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ORDER NUMBER EA-356

AIRCRAFT
RADIO SYSTEMS
By J. Powell
BA, C Eng, MIERE,
GradIMA

Reprinted in India by
HIMALAYAN BOOKS
° New Delhi-110001.

Distributed by:
The English Book Store
The Aviation People
17-L, Connaught Circus New Delhi-110001 (India)
Contents

5 Instrument landing system 69


Preface
Introduction 69
Basic principles 69
1 Historical, technical and legal context 1
Simplified block diagram operation 72
Introduction 1 Installation 74
Historical background 1 Controls and operation 76
Basic principles of radio 2 Characteristics 77
Digital systems 8 Ramp testing 78
Categorization of airborne radio equipments 6 Hyperbolic navigation systems 79
Navigation nomenclature 13
Interference 13 General principles 79
Maintenance 17
Regulating and advisory bodies 18 Omega navigation system 83
2 Communication systems 20 7 Distance measuring equipment 105
Introduction 20 Introduction 105
V.h.f. communications 20 Basic principles 105
H.f. communications 29
Selcal 35 X and Y channel arrangements 110
Audio integrating systems - (Intercom) 37
Testing and trouble shooting the audio The link with v.h.f. navigation 110
systems 43 Installation 111
Controls and operation 112
3 Automatic direction finding 45
Introduction 45 Simplified block diagram operation 112
Basic principles 45 Range measuring and mode control 114
Simplified block diagram operation 4.7 8 ATC transponder 121
Block diagram detail 47 Introduction 121
Sources of system error 49 Basic principles 121
Installation 52 Installation 126
Controls and operation 54 Controls and operation 127
Simplified block diagram operation 128
Characteristics 55
Calibration and testing on the ramp 55 Block diagram details 128
Characteristics 135
4 V.h.f. omnidirectional range (VOR) 58 Ramp testing 136
Introduction 58 9 Weather avoidance 139
Basic principles 58 Introduction 139
Doppler VOR (DVOR) 61 Weather radar 140
Choice of characteristics and features 140
Aircraft installation 63 Installation 146
Controls 147
Controls and operation 65 Operation 148
Simplified block diagram operation 65
Characteristics 65
Ramp testing 67
Block diagram operation 150 Aircraft installation delay 197
Interface 198
Scanner stabilization 157
Other applications for weather radar 160
Multiple installations 199
Weather radar characteristics 162
Characteristics '00
Maintenance and testing 164
Ramp testing and maintenance 20 0
Ryan storniscope 168
Appendix
Appendix
Sinusoidal frequency modulation 201
Factors affecting weather radar performance 169
12 Area navigation 202
10 Doppler navigation 172 Development of airspace organization 202
Introduction 172 Generalized area navigation system 202
Doppler effect 173 VOR/DME based RNAV. principles 204
Antenna mechanization 174 Bendix nav. computer programmer NP-2041A 206
Doppler spectrum 175 ` King KDE 566 210
Beam geometry 175 Standardization 213
Transmitter frequency 176 Testing RNAV 215
Modulation 177
Over-water errors 178 13 Current and future developments 216
Navigation calculations 179 Introduction 216
Block diagram operation 179 The state of the art 216
Installation 182 The flight deck 217
Controls and operation 184 Multi-systern packages 219
Characteristics 185 Data link 219
Testing 185 ADSEL/DABS 2 21
Appendix Satcom and satnav 223
Relationships between aircraft and earth Microwave landing system 2 24
co-ordinates 186 Microwave aircraft digital guidance equipment 225
The Doppler shifts for a four-beam Janus Collision avoidance 2 29
configuration 187 The current generation of ARINC
The aircraft velocity in earth co-ordinates characteristics 230
expressed in terms of Doppler shifts 188 Concluding remarks 231
11 Radio altimeter 189 Recommended reading 232
Introduction 189
Basic principles 189 Glossary 234
Factors affecting performance 191
Exercises 246
Block diagram operation 192
Monitoring and self-test 195 Index 252
Indicat or 196
Installation 196
Preface

