its
wdows should be wide open (to let i more fresh air).
(i) The meditatig cushion should be soft and thick, suitable for a long
(i) The meditator should untie his clothes ad loosen hs belt to avoid
restraiig his body ad lmbs.
(iv) The body should be erect ad the backbone straight.
(v) After the meditation, the eyes should be opened slowly and the
limbs relaxed.
2. The position of the legs
(i) The ful lotus posture consists i placig the left leg upon the right one
and then the right leg upon the left one. This is the best posture for it presses
the (sides of the) kees on the cushion, thereby ensurig a stabilied erec
body whch does not lean to the rght or left and forward or backward. It
is, however, not easy for begin ers and is very dicult for old people.
(i) The meditator ca, however, take the h lotus posture by placg
either the left leg on the right one or the right leg on the left one as he les.
This posture has its defec, for if the left leg i placed on the right one, te
(side of the) left knee can ot rest on the cushion, ad it is very easy for the
body to lean to the right. If the right leg is placed on the left one, the (side
of the) right kee canot rest on the cushion, and it is easy for the body to
lean to the left. If beginners cannot tae the ful lotus posture, that of the
half lotus will ful the same pupose provided they keep the body erect
and the efectiveness will be the same as in the case of the full lotus posture.
(i) The two thigh are thus like the (two connecting) sides of a triangle
ad when they rest comfortably on the cushon, the centre of gravity of the
body wlautomaticaly be under the navel.
(iv) Beginers usualy develop numb legs but i they ca endure ths
numbness, it wfnay disappear.
(v) Those who can ot endure the cramp, ca change the position of the
legs and should they be unable to endure further, they can stop sitting
temporarily and sit agai after its disappearance.
(vi) I they stubbory refuse to give way to t unbearable numbness of
the legs, they will in time overcome it; after passing through t crucial
stage, their legs wil never be numb aga i subsequent sittings.
3. The chest, buttocks ad bely
(i) The chest should bend slightly forard to lower the pit of the
stomach, thereby relang the diaphragm. Usual y when the centre of
gravity of the body i unstable, the vital priciple (pr3a) rises to the pit of
the stomach which beginners feel to be blocked ad not at ease. This shows
that the pit of the stomach has not been brought dow. I such a case, the
meditator should concentrate his mind on the lower bely to rela the dia
phragm. As time passes, the pit of the stomach wl be lowered automati
cally, without ay efort beig made, thus ensurig the stability of the
centre of gravity.
(i) The buttocks should be slightly pushed back to straighten the spie.
The backbone is cured like a bow ad bends out i the region of the
buttocks; its natural position should be maintaed during the meditation
but force should never be used.
(iii) The lower part of the belly should be stable so as to stabilize the
centre of gravity of the body. This i possible by concentrating on the lower
bely but without the use of force. To obta the desied result, the meditator
should bansh al thoughts from his md and then f it on the spot about
one and three quarter inches below the navel; the centre of gravity will thus
settle dow by itself.
4 The two hands
(i) The hands should be placed upon ech oter, daw nea the lower
belly and laid on the lower legs.
(i} The hand above should be held lightly by the one below, with
ccossed thumbs.
(i ) Either the left hand lightly hold the right one or vice versa, as the
meditator likes.
(iv) The hand c be either drawn against the lower belly or placed on
the crossed legs as the meditator likes.
(v) Strain should be avoided so that the hands ad fngertips are relaxed
ad at ease.
S The face, ears, eyes, mouth ad breath
(i} The head and neck should be erect, facing forward.
(i) The ears should be kept free fom hearing voices and sounds.
(i) The eyes should be lightly shut. Some people urge slghtly opened
eyes probably to avoid drowsiess, but if the meditator is not incled to
drowse, it is better to close them in order to ensure stiless of mnd.
(iv) The mouth should be closed, with the tongue touchg the palate to
make a bridge (along which praJa can move from the nose to the toat}.
(v) The meditator should breathe through the nostrils ad avoid opening
the mouth while breathg.
6. The mental state during meditation
(i} The meditator should lay down everything and abstain from giving
rise to thoughts. The feld of our intelect is lie a play and every thought a
actor. Our thoughts rise and fal suddenly just as actors appear and dis
appear continualy on the stage. It is therefore very difcult to put a end
to rising thoughts. I we succeed in fng our attention efectively on some
spot (i the body), the thg process wil be kept under control. And so
i we concentrate efectively on the centre of gravity i the body, all think
ing wl gradually come to an end.
(i) The meditator should introvert so that all false thoughts cease of
We have mentioned abstention from giving rse to thoughts but the very
idea of so abstaining is also a thought. It is, therefore, far better to employ the
introvertig method which i also caled 'looking into the innermost'. I
general, when a man sees something, his eyes are diected towards exteral
objects; they therefore cannot be tured iward to look into the intera.
Our method consists of closing the eyes for the purpose of turning inward
ou attention to examine our intellect; fst we should be clear about the
rise ad f of our thoughts. I a thought rises, it should be looked into to
prevent it from clinging to things; thus it wl vanish. When a second
thought rises, it should also be looked into so that it caot grasp anythig;
tus the second one wl vaish. We their source i properly cleansed,
thoughts wl gradually come to an ed
A beginner usually holds the wrong view that before h pracce of
meditation h thoughts were very few and tat after it they become
numerous. Ths is a mistake for these thoughts always rise ad fall i his
mind; they were not noticed before but are now perceptible duing medi
tation. Awareness of the exstence of thoughts is the frst step in self-aware
ness, and with the repeated exercise of this introverting method our thoughts
will gradually decrease i number, instead of increasing as we wrongly
(i) Although meditaton c cure illness ad improve health, the
practiser should never give rise to a desire for these results (so a not to d
turb h mind).
(iv) He should avoid being impatient for quick results ad should always
take a natural attitude, le a small boat with neither sai nor paddle which
folows leisurely the course of a stream.
(v) During the medtation, though his eyes are closed ad c ot see
objects, it is not easy for h to abstain from hearing sounds that disturb h
mind. He should, therefore, tu inwards both h seeing ad hearing and
pay no attention to souds and voices; i he so trains efectively he wl, as
time passes, be able to remain uperturbed even i a mountain fal down
in font of him.
(vi) He should have boudless faith i h meditation, like a devotee in his
religion. At the start, he usually does not feel at ease whle sitting. He
should be very determined i h trainng and continue it without inter
ruption. As time passes, his meditation wil become efective. H success,
therefore, depends solely on h faith.
1 The duration of meditation
(i) When the efciency of the medtation reaches its profoud stage, it
should be maintained at all tes, whe waing, standing, sitting or re
cg. However, beginners should choose the tie for their medltation;
the most favourable moments are after gettng up in the morg ad
before going to bed i the evening. The mnimum requirement is one
meditation a dy.
(ii) (I principle) the longer a medtation lasts, the better is its result.
However, meditation should be natural ad the practiser should avoid
straiing himself to lengthen its duration. I he ca sit for t minutes ad
do so regularly without interption, he wlin tme obtain very good results.
(i) It is advisable for those who are busy to sit for forty minutes; i they
ca sit for a hou, they wobtai better results.
(iv) Morg ad evening ae te most favouable tme. However, i
te practiser (is busy ad) can ony mette once a dy, it is advsable to do
so after getting up in the morng.
(v) Each evening, before going to bed, i he ca make another short
meditation for fteen or twenty mutes, he wil make quicker progress.
Thus his main meditation wil be in the morg with a secondary one in
the evening.
(vi) Each morg, when the practiser gets up, he should, before leavig
his bed, massage the upper and lower parts of h bely and regulate his
breath before going to the lavatory; he can then make his morg medita
tion. It is advisable to begi after easing natue in the morg, but since
each man has hs own habit, tere i no rigid rle.
Breatng is te function of life ad is most important. Man knows only
that food and d presere le ad that the lack of them causes death. He
does not realize that breathig is more important than eating and dring.
He thks that food and d are precious because they can be bought with
money which can ony be eared by hard work. As to breathing, since air is
avaiable everywhere, is inexhaustible and is fee of charge, it is not re
garded as precious. However, if he stops eating, he can stil live at least
seven days whereas i his nostrils (and mouth) are closed so that he stops
breathing, he wil die in no time. Breatg is, therefore, more important
than eating and dg.
There are two kinds of breathg: natural and correct which are described
1. Natural breathing
A inhalaton and an exhalaton make a complete breath. The breathing
organs consist of the outer nose and inner lungs. These lungs are in the chest
and expand and contract when one breathes naturally. Usualy man's
breath does not expand and contract the lungs to thei full capacity; ony
tei upper parts dilate and shrink whereas their lower parts remai itact.
Then, since a ful supply of oxygen canot be breathed in nor althe carbon
dioxde breathed out, the blood canot be completely purifed, so that all
kd of illness follow. Ths is the evil efect of unnatural breathing.
Natural breating, aso called abdomial respiration, comprises an i
halation which reaches to and a exhalation (which starts from) the lower
bely. When breathing in, the air enters and fs all parts of the lungs,
expanding them below and pressig dow the diaphagm; the chest wil
thus be relaxed and the bely wil expand. When breathing out, the bely
contracts and pushes the diaphragm up to te lungs, thus forcg out ate
ipure a. It is, therefore, necessary that the respiratory function whch
expands ad contracts the lungs should harmonize with the movements of
the belly ad diaphragm to accord with the law of nature ad to ensure
fee circuation of the blood. This method of breathing should be followed
not only while sitting in meditation, but also at a times, whle walg,
standing, sitting and reclg.
The breath shoud be regulated thus:
(i) When breathing out, the lower belly below the navel contracts,
pushing up the diaphragm ad squeezing the chest, thereby emptyig z
the impure air fom the lungs.
(ii) cbreathig in, fesh a enters through the nostrils, slowly fg
the lungs and pressing dow te diaphragm; the lower part of the belly
wil then expand.
(ii) Inhalation and exhalation should be gradualy deep and contiuous,
reachg the lower belly which W then be tight ad ful . Some people
advise that the breath be held in te bely for a few seconds but according to
my personal experience, beginners shoud not do so.
(iv) The in ad out breaths should be slow, continuous and fne, ad this
shoud be practised until the breath becomes imperceptible.
(v) When the above result is achieved, the breath seems to have vanished
i spite of the presence of the respiratory organs which seem to be useless;
the practiser thus feels as if his breath comes in and out through the pores
zover his body. This is the hghest attaient in the art of breathing, but
beginers shoud avoid exertion so that their breathing can be natural.
2. Correct breathg
Correct breathing, also caled reverse respiration, is deep and fe, reaching
also the bely like natural breathing but with contrary expanding and
shg movements of the lower abdomen and with the diaphragm beig
pushed up or pressed dow for the same purpose. It is called reverse respira
tion because it is the opposite of natural breathg and is regulated as follows:
(i) The exhalaton shoud be slow and continuous whle the lower belly
expad; as a result, the latter will be frm and ful.
(ii) The region below the navel Wbe fulof the vital principle, the chest
wil be holow and relaxed and the diaphragm slack.
(iii) The. inspiration should be deep and continuous to to its full
capacity the chest which wil expand, with similtaeous contracton of the
lower bely.
(iv) Being pressed down by the a that m the lungs and pushed up by
the contracting belly, the diaphragm Wbecome more active.
(v) Whe the chest is expanding, the bely, though contracted, is not
Whe breatg i ad out, te centre of gravity should be i the belly
below the navel so tat it becomes stable.
(vi) Bret should be stl, fne ad iudible even to the medtator h
We the ancients postulated a longer duration for inhalation t for
exhalation, the moder man uges the opposite, but in my experience, the
same duration for both is the most appropriate.
From the above, we can see that in either natural or correct respiration,
the purpose is to make the diaphagm more appropriately active. Correct
breathing is to make the bely expand ad contract by unatural means so
tht the diaphragm can tighten and that its movements are easier.
When I began my practice of meditaton, I found correc breatg very
suitable for me ad ths is why I mentioned it in te fst edition of this
book. Since its publication, some readers wrote to me that they were un
able to practise it. If it is not suitable for every meditator, I would advise
my readers to practise natural breathng which is free from aimpediments.
3. The breathing exercise
No matter whether natural or correct breathg is practised, the essentials
of the exercise are the same:
(i) The lotus posture shoud be taken as during a meditation.
(ii) The breath should be short at the start and lengthened gradualy.
(iii) It should be slow and fe, inaudible and deep, and gently brought
down to reach the lower belly.
(iv) It should come i and out through the nosts, but never through the
(v) As soon as the practiser is famiar with the exercise, he wl be able
without any strain to lengthen his breath gradualy unti each ination and
exhalation together last a fuminute.
(vi) Every day, fe and inaudible breathg should be practised at al
times without interruption.
(vi) Duing the meditation, a thoughts should be banshed for if
attention is fxed on breathg, the mind canot be quieted. It i, therefore,
advisable to practise the breathing exercise before and after each meditation.
(v) This breathing exercise, before and after each meditation, should be
made where there is abudance of pure air and should last from fve to ten
4 The lowerg of the pit of the stomach i relation to breathing
We have aleady dealt with the meditative posture in whch the pit of the
stomach is lowered. In the breathg exercise, the lowering of the pit of the
stomach is more important for regulating the breath, thereby ensuring the
efectiveness of the meditation itself. Readers should pay attenton to the
followig points:
(i) At the start of the breathing exercise, a beginner usualy feels that the
pit of his stomach is frm ad interferes with his breath whch canot be
regulated; this is caused by the diaphragm not beig able to move up and
down freely. He should overcome this d culty with determation.
(i) He should avoid exertion when his breath is so obstructed, and
should let it take its natural course by fng his attention gently on the
lower bely.
(ii) He should relax his chest so that the circulation of blood will not
brg pressure upon te heart; thus the pit of the stomach wil be lowered
(iv) As time passes, his daphragm wl be relaxed ad his breath w be
fe ad contiuous, with every ialation reaching and exalation (start
ig fom) the centre of gravity below the navel. This is the proof that the
pit of the stomach has been (efectively) lowered.
(i) A long practice of meditation usually results in (a kind of ) vibration
beig felt in the lower bely below the navel; th shows that the belly is ful
of (psychic) force.
(i) Over ten days before this vibration is felt, the meditator experiences
some heat moving in the bely below the navel.
(i) After this heat has been felt for some times, suddenly the lower belly
vibrates and the whole body shakes; the meditator should not be scared but
should let this state take its natural course.
(iv) The speed and length of this vibration difers for each individual; it
just happens and should neither be sought nor repressed.
(v) When this vibration is felt, the meditator should imagine (but with
out exertion) that the hot force (goes down and) passes through the coccy
and then rises up the spine until it reaches and passes through the top of the
head, thence coming down tough the face, the (chest and the) pit of the
stomach to retur to the belly below the navel. (This channel from the
coccyx to the pit of the stomach does not open at once; it may take a few
months or even a year after the fst vibration. Readers should not be mis
taken about this.)
As time passes, this movig heat wlgo up and dow of itsel and can, by
imagination, be spread to all parts of the body, reaching even the nails and
the ends of the hair, with the result that the whole body is warm and un
usually comfortable.
The cause of t vbration is very profound and is not easiy explainable.
Most probably, with free circation of the blood and an accumuaton of
{sychic) force in the belly below the navel, this concentration of strength
cuse the movements whch produce the heat. But it is not easy to explain
why ths force rises up the backbone to the top of the head and then descends
to retu to the navel. As a matter of fact, I have personally experienced th
phenomenon and canot deny it. (This i what the ancients called 'free
passage through the three gates', the frst gate i the coccyx, the second in the
backbone between the kidneys and the thrd in the occiput.)
The ancient explanation of this phenomenon are many but the most
rational one, though it cannot be caled stctly scientc, is this: 'The foetus
in te womb does not breathe through the nostrils but its iner vital
principle circulates by risig up the backbone to the head ad then descend
ig to the navel; ths is called foetal breathig. At birth (after the cutting of
the navel-ord) ths circulation ceases and is replaced by respiration through
the nostrils. Therefore, after a long meditation, the practiser can make use of
the circulation of the vital principle to restore the foetal breath.'
1. My childhood
As a chld I was always i , emaciated and bony. At twelve, I foolishly in
dulged in self-abuse whch was later the cause of involutary emissions,
headache, lumbago, dizziness, buzzing in the ears ad sweating at night,
folowed by other inesses. I was ignorant and did not know the origi of
all this. When I was thirteen and fourteen, I began to kow a little, but was
not at all clear about it. At times I broke of but then renewed this bad
habit, did not tell ayone about it and contiued to be i . We lved only two
or three miles from a tow, but when I went there with my brothers my
legs were so weak that I could not walk. When I retured home, I would
perspire profusely six or seven times that nght. This was the state of my
delicate health as a child.
2. My youth
When I was seventeen my spells of illness became more frequent and I was
also troubled by nerousness ad palpitation. I can still remember how in
the sprg I went dow every afteroon with fever which vanished the next
morg, so that I was always i and perplexed. In spite of all t, how
ever, I was a diligent scholar, studying my books late ito the nght as i
nothig was wrong. As a result I became weaker ad iler.
3 My motive for meditating.
Wen my ilness became serious, I sought its cre by all means. But since
we lved in the coutry, only herbalists were available, whose remedes
were useless ad I loathed them. Though I did not mention my iles to
oters, my late father discovered its origi and urged me to read books on
spiritual culture. (One day) he showed me the book I Fang Chi Chiai (The
Ancient Medical Formulas Explained), the last secton of which deals with
the Taoist technique called 'The Microcosmic Orbit'.1 (Mter reading this),
unexpectedly I awakened to the teaching, practised it and was relieved fom
my predicament, but I lacked perseverance. When I fel i again, I was
scared ad being fightened, I practised the method again, but after my
recovery I was lazy ad forgot all about my practice. Nevertheless I had
leart that I should care for my body and never again did anything that
could injure it. Since my nineteenth year, though I could not completely
rd myself of ilness, I felt I was much stronger tha in my chldood.
4 Resumption of my practice of meditation
I was married at twent-two and feelng that my health was stronger I
stopped meditatng. As I faied to curb my sexual desies, al my former
il nesses retured together to harass me. I addition, my intemperate habit
of eating and dg brought on a diated stomach and inammation of
the gulet whch excited me ad caused me always to thi of eating, but
whatever food I brought to my mouth seemed disgusting and was
immediately rejected. My friends urged me to rest to take care of my health
but seeing no harm in all this, I remained undecided.