The cockpit and equipment racks of modern aircraft, circuitry are given since I feel most readers will be
large and small, are becoming filled with ever more more interested in the operation of the system as a
sophisticated systems . This book attempts to describe whole. Nevertheless, some circuits are given purely as
a certain class of such systems, namely those which examples. Should the reader need circuit knowledge,
rely for their operation on electromagnetic radiation. the equipment maintenance manual is the best place
The subject matter is complex and wide-ranging, to find it, assuming he knows the system and he has
hence not all aspects can be covered in one volume a basic knowledge of electronics.
In deciding where the treatment should be light or The state of the art of the equipment described is
perhaps non-existent, I have asked myself two also varied. 1 did not see the point of describing only
questions: (1) which aspects can most usefully be equipment containing microprocessors, since the vast
covered in a book; and ( 2 ) at which group of people majority of systems in service do not use them as yet.
involved in aviation should a book covering such On the other hand if the life of this book is not to be
aspects be aimed? too severely restricted, the latest techniques must be
The answer to (1) must be `describe the theory'. described. Within the pages that follow, analogue,
One can, and indeed must, read or be told about how analogue/digital, hardwired digital and programmable
to operate the systems: how to navigate using the digital equipments all find a place.
systems; how to solder, crimp and change items; As stated previously, the book is aimed primarily
how to use test equipment, etc. but proficiency is at the maintenance engineer. However, I hope several
impossible without practice. On the other hand groups might be interested. This poses problems
gaining an understanding of how a particular system concerning the background knowledge required. For
works is more of a mental exercise which can be what I hope is a fairly substantial part of the book,
guided in a book such as this. This is not to say that any reasonably intelligent technically minded person
more practical matters are neglected, since it would with a basic knowledge of mathematics and a
not help one's understanding of the theory of familiarity with aircraft will have no difficulty that
operation not to see, at least in words and pictures, two or perhaps three readings will not overcome.
how a particular system is controlled, presents its There are parts, however, where some knowledge of
information, reacts to the environment, etc. electronics, radio theory or more sophisticated
Having decided the main line of attack the more mathematics is needed. In three chapters where the
difficult question of depth of treatment must be going gets a bit tough, I have relegated the offending
answered: in other words which group should be material to an appendix. Some background material
satisfied'.' Pilots need a superficial knowledge of how is covered in Chapter 1, in particular, basic radio
all the systems work; maintenance engineers on the theory and a discussion of digital systems in so far as
ramp and in the hangar a more detailed knowledge; coding and computers are concerned.
workshop engineers must have an understanding of If you are one of the few people who plough all
the circuitry for perhaps a limited range of the way through the Preface to a book, you may have
equipments; while designers should have the greatest decided by now that this book is concerned with
depth of knowledge of a11. It is virtually impossible theory and little else. That this is not so may be clear
to draw dividing lines, but it is hoped that if enough if I outline briefly the contents of each chapter. An
theory is given to satisfy the aircraft radio introduction saying a few words about the history
maintenance engineer then the book might be useful and function of the system is followed by a fairly
to all groups mentioned. thorough coverage of the basic principles. In some
The depth of treatment varies, it being impossible chapters the next item is a discussion of the
to cover everything, or indeed anything, to the depth installation, i.e. the units, how they are
I would have liked. In particular few details of interconnected, which other systems they interface
with and any special considerations such as cooling, Communications Components Corporation
positioning, type of antennas and feeders, etc. This, The Decca Navigator Company Limited
together with a description of controls and operation, Field Tech Limited
puts some practical meat on to the bare bones of the Hazeltine Corporation
theory which continues with a consideration of the IFR Electronics Inc
block diagram operation. In certain chapters the King Radio Corporation
order: installation - controls and operation -- block Litton Systems International Inc., Aero Products
diagram, is reversed where 1 thought it was perhaps to Division
the reader's disadvantage to break up the flow of the Marconi avionics Limited
more theoretical aspects. A brief look at MEL Equipment Company Limited
characteristics, in practically all cases based on RCA Limited
ARINC publications, and -testing / maintenance Rockwell-Collins (UK) Limited
concludes each chapter.
Ryan Storm scope
Most chapters deal with one system; none of them
Tel-Instrument Electronics Corporation (TIC)
is exclusively military. The exceptions are, in reverse
order, Chapter 13 where I look at the current scene Although I am grateful to all the above, I must reserve
and review some systems we should see in the next a special word of thanks to Mr Wayne Brown of
few years; Chapter 12 which is a bringing-together Bendix, Mr. A. E. Crawford of King and Mr. T. C.
of some of the previously covered systems: Chapter 6 Wood of RCA, who arranged for the dispatch of
covering Omega, Decca Navigator and Loran C'; several expensive and heavy maintenance manuals in
Chapter 2 which covers both radio and non -radio reply to my request for information. These manuals,
communications; and Chapter 1 where some chosen and indeed all other information received, were used
background material is given. in the preparation of this book and continue to be
I should point out that this is not a textbook in used in the training of students at Brunel Technical
the sense that everything is examinable in accordance College, Bristol, England.
with some syllabus. The reader will take from the I also wish to thank all my colleagues at Br unel
book however big a chunk he desires, depend ing on who have helped, often unwittingly, in conversation.
his background knowledge, his profession, the In particular my thanks go to John Stokes, Clive
examinations he hopes to take and, of course, his Stratton and Peter Kemp for proof-reading some of
inclination. Some will have, or end up with, an the chapters and also Leighton Fletcher for helping
understanding of all that is included herein, in which with the illustrations. May I add that, although I
case I hope the book may be seen as a source of received technical assistance from the above, any
reference. mistakes which remain are obviously mine. I would
be grateful to any reader who might take the trouble
to point out any errors.
Finally, my thanks to Pauline Rickards, whose
fingers must be sore from typing; to the publishers
Acknowledgements who displayed great patience as the deadline for the
submission of the typescript came and went; and,
A number of manufacturers have given valuable most of all, to my wife Pat and son Adam who
assistance including the supplying of material and showed even more patience and understanding than
granting permission to reproduce data and Pitman’s.
illustrations. Without the generosity of the following, Bristol,
this book would have been of very limited use.
England J. P.
Bendix Avionics Division

Boeing Commercial Aero plane Company


British Aerospace
I Historical, technical and legal
context

Introduction
Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company
This book deals with airborne systems that depend for Limited (England), later the Marconi
their operation on the generation and detection of Wireless Telegraph Company Limited.
that intangible discovery the radio wave. Such systems 1904 Fleming's (British) discovery of the
split naturally into two parts: communications and thermionic valve - the diode.
navigation. The former provide two-way radio 1904 First patent for a radar-like system to a
contact between air and ground, while the latter German engineer, Hulsmeyer. Workable but
enables an aircraft to be flown safely from A to B not accepted.
along a prescribed route with a landing safely 1906 De Forest's (American) invention of an
executed at B. amplifying thermionic valve (triode).
An understanding of such systems requires a 1911 Direction-finding properties of radio waves
working knowledge of basic electronics, radio, investigated.
computer systems and other topics. A book of this 1912 Discovery of the oscillating properties of
length cannot provide all that is necessary but it was De Forest's valve.
thought that some readers might appreciate a review 1936 The first workable pulse radar.
of selected background material. This is the objective
of Chapter 1. It may be that on consulting the list of 1939 Invention of the magnetron in Britain.
contents, the reader will decide to omit all or part of
this chapter. On the other hand, some readers may 1948 Invention of the transistor by Bardeen,
decide that more basic information is needed, in Brattain and Shockley (Bell Telephone
which case, the list of recommended books will help Laboratories, USA).
point the way to sources of such material. To bring us up to date, in the early 1970s the first
microprocessor appeared from Intel (USA) leading
directly to present-day microcomputers.
Historical Background Paralleling the progress of radio was the second of
the three great developments of the twentieth
In 1864 James Clerk Maxwell, Professor of century, i.e. powered flight in heavier-than-air
Experimental Physics at Cambridge, proved machines. (The other two developments referred to
mathematically that any electrical disturbance co uld are electronics and applications of nuclear physics;
produce an effect at a considerable distance from the the reader is concerned with two out of three.)
point at which it occurred. He predicted that There can be few people who have not heard of
electromagnetic (e.m.) energy would travel outward Wilbur and Orville Wright; who designed and built the
from a source as waves moving at the speed of light. first successful powered aircraft which Orville flew
In 1888 Hertz, a German physicist, demonstrated for the first time at 10.35 on 17 December 1903,
,hat Maxwell's theory was correct, at least over making a landing without damage after 12 seconds
distances within the confines of a laboratory. It was airborne. Since then landmarks in aviation, with
left to the Italian physicist Marconi to generate e.m. particular reference to civil aviation, include:
waves and detect them at a remote receiver, as he did 1907 First fatality: Lieut. T. E. Selfridge, a
by bridging the Atlantic in 1901. Other notable passenger in a Wright Fly er.
landmarks in the development of radio include: 1909 Bleriot (French) flies the English Channel.
1897 First commercial company incorporated for 1912 Sikorsky (Russian) builds first multi-engined
the manufacture of radio apparatus: the (four), passenger (sixteen) aircraft.
1914 World War I. The years 1914-18 saw
advances in performance and a vast increase with the crowded skies. In 1910 the first
in transmission of e.m. waves from air to ground
number of aircraft, engines and pilots. occurred. Speech was conveyed to an aircraft flying
1919 Sustained daily scheduled flights begin in near Brook lands Airfield (England) by means of an
Europe. e.m. wave in 1916. By the 1920s, radio was being
1928 Whittle (British) publishes thesis on used for aircraft navigation by employing rudimentary
jet direction -finding techniques (Chapter 3). The
engine. introduction of four -course low-frequency range
1929 First blind landing by Doolittle (American) equipment in 1929 provided the pilot with directional
using only aircraft instruments. guidance without the need for a direction -finder on
1937 Flying-boat service inaugurated from Britain the aircraft.
to the Far East. Britain to Australia took 8 Steady progress was made up to 1939, but it was
days in 1938, either by KLM or Imperial world War I I which gave the impetus to airborne
1939 Airways.
First jet -powered flight by He 178 (German). Radio innovations . Apart fr om very high frequency
1939 Inaugural air-mail service between Britain (v.h.f.) communications, introduced during the war,
a number of radio navigation aids saw the first light of
1939 World War II. The years 1939 -45 saw the
growth of world-wide military air transport day in the period since 1939. These systems are
services, and the USA established as the described in the following chapters.
postwar leader in civil aviation.

1944 International Civil Aviation


Organisation
formed at Chicago conference. Basic Principles of Radio
1945 American Overseas Airlines operate
scheduled flights over North Atlantic with Radiation of Electromagnetic (e.m.) Waves and
landplane (DC 4). Antennas
1952 First civil jet aircraft, the Comet 1, goes into If a wire is fed with an alternating current, some of
the power will be radiated into space. A similar wire
service with BOAC.
parallel to and remote from the first will intercept
1953 First civil turboprop aircraft, the Viscount,
some of the radiated power and as a consequence an
goes into service with BEA.
alternating current will be induced, so that using an
1954 Previously unknown problem of metal
appropriate detector, the characteristics of the
fatigue discovered in Comet 1. Withdrawn.
1956 Tu 104 first jet aircraft to original current may be measured. This is the basis
of all radio systems.
commence
The above involves a transfer of energy from one
sustained commercial service.
point to another by means of an e.m. wave. The wave
1958 First transatlantic jet service by BOAC with
consists of two oscillating fields mutually
the Comet 4. (PAA's Boeing 707 -120
perpendicular t o each other and to the direction of
follows three weeks later.) propagation. The electric field (E) will be parallel to
1965 First short -haul jet to enter service, the the wire from which the wave was transmitted, while
BAC 1 -11. the magnetic field (H) will be at right angles. A
1970 Boeing 747 introduced; the first of the 'snapshot' of such a wave is shown in Fig. 1.1 where
Jumbo Jets. the distance shown between successive peaks is
1970 First civil aircraft supersonic flights, known as the wavelength.
Concorde and the Tu 144. The velocity and wavelength of an e.m. wave are
From the time of the Wright brothers to the present
day, the non -commercial side of civil aviation, known
as general aviation (business and private) has grown
with less spectacular firsts than its big brother, so that
now by far the largest number of civil aircraft are in
this category.
It was inevitable that the new toys of radio and
aircraft should be married early on in their history.
Later the vast increase in air traffic made it essential
that radio aids, in both communication and
navigation, should be made full use of, to cope safely Fig. 1.1 An electromagnetic wave
directly related through the frequency of the intensified over a limited region near its surface.
alternating current generating the wave. The law is:
The resulting comparatively strong oscillating E field
c= Y`f between the capacitor's plates causes a current to
where flow in twin feeder or coaxial cable connected across
: the antenna. The airborne systems operating in the
relevant frequency band are the receive-only systems
c is the speed of light (3 X 108 m/s).
covered in Chapter 6 (Omega, Decca and Loran C).
Y` is the wavelength in metres.
Although ADF (Chapter 3) receives sign als in the
f is the frequency in Hertz (cycles/s).
band of frequencies immediately above those
A radiating wire is most efficient when its length considered in this paragraph, one of its two antennas
is equal to half a wavelength. Thus for a frequency (sense) utilizes the principles discussed.
of 100 MHz the wire should be An alternative to the capacitance antenna is the
(3 X 10 8)/(2 X 100 X 106 ) = 1.5m long, in which loop antenna which is basically a loop of wire which
case it is known as a dipole. In practice many cuts the H field component of the e.m. wave. The
airborne radio systems do not make use of dipole field is intensified by use of a ferrite core on which
antennas since their size is prohibitively large, except several turns are wound. Use of two loops mounted
at very high frequencies, and the radiation patt ern is at right angles provides a means of ascertaining the
not suited to applications where energy needs to be direction of arrival (ambiguous) of an e.m. wave.
transmitted in or received from a certain direction. Such antennas are used for ADF (loop) and may
A close relative of the dipole is the unipole also be used for Omega.
antenna which is a X/4 length conductor mounted At frequencies above, say, 3000 MHz the
vertically on the metal fuselage which acts as a properties of waveguides may be used. A waveguide is
ground plane in which a reflection of the unipole is a hollow metal tube, usually of rectangular cross -
`seen' to form a dipole. Thus a v.h.f. communication section, along which an e.m. w ave can propagate. If
(comm.) unipole would be less than 60 cm long the end of a waveguide is left open some energy will
(centre frequency of the band is 127 MHz). Two be radiated. To improve the efficiency, the walls of the
unipoles are sometimes mounted back to back on
waveguide are flared out, so providing matching to
the vertical stabilizer to function as a dipole antenna
free space and hence little or no reflected energy back
for use with VOR (Chapter 4) or ILS (Chapter 5).
At frequencies in the region of 2-30 MHz (h.f.) a down the guide. Such an antenna is called a horn and
dipole would be between 5 and 75 m. Since the may be used for radio altimeters (Chapter 11).
Associated with the wave propagated along a
dimensions of aircraft fall, roughly speaking, within
waveguide are wall currents which flow in specific
this range of lengths it is possible to use the aircraft
directions. A slot, about 1 em in length, cut in the
as the radiating or receiving element. A notch or
slot cut in a suitable part of the airframe (e.g. base waveguide so as to interrupt the current flow will act
of vertical stabilizer) has a large oscillating voltage as a radiator. If several slots are cut the energy from
them will combine several wavelengths from the
applied across it, so driving current through the
antenna to form a directional beam. The direction
fuselage which in turn radiates. The notch/airframe
depends on the spacing of the slots. Such antennas
load must be `tuned' to the correct frequency for
efficient transmission. Without tuning, little energy may be used for Doppler radar (Chapter 10) and
would be radiated and a large standing wave would weather radar (Chapter 9).
The theory of some of the more esoteric antennas
be set up on the connector feeding the notch. This
used on aircraft is a little sketchy and design is
is due to the interaction of incident and reflected
finalized, if not based, on empirical data. However
energy to and from the antenna. An alternative type
of antenna for this band of frequencies is a long the antenna is designed, it will only s ee service if it
length of wire similarly tuned, i.e. with variable performs its function of transmitting and/or receiving
e.m. waves in and/or from required directions. The
reactive components.
directivity of an antenna, or the lack of directivity,
F or frequencies within the range 10-100 kHz the
is most clearly defined by means of a polar diagram.
maximum dimension of even large aircraft is only a
If we take a transmitting antenna and plot points of
small fraction of a wavelength. At these frequencies equal field strength (one value only) we have such a
capacitive type antennas maybe used. One plate of diagram. The same antenna used for receiving would,
the capacitor is the airframe; the other a horizont al of course, have the same polar diagram. If the
tube, vertical blade or a mesh (sometimes a solid diagram is a circle centred on the antenna, as would
plate). The aircraft causes the field to become be the case if the plot were in the plane perpendicular
to a dipole, then the antenna is said to be Table 1.3 Approximate bands for
omnidirectional in the plane in which the microwave frequencies
measurements were made. A practical antenna
cannot be omnidirectional in all planes, i.e. in three Letter Frequency
dimensions. designation range (GHz)