I the sprng of 1899, my second brother died from consumpton. The
folowing year, I sufered from a bad cough and soon after spat blood. I took
Chinese medicine but my i ness tured serious and continued for three
months. I was frightened that I mght soon folow my deceased brother. I
then threw away al medicnes, separated from my famiy, stayed in a quiet
room, retired from the world, remained indiferent to everything ad
resumed my practice of meditation. I was then twenty-eight.
s. Time-table for my meditation
I fed a time-table for my daiy meditations. Early in the morg, between
three and four o'clock, I got up and sat in meditation on my bed for one or
two hours. Then I got up, washed, rinsed my mouth, took a little food and
went out for a -strol, facing the rising sun. When I reached an open space
outside the wall of the town, I stayed there to breathe in fresh ai. Between
seven and eight, I retured to my room, breakfasted and rested for one or
two hours during which I leisurely read the books of Lao Tsu and Chuang
Tsu and Buddhist sitras. Mter ten I sat i meditation. At midday I took my
I. Explained i fu i Chapter 7-Physical and Spiritual Culture accordng to
Chnese Yoga.
luch afer which I paced in my room. At three in the afteroon I played a
seven-string lute for amusement or went out for a stroll. At six I agai sat i
meditation and supped at seven. Mter eight I again paced my room, sat i
meditation at ne ad went to bed at ten. I kept strictly to this time-table
6. Difculties at the beginng of my practice
As I was impatient to get well, I worked ver hard at my practice. Each
time I sat i medtation, all kinds of thoughts rose in my mind and the
more I strove to stop them, the more numerous they became. I then tried
to regulate my breath but soon felt that it became laboured a if there was
some obstruction in my chest. Nevertheless I believed frmly that medita
ton was of great value and I was determed to practise unemittingly. As a
result I became very tired and was on the point of givig it all up. But some
of my neighbours were elders who knew the art of meditation, so I told
them of my dculties. They al said: 'You are wrong. Your practice should
be natural ad whether you walk, stand, sit or recline, you should be
natural about it. It is useless just to sit like a log.' These words woke me up
and since then, each time I sat i meditation, I took a natural attitude. When
I felt some uneasiess, I got up slowly from my seat, paced my room and sat
again when my body and mind were at ease. Thus thee months later, all
my difculties disappeared gradually ad were replaced progressively by
better (mental) states.
7 The frst vibration
Since the 4th of Apr 19 when I began my meditation, in spite of
difculties, I practised daily without interruption until it gradualy became
natral. At the same time, my health improved day by day. Previously
when I went out for a strol, my legs became so weak after walg one or
two Chnese miles that I could not go further, but now when I set out, I
could do ten miles without feelg tired. Each time, as soon as I sat i
meditation, I felt a knd of hot vibration i my lower bely under the navel,
I was surprised at this unusual experience. On the evening of the 25th of
June of the same year, my lower belly vibrated suddenly and though I sat
wit crossed legs as usual, I could hardly keep this position as my whole
body trembled violently. I felt this hot energy thrust through the cocc
and rise up the backbone util it reached the top of the head. Ths started
some eighty-fve days after my frst experience on the 4t of April and
lasted for si days after whch the vibration gradually ceased. I was stunned
by it al.
Mter that, each tme I sat in meditation I felt this heat rise to the top of
my head, thus folowng the same path but without vbratig as prevously.
At the same tme I was completely relieved from my old aiments such as
neroues, palpitation, lumbago, headache, buz ng i the er, dzes,
coughng ad spittng blood. Athough my stomach was stldlated, it dd
not worsen.
8. The second ad thid vibratons
A through 19
I retied from the world to pracse meditation ad kept
tee rules: abstention from (sexal) deires to develop vitalty, from speech
to invigorate breath ad from gazng to raise my spirits. I took note of my
dily progress: the prelnary period fom April to Jue was full of
difculty and trouble; June ad July were noted for te gradual cue of my
iesses, whie from that August my meditation became more efective. I
could then sit for three hours at a stretch durig which my body and mind
seemed to be replaced by the great void free from a single speck of dust ad
i which I did not even feel the presence of myself; as a result, I experienced
very great comfort.
The folowing yea, I had to work for my livng ad since I could not
devote almy te to meditation, I practed it twice a cay, i the morg
ad evenig, without interruption.
On the 5th of May 1902, durng my morng meditaton, I felt the heat
vibrating aga in my lower belly, exactly as in Jue 1900 except that, i
stead of tusting through the cocc, it thst through te upper 'gate' i
te back of the head. This lasted for three cays, causing my cown to ache.
I was not scared ad suddenly my crow seemed to split, with the heat
winding its way aroud the spot. Henceforth in ever subsequent medita
tion, I had the same experence but the vibration ceased completely. This
was my experience of the second vibration.
On the 4th of November of the same year, in my evenng meditation,
I again felt vibration i my lower belly, and the heat, after windg roud
the crow, went dow along my face ad my chest to retur to the lower
bely uder the navel; thereupon, the vibraton came to a stop. This was
my experience of the third vbration.
After that, each tme I sat in meditation, the heat rose up the backbone to
the crow and then descended, passig through the face and chest to retur
to beneath the navel before repeatig the circut. I I happened to catc cold
and felt uwel, I simply directed t heat all over my body util it reached
even my fgertips and hairs to produce profuse perspiration, at which the
cold vanshed. After this al my former ailments disappeared for ever.
Each time I clbed the moutain with friend, I did not feel tired even
ater covering several tens of Chinese mies of moutain paths. What was of
re iterest to me wa tt i the summer of the same year, in a wang
contest with a fend, we covered ninety Chinese miles from Chiang Yi,
which we left i te ealy morg, to Wu Ch where we arrived at four
in the afteroon. I did not feel tired though we walked a the way under a
hot su.
9. Over tenty years' experience.
When I began my meditaton at the age of seventeen, I did not believe much
in its efcacy; I practised it only because I was very scared of my ilesses.
When I read Taoist books, I foud they were full of (techical terms such
as} y and yang (the female or negative and the male or positive priciples),
the fve elements (metal, wood, water, fe and earth), the k'an and 1
diagrams (of the Book of Changes) and the el of immortality, which
were abeyond my comprehension. For this reason, I did not attach much
importance to meditation which I only practised at intervals. When I was
twenty-ight it became my regular exercise because of my lung diseae.
Being a practical man, I thought that ths practice was to presere vitality by
preventing its dissipation, thereby uprooting a ilesses. I did not pay
much attention to the ancient (method of) invigorating the feld of im
mortality (tan t'ien}1 and did not believe in the so-alled 'free passages
through the three gates'. But when I thrice experienced bodily vibrations
whch were a fact, I realized that the Tao was inexhaustible and that there
were many thigs which our (limited) intelligence could never reach.
Thus I came to the conclusion that the ancient teachings should never be
rejected as entirely unreliable.
The ancients spoke of 'iner efciency' (nei kung) as the best method of
improvig health,2 but its prelimiary steps were not handed dow
openly (except by word of mouth from teacher to disciple). After the
Ch'i (897-295 B.c.) and Han (205 B.C.-A.D. 220) dynasties the Taoists
formulated thei theory of Immortalit, groupig themselves into sects
accordig to their methods of practice, but thei aim was similar to Lao Tsu' s
attainment of stiess and to the Buddha's dhyana-samadhi. Unfortunately
their methods of practice are (now) unnow and are regarded as mysterious.
From 1903 when I came to Shanghai unti the publication of (the frst
edition of } this book (in 1914) when I was forty-two, I practised meditation
regularly, twice a day, in the morg and evening. For over ten years, with
rare exceptions when I had piles or some exteral complait, I would pass
each year without sufering from an illness. My recent studies of books on
philosophy, psychology, physiology and hygiene have throw new light
on the practice of meditation. I have, therefore, found that the main pur
pose of meditation is to use the power of mnd to guide the body in such a
way as to ensure the undered cculation of the blood.
As set out i my previous time-table, each morg I walked eastward
I. In the lower bell y under the navel.
2. See Cha
ter 7-Physical and s
irtual culture accordig to Chinese yoga.
facng te rsing sW, to breathe fresh a and absorb solar energy; t
accords well with modem hygiene which recommends a sW-bath ad
open a; moreover sWght destroys bacteria and is most efective i curing
lung diseases. My daily strols were to relax my legs which had become
numb during the meditation; this accords wel with modem hygiene which
recommends outdoor exercise and sports. Therefore, there is nothng
strange or mysterious i the practice of meditation.
There are authentic historical records of Ch'en T'ua (a Taoist) who
retired on Hua Shan moWtain where he sometimes ceased all mental
activities for over a hWdred successive days without leaving his (meditation)
bed, and of Bodhidharma who faced a wall for nine years. Then i my
neighbourhood were elders who practised meditation and were healthy
and vigorous in spite of their years. Taoist records show clearly that al
immortals began their training with meditation and then achieved spiritual
'metamorphosis'. Therefore, the art of medtation is but the fst step (in the
traing) and, since it enabled me to rid myself so wonderfuly of al my
ailments, we can conclude tat the attaiment of immortalty as advocated
by Taoists is with the boWds of possibility. However, I have not attained
this (immortal) state and beig a practical man, I do not deal with achieve
ments which I have not realized and every word in this book is well sup
ported by actual facts.
10. The secret of 'forgetfulness'
When I began my practice of meditation, I sought quick results and my
te-table was consequently complicated. I would, however, urge readers
not to copy it but to practise twice a day, in the morg and eveng, in
order to avoid unnecessary troubles. As to meditation beig 'natural', ths
is the most important thing and I must deal with it here again. I order to
make it natural, nothing can surpass the secret of the word 'forgetfuless'.
For istance, if the meditation is aimed at curig an iless, the practiser
should forget all about the thought of curing it and if it is for improving
health, he should forget a about the idea of improvement, because when
md and objects are forgotten, everythg will be void and the result thus
achieved wil be the proper one. For the efcac of meditation lies in the
gradual transformation of body and mind. If the thoughts of curig an il
ness and of improving health are clung to, the md wil be stirred and no
result can be expected. I made ths mistake when I began my practice and
now urge readers to avoid it.
u. Avoidance of impatience for quick results
Since my frends kew that I had succeeded in recoverig from illness by
means of meditaton, I received visitors who asked me to teach them, but
of the hWdreds ad tousands of them, ony one or two achieved results.
Their failure came fom their impatient desire for quick resut. They only
saw that I had achieved good results but did not reale that my success was
due to my perseverance, not to my impatience for quick results. Most students
were quite serious at the start of their practice but (abruptly) dropped it
when they did not fd it as efective as expected; some even thought
tht I had secrets which I refused to reveal. I general, this impatience
ends i negatve results. They did not know tat meditation is used to
cultivate and nourish body and md. This kd of nourishment is simiar
to that provided by food. For instance, everybody knows that food
nouishes the body but if he wants to obtain quick results and eats more
than he can digest, thus impairing his stomach, w he then stop eating
altogethen Ths practice is lie a long jourey on foot; the traveler,
by walkig step by step, arrives fnally at his destination.
12. Vibration bearg no relation to the efectiveness of meditation
We have dealt with vibrations in the body which manfest long after the
meditator has begun hs daiy practice. Whether they are present or not and
quick or slow depends on the physical constitution of each individual. It is
wrong to discontinue the meditation if it is thought to be inefective solely
because of the lack of vibrations. It is also wrong to be frustrated when seeig
others experiencing vibrations which one does not feel. Because of the
diference in bodily constitutions, there are those who feel them only a few
months after starting their practice of meditation; others who feel them
after a few years of practice; and those who do not feel them even after
several years of meditation during which their bodies and minds have been
transmuted satisfactorily. Therefore, we know that vibrations bear no
relation to the efciency of meditation.
13. Relation between meditation ad sleep
(Chese) doctors tell us that every man should sleep eight hours a night. They
also say that it is wrong for husband and wife to share the same bed because
both breathe out carbonc acid which pollutes the air and is the cause of con
tagion if one of them falls il. The same rule applies to meditation which
should be practised ever eveng between nine and ten. The practiser
should go to bed at ten and get up at six the following morg; it is
advisable for him to sleep in a sigle bed. In 1900 when I began to practise
meditation, I achieved ver quick results because I abstained from sexual
desires for the whole year. Since then, I have always slept alone, although I
have not avoided sexual desires completely.
14. Relaton between meditation and food
Doctors rightly say that over-ating should be avoided, that meals shoud
be taken at fxed hours and that food should be chewed wel and swallowed
slowly. We Chinese are good eaters, ad an ancient poem said: 'Strive to
eat more . .' Nowadays, when meeting a fiend and enquiring after h
heath we always ask: 'How many bowl of rce do you take!' The general
idea i that the more one eats, the more healthy one is, but we overlook the
fact that over-atig causes indigestion which produces other i nesses.
Chldren are encouraged by their parents to take their meals as quicky as
possible but they do not realize that food is not properly masticated i eaten
quickly. Thus the fuction of chewing, which should be done by the teeth,
is passed on to the stomach and itestines which are overworked and so
become il. The teeth which do not work enough become decayed. I
people do not feed at fed hours, they are always inclined to eat cakes,
dumplings, etc., at any time, thus wasting gastric juice and causing stomach
trouble. When I was young, I used to eat too much, quickly and at irregula
hours, and thereby sufered from a dilated stomach, but once I began my
practice of meditation, I gradualy realed my error. The meals which I
now take represent only a thid of what I used to eat. I the morg, I have
a glass of m istead of a ful breakfast. Before, though I ate too much, I
always felt hungry, but now that I eat much less, I am always satisfed ad
am much stronger. I now reale that in the old days when I felt hungry, it
was not real hunger but an abnormal reaction from my stomach which was
accustomed to aways being ful. It is, therefore, advisable to eat withi
certain lmts, to chew the food well and to swallow it slowly i order to
help digestion; this is a rule that canot be changed.
After the publication of his fst book, Yi Sh Tsu re
ceived many letters from those who followed and practised
his method of meditation. We present below some of their
questions and the author's answers which may iterest
practisers of meditation i the West.
Question. After practising meditation for some tie, I have not experenced
the iner heat and vibration in the belly but have noticed that my body h
been swaying to the right and the left. Ths happened only a few days after
I began my practice; what does it mea 1
Aswer. Ths swayig of the body shows that your meditation takes efect,
but its efectiveness does not necessarily depend on the inner heat and
vbration i the belly. When your meditation is really efective, these will
mafest themselves but not after a shor period of practice.
Q. Is it true that i each meditation you feel the inner heat that circulate
clockwise in you body 1
A Yes.
Q. Ca one do had work after ad before each meditatonl
A. Ye, but not immediately. Mter workig hard, one should wal about
slowly to relax before sitting i meditation at the end of which one should
slowly open the eyes and relax the libs.
Q. Shoud one close the eyes while sitting in meditatonl
A. To close the eyes is to ensure stilness of mind. Wen one feels tired
after a day of hard work, one can open them a little to avoid faling into
drowsiness. But it i advisable to close the eyes ad direct them inward to
look into one's inner sel
Q. Wat shoud I do to rid mysel of the pain i my loins after sittig i
meditation, which prevents me from continuing my practcel
A. T i because you are not accustomed to sitting in meditaton or is
most probably due to lumbago. If you do not stai yoursel ad take a
natural attude, the pain wldisappear.
Q. What shoud I do to get rid of rising thoughts tht prevent me from
sitting in meditation 1
A. Count your breath to control your tg process.
Q. Is it necessar to concentrate on the lower bely1
A. At the beginnig, it is not easy to make ths concentraton; therefore
(te mnd) shoud be brought down gradually util it reaches the lower
Q. I have no time in the morg; may I practise meditation at nighu
A. Yes, but after a long day of hard work, you may feel tired ad sleepy at
nght; i so, it is advisable to practse in the morg.
Q. What do you mean by lowering the pit of the stomachl What does it
look like1
A. If you concentrate on the lower belly, your chest wlbe empty ad re
laxed; this shows that the pit of the stomach has been lowered. Seen from
outside, the region immediately below the chest is hollow while te bely
Q. I began my meditation in March and al my ilnesses disappeared
gradualy in May, so that my health improved and I thought I was rid of a
my ailments. But in the middle of June, I suddenly had an involutary em
sion whch was something new. What is the cause of this ad does it show
a bad state of health, or does it come from some former ileses which
have recurred with my practice of meditation l
A. It is illogical to attribute ivolutary emission to te practce of
meditation. Probably your health was poor before, hence the absence of
these emissions, but with its improvement, the excess of generatve fuid
caused its emission. I can assure you that this i not due to your practice of
meditation. You should avoid stirring your mind by banishing athoughts
of sexual desire ad then you wl get rid of the cause. However, i i
volutary emssion is not due to sel-abuse, it i not harmful.
Q. When I began my practice in early February, my thoughts were very
numerous but a few months later, I made some progress and was sometime
entirely free from tem for a ful minute durig which I felt a if I had
entered the great emptiness. But now I cannot control mysel ad am
assailed by thoughts; I do not feel at ease and am almost on the poit of
stoppig my practice. What should I do 1
A. I while sitting in meditation you can free yourself from thoughts for a
full minute, this i a very good sign and you should strive to presere this
state. If you persevere in your practice, you wil be able to rid yoursel of
them. The best way to acheve this is to tu inward your meditation to
contemplate the source of these thoughts and when you realize that there i
no fxed place where they arise, you will attain the state of thoughtlessness.
Q. My legs are always numb after I have sat in meditation for thrt
miutes. I am unable to get rid of this numbness which now seems more
ubearable t before. What should I do to be free of it 1
A. Ths numbness is uavoidable. It is lke physical exercise whic causes
one's lmbs to ache at the start. There are two ways of getting rid of it:
frstly, when it is unbearable, move and stretch your legs to relax them, ad
secondly, try to bear it until it becomes imperceptible for it wl vanish of
itself. I you can bear it in this way for a few sitigs, your legs will be no
more numb and you will then be able to sit for one or two hours without
further diculty.
Q. During meditation, if salva fows, should I spit or swallow it 1
A. This is a very good sign; you should swallow it. According to the
ancient (Taoist) method, one should roll the tongue round the mouth to
make saliva fow ad then swallow it with a audible gulp.1
Q. Is it harmful to lengthen the duration of a meditation!
A. You can lengthen it if you can bear with it but you should avoid strain.
Q. During the meditation, the iner heat sometimes goes up ad dow;
what does this mean 1
A. This is a very good sign which shows the fee circulaton of the vtal
Q. During the meditation, concentration should be made on te lower
bely; afterwards, is it good to concentrate on the soles of the feet!
1. See Chapter 7, Physical and Spiritual Culture accordng to Chese Yoga for
an explanation.
A. Whether you sit in meditation or not, your concentraton should be on
the lower belly.
Q. When one is il, shoud one concentate on the part of the body which is
afected I
A. The best thing is to forget all about one's illness.
Q. Is it advisable to sit in meditation after a meal!
A. Meditation shoud be practised twent to thirty mutes after a mea.
Q. When I sit in meditation, I feel a touch of heat in the lower belly.
What does this mean 1
A. This shows that your meditation is not realy efective; as time passes,
this heat wlgradualy grow i intensity.
Q. Each time I sit in meditation, I feel very impatient and the more I strve
to suppress my impatience, the more unbearable it becomes. What should
I dol
A. Do not try to suppress it. You should lay dow everthg by visualizing
your body as being dead; this is tantamount to ki g it in order to resur
rect it.