The e.m. Spectrum and Propagation L 1-3

As can be seen from the previous paragraph, the S 2-5-4


frequency of the radio wave is an important C
consideration when considering antenna design. X 3.5-7.5
In addition the behavior of the wave as it propagates K 6-12.5
through the earth's atmosphere is also very much Q 12.5 -40
dependent on the frequency. 33-50
However, before considering propagation, we will Table 1.4 Airborne radio frequency utilization
place radio waves in the spectrum of all e.m. waves
(exact frequencies given in relevant chapters)
(Table 1.1). In doing so we see that the range of
frequencies we are concerned with is small when
System Frequency band
Table 1.1 The electro Omega 10-14 kHz
magnetic spectrum Decca
Loran C 70-130 kHz
Hz Region ADF
h.f. comm. 2-25kHz
100 MHz
10 25 Cosmic rays Marker 75 MHz
ILS (Localizer)
10 21 Gamma rays 108-112 MHz
VOR
108-118 MHz
10' 9 X rays v.h.f. comm.
10 17 Ultraviolet 118-136 MHz
10 15 Visible ILS (Glideslope)
10 14 Infra-red DME 320-340 MHz
10 11 Radio waves SSR
Radio altimeter
960-1215 MHz
Weather radar (C)
compared with the complete spectrum. By general Doppler (X)
agreement radio frequencies are categorized as in 1030 and 1090 MHz
Table 1.2. There is less agreement about the letter Weather radar (X)
designations used for the higher radio frequencies Doppler (K) 4.2-4.4 GHz
which are tabulated with approximate frequency
ranges in Table 1.3. Finally, Table 1.4 lists the In free space, all radio waves travel in straight
frequencies used for airborne radio systems by lines
international agreement. at the speed of light. Such a mode of propagation is
known as the space wave. In addition, two other
modes of propagation are used with airborne radio
Table 1.2 Radio frequency categorization
equipment: the ground wave and the sky wave.
A fourth mode known as tropospheric scatter is used
Name Abbreviation Frequency only for fixed ground stations since elaborate and
Very low frequency
expensive. equipment must be used at both ends of
VIE 3-30 kHz
Low frequency l.f. 30-300 kHz
the link due to the poor transmission efficiency.
Medium frequency m.f. 300-3000 kHz The ground wave follows the surface of the earth
High frequency h.f. 3-30 MHz partly because of diffraction, a phenomenon
Very high frequency v.h.f. 30-300 MHz associated with all wave motion which causes the
Ultrahigh frequency u.h.f. 300-3000 MHz wave to bend around any obstacle it passes. In
Superhigh frequency s.h.f. 3-30 GHz addition, the wave H field cuts the earth's surface,
Extremely high frequency e.h.f. 30-300 GHz so causing currents to flow. The required power for
these currents must come from the wave, thus a flow
of energy from wave to earth takes place causing be superimposed on the e.m. wave carrier. There are
bending and attenuation. The attenuation is a several ways in which the wave can carry information
limiting factor on the range of frequencies which can and all of them involve varying some characteristic of
be used. The higher the frequency the greater the the carrier (amplitude or frequency modulation) or
rate of change of field strength, so more attenuation interrupting the carrier (pulse modulation).
is experienced in maintaining the higher currents. The simplest, and earliest, way in which a radio
Ground waves are used for v.l.f. and l.f. systems. wave is made to carry information is by use of Morse
Radio waves striking the ionosphere (a s et of Code. Switching the transmitter on for a short
ionized layers lying between 50 and 500 km above time -interval, corresponding to a dot, o r a longer
the earth's surface) are refracted by an amount time -interval, corresponding to a dash, enables a
depending on the frequency of the incident wave. message to be transmitted. Figure 1.2 illustrates the
Under favourable circumstances the wave will return transmission of SOS, the time-intervals shown being
to the earth. The distance between the transmit ter typical.
and point of return (one hop) is known as the skip In radar the information which must be
distance. Multiple hops may occur giving a very long superimposed is simply the time of t ransmission.
range. Above about 30 MHz there is no sky wave This can easily be achieved by switching on the
since insufficient refraction occurs. Sky wave transmitter for a very short time to produce a pulse
propagation is useful for h.f. comm. but can caus e of e.m. energy.
problems with l.f. and m.f. navigation aids since the When transmitting complex information, such as
sky wave and ground wave may combine at the speech, we effectively have the problem of
receiver in such a way as to cause fading, false transmitting an extremely large number of sine waves.
direction of arrival or false propagation time Since the effect of each modulating sine wave on the
measurements. At v.l.f. the ionosphere reflects, radio frequency (r.f.) carrier is similar, we need only
rather than refracts, with little loss; thus v.l.f. consider a single sine wave modulating frequency.
navigation aids of extremely long range may be used. The characteristics of the modulating signal which
Above 30 MHz, space waves, sometimes called must be transmitted are the frequency and amplitude.
line of sight waves, are utilized. From about 100 MHz Figure 1.3 shows three ways in which a pulsed carrier
to 3 GHz the transmission path is highly predictable may be modulated by a sine wave while Figs 1.4 and
and reliable, and little atmospheric attenuation occurs. 1.5 show amplitude and frequency modulation of a
Above 3 GHz attenuation and scattering occur, which continuous wave (c.w.) carrier.
become limiting factors above about 10 GHz. The Both amplitude modulated (a.m.) and frequency
fact that space waves travel in a straight line at a modulated (f.m.) carriers are commonly used for
known speed and, furthermore, are reflected from airborne systems. With a.m. the amplitude of the
certain objects (including thunderstorms and aircraft) carrier represents the amplitude of the modulating
makes the detection and determination of range and signal, while the rate of change of amplitude
represents the frequency. With f.m. the amplitude
bearing of such objects possible.
and frequency of the modulating signal is represented
by the frequency deviation and rate of change of
Modulation
frequency of the carrier respectively.
Both a.m. and f.m. waves have informative
Being able to receive a remotely transmitted e.m.
wave and measure its characteristics is not in itself of parameters associated with them. With a.m. if the
much use. To form a useful link, information must