Q. If the two thighs do not rest comfortably on the cushion, is it advisable
to add padding under the buttocks 1
A. The buttocks should be raised two to three inches above the knees so
that the thigh incle dowward and rest on the cushion; thus the legs wl
also be relieved from numbness.
Q. According to (Taoist) books, the method of turing inwards the con
templation does not mean the forceful stoppage of thoughts, but looking
into their rise and fal to clear them away; for instance, returg the frst
thought to itself the second thought to itsel and so on. What does 're
turng' mean 1
A. A false thoughts are but the md's clingings which succeed one
another endlesly. When contemplation is tured inward to look into thei
rise and fal, the purpose is to isolate these thoughts, thereby cutting of
their ls and connections. Thus the frst thought canot reach the second
one, ad this is 'retug' (the fst thought to itself wthout allowing it to
be lked with the second one). Ths i only possible when the rise of ever
thought is looked into.
Q. Why, when somethig that is of no real concer enters my mind, ca
not I get rid of itl
A. This is because you cling to it. I you look into the unreality of your
body whch is a union of ilusor elements, you wl realie that there is
not a thg that is worth your atachment; thus you wlbe able to lay dow
everg (and so quiet you mind).
Q. Durig my meditaton, although I practise the coutg method, my
md still wanders outside; should I leave it alone i
A. I your mind continues to wader in spite of your practice of the cout
ig method, you shoud, each time you notce it wandering, brig it back
under control so as to 'feeze' it. I you contue so doing, you wlprevent
it fom wandering.
Q. I sometimes feel the vtal principle go dow and reach the aus; is t
a good or bad sign i
A. This is a good sign, but don't be happy about it. Let it tae its own
course ad when there is abundace of vital principle, lead it genty (without
exertion) up along the backbone.
Q. You advise us by visualzaton to lead the breat from the tip of the
nose dow to the lower belly. I it te same if concentration is made on the
lower belly i
A. My advice is for begin ers who are uable to direct their breath to te
lower bely at the star of their practice. I you can concentrate on te
lower bely, that is much better.
Q. It is said that when one is ill and sits in meditaton, one shoud rid one
sel of al thoughts of a cure ad it is aso said that one should hold on to the
thought of beig in perfect health. Is there any contradiction in these two
A. There is no contradiction. Fundamentally, tere is no ilness which is an
illusion and is consequently unreal. I you harbour the thought of curg it,
you wladmit the reality of the iess. Hence you should hold the thought
of being i perfect health for the sole purpose of recovering tat health,
ad then your illess will vansh of itself.
Q. Durig my meditation, I feel vibration in my belly, followed by hic
cups and fas. What does all this meani Moreover, when my mind is stll,
my cold hands and feet become warm and are wet with perspiration. Is t
a symptom of illness or a sign of efective meditaton l
A. Vibrations in the bely with hiccuping ad breakg wind show the
undered fow of the vital pricple which cause your body ad limbs
to be hot ad to perspire. Athese are good signs of efecve meditation.
Q. Last night, during my meditation, I gradually felt sometng quite
unuual. It was as i I wa i a foatng state which was only temporary. A
soon as I felt it, my thoughts retued agai but I succeeded i stoppig
tem ad it reappeared. Thus my thoughts alterated with ths state for a
few times. At last, whle in t state, suddenly the iner heat came dow
fom my nose to my mouth, throat ad chest, and the pores al over my
body seemed to open up. I was so surprised that I did not notice where t
heat stopped. Then I composed myself ad felt aother inner heat in the
backbone between the kidneys which went up to the top of my head. A
my body was hot and wet with perspiration. My surprise gave way to
fght ad then to alarm ad I was uable to compose myself. The het
disappeared and the perspiraton stopped. My head was wet with sweat ad
drops of it ran of my cheeks. Ths experience was ver strage to me; what
does it mea 1
A. These are the best signs of an efective meditation. Your perspiration
removes imputies accumulated in your body. Don't be frightened. Let
this state take its ow course. I the heat is intense, lead it by visualization up
the backbone to the top of your head ad then down to the lower belly,
thus ensuring its contiuous fow.
Q. Ever morg when I sit in meditation, I feel vibrations in my belly,
frst in its upper part and then under the navel. The more it vibrates, the
more the vital prnciple fows freely and the more comfortable I feel. I my
medtation in the afteroon and in the evenng before going to bed, I do not
feel vibrations i my belly. It seems that the fowing vtal prciple reaches
the lower bely more easily when it is empt tha when it i full. Are
vibrations caused by ths fow into the lower belly or are they ony acci
dental! What do you mean by settling the lower belly; do you mea
expadig it without allowig it to contract!
A. Vibratons show the free passage of the vital principle. As it passes
through the stomach and intestines, it vibrates when the bely is empt. But
when the bely is ful, it ceases to vibrate. The breath reaches the lower belly
more easiy when the latter is ful . Vibrations are not accidental but come
fom the vital principle circulatig i the belly. As times pases, when you
meditation is more efective and the vital principle fows feely, ten these
vibratons wl cease.
To settle the belly is to expand it at al times without alowing it to con
tract. This can be attained ony after a long traing and ca ot be achieved
by beginers.
Q. I began to meditate i November last year. Now each eveng before
goig to bed, I practise the counting of breath ad when I come to te
fftieth cout, though nothg unusua occurs in my belly, my breathng i
regulated with the reut tat I exerece a very comforble state beyond
A. You wlexerence better states lter on.
Q. When I come to the fftieth count, my head, shoulders and back are wet
with perspiration, but as soon as I stop couting, the perspiraton ceases.
What does ths mean 1
A. The best way is to continue your couting and stop it only after your
perspiration has ceased of itself.
Q. When I was two my health was weak and I sufered fom hera.
The physician prescribed medcine to l up the inner energy, but now
when I practise meditation, I feel as i my energy is going down until it
reaches the afected spot in my body, thus in contrast with the aim of
(Chinese) medical science. Do you t that meditation is harmful in my
A. When you concentrate on the lower belly, do not direct the iner
energy to go down but leave it alone so that it takes its natural course; thus
you wil have no trouble. Twenty years ago, I also had hera and got rid of
it by medtation.
Q. Last evening, dug my meditation, I suddenly felt that my lower belly
was unusually empty with its centre of gravity le a red lump which was
perceptible. It was hot and swiging, and the air breathed in went further
dow (than usual). Then the pores all over my body seemed to open up and
I perspired. I was so scared by this unusual experience which lasted thee full
mnutes that I could not continue my meditation. I then lay dow ad fel
into a deep sleep. What does all this mea 1
A. This is a very good result of your pointed concentration. You should not
be scared; leave it alone ad i you feel vibrations in your bely, vsualie
the vital principle as going up your backbone, but avoid exertion.
Q. At the start of my practice, my breath did not go down and I felt that
my chest was stifed, but now with my breath passing freely fom my cest
down to the belly, the latter expands lie a drum with some (silent) vbration
i it. However, when a loud voice is heard or a movement felt, there is some
slght pain in my chest. What is the cause of this 1
A. A loud voice or a movement is not a diect cause of the pain in your
chest whch is most probably due to strain when breathig. Though your
breath goes dow, your chest is still not empty and relaxed, ad the pai is
the reaction of your neres to exteral interference. You should avoid
exeron and take a natural attitude durig you meditation.
Q. My bely vibrates durng my morg meditation. Recetly I had a
uusual experience. A inner heat developed beteen my eyebrows,
reched my eyes and suddenly a brght light appeared i font of me, le
te brghtess of dw. The heat ten descended to the tip of my nose.
Since then, i ever morg meditation, my neck ad back became very
hot wth occasional vibration in my forehead and bely. I stil sweat a lttle
but te (above) bright light does not appear ay more. Is athi a good sign
and what should I do 1
A. The appearance of iner heat ad a bright light in font of you are good
sigs, for they show that the vital priciple is passig though the two (main)
psychic chanel in the human body. When concentration on a certain
part of the body is efective, it starts the inner heat ad vibrations. This
heat is bright and is easily perceptible when it passes through your face. But
whether ths brightess is perceptible or not, you should not clig to it but
take a natural (or indiferent) attitude. It is most important for you to con
tinue to concentrate on the lower belly.
Q. Ater a long sitting in meditation, is some slight deviation from the
correct posture harmful!
A. When your meditaton is efective and the vital principle fows freely in
the psychic chanels, it does not matter much whether your posture is
correct or not.
Q. My belly has been vibrating for over a month ad if I strive to lead the
force dow, the vibration increases. Should I exert myself to increase the
vibration or leave it alone to take its natural course!
A. Vibration is a good sign and should be left alone without makg any
efort to interfere with it.
Q. After a long vibration, it comes to a stop and although I concentrate on
the lower belly, I fai to cause it to vibrate again, but after a few minutes,
it starts again. What does ths short interruption mean!
A. This is a natural sequence of the free Bow of the vital principle for a
motion comes to a stop; there is nothg abnormal in all this.
Q. What do you mean by using a single thought to overcome numerous
A. Wen you concentrate on a single thought without loosening your grp
of it, you wil sooner or later succeed i putting a stop to athoughts.
Q. Wat do you ma by tug inwards the contemplation, ad by re
tug every thought to itself!
A. By turg inwards the contemplation is meant closing your eyes to
look into the innermost; this can put a stop to false thoughts which wil
thus be disengaged from one another. This is returg each thought to its
origin so that it cannot be led to the folowing one, but actua y tere is
no real retur to anythig.
Q. I my morg medtation, I feel that my chest and belly ae empt ad
relaed with te free passage of my breath; ths state i comorable, but i
the evening meditation, why do I not have the same experence 1
A. Mter a good rest in your sleep at night, your spirits are high the next
morg whch i always the best time for meditation. Hence the derent
Q. Mter my practice of meditaton either in the morg after gettig up
or i the evening before going to bed, I did not feel anything uusual for a
whole month. Then, one night, it took efect suddeny and I felt the iner
heat and vibration in my lower bely; my head ad limbs were also ver
warm. After a little, the heat reached the coccyx and then went up along
the backbone. This happened thce, each tme after a short interruption.
However, the heat did not reach the neck. The followg morg, I sat
again but faied to have the same experience, and nothing happened i three
successive days. Since then, although I have practised meditation before
going to bed at nght, the in er heat has failed to ret i the lower bely.
What is the reason i
A. The inner heat uually vibrates late at night because the practiser is i
high spirts after a restful sleep. It goes up along the backbone, stops ad
fows again because it is not suf ciently powetul. You should leave it
alone ad when there is enough of it and it is strong, it wfow further of
itse Don't be impatient.
Q. When the in er heat i present, I do not feel at all tired, but when it is
absent, the meditation becomes wearisome. What is the reason i
A. You do not feel tired when there is inner heat in your belly because t
vtal principle harmones with the circuation of blood.
Q. Is it true that some practisers have visions of demons in thei medi
A. I personally never had any vision of demons durig my meditaton but a
student of mine did. Mter a few years of practice, he made very good
progress, but one eveng he suddeny perceived i the stil state a group of
naked girls who surouded him clamorously. He was surprised and i
mediately kept h md under control, but the girls refused to retreat. He
was scared ad hastily repeated in silence the Buddha's name. Thereupon,
te girls disappeared. He was not a Buddhist devotee but the method he
employed was still very efecve. This is the best way to deal with demons
accordig to Buddst sitras.1
I. The medittor ws not spiritually stong enough to wipe out the vsion created
by his own mnd and had to rely on the Buddha's power ofSamadhi whch is efecive
i sir ad other sitatons. Th power of Samadh is also inherent in his sel
WE MENTIONED in Chapter 4 on Meditation according to
the T'ien T'ai school the eight physical sensations experienced
by the practiser when his iner excellent qualities, hitherto
dormant, manifest themselves after he has achieved stilness of
mind, but when he is stiin the realm of desire and has not yet
attained the stages of Bodhisattva development.1 As a result of
this mental stilless, the vital principle (rala), now sufciently
accumulated in the lower bely, bursts out and fows into the
microcosmic orbit2 or the main psychc channel in the human
body and causes involutary movements, both inner and outer,
producing eight physical sensations, such as pain, itchig,
coldness, warmth, weightlessness, heaviness, roughness and
smoothness. There are, besides the main circuit, subsidiary
ones lg various psychic centres in the body and moving
i sympathy with the mai one, hence these involuntary
movements of the body and limbs and the eight accompanying
physical sensations.
The vital principle stands for the element fre which is hot.
When enough has accumulated, it is felt by the meditator ad
enters the mai circut, spreading its warmth to al parts of the
I. See Chapter 4, pages pp. 139, 140
2. See Chapter 7 for fuher detai.
body, so that he perspires durig his meditation. If he succeeds
i achievig complete stiless of mind by freeing it from al
exteral disturbances, the pra wl become bright and per
ceptible to hm. This brightness w grow in intensity with the
efectiveness of the meditation and will become a White Light
whch only experienced practisers can achieve and which
then il uminates everything in a dark room as i broad
When this vital priciple fows into the main subsidiary
circuits, it sweeps all obstructions from its path and the
meditator feels sensations such as roughness, itching and pain
which are sometimes quite unpleasant. For istance, when it
forces its way into a small circuit under the skin on the top of
the head, he feels as if his hair were being puled out. Rough
ness and itching are felt when it fows into subsidiary circuits
i front, at the back and on the left and right sides of the head,
piercig through the hitherto obstructed psychc centres and
muscles. Sometimes as a result of the contraction and expan
sion of the muscles ad psychic nerves i the body, the practiser
feels himself as heavy as lead. When prata fows freely without
obstruction, he feels smoothess in the body and on the skin.
I he achieves pointed concentration, or singleness of md,
he wl experience a sensation of intense cold which either
descends from the top of his head and goes down hs spine and
then spreads to all parts of hs body, or rises from the coccyx,
going up the backbone to the head and pervading the whole
body. I ths coldness descends from the crown, the resultant
state of dhyana is temporary and cannot be reproduced at will.
I it rises from the coccyx, the state of dhyana is stable and can
be regaied at wl i subsequent meditations. This coldness is
sometimes felt before the meditator enters the 'holy stream' i
which he wl feel as weightless as an astronaut. But there is a
d erence i that his body and md disappear completely and
are replaced by a great mass of brightness full of blss while
he is free from al worldly troubles and anxieties, whereas the
spaceman stil worries about hs safe landing on earth. The
medtator w be one wth this brightness wherei hs md
alone performs the function of perception.
Yin Shih Tsu, after his successful practice of Taoist medita
tion which enabled him to get rid of al his ilesses and to
improve his health, adopted the chih-kuan method of the
T'ien T'ai school and publshed his second book A Supplement
to Yin Shih Tsu' s Method of Meditation (Yin Shih Tsu Ching
Tso Fa Hsu Pien) dealig with the Buddhst meditation of the
T'ien T'ai sect.
At the age of eighty-two, he recapitulated his personal ex
periences in a thd book, Yin Shih Tsu' s Experimental Medita
tion for the Promotion of Health, 1 from which we quote the
folowng passages:
I went to Peking when I was forty-three after studying the Buddhist
Dharma. I the capital, all my frends thought that my frst book should be
altered because in it my method of meditation was Taoist and was, therefore,
heterodox. It happened that the great Master Ti Hsin2 was expounding te
Sitra of Complete Enightenment in Peking, so I called on h for i
struction i chih-kuan meditation which I then practised. Urged by my
fends to write on T'ien T'ai meditation, I wrote and publshed the
Supplement to Yin Shih Tsu's Method of Meditation which was based on the
teachings in the treatises T'ung Meng Chih Kuan3 and An Eplanation of the
Dhyina-piramiti's Pogressive Stages (Shih Ch'an Po Lo M Tz'u Ti Fa
Men). From then on I practised chih-kuan meditation.
When I was ffty-four, I was at Shanghai where over ten of my friend
decided to be initiated into the Japanese Shngon sect. I was not iterested
but since they strongly urged me to join them, I went to the ceremones,
out of curiosity, to see how they were performed. I found the rituals too
complicated and since I was already ver occupied with my teachg at
Kuan Hua University, I had no time for Shigon meditation. I contiued,
however, with the chi-kua method without iterruption.
According to the T'ung Meng Ch Kuan, when the i er excelent
qualities manifest in the practice of dyana, the medtator experences
eight physica sensations such as weightlessness, warmth, coldness ad
heaviess whch concer the body, ad vibration, itchg, roughess ad
r. See also pp. 157 and r6o.
:. A well-kown master ofT'ien T'a school who died i Ch a few years ago.
3 See ao p.III.
smootess which pertai to activity. According to my personal exper
ence, these sensations were not a felt at the same time, but one after
another. When I was twenty-ight and twenty-nine, I felt ony thee of
them, weightlessness, warmth and vibration. After sitting for a long while,
my frst sensation was that my body was as weightless as a feather. Later, I
felt heat in my lower bely folowed by a vibration whch rose up the
backbone util it reached the crown and then descended dow the face
(and chest) util it retured to the lower belly, to circulate agai ad again
i the same manner. This is the fow (of the vital principle) joiing up the
two psychic chanels called jen mo and tu mo.1 According to ancient
medical science, there are eight psychic channels;2 besides the above two,
jen mo and tu mo, the other six are: ch'ug mo,8 tai mo,4 yang ch'iao,6
yin ch'iao,6 yang wei7 and yin wei. a
I practised ch-kua for over ten years during whch I concentrated on
the lower belly. One day, I shifted my concentration to the 'central spot'
(between the navel and the pit of the stomach) and a few days later, I
notced a profound chage in my body, resultg in a free fow (of prata)
though the remainng six psychic channels which I describe below.
As I now fed my concentration on the 'central spot', one evening, at the
I. The jen mo channel rises from the perineum and goes up along the bely,
passes through the navel, the pit of the stomach, the chest, throat and upper lip and
ends below the eye; it connects twenty-sven psychic centres. The tu mo channel
rses from the perineum and passes through the coccyx to go up the backbone to the
crown and thence descends along the forehead and nose, ending in the gums; it con
nects thirty-ne psychic centres.
2. As contrasted with twenty-four organic chanel according to ancent medical
3 Ch'ung mo, or the 'burstng' channel, rises from the perneum, goes up
between jen mo and t mo and ends i the chest; it connects twenty-four psychic
4 Tai mo begins from both sides of the navel forming a belt which cicles the
belly; it connects eight psychic centres.
5 Yang ch'iao rises from the centre of the sole and turns along the outer side of
the ankle and leg, then skirs the back of the body and reaches the shouder, veering
to the neck, the corer of the mouth and the inner comer of the eye, ending behd
the brain; it conects tenty-two psychic centres.
6. Yin ch 'iao rises from the centre of the sole, turs along the inner side of the
ane and leg, skirs the belly and chest, reaches the shoulder, turs up to the throat
and ends in the inner corer of the eye; it connects eight psychic centes.
7 Yang wei rises from the outer side of the foot about one and half inches below
the anke, goes up the outer side of the leg and after skiring the back of the body,
enters the upper arm, half way along which it veers to the shoulder, the neck, and then
behind the ear ending in the forehead; it connects thiry-two psychic centres.