, Time

Radio frequency
x = 0 .1s, y=0 -3 s transmitted

Fig. 1.2 Morse code:


SOS
--,
Time

Fig. 1.4 Amplitude modulation

Fig. 1.3 Pulse modulation - from top to bottom:


unmodulated carrier, modulating waveform, pulse amplitude
modulation, pulse width modulation and pulse position
modulation

carrier amplitude is Y"e and the modulating signal


amplitude is V„, then the modulation factor is
Vt,-,, , 'C. This fraction can be expressed as a
percentage, in which case it is known as the
percentage modulation or depth of modulation
(note sometimes depth of modulation is quoted as
a decimal fraction). Figure 1.4 shows 100 per cent
Fig. 1.5 Frequency modulation
modulation. With f.m. the parameter is the deviation
ratio which is given by the ratio of maximum Fig. 1.6 where a single sine wave of frequency fT , is
frequency deviation (fd max) to maximum the modulating signal. It can be seen that several
modulating frequency (fm max). The ratio fd/fr„ is frequencies are present, so giving rise to the idea of
called the modulation index and will only be constant bandwidth of a radio information channel. The most
and equal to the deviation ratio if the modulating significant difference between a.m. and f.m. is that
signal is fixed in frequency and amplitude. the a.m. bandwidth is finite whereas, in theory, the
In Figs 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5 the modulated signal is f.m. bandwidth is infinite. In practice the f.m.
illustrated in the time domain, i.e. with time along bandwidth is regarded as finite, being limited by those
the horizontal axis. It is instructive to look at the extreme sidebands which are regarded as significant,
frequency domain representations as shown in say 10 per cent of amplitude of the largest frequency
frequency component is 3000 Hz we need only
transmit a sample of the instantaneous amplitude
every 1/6000 = 0-000 166 7 s (= 166.7 ps). Thus we
have time-intervals during which we can transmit
samples of other signals. The number of signals we
can time multiplex on one carrier link depends on
the duration and frequency of each sample. The
shorter the sample duration the greater the bandwidth
required, confirming the statement made earlier that
more information requires wider bandwidths.

Basic Receivers and Transmitters


Carrier (fc )

A much simplified transmitter block diagram is shown


Fig. 1.6 Amplitude modulation and frequency modulation in Fig. 1.7. This could be called the all-purpose block
spectrums for a pure sine wave modulating signal of diagram since it could easily be converted to a
frequency fm

component. The relative amplitudes of the carrier


and sidebands depend on modulation factor and
index for a.m. and f.m. respectively.
In any information link there is a relationship
between the bandwidth and the amount of
information which can be carried, hence high-fidelity
stereo broadcasts occupy a wide bandwidth. It is
not, however, desirable to have as wide a bandwidth
Fig. 1.7 Basic radio transmitter block diagram
as possible since (a) the number of available channels
is reduced; (b) electrical noise, generated at all
frequencies by electrical equipment and components, low-level a.m. transmitter, (little if any amplification
and by atmospheric effects, will be present in the of the carrier before modulation), a high-level a.m.
receiver channel at a greater power level the wider transmitter (little if any amplification of the carrier
the bandwidth. The signal power to noise power after modulation), an s.s.b. transmitter (introduce a
ratio is a limiting factor in the performance of band pass filter after the modulator) or an f.m.
receiving equipment. transmitter (introduce a frequency multiplifer after
The information in an a.m. wave is repeated in the modulator). Obviously in the above examples the
each of the sidebands; the carrier frequency circuit details would vary greatly, particularly in the
component has no information content. As a modulators, and if detailed block diagrams were
consequence, at the expense of more complicated drawn the underlying similarities in structure would
transmitting and receiving equipment, we need be less obvious.
transmit only one sideband. Single sideband (s.s.b.) The most basic type of receiver is a tuned radio
transmission conserves bandwidth, with attendant frequency (t.r.f.), however this is rarely used. The
advantages, and is found in airborne h.f. comm. standard receiver configuration is the superheterodyne
systems. (superhet) shown in Fig. 1.8. The desired r.f. is
converted to a constant intermediate frequency by
Multiplexing
taking the difference frequency after mixing the
In most airborne systems the required number of received signal with the output from a local oscillator
channels is obtained by allocating non-overlapping (Lo.). Since most of the amplification and selectivity
bands of frequencies centred on specified discrete is provided by constant frequency and bandwidth
carriers. This is known as frequency multiplexing. stages the design problem is eased.
Shannon's sampling theory shows that a sine wave In both the transmitter and the receiver, r.f.
of frequency fm can be completely specified by a oscillators have to b e tuned to different frequencies.
series of samples spaced at no more than 1/2 f m In the transmitter it is the m.o. (master oscillator),
second (s). To transmit speech where the highest while in the receiver it is the Lo. Modern practice is
Fig. 1.8 Basic superhetrodyne receiver block diagram

to usea frequencysynthesizerwith a singlecrystal to In all of the abovethe logic may be reversed(positive