8. Yin wei rises from the inner side of the calf, about fve inches above the ankle,
goes up the inner side of the thigh, and after skg the belly and half of the chest,
turs to the throat, ascends along the face and ends in font of the top of the head; it
connects fourteen psychc centres.
end of a meditation at midght, I suddenly felt a vibration i my chest, and
my saliva fowed freely.1 This happened for several evenings. Then the
vibration became more intense and thust up straight to the spot between
the eyebrows where I perceived a red brghtness. Then pushig up it
reached the crow which it circled for a long while. I felt as if an electric
shock was pulsg roud i my body unt it reached my hands and feet
after piercing (through my limbs). This lasted a full minute and then
stopped abruptly between the eyebrows.
Mter that, ever evenng, I experienced the same vibration. It seemed as
i there was some mechansm revolving in the 'central spot' and rising
slowly until it reached the crown round which it continued to circle. When
the vibration became itense, it abruptly stopped between the eyebrows.
Then the 'central spot' vibrated again, and there seemed to be an electric
shock which pulsed in an oblque oval circuit from my left shoulder to my
left leg, so violently that it shook my bed and mosquito-net; when the
vibration became more intense, it stopped abruptly. Then I felt another
vibraton behid the brain, descendig along the backbone to stop abruptly
in the coccyx. After that, something like another electric shock descended
fom my right shoulder to my right leg, pulsing in an oblique oval circuit;
te vibration became intense and stopped suddenly. These two oblique
oval ccuits, on the left and rght sides of my body, showed that the four
psychic channels, ying ch'iao, yang ch'iao, yi wei and yang wei, had
joied up. Thus for the fst time I uderstood the inter-relation of the
eight psychc chanels ad the nerous system and realized that there was
nothing fctitious and uaccountable in it a.
Up to then, each time the ier vibration took place, it began i (some
sort of ) change i the 'central spot'. However, one evening, it started in my
ears ad formed a straight line across my face, swingig from left to right
and back again several times before ending abruptly between the eyebrows.
(At the same time) another vibration from the forehead to the chin, in a
vertical straight line, made, with the horiontal line, a cross and pulsed up
and down several times before suddenly ending between the eyebrows.
Then another vibration descended in a curve from the crown (along the
face) chest and belly to the penis. It pulsed up and dow, causing the pens
to erect. This showed that the two channels jen mo and ch'ung mo had
joined up.
One night, the heat in the 'central spot' vibrated, causing my body to
bend forards and backwards and to the left and right. These bendings were
orderly and the same number each time without the least confusion. Then
the vbration caused my arms to revolve backwards and forwards quicky
1. This is a very good sign for salva reduces the scorchg efect of the heat of
priQa whch is the caus of a dry and sore throat.
le a wheel wit te same number of t eac way. Then it reached my
les so tt te left one bent while te right one straightened and vice
versa. Thes movements could not be exlained by orthodox science ad
were involWty. After them my head (seemed to) swell ad the upper part
of my body to stretch so that I (seemed) to be over ten feet tall. (The
Buddhist Scriptures call t the appearance of the great body.) Suddenly
my head bent back and my chest (seemed) as large as the great void. Then
wit the same suddeness, my head bent forard ad my back (seemed) as
large as space. As a resut I felt (as i) I had only the lower h of my body.
Thu with the dippearace of both body and mind, I experienced Wusual
Aoter evening the vibration in the 'central spot' circled roWd the
spine, then roWd the chet Wder the s, roWd the bely i the jen mo
channel ad fnally roWd the waist, in each case frst to the left and then
to the rght for a few tens of tus each way. This fnal circling of the waist
showed that the tai mo ce was clear. Then the vibration descended
spirally from the crown dow the t mo chanel along the backbone
to the coccyx, up ad down for a few tens of times. Then it rose from
the lower belly, went up the jen mo chael to the top of the head ad
descended through the occiput and dow the spine to the cocc, up and
down for a few tens of times. (The vital priciple) after breakng through
the jen mo and tai mo chanels had rsen from the coccyx along the spie
to the top of the head and then descended down the face (throat), chest and
belly, but now it cicled in reverse most probably because these chanels
were free, so that it could fow either way. Thus the ch'Wg mo ad tai mo
chan els were also joined up.
Aother night from the 'central spot' and beneath the skin the vibration
took the form of a twoinch spiral which circled the body thiy-six times
each way. It then circled roWd the lower belly and (the mddle of ) the
chest, all being orderly ad systematic. Next it rose to the head and de
scended circlg the spine to the coccyx, retug up the backbone to the
crown, twice each way. Then it rose up along the lower bely frst by the
left ad then by the right ch'Wg mo chanels to the crow ad back,
twice by each chanel. Afer that it circled the jen mo chanel in the head,
descended to the lower belly ad retued to the cown. Sometimes it
circled roWd the head, from left to right and then from right to left,
stopping i the forehead. Another te it revolved in the left and right
shoulder with the same number of turs each way. Suddenly it reached the
tips of the fngers which made quick involWtary movements. Fialy it
descended i a rush from the top of the head, fWg out both my legs and
moved the toes with the same speed as the fngers.
One evening the vibration bega in the centre of the back ad spiralled
uder te skin makg t-i circles fst to the lef ad ten to te right
then again, but startng fom between the loins ad once more but fom
between te shoulder blades. Athese circuits were orderly and systematic.
Before it had moved to the left and right in three circuits begirg from
the 'central spot', the mddle of the belly and the centre of the chest, but
now it started fom the middle of the back, between the loins and between
the shoulder blades, that is from three spots exactly behind the front ones.
These involutary circular movements were really wonderful and incon
ceivable. When it reached the tps of the fngers and toes, the latter stretched
out to move whe the legs bent and straightened alterately and the upper
and lower jaws knocked against each other, all making brisk movements.
When it reached the nose, suddenly the nostrils contracted and expanded.
When it reached the eyes, the eyelids suddenly opened and closed, whie the
irises moved in sympathy. Fially it caused the ear lobes to move slowly.
A these movements to the left and right were natural with the same
number of turs in each direction.
One nght the vibration in the 'central spot' caused aother series of
systematic circuits thirt-six times to the left and again to the right, fst
from between the lois along the tai mo (belt) chanel, then from (the
mddle of) the chest and faly from the middle of the bely. They suc
ceeded each other systematically. Next the vibration made two great ovals
by going up and down the left and right sides of the chest, and a second pai
by going up to the head and descending frst to the left and then to the
right side of the back. Each pair of ovals crossed several times.
After that it moved to my lmbs so that my arms swung in quick circles
to the left and rght whie my legs bent and straightened and frst the toes
ad then the heel of one foot kept strig those of the other. Suddeny my
knees began to swing apart and close; then they bent, forcing up from the
foor my buttocks which swung to the left and right. This happened three
times, while my jaws, lips, nose and eyes moved more briskly tha before.
Another eveng the vibration in the 'central spot' spialled in a large
circle round the body sixty times to the left and again to the right and this
was folowed by simiar circuits round the chest and belly. Suddenly each
of these three circuits expanded six times in turn, all within them becomng
a void for fve or six minutes each time.
The vibration then rose from the central spot to the head and made fou
oblique ovals in tur through which it circled thirty-six times from the top
of the head to the left and right sides of the buttocks and back, through te
back of the head and along the spine to the coccyx and the left leg and back,
and fally to the right leg and back.
Another night . . when the vibration moved dow the face, my shouders
and arms tured: my legs bent and straightened, opened and closed, and
then with my feet on the foor and knees bent, my back arched unti my
shoulders touched the foor. My buttock and waist swung to the left and
right while my whole body shook: it then dropped to the ground. Next my
soles rubbed together and each massaged the other leg for the same number
of times. When the vibration rose to my shoulders, my hands began to
massage each other, my head, neck, shoulders and arms. They then mas
saged up from my lower belly to my shoulders, then right down my whole
body to my toes. Finally my fsts clenched and in tum patted, kneaded and
rubbed me all over. All this happened systematically and in order, was in:
volutary and quite wonderul.l
... These involuntar movements lasted for some six months after which
they gradually ceased. This was probably because all the psychic channels had
by then opened and been cleared.
Late in my life, I practised Pho-wa,2 an esoteric Tibetan technique for
rebirh in the Pure Lad, which had not been introduced in China before.
The teachng is based on the principle that when someone who is due to be
rebor in theW ester Paradise is dying, his consciousness wileave through
te Aperture of Braa (in the top of his skull): thus one is taught to
repeat mantras to open this aperture and to practise regularly so that one can
folow a similar path at the moment of death. In 1933, when I was sixty-one,
I had already received this Dharma from the Tibetan guru No Na3 who
had urged me to practise it at home (which I dd) unsuccessfully. I the
sprig of 1937, when I was sixty-fve, I heard that the guru Sheng Lu3 was
teachng this Dharma in Nanking and that all those participating in the four
previous meetings had succeeded i openg the Aperture of Brahma. As
the ffth ad last meeting was soon to take place at the Vairochana temple,
I went to Naning and put my name down to attend it.
I arrived on the frst of Apri to receive the initiation, which was very
much more complicated than the one previously given me by the guru No
Na. I was taught a vajra mantra as the frst step in the practice. It was not a
long one but the method of visualization was very elaborate. It had to be
repeated one hundred thousand times, but since I had only a few days at my
dsposal, I did so as many times as I could.
After the frst day, I stayed in a lodging house and closed the door of my
room to concentrate on repeating the mantra. Before midday on te
1. A detiled description of this patting, kneading and rubbing has been omitted.
2. A tantric practce for opening the Aperture of Brahma on the crown of the
head, through which the consciousness leaves the human body for rebih in the Pure
Land. The Taoists employ a diferent technique which consists in putting the ener
gied vital principle into microcosmic orbits so that consciousness can leave the body
through the same opening in the crown.
3. NoNa and Sheng Lu are transliterations of Tibetan nmes. The guru NoNa
was the chef Hutuktu of Sikang and was my fst mater.
N 199
nth, I had done so sity-two thousand ties, ad i the afteroon I re
tured to the Vairocana temple where thty-nie of us assembled. I wa
told that this was considerably more than at any of the other four gatherigs.
The guru shaved a small hairless circle in the centre of my crown so that
later he could see i the Aperture of Brahma had opened i order to plant a
yarrow stalk in it.
On the tenth we began to isolate ourselves for meditation. I the main
hall an altar was set up with all its majesty, before which the guru led us to
practse the Dharma. Every day there were four sessions each lastig two
hours.1 The practice consisted in visualizing Amitayus Buddha sittig on the
top of the head and in imagining in the body a blue psychic tube which was
red inside and stretched from the crow of the head to the perineum.
Withi this tube in the lower belly below the navel was a bright pearl
which rose (up it) to the heart (centre). (When the pearl was visualized i
that centre) I shouted the mantric syllable H, forcing up the pearl whch
followed the sound and thrust through the Aperture of Brahma to reach
the heart of Artayus. Then I whispered the syllable GA whch caused the
pearl to descend from the Buddha's heart and retur through the openg
to my lower belly. At each session we shouted with such force that we
became hoarse and exhausted, and dripped perspiration although it was sti
ver cold. Seeing that we were ted, the guru chanted i Sanskrt and
exhorted us to follow his example and relax. Tlls we did four or fve times
i each two hour session.
Now I was already experienced in (the art of) meditation and had cleared
the central psychic passage (i the spine) so that I made remarkable progress
on the eleventh. During the frst session a red light shone from the crown
of my head and (I seemed) to grow taler. I the fourth session, I felt (as if)
te Aperture of Brahma was beig bored though by a sharp-pointed tool
and was repeatedly hit by the ascending pearl. When I went to bed a great
whte light shone from my head.
On the twelfth I practised as on the previous day. In the second session, I
felt (as if) my skull was swelling and cracking and that my cheek-bones
were being torn apart. I the third session, my head (seemed to) stretch up,
tier upon tier, each (time) seeming to crack.
On the thirteenth i the frst session, I felt (as if) my brai was beig
pierced from all sides by sharp-pointed tools. At frst I felt that my skul was
very thick, but that the continuous boring had made it thiner. In the third
session, I suddenly felt (as if) the upper part of my body was completely
void whie a great light shone from my head.
On the fourteenth i the frst and second seesions, the bright pearl s
I. From seven to nine in the morng, from ten to twelve, from three to fve i
the afternoon and from seven to nine in the evenig.
up though the cleared passage i the central ch el to the foot of the
Buddha on my crown. This was diferent from my previous experience of
(my head) swelng and crackg when the channel was not yet quite
through my skul. I the fourth session I felt (as i) my neck was splitting to
make room for a column which went straight down to my stomach and i
testies. This was an actual swelling of the central chanel which, until
then, had merely been visualized.
On the ffteenth, in the frst session, I felt that there was a hole in the
crow of my head. I the second session, the guru moved his seat close to
the window where there was abundant sunght. He then called us to come
forward, one after another, so that he (could check whether) the Aperture
of Brahma i our heads had opened ad could plant i it an auspicious
sta as proof of its openig. If there was a real openig, the stalk was
draw into it without breakig the skn. I was among the fst twenty
eight persons whose crowns were opened that day. As to the other eleven
the stalk could not be planted. They were consequently required to con
tinue the practice for a few more sessions. As to those who had achieved
the openig, they were excused further practice but were asked to enter
the hall to use the power of visualization to give (spiritual) aid to the un
successfl itiates so that they too could achieve the same resut speediy.
On the sixteenth, in the frst session, ne people had their Apertures of
Brahma opened. There remaied only a nun and a lay woman whose
crows were stilclosed. The nun had been in Japan where she had practised
(Shgon) meditation and had acquired good experience, yet she had
difculty in opening the Aperture. Ths shows that in the study of the
Dharma, one should bury pride and prejudice which can hider realization.
As to the lay woman, she was of dull potentiality because of her advanced
age. The guru ordered them to sit i front of him and used his spiritual
power to help them. I the followig session, with spiritual help from the
whole gathering, they fmaly succeeded, but not without difculty, i
openng their Apertures of Brahma.
Mter this, I practised the chih-kuan meditation as my main method, with
pho-wa as a complementary one. On the twenty-fourth of May, durig a
meditation, after I had achieved stillness of mid, my chest emitted a light
which gradually expanded to envelop my whole body, formg a bright
sphere. Previously either only my head or my chest had shone and been
bright, but this radiance had not embraced my whole body. In this experi
ence (of total brighmess), I still felt the presence of the Ego.
On the twenty-sixth of the same month, after achieving stilless of mid,
my back now emitted a light which soon engulfed al my body. I exper
enced uusual happiness but stil felt my body was there, for I had not yet
achieved absolute voidness.
O the twenty-seventh, after achievig stless of md, I emitted a lght
which attained a great height ad seemed to reach te clouds i te sky.
My consciousness also expaded with this light ad then gradualy retured
(to my body) through the Aperture ofBrahma.
On the thirt-frst, after stilg my mind, the upper half of my body
emitted a light a on the preceding day. Then I felt in my lower belly heat
as intense as boing water; it then emitted light and the lower half of my
body became void. This state di ered from the previous ones.
On the tenth ofJune, after calmig the mind, a my body radiated and
the lght was much brghter than before. I felt (as i) I had no head whch
was replaced by a transparent brghtness.
On the foutteenth a my body radiated with both its upper ad lower
parts being really bright.
On the seventeenth, after entering the state of stillness, my body radiated
and I felt {as if} the light ilumined my mind's eye and was of a white
radiance, engulfng al my surroundings and formg a great sphere.
On the eighteenth, upon entering the state of stillness, all my body
radiated and the light was much whiter. All round me was transparent
brghtness lie a searchlght shing upon the four quarters while my con
sciousness roamed about i the great void. This brightness then shrunk
and entered my lower bely; after being subjected to rigid control, it
entered my legs and the my arms, fnally to retur to my head.
These involuntary movements and their number are not the
same for all meditators and difer according to the constitution
of each. For instance, i my own experience, when the vital
principle circulated in my body for the frst time, I was
stunned by outer movements to the left and the right i
sympathy with the iner fow. I other words, the ier circu
lation of prata was revealed by the outer movements of body
and limbs. Their number in either direction was frst six, then
sixteen and then thirty-six for the frst few weeks and later
icreased to the maximum of one hundred. Every day i my
three meditations the total number of these brisk movements
was more than nine thousand, but I never felt tired after each
Although the treatise of Ch I and other Taoist books
mention involuntary movements of the body and limbs, they
do not give a detailed description of them. I had had ony a
vague idea of them unti I noticed that, in my own case, they
were orderly and systematic, without the least confusion. At
frst, I was very puzzled and thought that I might have been
misled into the way of the heretics. One day, I heard of Yin
Sh Tsu' s third book and bought it to compare his experience
with mine. After reading it, all my perplexities vanished and
I found nothing wrong in my unexpected experience.
We cannot blame the ancients who taught only a very
lmted number of chosen disciples by word of mouth, with
out leaving behd written instructions for posterity, to avoid
cheap criticism by sceptics and blasphemers who can never
understand the holy teachig. Even nowadays serious Taoists
refuse to show outsiders handwritten instructions from past
masters in order not to be involved in useless discussion and
controversy. For the same reason, my Tibetan guru forbade
hs disciples to reveal the pho-wa technique to those who are
not initiated in his sect and ths is why I am unable to present
a translation of his teaching i ths volume.
It is absolutely wrong to keep the vital principle in the
lower bely or to prevent it from fowg freely in the eight
psychc channels. When it has accumulated i the belly, it
is advisable to shft one's concentration to the 'central spot' so
that it can be put into the main orbit. For this reason, i the
frst volume of our Ch'an and Zen Teachin
Series-p. 56,
note 4-we recommended concentration on the spot between
the navel and the pit of the stomach but could not, for lack of
space, deal with the subject fully.
It is said that when the vital principle fows freely in all the
psychc channels, it permeates frst the marrow in the bones,
then the nervous system, the fesh and inner organs and fally
the skin, thus sublmating the whole body. This perhaps
explains the preservation through the ages of the bodies of
great masters which were only plastered with a thi layer of
rosin med with gold powder and dust of sandalwood. Ths
may also explain the presence of relics in the ashes of the
cremated bodies of enlghtened mons.
The unhindered fow of the vital priciple in the eight
psychic channels, as explained in Yi Sh Tsu's book, was
kown to all Taoists whose prime objective was to realize it
in their trainig with a view to attainig immortalit. Bodhi
dharma saw in China a promised land i whch to teach his
Transmission of the Mind because Taoism already prospered
there and because it was easier for anyone who had realzed his
alaya-vijfana to transmute it into the Great Mirror Wisdom,
But the greatest obstacle for Taoists to realize the Buddha's
Universal Wisdom was their unwillgness to take a step
forward from the 'top of a hundred fot pole', a state i which
still exist the subjective enjoyer of bliss and the objective bliss
which he canot forsake.