providestability dnd accuracy. and negativelogic). Thus we can representa binary
digit (bit) by an electricalsignal,but if the number to
be representedis largerthan l, we must combinebits
DigitalSystems into someintelligiblecode.
Binary code hasbeenmentioned;this is simply
Coding counting to the base2 rather than the basel0
Most of the airborne systemsin use are basically (decimalcode) aswe do normally. Unfortunately,
analogue,i.e. they dealwith signalswhich represent binary numberssoon becomevery large,for example
variousquantitiescontinuouslyand smoothly. For 9 l r o = I 0 I I 0 I 1 2( t h e s u b s c r i p t s i n d i c a t i n g t h e
=
examplein DME a very smallincreasein rangeresults base),so octal (base8 23) and hexadecimal
(base l6 = 24) may be used. The machinemay still
in a correspondingincreasein time;we say time is an
analogueof distance. With a digital system, dealwith a 1/0 situationbut the numbersaremore
information is representedby a numberencodedin manageable when written down, for example
somesuitableway. 91 ro = l33s = 5816. Note, in the examplesgiven,if
Sinceit is difficult to detectmany different voltage we split the binary number into groupsof three from
or current levelsonly two are used,and this leads the right (leastsignificantbit, l.s.b.)we have
naturallyto expressingnumbersto the base2 (binary l , 0 l l , 0 1 1 2 = 1 , 3 , 3 s , i . e .e a c hg r o u pi s t h e b i n a r y
code)wherethe only digits are 0 and l. It remainsto code for an octal digit. Similarly
=5,816.
defineelectronicrepresentations of 0 and I in an r 1 0 1 ,l 0 l l 2
unambiguousway. Various methodsare usedwith Binary and hexadecimalcodesare usedin digital
(a) beingby far the most common,in the computers, octal code is usedfor the ATC
non-exhaustive list which follows. transponder (Chapter 8). The task of frequency
selectionis one which lendsitself to coding,and
amongseveralwhich havebeenused,the two most
(a) Voltagelevel no voltage - 0 commonarebinarycodeddecimal(b.c.d.)and two
high voltage - t from five (2/5). Both of thesecodesretain the
(b) Pulsepolarity positive = l decimaldigit 'flavour' of the number to be encoded
negative = Q at the expenseof usingextra bits. To represent9l
16
(c) Pulseposition a time interval is split in we considerthe decimaldigits 9 and I separatelyto
two halves: give:
pulse in first half = |
pulsein secondhalf = 0 9lro=1001 00016.9.6.,
(d) Phasechange at specified read time a 9l ro=10001 11000275
sinewave:
changesphase Equivalentsfor all the codesmentionedare givenfor
. (180"C) = | decimal numbers0 to l5 in Table 1.5.
doesnot change It can be seenfrom the abovethat more bits than
phase = Q are absolutelynecessary are usedfor b.c.d. and2l5.
Tabh 1.5 Variouscodeequivalents 4. conversionfrom binarYto b.c.d.;
5 . b.c.d. fed to frequencysynthesizer;
Base Code 6 . conversionfrom b.c.d. to specialcode;
7 . specialcode fed to readoutdevice.
1 0 2 8 1 6 BCD 2ls
So far we haveonly discussedthe coding of
0 0000 0 0 0000 0l001 numericaldata. The ISO (lnternationalStandards
I 000r I I 0001 l 1000 Organisation)alphabetNo. 5 is a seven-bitword code
2 0010 2 2 0010 10100
which can be usedto encodeupper and lower case
3 00ll 3 3 001I 0l 100
letters,punctuationmarks,decimaldigits and various
4 0100 4 4 0100 0 l0 l q
0l0l 0 0 1l 0 other charactersand control symbols' The full code
5 0l0l 5 5
6 0 1 1 06 6 0l 10 00101 may be found in most of the latest ARINC
? 0lll 7 I 0lll 0001I characteristics and will not be repeatedhere,however'
8 1000 l0 8 1000 10010 examplesare A = I 0 0 0 0 0 I'
9 1 0 0 1I I 9 l00l 10001 n=i O I 0 0 10,etc. Aparitybitmaybeadded
l0 l0l0 l2 A 0001 0000 11000 01001 to give a byte.
ll l0ll l3 E 0001 0001 11000 11000 Wh"r. . limited numberof actualwords needto be
12 I 100 14 c 0001 0010 11000 10100 'distance','speed','heading',etc' special
encoded,e.g.
13 ll01 15 D 0001 00lt 11000 01100
codesmay be designated'Suchcodesare describedin
14 lll0 l6 E 0001 0100 11000 01010
00110 AR INC specification 429'2 digital in fo rm ation
15 llll l7 F 0001 0101 u000
transfersystem(DITS) which is discussedin
Chapter13.
If the bits are transmitted serially, one after the other
in time down a line, then more time is neededfor the Microcomputers
transmission. of a number than would be neededif The microprocessorhas brought powerful computers
binary codewere used. If the bits are transmittedin on to aircraft to perform a number of functions,
parallel,one bit per line, then more lines are needed. includingthe solution of navigationequations,in a
This hasa certain advantagein that the redundancy more sophisticatedway than before' A
may be usedto detect transmissionerrors, for microcomputerconsistsof a microprocessorand
e x a m p l eI 0 I I O c o u l d n o t b e a 2 / 5 c o d e a n d severalperipheralintegratedcircuits(chips),to help
I 0 I 0 could not be b.c.d. the microprocessorperform its function'
Error checking can also be used with binary codes. There are four basicparts to computers,micro or
We will alwaysbe restrictedto a certainmaximum otherwise:memory, arithmeticlogic unit (ALU)'
numberof bits, one of which can be designateda control unit and the input/output unit (l/O)' In a
parity bit usedsolely for error detecting. Supposewe microcomputerthe ALU and control unit are usually
had eightbits available,eachgroup bf eight-bitswould combinedon a singlechip, the microprocessoror
be call-eda word of length 8 (commonly calleda centralprocessingunit (CPU)' Figure l '9 illustratesa
byte). Ttrefirst sevenbits of the word would be used basicsystem.
to encodethe decimal digit (0 to 127) while the The memory containsboth instructionsand data
eighthwould be the parity bit. For odd parity we set in the form of binary words' Memory is of two basic
the parity bit to 0 or I so as to make the total types, ,ead only (ROM) and random access(RAM)'
numberof onesin the word odd; similarly for even The ROM doesnot rememberany previousstate
parity. Thus61e= 00001l0l odd parity or which may haveexisted;it merely definesa functional
j
3,o oooot 100 evenparity. Error correcting(as relationshrpbetweenits input lines and its output
opposedto detecting)codesexist but do not find use lines. The RAM could be termed readand write
in airborneequiPmentasYet. memory; sincedata can be both readfrom memory
To considera practicalapplicationqf the above
- urd written into memory, i.e. its statemay change'
Srpposea particular frequencyis selectedon a trnformation in RAM is usually lost when power is
control unit, we may havethe following sequenceof switched off.
events: The ALU contains the necessarycircuitry to allow
it to carry out arithmeticoperations,such asaddition
l. information from controller: 215 code', and subtiaction,and logicalfunctions such as Boolean
2. conversionfrom2l5 to binary; algebraoperations(combinationsof NANDs and
3. microcomputerprocesses binary data; NORsetc.).
f': J
FA. t.9 Basicmicrocomputer
organization

The control unit providestiming instructionsand from memory, on the data bus, to the control unit
synchronizationfor all other units. The control whereit is decoded. The programcounter
signalscausethe other units to move data, manip_ulate automaticallyincrementsby one count, and after the
numbers,input and output information. All this current instruction has been executedthe next
activity dependson a set of step-by-stepinstructions instructionis fetched. This basiccvcle of:
(known as the program)which residein memory.
The l/O unit is the computer'sinterfacewith the fetch
outsideworld.
decode
From Fig. 1.9 it can be seenthat the units are
increment
interconnectedby three main buses. A bus is several
execute
electricalconnectionsdedicatedto a particular task.
A unidirectionalbus allowsdata flow in one direction
only, unlike a bidirectionalbus where flow is two-way. is repeatedcontinuously. During the executionof an
ln a microcomputerwe usuallyhave: instructiondata may have to be fetched from
memory, for exampleto add two numbersthe
l. address bus: sixteenunidirectionallirfes; instructionwill need to tell the CPU not only that an
2. databus: eightor sixteenbidirectionallines; additionoperationis necessary, but the location.in
3. control bus: the numberof linesvarieswith the the memory,of the numbersto be added.
systemand may haveboth unidirectionaland The rate at which instructionsareexecuted
bidirectionallines. dependson the complexityof the instrtrctionand the
.: frequencyof the systernclock. Eachpulsefrom the
To operate,eachstep-by-step instructionmust be clock initiatesthe next actionof the system;several
fetched,in order,from memoryand executedby the actionsper instructionareneeded.Often the clock
CPU. To keeptrack of the next stepin the program, circuitis on the CPU chip. the only external
a programcounter is usedwhich incremelts eachtime componentbeinga crystal.
an hstruction is fetched. Before an instruction can The I/O data flows via logicalcircuits calledporrs.
be executed.it must be decodedin the CPU to Theseports may be openedin a similar way to that in
determinehow it is to be accomplished. which memory is addressed.In somesystemsthe I/O
On switch-on,the programcounter is set to the ports are treated as if they were RAM - an address
first storedinstruction. The address(location) of this opensa particularport and data flows in or out of
first instruction is placedon the addressbus by the that port dependingon whether a read or write signal
pro$am counter causingthe instruction to be fetched is present. A variety of chips are used for l/O, some

10
of whi_chare very basic; others (programmable ports)
which it operates(seeTables1.2 and 1.3) and as
more flexible. being pulsed, a.m. or f.m. From both the desigr and
The program which is resident in ROM is maintenancepoint of view, the frequency at which
srbdividedinto routines. Someroutineswill be equipmentoperatesis perhapsmore important than
runningcontinuouslyunlessstopped;others may only the modulation used, at least in so far ai the choice of
-
be called for when the need ariseJ. For example, a componentsand test equipmentis concerned.
navigationcomputer will continuously compute the The higher the frequency the greaterthe effect of
aircraft position by running the mainioufini (or stray capacitanceand inductance, sigral transit time
bop) which instructs the ALU as to which and skin effect in conductors. In thi microwave
calculationsmust be carried out using data available region(s.h.f. and the high end of u.h.f.) wavezuide
in memory. This data must be updated periodically replacesco-axialcable,certainly above5 GHz] and
by acceptinginformation from, siy, u ,"dio specialcomponentswhosedimensionsplay a critical
navigationsensor. When data is available from the part in their operationareintroduced(klystrons,
extemalequipment,an interrupt sigral is generated magnetrons,etc.).
and fed to the microcomputer on an interiupt line.
Such a signalcausesthe computer to abandon the Analogue-Digital
main routine and commencea serviceroutine which Theseterms have alreadybeen mentioned and certain
will supervisethe transfer of the new data into aspectsof digital systemshavebeendiscussed.In
rrrmory. After transfer the main routine will modern airborne systemsthe information in the radio
rccommenceat the next step, rememberedby a CpU and intermediatefrequencystages,including the
register. 'wireless'
r.f. link, is usually in analogueform (the
The topics discussedin the paragraphsabove can exception being secondarysurveillance rcdar (see
all be classifiedashardware or softwaie. The Chapter8), to be joined in future by microwave
hardwareis the sum total of actual components gtail8 systems,data link and the replacementfor
up the computer: chips,active and passive SSR(seeChapter l3)). In addition Commonlyused
T"king
discretecomponents,and interwiring. Software transducerssuch as synchros,potentiometers,
comprises_programs, proceduresand the languagesor microphones,telephonesand speakersare all analogue
codesusedfor internal and external commu-nication. devices.Not all transducersarein the analogue
Softwaredeterminesthe stateof the hardwarear any
particulartime. In an airbornecomputer both the Tlegory, a shaft angleencoderused in encoding
altimetersis basicallyan analogueto digital converter.
software and hardware are fixed Uy itre designer. With the exception of the above almost everything
The operatordoesnot haveto program the computer .
elsein current equipmentis digital, whereas
in the sensethat he must write a routine; however, previouslysystemswere all analogue.There is a
he plays his part in how the computer will function further subdivisionwithin digitaliquipment into
b1,,for example,selectinga switChposition which thoseusinga combinationof hardwareand software
will causecertain data to be preseniedto him by the (computer-controlled)and thoseusingonly hardware
computer,insertingatard (hardware),on which (hardwiredlogic). The trend is towardsthl former.
codedinstructionsor data (software)havebeen
*Titten, into a cardreader,etc.
Function
Examplesof the use of microcomputersare
The two basic categorieswith regardto function are
coruideredin someof the chaptersto follow. These
communicationsand navigation. If navigationis
applications,and the abovebrief discussion.should
definedin its widest senseassafe,economicalpassage
givethe readera basicidea on how computerswork;
from A to B via selectedpoints (waypoints) then
for detailsof circuitry and programminj consult the
communicationssystemseould be consideredas
readily availablespecialistliteriture.
belongingto the navigationcategory. If, however,
communicationssystemsare regardedas those
systemscapableof transmittingspeechover radio or
CaGgorization of Airborne Radio
wire links, and all other systemsas navigation,we iue
Eqripments
obeyinga sensibleconvention. The introduction of
data links will requiresomeamendmentto the
Frcqucy and Modulation
definition of communicationssystems,since
T* 9" techniquesinvolvedvary greatlywith the , non-navigationaldata will be transmittedbut not as a
r.f. andtypeof modulationused,itls ofien usefulto
speechpattern.
crtegonze equipmentasto the bandof frequencies in Navigationsystemsmay be subdividedinto radio