We know now that controlled breathing produces pra
which can be accumulated either in the lower belly or in the
solar plexus. When enough of ths vital priciple is stored, it
generates heat which produces vibration. Accordig to the
Taoist method, the practiser should, at the start of each
meditation, massage his lois and the spie between them down
to the coccyx unti that area is very warm, or visualize the
vital principle i the belly as descendig to the perineum and
breaking through the coccyx, the frst of the three psychc
gates, the other two beig between the kdneys and in the
back of the head. If heat is felt i the base of the spine, ths
shows that the frst gate is being forced through, and there
w be no great diculty for it to ascend through the second
one and along the backbone to the occiput, through whch
it is very difcult to pass. If he perseveres in hs training, the
third gate wl be forced open and pra will ascend to the
crow of the he;d, and the rest of the circuit wl be com
pleted in due course as explained by Yin Sh Tsu.
It is advisable for beginners to sit for twenty or tht mutes,
i the morg and evenng, and so continue without iter
ruption instead of attempting long meditation at the start. We
kow by experience that beginners are apt to stop their prac
tice after a few long meditations and their usual pretext is
either lack of time or unbearable cramp in the legs. With
easy stages of twenty or thirty mnutes each, they can con
tinue their meditation throughout the year without difcuty
and wcertainly fmd their practice efective. When they have
got ito the habit of sitting and noticed the progress made,
they w be keen to lengthen their meditation.
A practiser at the end of his meditation may feel very hot or
may be wet with perspiration. I so, he should relax and wait
util the heat has dissipated and his body is completely dry
before taking a bath. I mention this because a Wester friend
of mine recently caught a very bad cold because he bathed
immediately after his meditation to get rid of the heat and per
spiration which, however, showed the efectiveness of hs
WE CANNOT speak of spiritual attainment i we disregard
physical culture, and the Latin phrase, mens sana in cor
ore sano,
expresses the ideal of self-cultivation, for it is impossible to
have a sound mind in an unsound body. The practice of
physical exercises is, however, benefcial to the body only but
not to the mind. It is, therefore, necessary to follow a method
that looks after both body and mnd at the same time, and, i
ths respect, nothing can surpass the technique known as the
Microcosmic Orbit (Hsiao Chou T'ien) folowed by Yi Sh
Tsu.1 This ancient method consists i energizing the vital
principle, htherto dormant, to put it into bodily circuits, for
the purpose of harmonizig body with mind; i other words,
for the itegration of both with each other.
We present below the text of the hsiao chou t'ien techque
taken from the I Fang Chi Chiai whch contains many Taoist
term whch are quite d erent from Buddhst idioms.
First stop your tg (process). Mter regulating body ad mnd, sit
facing east, wt crossed legs. Adjust your inalation ad exhalation, ad
place the rght hand upon the left one, drawng them close to the lower
1. See page 179.
belly below the navel. Then knock the lower teeth against the upper ones
th-six times to stabile both body and spiit. Let the red dragon stir the
sea thrty-si ties,1 directig your (closed) eyes to follow its movements.
Now let the tongue touch the palate. Calm your mind and cout you
breath three hundred and sity times. When your mouth is ful of divine
water, rinse it a few times and then practise the four acts2 by drawing up the
anus to ensure (for the vital principle) free passage in the jen mo channel
through the coccy and the middle gate (beteen the loins) and then along
the spie up which it moves faster. Close your eyes, tu them up and
breathe i slowly through the nose without expiing, until the jade pillow
(i.e. the back of the head) is pierced through. Then (the vital prnciple), as i
being forcibly pushed up by the facult of seeig, rises up the (central
chanel), circles the Kunlun peak (the top of the head), and descends to the
magpie's bridge (the tongue). Now swallow one thid of your saliva which
should follow (the vital prnciple) dow to the Bright Palace (the heart) be
fore returg to the ocean of prfa (the lower belly). Pause for a moment
ad repeat the same exercise for a second and thid time to mae three c
cuits in al. This is called the reverse fowing of the Heavenly Current.
Rest for a little and, with your hands, rub the lower belly one hundred
ad eighty times. When takng the hands away, put a warm cloth over the
navel ad lower belly in order not to expose them to cold a. (The ancients
said: 'The secret of immortalty lies i the preseration of the heat in the
Field of the Elxr (in the lower belly).') Then, chafe the backs of the thumbs
against each other until they are hot and, with them, rub the eyes fourteen
times to quench the 'fre' in the heart, the nose thirt-six times to refresh the
lugs, the ears fourteen times to invigorate the kidneys and the face fourteen
times to strengthen the spleen. Close the ears with (the pals of ) your hd
and beat the heavenly drm. 3 Then raise your hands slowly over you
head, bringing the two palms together' as i to salute the Heaven. Do a
t three times and slowly breathe out impure air, inspiring feh a, fou
r. The red dragon is the tongue; roll it round your mouth thiry-si times to
make saliva fow, thereby reducng the scorching efect of the heat of riing pri. A
qucker way is to roll the tongue back as far as possible.
2. The four acs consist of (a) drawing up, (b) touchng, (c) closing and (d) in
haling. Drawing up the anus is to promote free passage of prata through the coccyx;
touching the palate with the tongue is to make a bridge connecting the psychc
centres in the head with those in the neck and the chest; closing the eyes to look up is
to contol the mind and to push up the pria; and inhaling without exg is to
avoid dissipation of the vt energy.
3. Pbce the palms of the hands on the ears, press the second fngers on the back
of the head with the frst fngers and snap the bter against the bones above the er
to make sharp sounds.
4 To conec the cents of pri i both arm, thus formg anoter cict
roud the body.
to fve tmes. Then (wth crossed arms) hold the shoulders wt your had,
shag them a few times to invigorate your neres and bones. Conclude
by rubbing the jade pilow (the back of the head) twenty-four times, the
smal of the back I So times ad the middes of the soles ISO tmes.
Since the above is unintelligible without explanatory
notes, this excelent Taoist technique has been largely forgotten
in China where people cannot be bothered to investigate it.
I my youth, I too was loath to read Taoist books whch, like
Ch'an texts, seem strange and unintelligible.
I never enjoyed good health before I began meditation and
could only obtain temporary relief from modem doctors and
herbalists. My heart and stomach were weak and I often
fainted, whe I also sufered several times a year from bad
rheumatism. As I have said in Chapter 4, when I was yong I
faed mserably in my practice of T'ien T'ai meditation. I
contiued, however, to concentrate on the lower belly even
when I walked in the street and this probably enabled me to
accumulate praa. I then practised Hdu breathig exercises
to store the vital principle i the solar plexus. The practice of
hua t'ou1 enabled me to forget all about my troubles including
the unbearable heat which rose i my apartment to over
nnety-fve degrees during the summer months. After long
hours at my desk translating Chinese texts, I sometimes felt
very tired and nearly exhausted. But fve mnutes of these
yogic breathing exercises2 would renew my strength and
enable me to get on with my work. It cured my rheumatism
and gave me instant relef not only when I caught cold but
when I contracted the dreaded Asian 'fu may years ago.
When prata began to circulate in my body, I felt as i it per
meated every organ, bone, nerve and mucle, hence the eight
I. See Ch'an and Zen Teaching, Seres One, Par I.
2. See The Science of Breath by Yogi Ramcharak, Yogi Publcton Soce.
physical sensations dealt with earlier. One day, my hear,
which was very weak, seemed to be pierced from all sides by
what felt lie invigorating needles and its weakess vanished
like a dream. My appetite grew out of al proportion and each
day, besides my three normal meals, I found it necessary to
take three extra ones to cope wth the ivolutary movements
which caused profuse perspiration while I was meditating.
Since I lived more or less in seclusion to control my mid and
only went out once or twice a month for a haircut, lack of
exercise became a serious problem. I solved it with another
Taoist exercise which I describe below.
Two or three ties a day, whie standing up with the feet
some eight inches apart and paralel to each other, I tued
my bely and buttocks to the left and the right, one hundred
ties each way. This simple exercise was equivalent to a short
walk in the street, for it worked the lower lmbs and was also a
necessary complement to my involuntar movements.
I order to avoid i ness and since prevention is better than
cue, I practised twice a day the Taoist Secret of the Six Healng
Sounds (Tao Ching Lu Tzu Chueh), the text of which comes
after that of the Hsiao Chou T'ien i the I Fang Chi Chiai or
Ancient Medical Formulas Explained.
Day between midnight and mdday, a period which stds for te positve
(pricple yag), sit facng east wt cossed legs. Do not close the widow
but avoid draughts. Knock the lower teeth against the upper ones, roll the
tongue roud unti the mouth is ful of saliva, rinse with that saliva a few
tmes and then swalow it ain three audible gulps, visualing it a reachg
the lower bely beneath the navel.
Pucker up your lps slightly and silently make the soud 'Ho !' to eject
through the mouth impure air from the heart, then close the mouth to
breathe i, through the nosts, fresh ai to invigorate ths organ of cir
culation. Your exhalng should be short and your inhalng long. Do this
six te.
After that, follow the same method and make six times each of the fve
other souds: 'Hu!' to invigorate the spleen; 'Szi !', the lungs; 'Hsi !', the
lver; 'Hsi!', the stomach; and 'Ch'ui!', the kidneys. The number thrty-six
(six souds repeated six times each) stands for a microcosmic orbit of 360
This method was employed by ancient Taoists to prevent or
to cure illnesses when they withdrew from the world to live i
the mountains. Before practising it, it is necessary to familiarize
oneself wth these six sounds in order to haress each of them
to the corresponding organ on which it has a psychic infuence.
For instance, when makig the sound 'Ho !',it should actually
afect the heart whose impurities are ejected through the
mouth, while it is flled with vitality when you breathe in
fresh air through the nostrils. During the exercise, it seems as
if the heart itself expels its impurities and breathes in energy.
One can test its efectiveness by smoking until one's heart is
afected, and by then makig the sound 'Ho !' to remove the
discomfort and by inhalig fresh air to invigorate the heart;
one wl thus notice the benefcial efect of this soud when
made in this way.
I ancient times, a medical practitioner had to be experienced
i the art of self-healg before he could cure others. The art
of healng consisted in transferring the physician's own psychc
power to his patients to energize their i er prata and to
remove a obstructions in thei bodies, thereby restoring thei
health. Even today this healing art is still practised but ex
perienced Taoists are extremely rare and are not easiy acces
sible because they seek neither fame nor fortune and shun
sceptics and blasphemers.
I view of the rareness of experienced Taoist masters and of
their reluctance to meet outsiders, the ancients devised a
medcal science based on the Nei Ching, the oldest book on the
art of healig, compiled by Ch'i Pai, a mister and noted
physician, by order of emperor Huang Ti, also an expert i
ths science. Its method of treatment is by means of acupunc
ture and cauterization which remove obstructions in the
organic and psychic centres. We know already that the heat of
prata sets up vibrations which open psychc chanels and dis
lodge a obstructig impurities in the psychic centres. Sice
the patients were inexperienced and were unable to accumulate
the vital priciple to produce the requred heat, appropriate
means were devised for this end; a siver needle was used to
pierce the sk above the obstructed psychic centre or above
the psychic chanel leading to it, and moxa was bured on the
puncture so that the heat reached the afected centre, thereby
restorig its vitality and removig its obstructions, the cause
of the illness. If the puncture was accurate, the illess would
disappear instantly. Accordig to the ancients, silver is soothing
and moxa antiseptic. However, the physician had to be well
versed i the art of diagnosing iesses and very famliar with
the exact locations of the psychc centres and the channels
connecting them. There are books on acupucture and
cauterization and bronze statues of the human body showing
the location of the various channels and centres.
The ancients advocated the perfectig of spiit for the master
of matter and great spirit comes from the vital principle being
able to fow freely through all the psychic channels. Whoever
can so circulate pra is free from all ilesses. The best voice
comes from a singer's bely whch is ful of the vital priciple.
I boxg, physical force is no match for the hidden strength of
pra which enables a little man to defeat a giant. I ancient
times, the enlghtened masters lived without fear i the
mmmtains infested with wid beasts because powerful psychic
waves from their strong mds overcame a hostilit. And so
when Hsig Ch'ang came with a sword to murder Hu
Neng, the patriarch stretched out his neck to receive the fatal
blow; the assassi struck thrice but faied to harm him and
was so terrifed that he fell to the ground. When the late
Ch'an master Hsu Yu retued to China from Burma with
a jade Budda carried by porters, they thought it contained
precious gems and whle passing through an uabited
region, they put it down and refused to proceed further unless
the master gave them a substantial reward. Seeing a large
boulder on the roadside, he pointed to it and asked them i it
was lghter than the statue. He then moved it with his hands
and the porters were so scared that they carried the Buddha to
its destination. There was nothing miraculous in this for Hsu
Yu merely used the power of pra i his hands to diplace
the boulder. I her book With Mystics and Magicians in Tibet,
Mrs. Alexandra David-Neel relates the story of an ascetic
who was displeased with her interpreter's disrespectful attitude
and who, without rising from h seat, used his psychic power
to 'push' violently the latter who staggered and fel back
agaist the wall; she did not see the hermit do anythg but
the interpreter felt as if he had 'received a terrible blow'.1
I. Cf. Ms. Aexandra Davd-Neel's book With Mystics an Magicians in Tibe,
pp. IS-16. Publshed by Penguin Books Ltd., Mddlesex, Englnd.
A friend of mine who began his Taoist meditation when he was
only a child, can kick for a few feet a bag of rice weighg
about 135 lb. A few years ago, a young Taoist here cured his
father's ilness by transferring his psychic power to the old
Rejuvenation is the frst objective of Taoist traing and
Immortality is its utimate aim. Taoist practice requires a
sound mnd i a sound body, for a student should have ex
cellent health to undergo the dicult training. Excelent health
comes from perfect harmony of prala, or of the element fre
with that of water i the human body. When fre is in excess
of water, there w be tears, bad breath, parched throat, thirst,
uneasy respiration and dizziness. For ths reason, Ch'an
practisers drink more tea than most people and sometimes
take potions of calmg herbs to reduce the efect of the element
fre. Taoist students roll their tongues to produce an unusual
secretion of salva which they swallow for the same purpose
of reducig the scorching efect of the vital principle. Only
when the elements of fre and water are in equilibrium can
perfect health be achieved and rejuvenation be possible. When
rejuvenation is attained, the span of life easiy exceeds the
usual limit of three score and ten years. Experienced Taoists
kow in advance the time of their death and can leave this
world when they like. When they meet, they easily recognize
each other because of the red glow on their faces which shows
their spiritual and physical attainment.
As to Immortalty whch all Taoists seek, it also has a limt
according to the Buddha's Teaching, because immortality and
mortalty are the two extremes of a duality which has no room
i the absolute state. The Sira:gama Sitra lists ten classes of
immortals who, though living thousands and tens of thou
sands of years, are not yet free from the iluion of space ad
time and are, therefore, rable to escape from the wheel of
birth and death. They usually leave their physical bodies in
grottoes on high mountains and their consciousnesses roam
about in the great void to enjoy freedom and happiness which
imply the exstence of subject and object.
I the fst volume of our Ch'an and Zen Teaching Series
pp. 81-3-we presented the story of Lu Trg Pin, an im
mortal, who threw his sword at Ch'an master Huang Lung.
The master pointed his fmger at the sword whch fel to the
ground and could not be picked up by the thrower. This
shows the spiitual power of the Ch'an master which was
superior to the psychic ability of Lu Trg Pin who, though
a famous Taoist, conceded his defeat and vowed to protect
the Buddha Dharma.
The mid expands when it is not stirred by thoughts and is
free from bondage. When a meditator wipes out one half of
one per cent of his ignorance, he awakens to one half of one per
cent of bodh; ths is a mor awakening (Chiese, minor wu;
Japanese, mnor satori). If he eradicates fve or seven per cent
of his delusion, he realizes a major awakenig or major sa tori.
After achieving several major and mor satoris, there may
remain only ten to ffteen per cent of his ignorance which he
elmnates at one stroke, this is ultimate awakeng or fmal
enghtenment. There are, therefore, many mor and major
satoris before hs complete enlightenment and the number of
these successive awakenigs depends on his slow or quick
comprehension and realzation of the Dharma.
When the late Ch'an master Hsu Yr had a major satori, his
mid expanded and embraced his surrordings; he saw every
thg iside and outside the monastery, and far away, the
boat plyig on the river and the trees on both its banks. Two
nghts later, he wiped out al that remained of his delusion and
acheved ultimate awakeng when he said: 'Mountains,
rivers and the great earth are but the Tathagata.' He perceived
h self-nature (Chiese, chen hsing; Japanese, kensho) which
was all embracig. Ths stage was attained by Hui Neng when
he exclaimed: 'Who would have expected that the self
nature is fudamentaly pure and clean, beyond birth and
death, complete in itself and immutable, and creates athigs ?'1
Thi is omnipresence.
A Taoist practiser, by stillg h mind, also expads it to
see and hear those livig nearby or i distant places, but his
achievement is limited and he canot reach the 'other shore'.
When the md of an enlightened master is all embracig,
he perceives and knows everythng. This is omniscience.
Though the knowledge of an experienced Taoist is vast and
extensive, it does not go beyond the feld of the eighth con
sciousness for it canot reach the absolute; hence its limitation
as compared wit the omcience or sarvaia of the Buddha.
I. Se Ch'anand Ztn Ttthing, Trd Sere, Sitra of The Sih Patrch, p. 25.
WE HAVE presented diferent methods of meditation as
practised in China where every student has access to the
Chnese texts and can chose the one to his likng. It is true that
the Ch'an technique is the best but a student cannot be forced
to practise it if he prefers another method. Many Chinese
Buddhists have afmity for the Pure Land school and it would be
wong to teach them the Ch'an meditation before they nnder
stand it. Moreover the Ch'an teachig is for mature men and
only very few people can give rise to the doubt (i ch'ing) with
out which the hua t'ou technique would fait We should not
forget that karma plays an important role in our decision to
practise the Dharma and its obstructing iuence ceases only
when the student has made real progress in his self-ultivation,
that is when his inner excellent qualities, hitherto dormant,
manifest themselves as explained by the master Chih I. The
practiser will then see clearly and nothing on earth can shake
his determination to keep from illuions.
The microcosmic orbit technique employed by ancient
Taoists is good for improving the practiser's health which
shoud be strong enough to resist and overcome all hdrances,
thereby enabling him to realize stilness of mind. The circu
laton of the vital principle and the accompanying outer
ivolutary movements are independent of our w and seem
1. S Ch'l an Zen Teahing, Fit Series, pp. 37-4
irresistible, but can be stopped as soon as the meditator succeeds
in giving rise to the i ch'ing which causes both body and mind
to be impenetrable to al ilusions, like an impassable wall, as
Bodhdharma put it. Ths shows the superiority of the Ch'an
device over all other methods, but the microcosmic orbit
technique, by elimating all obstructions in the psychc
centres, forestalls the possibilt of contracting the Ch'an
illness mentioned in the preface to the second volume of our
Ch'an and Zen Teaching Series (pp. 22-3
. Many Ch'an
masters practised Taoism before embracing Buddhism and
were well versed in this Taoist technique but they did not
mention it lest their disciples clung to it and disregarded the
md Dharma.
Beginers should never be too ambitious at the start of their
practice but should commence with short and regular medita
tions. Yin Shi Tsu rightly suggested two short meditations of
twent minutes each in the mornig and evening. If they are
regular and without interruption, the result w be very
satisfactory and when the practiser is accustomed to sitting and
makes real progress, he tends to sit longer.
It is very difcult for beginners to prevent thoughts from
arising. Beside the methods dealt with earlier, another efective
way to stop thoughts is to concentrate on the third eye, that is
the spot between the eyebrows. However, those sufering
from hypertension are not advised to try it; they should fx
their mids on the lower bely. Another method to stabilize
the mid is to bring the two palms together as if to greet a
friend in the oriental manner, thereby connecting the psychic
centres in both hands and forming a channel through which the
vital priciple fows. The Taoists place their right palm on and
across the left one and grasp their hands to join up the psychc
channels in both arms in order to quiet the mind. They get rid
of numbness i the legs by placing the palm of one hand on the
knee of the numb leg and touching its heel with the other
palm; as soon as the vital principle passes through the afected
leg, the foot moves a little and the numbness disappears.
It is said that when the pupi is ready, his master will appear
to guide hm. This teacher w appear only if the student
buries hs pride and prejudice, cultivates the two great Buddhst
vtues whch are modesty and humty and vows to practise
the holy teachig for self-enlightenment and the enlighten
ment of others. If he observes the precepts and does not
discriminate, hs iner excellent qualities w manifest and hs
inmost teacher wl appear to guide him.1 This master is but
hs own wisdom now freed from feelings and passions, and
no teacher is more reliable than one's self-natured prajfa. For
this reason, all serious students wil sooner or later discover the
profound meaning of the holy Teachng. However, if we rely
on our discriminatig mnds, we remai in the realm of
ilusions, and this is why the Buddha says that we are the most
pitiable of living beings.
It is said that the three worlds (of desire, form and beyond
form) are created by the mind and that all phenomena are the
product of consciousness. Man's surroundings are conditioned
by his discriminating mnd and improve or deteriorate
accordig to his good or evil thoughts. His miseries and
suferings come from his spiritual degeneration but his lot can
be improved if he strives to better the quality of his own mnd.
He endures all sorts of troubles and worries about the morrow
but we have never heard of enlightened masters dying from
starvation or from incurable illnesses. On the contrary, we
have only heard of unconcerned monks such as Kuei Shan,
Kao Feng, etc., who were penless and retired to the moun
tains where monasteries were later built by their followers for
the spread of the Dharma. We are now in the Dharma ending
period when hatred and harm prevail, with the demon very
strong and the Dharma without support. But either demon or
Dharma arises from the self-mind and it is up to us to cut down
the former for the sake of the latter; only then can we be true
1. See also the Foreword to the Sitra of Complete Enlightenment in Ch'an and
Zen Teaching, Third Series, p. 157.
Since we now reale the importance of meditation i ou
quest of the Truth, it is imperative for u to know that when
we acheve the state of dhyana, no one should be allowed to
dsturb us by calling or shakg us. This interference by others
may have a bad efect on our mental and physical conditon.
I Chia, there i a small musical istrument made of stone,
caled ch'ing, which is held close to the meditator's ea ad
struck gently to waken him. The Wester musical istrument
used on board ship to cal passengers to meals seres well the
same purpose.
A: Te frst letter of Siddham aphabet which stand for the Wcreate. It ha
seven meaings: (r) Bodhi mnd, (2) Dharma, (3) non-uality, (4) Dhar
madhatu, or real of Dharma, (S) Dharmata, or Dharma-nature, (6)
Sovereignty and (7) Dharmakaya, or essential body.
Abhaya: Fearlessness.
Abhimukhi: Appearance of the absolute; the sith of the ten stages of Mahayana
Bodhsatta development.
Aali: State of im utabiity in the mdst of changng phenomena; the eighth
of the ten stages of Mahayaa Bodhisattva development.
Ajitalatru: A kig of Magadha who kiled his father to acend to the throne.
At fst hostile to the Buddha, later he wa converted and became noted
for liberality.
Ajnita: 'Thorough Knowledge', name given by the Buddha to His dcple
KaQya after his attaiment of arhatshp.
AkiJagarbha: 'The Womb of Space', the central Bodhsattva, grdia of the
treauy of all wisdom and attainment.
obhya Buddha: One of the fve dhyani-Buddha, aso ca ed the Immutable
Alaya-vinina: The store of consciousness, also called the eighth consciousness.
Aitibha Buddha: The Buddha of Infnite Light of the Wester Paradise of
Blss, with Avalokitdvara on h left and Mahasthamaprapta on hs right.
Aigimin: A non-oming or non-reting arhat who wilnot b reborn; the
third stage of the path.
Aanda: A couin of the Buddha. He wa noted as the most learned disciple
of the Buddha, and faed for hearing and remembering His teaching. He
wa a compier of sitras and the Second Patriarch of the Ch'an sect.
Anisava: No leak, outside the pasion-stream a contrated with asrava,
'leang' or worldly caue.
Airuddha: A dsciple of the Buddha, noted for his dvne sight.
Atara-kalpa: A sma aeon.
Autpattika-hama-inti: Ret i the ipertrbable reaty whch i beyond
birth and death and requires a very patient endurance. The Prajiaparata
sastra defes it as the ufching faith and impertbed abiding in the
uderlyng reality of a things, which is beyond creation ad destrcton.
It must be realized before attainment of Buddhahood.
Arci$mati: 'Glowing Wisdom', the fouh of the ten stages of Mahayaa
Bodhisattva development.
Arhat: A saitly man, the highest type or ideal in Hnayana in contrat with a
Bodhsattva as the saint in Mahayana.
A1aik$a: No longer learg, beyond study, the state of arhatship, the fourth
of the sravaka stages; the preceding three stages requirng study. When a
arhat is free from a illusions, he has nothng more to study.
Asankhya: Innumerable kalpas or aeons.
Asrava: Worldy or 'leakig' caue; inside the pasion-stream a contrasted
with anasrava, outside the passion-stream.
A${avimok$a: The eight stages of meditation leading to deliverance (1) when
there is attachment to form by examination of form and realition of its
fthiness; (2) when there is no attachment to form, by examination of
form and realization of its fthess-these two ae delverance by medita
tion on impurity, the next on purity; (3) by meditation on puty and
realization of a state free from desire; (4) by reaiztion of boundless
immateriality; (5) by realiztion of boundless knowledge; (6} by realization
of nothgness; (7) by realization of the state wherein there is neither
thought nor absence of thought; (8} by realization of the state wherein
the two aggregates, feelng (vedna} and ideation (sajia) are entirely
A1vagho$a: A Brahmin converted to Buddhism, who became the Twelfth
Patriarch of the Ch'an sect; author of The Awakening of Faith.
Avalokite1vara: Kuan Yin or Goddess of Mercy in Chna, so caled becaue of
h appearing as a benevolent lady. He attained enlightenment by mea of
the facuty of hearing.
Avatatnsaka Sutra: The frst long sitra exounded by the Buddha after His
Avici hell: The last and deepest of the eight hells, where sinners sufer, die ad
are instantly reborn to sufer without interruption.
Avidyi: Ignorance, or unenlightenment.
Ayatana, Te Twelve: The twelve entrances, that is the six organs ad six
sense data that enter for discrimination.
Bhadrapila: A disciple of the Buddha with an awe-inspumg voice, who
realized enlightenment by means of meditation on touch.
Bhai$ajya-rija: The elder of the two brothers, who was the fust to decide on
his career as Bodhisattva of healing, ad led his youger brother to adopt the
same course.
Bhai$ajya-samudgata: The Bodhisatta of healing, whose ofce is to hea the
sick; younger brother of Bhaiajya-raja.
Bhik$U, bhik$uni: Buddhist monk and nun.
Bhiima-garita-gho$a-svara-rija: The Kng with awe-inspiring voice, the name
of coutless Buddhas successively appearing during the kalpa or aeon called
'the kalpa free from the calamities of decadence, famie, epidemics, etc'.
Bhutatathati: Bhita is substance, that which exsts; tathata is suchness, thunes,
i.e. such is its nature. It means the real, thu always, or eternally so; i.e.
realty a contrated with ureality, or appearance; and the unchanging or
im utable a contrated with form and phenomena.
Bimbisira: A king of Magadha, converted by the Buddha, to whom he gave
the VeQuvana park; imprisoned and dethroned by his son, Ajata5atru.
Bodhi: Englightenment.
Bodhidharma: The twenty-ighth Patriarch who came to Cha in 520 to
teach Ch'an; he wa the First Patriarch of China and died in 528.
Bodhimaala: Truth-plot, holy site, place of enightenent; the place where
the Buddha attained enlightenment or where he expounded the Dharma.
Bodhisattva: A Mahayanist seeking enightenment to enlighten others; he i
devoid of egoism and devoted to helping aliving beings.
Buddha: The Enlightened One; the frst of the Triple Gem, the second being
Dharma, and the third, Sangha.
Buddhakiya: Body of Buddha, in the enjoyment of the highest samadhi bliss.
Cadila: A outcast, a bad and despicable man.
Candraprabha Bodhisattva: A Bodhisattva who attained enightenment by
meditating on the element water.
Candra-sirya-pradipa Buddha: Or Candrarkadipa, the title of 20,0 Buddha
who succeeded each other expouding the Lotus Sitra.
Catviriirya-satyini: The four dogmas: sufering (dua), its caue (samu
daya), its endng (nirodha) and the way thereto (marga). They are the
doctrine frst preached by the Buddha to his fve former acetic companions,
and also those who accepted them in the sravaka stage.
Ch' an: Name of mind; Ch 'an being name and mind being substance; wrongly
interpreted as meditation, abstraction, or dhyana in Sanskrit Qap. Zen).
Chan Jan: The ninth Patriarch of the T'ien T'ai school.
Ch'ang Ch'ing: A ement Ch'an master, Dharma successor to Shueh Feng.
Died in 932 in his seventy-ninth year.
Chao Chou: A eminent Ch'an mater, Dharma successor to Nan Chuan;
noted for his kung an (koan) 'Wu'. Died i 894 in his r2oth year.
Ch'eng Yuan: The Third Patriarch of the Lotu sect. Died in 802 at the age of
Chia Shan: A eminent Ch'an mater, disciple of the Boat Monk. Died i
Chih Hsin Chih: A method of meditation which consists i grasping at the
mind itself by looking into each rising thought, thereby stopping it and
preventing it from folowing exerals.
Chih 1: Also called Ch Che, the Fouth Patriarch of the T'ien T'ai school.
Died in 598 at the age of sixty.
Chih Kuan: Sanskrit, samatha-vipa5yana. Chih is quieting the active mind and
gettg rid of discrimaton, and kuan is observing, examining, intro
spectng. Wen the mind is at rest, it is called chih and when it is seeing
clearly, it is kuan. The chief object is the concentration of mid by speci
methods for the purpose of clea insight into the trth and to b rid of
Chin T'u Tsung: The Pue Land school.
Chuan Tsu: A successor to Lao Tsu in the fouth centu B.c.
Ch'ung mo: Or 'busting' channel, a psychic chanel whch rises from the
perieum, goes up between the jen mo and tu mo ad ends in the chest; it
connects twenty-four psychc centres.
Cintimati: A fabulous gem, responding to every wish.
Dinapati: A almsgiver; a patron who supports a monk or a monater.
Daabala: Or Dasatathagatabaa, the ten powers of a Buddha to kow (x) the
right and wrong in every sitution; (2) the retributive efects of the pat,
present and future karma of every being; (3) all stages of liberation by means
of d yana-samadhi; (4) the superior ad inferior potentiaities of al beings;
(5) the abity to kow every beig's knowledge and understandg; (6) the
dierent worldy conditions of al beings; (7) the ends of al di erent path
trodden by a beings; (8) al caues of birth and death and algood and evi
karmas uobstructedly perceptible to the deva eye; (9) the pat lives of all
beigs and the fnal nirva; ad (ro) the permanent destrucion of al
worldly habits.
Daabhumi: The ten stages of Bodsattva development ito a Budda: (r)
pramudita, joy at having overcome al hindrances for entering the Budda
path; (2) viala, freedom from al impurities of klda; (3) prabhakari,
appearance of the light of wisdom; (4) arcimati, radiation of ful wisdom;
(5) sudurjaya, conquest of fmal hindances; (6) abhimukhi, appeaance of
self-nature in its purity; (7) diramgama, the inconceivable beyond the
comprehension of men of Hnayana; (8) acala, imperturbabiity; (9)
sadhumati, unhindered correct interpretation and exounding of Dha
everwhere; and (ro) Dharmamegha, Dhara clouds raiing nectar to
liberate living beings.
Dengyo Daishi: A Japaese discple of Tao Sui, the tenth Patriarch of the
T'ien T'ai school, who introduced Tendai i Japan in the ninth cent.
Devadatta: Brother of Ananda ad cousin of the Buddha of whom he wa a
enemy and rival.
Dhirati: See Matra.
Dharatimdhara: Or 'Ruler of the Ea', a Bodhiattva who realed bod by
means of meditation on the element earth.
Dharma: Lw, truth, relgion, thing, anythng Buddhist. It connotes Bud
dhism a the perfect relgion; it ha the second place in the Trta or
Triple Gem.
Dharmadhitu: (a) A name for things in general, noumenal or phenomenal; for
the physical universe, or any part of it. (b) The ufng uderlyg spitua
reality regarded a the ground or caue of al things, the absolute fom
which al proceed. (c) One of the eighteen dhatu or realms of senes.
There ae ctegories of three, fou, fve ad ten dharadtu. Te ten ae
the realms of (x) Budda, (2) Bodattva, (3) pratyeka-budd, (4)
ravaa, (S) deva, (6) men, (7) aua, or titas, (8) as, (9) hugr
ghosts ad (10) hels. The fou are: (r) the phenomenal realm, with diferen
tation; (2) the noumenal realm, ,with uty, (3) the realm of both the
noumenal and phenomenal which are interdependent; ad (4) the realm of
phenomena which are a interdependent. The three are the above fou
minu the phenomenal realm, i.e. (r) the noumenal realm, (2) the realm of
both noumenal and phenomenal which are interdependent, and (3) the
ream of phenomena which are also interdependent. The fve are: (r) the
worldy, or the above 'phenomenal' real; (2) the trascendental, or the
above 'noumenal'; (3) the real of both the worldly and trascendental,
or the above 'noumenal ad phenomenal whch are interdependent';
(4) neither the worldly nor the transcendental, or the above 'noumenal and
phenomenal which are interdependent'; and (S) the unhidered realm, or
the above 'phenomena which are also interdependent'.
Dharmikara: A bhu noted for h forty-ight great vows, who became
Atabha Buddha.
Dharmakiya: Body in its essence nature, or that of the Buddha a such. Ony
Buddha c see it.
Dharmamegha: The lat of the ten stages of Mahayana Bodhatta develop
ment, that of Dhaa cloud raing nectar to save living beings.
Dhija: The Kng of the Law, the Buddha.
Dhtu, Te eihteen: Reams of sense, i.e. the s orgas, their objecs ad their
Dhuta: A acetic, a mon engaged in austerities.
Dhyina: Meditaton, abstract contemplation.
Dhyini-Budha, The fve: Vairocna in the centre, .obhya in the eat,
Ratnaarbhava in the south, Artabha in te west ad Aoghaiddhi in
the north.
Fa Chao: Te Fourth Patriarch of the Lotu sect.
Fa Hua: Te Sixh Patriarch of the T'ien T'ai (Tendi) school.
Fa Yen sect: The ffth of the fve Ch'an sects of China. (See Ch'an and Ze
Teahing, second series.)
Githi: Poems or chants; one of the twelve divisions of the Maayana con.
Gavirpati: A disciple of the Buddha who attaed ahatship by mea of
meditation on the orga of tate.
Grdhrakuta: Te Vulture moutain, nea Rajarha where the Buddha
sojoued when He exouded the Sit of Contemplaton of Amitay.
Han Shan: 'Sil y Moutan', a name adopted by Ch'an mter Te Ch'ing
(15461623) who revived the Ch'a sect in China in the Mng dynaty.
Hnayina: 'Small Vehicle', also c ed 'Ha-word', prelinary teing given
by the Budda to hs disciples.
Hi Yuan Chih: Method of meditaton whch consit i fng the md on a
object to stop the thng process.
Hing A: Te lat of the nine Patriarch of the Lot sec.
Hsing Ch'ang: The seventh of the nine Patriarchs of the Lotu sec.
Hsu Yun: Also caed Te Ch'ing, a Ch'an mater regarded a the right Dhara
eye of the present generation. I84o1959.
Huang Po: Ch'an mater Hsi Yn of Hug Po monntain; Dharma successor
of Pai Chag ad teacher of Lin Chi (Rz). Died i Ta Chng reign
Hui Szu: The Third Patriarch of the T'ien T'ai (Tendai) school. Died in 577
Hui Wen: The Second Patriarch of the T'ien T'a (endai) school of Pei
Ch'i dynasty (55Q78).
Hui Yuan: The First Patriarch of the Lotus sect. Died in 416 at the age of
Indra: Or Sakra, the ruler of the thirty-three heaven.
Ivaradeva: A title of Siva, king of the deva.
]ambudvipa: Our earth.
]en mo: A psychic channel which rises from the perineu, goes up along the
belly, pases through the navel, the pit of the stomach, the chest, throat ad
upper lip and ends below the eye; it conects twenty-seven psychic centres.
]va: Or Jivaa, son of Bimbisara by the concbine Aapa, noted for his
medcal skl.
Karma: Moral action cauing futue retribution, and either good or evil
Karuti: Pity, compasion; the second of the Four Immeauables, consisting
in savng living beings from suf ering.
Kiya: A monk's robe.
Kiyapa: There were fve Kasyapas, disciples of the Buddha: Mahakasyapa,
Urvvakayapa, Gaya-kasyapa, Nad-kasyapa and Daabala-kayapa.
Uruvva, Gaya and Nadi were brothers.
Kauttinya: Aso caed Ajiata, the fst of the fve discples of the Buddha, who
realized arhatship by means of meditation on sonnd.
Kauthila: A disciple of the Buddha who, with Sndraad attned
arhatshp by fng the mnd on the tip of the nose.
Kinnara: Heavenly muicas noted for their songs ad dances.
Kesa: Wor, anety, afiction, trouble, dstress and whatever caues them.
ata: The shortest meaure of time; s ka equal one fger-snap,
ninety a thought, 4,50 a minute.
atriya: A warrior ad rung caste.
udrapanthaka: A dsciple of the Buddha who attained ahatship by meas of
meditation on the orga of smel.
Kuan: See nder chih.
Kuan Ting: The Fifth Patriarch of the T'ien T'ai (Tendai) school.
Kei Shan: Ch'an mater Lng Yu of Kuei Shan montan; Dhaa suc
cessor ofPai Chang and teacher of Yang Shan. Kuei Sha and Yag Sha
fonnded the Kuei Yang sect. (Jap. lyo Zen), one of the fve Ch'an secs
of China. Died in 8 53 at the age of eighty-three.
Kukkuta pak: A park near Gaya where the Buddha preached the Fou
Noble Truths after H enightenment.
Kumara: A Bodhisattva as son of the Buddha; a son of Buddha.
Kumarajiva: An enightened Id mater who went to China to tranlate
Siddham sitras into Chinese and died in Ch'ag An about A.D. 412.
Lo Tsu: Also called Li Erh ad Li Po Yang; he wa bor in 604 B.C. and
wrote the Tao Teh Ching.
Lien Ch'ih: Also ca ed Yu Hsi; a Ch'an mater of the Ming dynaty who
uged his disciples to repeat the Buddha's name and became the Eghth
Patriarch of the Lotu sect. Died in 1615 at the age of eightyne.
Lin Chi: Japanese, Rinz. Master I Hsuan of Lin Ch, disciple of Huang Po
ad fouder of Lin Chi sect, one of the fve Ch'an sects of Cha. Died i
Lotus samadhi: A state of samadhi wherein the meditator looks into the void
(nouenon), the ureal (phenomenon) and the Mean (the absolute) that
unites them. It derives from the sixteen samadis in the Lotu Sitra,
Chapter 24.
Lotus sect: Another name of the Pure Land school.
Lotus Sitra: Sanskrt, SaddarmapUca Sitra. Expounded by the Buddha
i the eight years of the fh perod of H teaching, in which He revealed
the One Budda vehicle. Its aim consists in 'openng' the treaure of self
possessed Buddha-wisdom, in 'showing' it to His disciples and in gding
them so that they could be 'awakened' to it ad faly 'entering' it.
Lu Miao Fa Meng: 'Te Six Profoud Dharma Doors', a treatise by mater
Chh I (also caled Ch Che) which teaches the six stages of meditation
leading to enlightenment.
Madhyamika 1itra: A treatise on the Mean of the Middle School, fouded by
Nagarjua and translated by Kumarajiva.
Mahakalyapa: A Bra of Magadha, disciple of the Buddha, to whom wa
handed down the mnd Dharma, outside of Scriptures; the First Patriarch
of the Ch'an sect; accredited wth supervsng the frst compiation of the
Budda's sermons.
Maha-Maudgalyayana: Also called Maudgalaputra, one of the ten chief d
ciples of the Buddha, specially noted for h miraculou powers.
Mahaparinirvaa Sutra: A seron preached by the Buddha jut before H
Mahiattva: A perfect Bodhisattva, greater than ay other beig except a
Mahithama: Or Mahasthamaprapta, a Bodhisattva repreentng the Buddha
wisdom of Artabha. He is on Atabha's right with Avalokte5vaa on
the left. They are called the Tee Holy Ones of the Weter Paa of
Mahayana: Te Great Vehcle whch idicates universasm, or salvation for
a, for all are Buddhas ad will attan enightenment. (See Hnayana.)
Maitreya: The Buddhist Messiah, or next Buddha, now in the Tlta heaven,
who is to come 5,0 yeas after the nir[a of Siyamui Buddha.
Maitri: Kndness; the fst of the Fou lmmeauables, that of bestowing
Man: Faculty of thought; the sith of the eight conscouneses, or the lat
of the six meas of perception.
Maijup: A Bodisatta who is the symbol of wisdom and is placed on the
Buddha's left with Samatabhadra on the right. H bodhaQala i on
W'u T'ai Sha, or the Five-Peaked Mouta in China.
Mantra: A incatation, spell, oath; mystica forulae employed i Yoga.
(See Dhara.)
Maa: A demon.
Mitafgi: Name of a low-ate girl who seduced Anada.
Mo Ho Chih Kuan: Or Maha-saratha-vipayaa, a treatise by mater
Chih I, also cled Chih Che, the Fourth Patriarch of the T'ien T'ai
Mrgadiva park: A deer park north-at of Var[i, a favourite resort of the
Muditi: Joy on seeing others delvered fom suferg; the thrd of the Fou
Niga: A dragon.
Nigakanyi: A naga maiden who, acording to the Lt Sitra, preented her
precou gem to te Buddha who imediately accepted it in the presence
of H discples to bea witness of her reaton of enlghtenment with
the speed of the gem pasing fom her had to those of theW orld Honoued
Nigiruna: The Fourteenth Patriach of the Ch'a sec; he fouded the
Madhyama or Midde School ad i regaded a the First Patriarch of the
T'ien T'ai school.
Navaamjii: One of the meditatons on fthiness, or the nnefold meditaton
on a dead body: (I) its tumefaction; (2) its blue, motded colour; (3) its
decy; (4) its mess of blood, etc.; (S) its rotten fesh ad discharges; (6} its
being devoued by bird ad beats; (7) its dismembering; (8} its whte
bones; ad () their cemation ad ret to dut.
Nayuta: A numera, IO,oo or one ml ion, or ten milion.
Nidna, Te twelve: The twelve caues or l in the chai of exstence: (I)
ignorace,. or uenightenment; (2) action, activity, conception or di
position; (3) conscousnes; (4) name ad for; (s) the si sense organ,
i.e. eye, ear, nose, tongue, body ad intellect; (6} contact, or touch; (7)
senaton, or feelng; (8} desire or cravng; (9) grasping; (Io) being or
exting; (11) birth; and (12) old age ad death.
Nirmi!kiya: Transforaton body of a Buddha, that of power to trafor
hf at wlinto ay for for the omnpresent savation of those needng
h. It i perceptible to men.
Nirvit: Complete exncon of indivdual exstence; cesation of rebirth
ad entry into blis.
Nia: 'Going to the souce of the phenomenal', name given by the Budda
to H disciple Upaniad after the latter's attent of arhatship.
Obstructions, T three: Self-importace, jealousy ad desire.
Padma: A red lotu fower.
Padmiana: A ful lotu posture with crossed legs.
Paica-dharmakiya: The fve attributes of the essential body of the Buddha, i.e.
that he is above a moral conditions; tranqu and apart fom fase idea;
wise and omipresent; free, unlimited, ucondtioned which is the state of
nirvia; ad that he has perfect knowledge of this state.
Pirijika: Kg, steang, carality and deception uder the mk of true
Piramiti: 'Going to the other shore', or method of attaing enghtenment.
Pilindavatsa: A diciple of the Buddha who reaed ahatship by mea of
meditation on the body.
Pabhikari: 'Appearance of the light of wisdom'; the third of the ten stages
of Mahayaa Bodhisattva development.
Pamuditi: 'Joy at havng overcome aobstructions for present entry upon the
path to enghtenent'; the frst of the ten stages of Mahayana Bodhattva
Pajii: Fundamental widom which is inerent in every ma and whch
mafests itself after the veil of deluion ha been destroyed.
Pajiipiramiti: Realiztion of enghtenment by means of inherent wisdom.
Pita: The vita principle in the human body which can be energized by
meas of regulated breath and meditation for the sublimation of body and
Pitimok$a: the 250 Precepts for monks whch are read i asembly twice a
Patyutpanna-samidhi Sutra: A sitra teachg the samadhi in which a the
Buddas in the ten direcions are seen clearly like the stars at night. Its
practice requires nnet days during which the practiser does not rest but
persistently thiks of Amitabha Buddha and calls h name.
Putarika: A white lotus blossom whch stands for pure living.
Pre Land school: Chinese, Ch T'u Tsug, whose chef tenet is savation by
faith in Amitabha Buddha.
PurtamaitriyaQiputra: A disciple of the Buddha who realized ahatship by
means of meditation on tongue perception.
Riagrha: The capita of Magadha, at the foot of the Vultue moutan.
Rik$aa: A malignant demon.
$aabhiii: The six superatura powers: (1) dive sight; (2) dive hearng;
(3) knowledge of the md of a other living beings; (4) knowledge of a
fors of previou exstences of self and others; (5) power to appea at wl
i any place and to have absolute freedom; ad (6) insight into the endng
of the stream of birth and death.
Sadhumati: 'Acquiston of the four undered powers of interpretaton with
ability to expoud al Dharma doors everwhere', the ninth of the ten
stages of Mahayaa Bodhattva development.
Saha: Our world of birth and death.
Sakra, Te vase of: A vae from which come al thgs required by h.
Samai: Interal state of imperturbability, exempt from al exter sen-
Samantabhadra: A Bodhisattva, symbol of the fndamental law, dhyaa ad
the practice of all Buddha. He is the right-had assistant of the Buddha ad
Majuri is H left-hand asistant. His region is in the East. Mount 0 Mei in
Szechwan, Cha, is his bodhim:ala, and devotees go there to see myriad
Buddha lamps in the sky at night.
Samatha: See Chh Kuan.
Sambhogakaya: Reward body of a Buddha, that of bliss or enjoyment
of the fruits of his past saving labours. It is perceptible to Bodhisattvas
Sambodhi: The widom or omicience of the Buddha.
Samsira: The realm of birth and death.
Samskira: The fourth of the fve aggregates; fuctionig of mind in its process
regardng lie and dislike, good and evi, etc. ; discrimnation. Aso the
second of the twelve ls in the chan of existence.
Samyak-sambuddha: Universal kowledge of a Buddha, complete enghten
ment, omscience; one of the ten titles of a Buddha.
Samyuktigama Sutra: Miscellaeous treatise on abstract meditation, one of the
four Agama.
Sangha: The Buddhist Order; the lat of the Triple Gem.
Siriputra: A disciple of the Buddha, noted for his wisdom.
Sarvajna: Al wisdom, Buddha wisdom, perfect knowledge, omnscence.
Sitra: A treatise, one of the three divsions of the Tripiaka.
Shan Tao: The Second Patriarch of the Lotu sect. Died in 681.
Shao K'ang: The Fifth Patriarch of the Lotu sect. Died in 805.
Siddham: The ancient Sanskrit in use at the time of the Buddha. A Chinese
sitras ad sistras are translations from Siddham texts.
Srimanera: A male novce.
Srivaka: A hearer, disciple of Buddha who understands the Four Noble
Truths, rids himself of the unreaity of the phenomenal and enters the
incomplete nirvia.
Srota-ipanna: One who has entered the stream of holy living, the frst stage of
the path.
Subhuti: A senior disciple of the Buddha.
Sudurayi: 'Overcomg of utmost difculties', the fh of the ten stages of
Mahayana Bodhisattva development.
Sundarananda: A disciple of the Buddha who attained arhatship by meas of
meditaton on smel perception.
Surargama Sutra: Leng Yen Ching, a sitra transated by Pararti i 705, i
whch the Buddha revealed the caues of illusion leading to the creation of
al world of existence and the methods of getting out of them.
Sutra: The Buddha's seron; one of the twelve dvons of the Mahyaa
Sutra of Amitibha: 0 Mi T'o Ching, a seron on the Buddha oflte Light
ad his two attendant Bodhisattva of the Wester Paradise of Blis.
Sutra of Amitiyus: Wu Liag Shou Ching, a seron on the Buddha of
Boudless Age who was Bhu Dha akara and hs fort-ight geat
Sutra of Complete Enlightenment: Yu Chueh Ching. See Ch'an and Zen
Teaching, Third Series, for its English translation.
Sutra of Contempl ation of Amitiyus: Kuan Wu Liang Shou Ching, also caled
Sitra of Siteen Contemplations; a sitra teachng the methods of medita
tion for rebirth in the Wester Paradise of Bliss.
Suvaria-prabhia-uttamarija-mtra: Chin Kuang Ming Chig, or Golden Light
Sitra, translated in the sixth centur and twice later, and ued by the
founder ofT'ien T'ai school.
Svalak$a1a: Individuality, personal, as contrated with general or common.
Ta Ch'eng Chih Kuan: The Mahayana's Samatha-vipa.yana, a treatise by Hui
Szu, the Third Patriarch ofT'ien T'a school in the ffth centu.
Ta Chih Tu Lun: A commentary by Nagarjuna on the 'Long Chapter' of the
Ta Hui: An emnent Ch'an master in the Sug dynasty; died in n63 i his
seventy-ffth year.
Tai Mo: A psychc channel from both sides of the navel, forming a belt en
crclng the belly; it connects eight psychic centres.
T' an Lun: The Thrd Patriarch of the Pue Land school; died in 542 at the age
of sixty-seven.
Tan T'ien: Or Udana, a spot about an inch below the navel where is the
reservoir of vital princple which can b transmited unto the Elr of
Immortality according to the Taoists.
Tao: Road, way, path, doctrine, truth, reality, self-nature, the absolute.
Tao Ch'o: The fourth Patriarch of the Pure Land school; did in 645.
Taoism: Doctrine of Lao Tsu. (See aso Lao Tsu.)
Tao Sui: The Tenth Patriarch of the T'ien T'ai school in the eighth centur.
Tao Teh Ching: A treatise by Lao Tsu.
Tathigata: He who came as did a Buddhas, who took the absolute way of
cause and efect, and attained to perfect wisdom; one of the hghest titles of a
T'i Chen Chih: The T'ien T'ai method of understanding, realizing and em
bodying the real.
T'ien Kung: The Seventh Patriarch of the T'ien T'ai school.
T'ien T'ai: Japanese, Tendai. A Buddhist school whch baes its tenets on the
Lotus Sitra, Mahaparinirata Sitra and Mahaprajfaparamita-sitra and
maintains the identit of the absolute and the world of phenomena, thus
attempting to unlock the secrets of all phenomena by means of meditation.
Tripitaka: The Buddhst canon consisting of three divisions: sitra (serons),
vaya (rues of disciplne) and sastra (treatises).
Tri-sahara-mahi-sahaa-loka-hatu: A great chiliocosm. Mout Suer ad
its seven surouding contients, eight sea ad ring of iron moutains
for one small world; 1,0 of these for a small chiocosm; 1,00 of
these small chiliocosms for a medium chocosm; 1,0 of these for a
geat chliocosm, which consists of x,o ,o,oo small worlds.
Ts'ao Shan: Ch'an mater Pen Chi ofTs'ao Shan moutain, discple of Tug
Sh ad cofouder ofTs'ao Tug sect Gap. Soto Zen); died i 91.
Ts'ao Tung sect: One of the fve Ch'a sects of China, fouded by Tug
Sha and his discple Ts'ao Sha.
Tso Ch'i: The eighth Patriarch of the T'ien T'ai sect, died in 74 at the age of
Tu Mo: A psychic channel which rises fom the perineum ad pases through
the coccyx to go up along the backbone to the crown and thence decend
aong the forehead ad nose, endng in the gums; it conects thr-ne
pschic centres.
Tung Meng Chih Kuan: Or 'Chih Kua for Beginers', a treatise by mater
Chih I, the Fourh Patriarch of the T'ien T'ai school.
Tung Shan: Ch'a mater Liang Chiai of Tung Shan moutain, discple of
Yu Yuen. He and his disciple Ts'ao Shan founded the Ts'ao Tung sect
Gap. Soto Zen). Died in 869 at the age of sixty-thee.
Tita: The fourth heaven in the realm of desire; its inner regon is the Pue
Land of Maitreya who wl descend to earth a a successor of Sakyamuni
Ucchuma: ' The Fire-head', an arhat who attaied enightenment by meditat
ing on the element fe.
Udina: See T'an T'ien.
Upii: A diciple who attained arhatship by meas of meditation on per
cepton of object of touch.
Upaniad: A disciple who attained arhatshp by means of meditation on form.
Upiaka, upiiki: A male, female disciple who engages to obsere the frst
fve rues of discplne.
Upei: Indiference or renuciation.
Vaidehi: A queen, wife of king Bibisara, who was taught by the Buddha to
meditate on Budda Atay for her rebith in the Wester Paradie of
Vaipulya: Expanded sitra; the eleventh of the twelve divisions of the
Mahayaa canon.
Vaubandhu: The twenty-frst Indian Patriarch of the Ch'an sect.
Veda: Braman Scriptures.
Vimala: State of purity, free from al deflement.
Vimalakirti Nirdela Sutra: Vimalarti, or 'Spotless Reputation', wa a native of
Vaia ad was a Nirmaakaya of 'Te Golden Grain Tathagata'; he
appeared in the form of a upasaka to ast the Buddha in converting people
to the Mahayana doctrine exouded in a seron called Vima
Nirdda Sitra.
Vipaani: See Chi Ku.
Jra: A strong or mighty ma, demigod.
Vivabhu Bu a: Te zot Buddha of the Gloriou Aeon (Alamraka
Yaa: Demons in the eah, a, or lower heaven.
Yaa: A god of the dead, or hell-keeper.
Yamloka: Te realm ofYaa.
Yang Ch'iao: A psychic channel which rises from the mddle of the sole ad
t upward to the outer side of the ankle ad leg, then skts the back of
the body ad reaches the shouder, veering to the neck, the comer of the
mouth ad the inner comer of the eye, ending bhind the brain; it conects
twenty-two psychic centres.
Yag Sh: Ch'an mater Hu Chi of Yag Sha moutain, discple ofKuei
Sha ad cofouder of the Kuei Yag sect; ded in the ninth century.
Yag Wei: a psychc chael which rises from the outer side of the foot about
one and half inches blow the ankle, goes up along the outer side of the leg
ad after skg the back of the body, enters the upper an, haf way along
which it veers to the shoulder, the neck, then behnd the ear ending in the
forehead; it conects thirty-two psychc centres.
Yen Shou: The Sith Patriarch of the Lotu sect; died in 975 at the age of
Yin Ch'iao: A psychic channel which rises from the middle of the sole, tn
upwad to the inner sides of the ankle and leg, skirts the bely and chest,
reaches the shoulders, t upward to the throat and end in the iner
comer of the eye; it conects eight psychic centres.
Yin Wei: A psychic channel which rises from the inner side of the caf about
fve inches above the anle, oes upward along the inner sde of the thgh
ad after skg the bly ad half of the chest, tus to the thoat, acend
aong the face and ends in front of the top of the head; it connects fourteen
psychic centres.
Yojana: Distace covered by a royal day's march for the army.
Yun Me sect: One of the fve Ch'an sects of China, fouded by Wen Yen
ofYun Men monastery.Jap. Ummon Zen.
Yung Chia: Ch'an master Hu Chueh ofYung Cha, who attained enlighten
ment the day he called on the Sixth Patriarch for instrction ad wa caled
'The Overght Enlightened One'. Author of the Yung Chia's Collection
ad of the famou Song of Enlightenment. Died i 712. Jap. Y oka Daish.
ABHAYA (fearlessness), 24
Absolute achievement, 70
Absolute nirvala, 66, 70
Absolute Universal Enlightenment,
Achevement, 70
Acupucture, 210
diagnosis of, 148
healing of, 147-51
treatment, 148-51
Ajatabtru, Prince, 86, 87
jfata, 18
kasagarbha Bodhisattva, 29
Akobhya Buddha, 29
Altar Sitra, 42, 107
Amitabha Buddha, 31, 54, 75, 76
repetition of Mantra of 84
repetition of name of 83-4
salvation by faith in, 81
Amitabha Sitra, 81, 106
Amitayus Buddha, 85, 92, 98, 199
contemplation of 85
contemplation of the bodily form
of, 94
Amitayus Sitra, 81
nanda, 16
, 33, 44, 87, 88, 90, 92,
96, 98, 101, 103, 108
Aniruddha, 20
Anutpattika-dharma-kanti, 66
nyadeva, Venerable Bhiu, 84, 85
Apertue ofBraha, 198, 199, 20
Arno, Venerable, 13
Asoka, monaster of kng, 74
srava, 25
Asvaghoa. 82
Avaloktdvara Bodhisatta, 32, 48,
65, 66, 71, 74. 83
Complete Enlightenment of, 177
contemplation of, 95
method of obtaing Enlghten-
ment, 1617
Avalokitdvara Buddha, 32
Avatarsaka Sitra, 76, 107, 154
'Awakening of Fath, The', 82
BEIDLER, Paul H., 1 3
Belly, vibration in, in Taoist medita-
tion, 174-5
Bhadrapala, 19
Bhaiajya-raja, 19
Bhaipjya-samudgata, 19
Bimbsara, Kng, 86, 88
Blows, object of string students,
so, 63
Boat Monk, 54, 55
Bodhi, 74 et seq.
Master Han Shan's attanment of,
Mater San Feng's attainment of 78
Master Yin Yua's attainment of
Bodhi ocea, 33
Bodhisattva development, I9I
meditaton on the, 22
regulatig the, 124-5
Body posture, reguating, I67 et seq.
Boudless Light, 97
Brahma-deva, I9
regating, 125
in meditation, I7I-4
corect, I72-3
natural, I7I-2
Breathing exercises, I73-4
Buddha Dharma, no ue for race ad
nationality, 12
Buddha of the Boudless Age, The,
Buddhism, reaons for decline in
Eat, 12
CARRHA Bodhsattva, 27
Cadra-sirya-pradipa Buddha, 20,
Caual activities, endig, I 16
Causality, doctrne of, 23, 25
Cauteration, 2IO
'Central spot', 194, I95. I96, I97
Ch'an and Zen Teaching, 4I, 4, 68
Ch'an doctrine, 74
Ch'a iness, 77
Ch'an School, self-ctivation teach-
ing of 43-80
Ch'a Transmssion, 83
ChaJan, 110
Ch'ang Ch'ing, 54
Chag Chue, 62
Chao Chou, Mater, 5I, 53, 54,78, 82
Chao Lun, 77
Ch'eng Yuan, 82
Chia Sha, 54, 55
Chang Wei Ch'iao, I 57
Chih, defniton, I I I f.
Chih Che, 110
Ch I, 73.110, III
warg to disciples, I 56
Chin T'u Tsug (ure Lad School),
Ch'ig Yua, 52
Ch'i Pa, 2Io
Chug Feng, 79
Clothing, adequate supply of, II5
'Colective achievement', 70
Complete Enghtenment, 74 et seq.
Avalokite5vara's, 77
method of realng, 32-40
eighty-thouad lines of 25
expedient lines of 128-
meditaton on the element of 30
store, I66
the eighth, 65
Consciounesses, meditation on the
sx, 23-
Contemplation of Amtayu Sitra,
traslaton of 8 5 et seq.
Craving, rebuking, n6
Crystal Light Bodhisatta, 28
Culture, physical and spiitual, Yoga,
DASABHM Sitra, 123
Davd-Ned, Mrs. Alexandra, 2I I
Dengyo Daishi, I 10
rebuking, II6-I8
the fve, 58
Destruction ofScreens, The, gatha of ,
Devadatta, 86, 87
Dharalirdhara Bodhisattva, 26
the Fa Yen, 70
the Kuei Yang, 68
the Lin Chi, 67
the Ts'ao Tung, 69
the Y un Men, 66
Dharma doors, 24
the chih-kuan, I 57-
the six profound, I6o2
Dharma eye, 22
Dhaa Store, 81
Dharmakara, Bhu, 81, 93
Dharmakaya, 66
Dharmakaya ilnesses, 67
Dhararaja, 19
Dhyana (abstract meditation), 28
Diamond samadhi, 32
Diamond Sitra, 17, 41, 65, ro6
Dipamkara Buddha, 29, 30
Discipline, observance of II3-I5
feelg of (i ch'ing), 49
screening, 121-3
EA percepton, meditation on, 23
Earth, meditaton on the element, 26
Ego, 65,68
self-awareness of the, 67
Elements, meditation on the seven,
Avaokte5vara's method, 16-17
freedom to die or return, 74
self-mnd in absolute condtion, 41
Third Profound Door to, 71
Enlghtening Vajna samad, 21
Eperimental Meditation for the Pomo
tion of Health, 157, 16o
FA Chao, 82
Fa Hua, rro
Fa Yen Dharma, the, 70
Fa Yen sect, 71
Fearlessness (abhaya), 24
Final nrata, 70
description of, 71
Final Sentence, 71
Finger Pointing at the Moon, A, 79
Fire, meditation on the element, 26
Five desires, the, 58
Five sense organs, meditation on the,
adequate supply of II5
regulating, 124
Form, 76
meditation on, r 8
Formaton of concu ent caues,
Four Noble Truths, r8
'Fragrace Adored', r8, 19
Friends, rr6
'Fuction', 69
Fung, K.S., 14
GATWAY, Strategic, 63
Gateways, Three Profound, 68
Gatha of Awakening, 62
Gatha of the Seal of the Preciou
Miror Samadhi, 70
Gavarhpati, 21
Gaya KHyapa, 25
Gems, 29
'Golden Light', bhU. 20
Gray, Terence, 12
Grdhrakia. Mount, 85, 86, 87
Great Caue, 61
Great Mirror Wisdom, r 66, 203
Grief, screening by, 120
Ground, contemplaton of the, 90
'Guest' position, 46, 68
H Yin, 6o
Han Shan, Mater, 42, 67, 165, r66
Enlghtenment of, 75-8
self-mnd training instructions,
Han Shan's]ourey in Dreamland, 51
Harding, D. E., 12
Hatred, screening by, II9
Hearing, meditation on the organ of,
Heretical ways, six, 66
Hinayana teachings, 68
Ho Tug, 77
Hogen Zen, 70
'Host' and 'guest' positions, 68, 69-70
'Host' position, 46
'Host to Host' position, 71
Hsaio Chou T'ien, 208
Hsiag Chou, 79
Hsing An, 82
Hsing Ch'ang, 82, 2rr
Hsu Chih Yueh Lu, 79
Hu YW, Ch'a Mater, 16, 48, 49,
63, 211, 213
Enlightenment of, 74
self-mid training instructions, so
Hua Ting, MoWt, 74
Hua t'ou
defnition of, 63
technque for controlling thoughts,
47 et seq.
Huag-Lao, doctrine of, r66
Huang LWg, 213
Huang Mei, 52
Huang Nieh, 52
Huang Po, 78
Huang Ti, Emperor, r66, 210
Hui K'o, 45
Hui Neng, 12, 211, 214
Hui Szu, rro
Hu Wen, 109, 110
Hui Yuan, Master, 82, 83
I cH'ING, feeling of doubt, 49
Ikyo Zen, 68
Illness, the Ch'an, 77
Illnesses, Dharmakaya, 67
Images of the Three Holy Ones,
contemplation of 93
Immortality, 212
Imperturbable Buddha, 29
'Incense buner in an ancient temple',
6s, 72
Infite Voice, Buddha, 29
Intellect, meditation on the, 22
lnvolWtary movements, 13, 201
'Iron tree', 65
]vA, 86, 87
KAo Mig monastery, 74
Kao Tsung, Emperor, 84
Karmas, 25
Kasyapa, 23
Kaul4inya, r8
Kauhila, 24
Khema, Venerable, I 3
Kig oflmmateriality, The, Buddha,
Knowing mind, 1 11
Kala (instant), 21
Kudrapanthaka, 21
KuShan monastery, 74
Kuan, defnition, r I I fn.
Kuan Ting, 110
Kuan Yin, 48
Kuei Yag Dharma, the, 68
Kuei Yang sect, 70, 71
Kumara, r8
KWg ans, 78
defmition of, 63
device for awaening students, 45
LAT, 61
Lamp, Transmission of the,
Latkavatara Sitra, 51
Lao Tsu, 163, 164, r66
Lebovich, Madam Maurice, 13
Leisure, II
Li Po Yang (Lao Tsu), 163
Lien Ch'ih, 82, 83
Lin Chi, 12, 63, 78
Lin Ch Dharma, the, 67
Li Chi sect, 71
Lion's roar, 24
Lotus doctrine, 74
Lotus Samadhi, 110
Lotus Seat, contemplation of the, 92
Lotus sect, 82
Lotus Sitra, 27, 109, I II, 128, I 54
Lu Miao Fa Meng, 1 10
Lu TWg Pin, 213
MADHYAMIA Sastra, 109, 153
Maha-Mandgalyayana, 25
Mahakasyapa, 20, 43, 44
Mahapariirvala Sitra, 107, 109,
154, I
Mahasthama Bodhisattva, 31
contemplation of, 97
Mahasthamaprapta, 83
Mahayana teachings, 68
diference between Transmission,
Maitreya Bodhisattva, 30
Majwri, r6, 33. 74, 86
Mara, 25,26
discerg harmf interference by,
Master San Feng's Autobiography, 78
Matter, mastery of spirit over, 211
Maudgalaputra, 86, 87, 106
Medical science, ancient, 209-Io
cautions regarding, 204
mafestation of good qualities,
Taoist, I67-0
bodily posture for, I67-
duration, 1701
mental state during, I69-70
regulating the breath, I7I-4
vbration in the belly, I74-5
Yin Shih Tsu's method, 167 et seq.
Meditation posture, 49
Merit-giving water, contemplation
of, 9I
Microcosmc orbit, I9I
technique, 205-7
freezig the wandering, 65
identity of, with cakes, 7I
knowing, I II
meditation on the faculty of, 25
reguating the, 126
twenty-fve ways of controlng, r6
Ultimate, I55
Mind Dhnma, 43
Hua T'ou techiques, 47-63
Transmission of the, 44
Mo Ho Chih Kua, IIO
Moon-light, 86
Morality, observance, 113-15
NADi KiHyapa, 25
Nigakanya, I54
Nagarjuna, 82, I09
Nan Yo, 52
Nei Ching, 2IO
Ningpo, 74
NirmaQakaya Buddas, 96
absolute, 70
chih-kuan main gate to, II I
relatie, 66
Ultimate, I55
Niad, IS
NoNa, I98
0 Mr, Mount, 74
Ocean Symbol, 76
Omniscience, 213-14
Omnipresence, 213-14
On having no Head, I2
One Mind, 70, 109
doctrine of, 2I, 71
One Nature, 34
Oneness, 59
P' AN Shan peak, 76
P'ang Yun, 64
Partial nirvala, 66
Parting of the Way, The, 13
Path, The, 22
ten essentials for treadng, II2
et seq.
Patient endurance of the uncreate, 66
Perception, meditation on the ele
ment, 31
Pho-wa, I98
technique, 202
Pilindavatsa, 22
Practice, main, by
method, I29-39
PraQa, 49, 207, 2IO (see also Vital
Pratyutpaa-samadh Sitra,
Precious Brightness, 22
Precious trees, contemplation of, 90
Printing blocks, carvig, 77
Profoud Dharma, 94
Profoud Enlightened Md, 32
P'u T'o, 74
Pure Lad of the Buddha of Infite
Light, Sr
Pure Lad School
lineage of, 82-3
methods of practice, 83-I06
self-cultivation teaching, 8I et seq
Pure Lands, 27
Piamatrayarputra, 24, 86
'RA aim', 7I
Realzation, fa, by chih-kuan
method, ISI-
Realm of Bliss
contemplation of, 92
contemplation of Amitayus's, 97
inferior class of birth in, I03-
middle class of birth in, IOI-3
superior clas of birth in, 99-IOI
Realms, the three, 34
Regulating, meaning of, I23
Regulatons, three thousand, 25
Rejuvenation, 212
Relative Nirva, 66
Relativities, region of, I07
Restlessness, screening by, I20
Rzai Zen, 67
Rip ma, Hugh, I 3
Sakyamui Buddha, 8I
Samadhi, state of, I7
Samantabhadra Bodhisattva, 23, 7 4, 82
Samatha-vipasyaa for beginners,
III et seq.
San Feng, Master, Enlightenment of,
Sangha, 6I, 74
bhijfa Buddha, 28
Sariputra, 23, 28
Satori, major, 2I3
Sayings ofCh'an Mater Yuan Miao of
Kao Feng peak, The, S8
Sayings of Chung Feng, The, 75
Sayings of Mater Tsu Pai, The, 62
Screens, removal of, rr8-23
Sealing of the Mind, 52
Secret of Six Healing Souds,
Taoist, 208-
begins with mind control, 43
Ch'a (Zen) School teachng, 43-
exeriments wth Buddhist ad
Taoist methods, I9I et seq.
fve positions of, 6
prelmnary rues of 42
Pure Land School method, 8I et
Taoist School teaching, I63 et seq.
teaching of Sira gama Sitra IS
et seq.
T'ien T'ai teaching, I09 et seq.
Self-healing, 207-8
Self-mind instructions for training
Master Chung Feng's, 6o
Master Han Shan's, SI
Mater Hsu Yuan's, so
Mater Kao Feng's, 58
Sense data, meditation on the six,
Sense orgas, meditation on the fve,
Setting Su, contemplation of the, 89
Shan Tao, 82, 89
Shao K'ang, 82
Shao Li monatery, 77
Sheng Lu, I98
'Shft', 70
Shih Shuang, 72
'Shout', object of a, 67, 68
Sight, meditation on the orga of 20
Sight perception, meditaton on, 23
Si consciousnesses, meditation on
the, 23-
Six Profoud Dharma Doors, I IO
Six sense data, 4I
meditation on, I8-2o
Sleep, regulating, I24
meditaton on, I 8
meditaton on the orga of 2I
Smell perception, meditation on, 24
Smith, Dr. Huston, IJ
Songs of Enlightenment, Y ung
Cha's, IS
Soto Zen, 69
Soud, meditation on, I 8
Space, meditation on the element, 29
Spirit, matery over matter, 2I I
'Stagnat water', 6s
'Stone gr', 6s
Store consciousness, r66
Subhaara, uS
Subhiti, 22
'Subject and object', in the Li Ch
Dharma, 67-8
'Submsion', 70
'Substance', 69
Sudaaanda, 24
Supplement to Yin Shih Tsu's Method
of Meditation, 193
Supreme Vehcle, 4
Sirangama Sitra, 41, 6s, 77, 81, I07,
Sitra of Complete Enlightenment,
41, 107
Sitra of the Buddha of Ite
Light, 107
Sitra of the Contemplaton of
Amitayus Buddha, I07
T A Ch'eng Chih Kuan I ro
Ta Hui, 52, S3
Ta Kuan, Mater, 62, 73
story of his Awakening, 62
Tao, the eteral, 164
Tao Ch'ien of Chiu Feng peak,
Mater, 71
Tao Ch'o, 82
Tao seed, I S2
Tao Su, rio
Ta Teh Cheng, I63, I64
Taoist School teachigofslf-ultiva
tion, I63 et seq.
T'a Luan, 82
meditation on, 19
meditation on the orga of, 2I
Tathagata abode, IS3
Tathagata majesty, IS3
Tathagata robe, I S3
Tathagata throne, I
Te Shan, 63, 78
Teh Ch'eng (Boat Monk), 54,
Tendai School, 74
teachg of sel-ltvaton, I0
et seq.
Thngs (dharma), meditation on,
'Thread of white silk', 72
Three Gates, 67
aow shot through, 71
Three Holy Ones of the Realm of
Bliss, contemplation of, 98
Three Precious Ones, r I4
Three Profoud Gateways, 68
Thrd eye, the, 64
Third Profoud Door to Enlighten
mnt, 7I
T'ien Kug, uo
T'ien T'ai
meditation, uo et seq.
teachig for beginers, I II-
the s Profoud Dharma Doors,
Ting I, 6I
Tongue perception, medtation on,
'Top of a high pole', 6o, 6S
medtation on, 19
medtation on the perception of
objects of, 25
Tranquil ty, us
Transmission of Mind Dharma, 4
Trasmission of the Lamp, S
Trasmission teaching, dference
between Mahayana, 42
Tripifaka, I6, 74, 98
Ts'ao Shan, Master, 69, 73
Ts'ao Tung Dharma, the, 69
Ts'ao Tung sect, 7I
Tso Ch'i, uo
Ts'u Feng peak, 74
Tsu Pai, 62
T'ug Meng Chi Kuan, IIO, 193
Tug Shan, Mater, 69, 73
Ultimate Mind, I
Umon Zen, 66
'Unconcered man', 64
language of the, 64
patient endurance ofthe,2S,29,30
the state of the, 66
Universal Enlightenment, 69
Universal Light, Buddha of, 26
Universal Wisdom, 203
Upali, 25
Upaniad, IS
Uruvilva Kasyapa, 25
V AEH, Queen, S6 et seq.
Vaa Buddha, 27
Vasubandhu, S2
Vibration, 'central spot', I95 et seq.
Vivabhi Buddha, 27
Vital principle, I6S, I72, I9I, I92,
202, 203
how to accuulate and put into
orbit, 203
Vital Stages, 6S
WAG, substitute for, 208
contemplation of S9
meditation on the element, 27
Weightlessness, attainable by prac-
tise, ss. 64, 76
Welch, Holmes, I 3
Wenchow, 74
Wester Realm of Bliss, 83,S8,S9, 90,
9I, 94, 9S, Io6 (see also Realm of
Wheel of Right Dhara, I54
Wheel of the Law, 24
Whte Light, I92
Wind, meditation on the element, 2S
With Mystics and Magicians in Tibet,
'Withered log', 65, 72
Wonderful Enlghtenment, I7, 69
'Wooden horse', 65
Wu Chi, Master, 76
Wu Chen, Abbot, 79
Wu T'ai, Mout, 74, 76, 77
YANG Ching, Master, 74
Yag Shan, 69
Yangchow, 74
Yen Shou, S2, 83
Yen Yuan, Zen Master, Enlighten
ment of, 79
Yen Yua's gatha, So
Yin Shih Tsu, I 57. I93. 205
personal experiences, I75-S2
questions and answers to readers of
his book, I 82-0
Yin Shih Tsu' s Experimental Medita
tions for the Promotion of Health,
quoted, I93

Yoga, physical, and spiitual culture,
Yun Men, 78
Yun Men Dharma, the, 66
Yun Men sect, 7I
Y ug Chia, I 5