t1
landing-aids category;
systemsconcemls landingsystemsbelongto the the category
andnon'radio,but only the radio posit i on-t txmg itfr*t?i',vpes of these subdivisions of
;;;":'-A;;ih.i possiblesubdivi on
si is
lf nuuigution systems will be considered Chapters
in
r'ndlnc,ui9: systems
ffi; ;;rfieiiht-nndrng, For
111 "^.,.
the latter we nave
S. f f uiO 5 respectively'
d
Position-fixing
into self'containe d and
environment-monitoring'
a]tim,etlrs I ^"' u.'i" t,ft.i subtlivide
-l.i-ghlri"olng
systems' while radio The former uses dead
weatheravoidance
fi "* ; ;it categorv andinstrument ilffi;;,i"t-tutta'
(@er4''l.j$*

(VOR/DME/RNAV/ILS)
SYSTEM
NAVIGATION
re{S80 IIITEGRATED

<-NAV & GS RECEIVER

\COI,IPUTER BOARD

navigationsystem
Fh. l.l0 KNS 80 integrated
(JurtesY King Radio CorP')

12
reckoning to compute the aircraft's position while usedterms in aircraft navigation. All of the quantities
the latter usesa variety of methods:rho'theta, defined,with the exceptionof heading,can be found
rho-rho, rho-rho-rho,theta-thetaand hyperbolic. usingradio systems,or areinput by the pilot at some
The Greeklettersp (rho) and 0 (theta) areusedto stageof the flight, usually prior to take off.
representdistance(range)and angle(bearing)to a
fixed point of known location. The pilot can
determine(fix) his positionif he knows: Interference

(a) p and 0 to one fixed Point: The e.m. environment of an aircraft radio system is
(b) p to three distinct fixed Points; suchthat it may suffer from interferingsignals-and/or
(c) 0 to two distinct fixed Points. noise,man-madeor natural,ind causeinterference
itself to other systems.Interferencemay be either
A rho-rho systemgivesan ambiguousfix unlessthe radiatedor conducted.
aircraft is at the midpoint of the line joining the two As the aircraft fliei through the atmosphere,it
stationsto which the rangeis known. With picks up electricalchargedue to frictional contact
hyperbolicsystemsposition-fixingis achievedby with atmosphericparticles(precipitationstatic) and
measuringdifferencesin range;ambiguitymay be alsowhile flying through cloud formations,within
avoidedby varioustechniques(Chapter6). which very strongelectricfieldsexist (electrostatic
One item of navigationequipmentoverlapsthe induction). An unevendistribution of chargewill
boundhriesbetweenthe different methodsof position- causecurrentsto flow in the aircraft skin; possiblyin
fixing, namelyOmega;this usesdeadreckoningin the form of a spark,betweenparts of unequal
conjunctionwith rho-rho, rho-rho'rhoor hyperbolic potential. Any sparkresultsin a wide band of
methods. Two systems,VOR (Chapter4) andDME radiatedr.f. which will be picked up by radio systems
(Chapter7) are usedtogetherto gfuea rho-thetafix. asnoiseand possiblymaskwantedsigrals. To avoid
With miniaturizationof circuitry, it is now possible this type ofinterference,a bondingsystemis used
to houseseveralsystems,which were previously comprisingnumerousmetal stripswhich presentvery
physicallyseparate,into one box' It is still possible low iesistancelinks betweenall parts of the aircraft.
to categorizeby function, but we must bearin mind In addition to discharges within the aitcraft,a
that the circuit implementationmay be intimately dischargewill occur to atmosphere if a sufficiently
connected.Suchan exampleis givenby the largedifferencein potential exists. The discharge
King KNS 80 integratednavigationsystem(Fig. I ' l0) cannotbe avoided,but in an attempt to keep the
which incorporates VOR, DME and ILS (Chapters4, activity as far from antennasas possible,static
7 and 5) aswell as areanavigationfacilities(Chapter dischaigersare fitted to the trailing edgeof the
l2). Other equipmentmay grouptogethersystems mainplane,tailplaneand verticalstabilizerin order to
operatingwithin the sameband of frequenciessuch providean easypath for it. By providinga numberof
asv.h.f.comm.and v.h.f.nav.(VOR and ILS). dischargepoints at eachdischargerthe voltageis kept
Figure l.l I illustratesthe navigationsystemsin use low. The bondingsystemcarriesthe largecurrents
on a Boeing747 with a typical fit; different operators involvedto thoseparts of the airframewherethe
may takeop different options. This diagramincludes static dischargers are fitted. Lightningconductors,
non-radio(mainly in the top half) aswell as radio such ason the insidesurfaceof the non-conducting
systems,and illustratesthe interrelationships noseradome,and lightningdischargers connectedto
betweenthem especiallywith regardto display the lead-inof wire antennasand somenotch
(right-handside). A similardiagramfor the antennas,help conduct any strike to the bulk of the
communicationssystemsis includedin Chapter2 airframe,so preventingdamageto equipment. A wire
(Fig. 2.15). The largenumberof radionavigation antennawill alsohavea high resistance path between
systems,someduplicatedor eventriplicated for it and the airframe to allow leakage of any static
safety,presentthe problem of whereto position the build-up on the antenna.
antennas.The solution for the Boeing747 is shown Sparksoccur in d.c. motors and generators, enginc
i n F i g .1 . 1 2 . igrition systems,etc. Capacitorsareusedto provide
a low resistancer.f. path acrossbrushes,commutators
and contacts, a form of protection known as
NavigationNomenclature nrppression.
Another form ofinterferenceis capacitiveand
Figure I .13 and Table I .6 definethe most commonly inductive pick-up and cross-talkbetween adjacent

13
Wcathcr radar
systcm

Loran
instrurnant indicetors

Radio rnag
indic6tors

dircctor in.

lffic'_l
lbcrqr 3yst. I lbcacon ird.l

Fig. l.l I Boeing747: typical navigationsystemsfit


(courtesyBoeingComntrcial AeroplaneCo.)

cables. Pick-up is the term usedwhen the interfering pick-up is not appreciably affected by the
sourceis a.c.power (400 Hz in aircraft),while non-magneticscreen. At high frequenciesskin effect
cross-talkis interferencefrom a nearby confines the magneticfields of co-axial cablesto their
signal-carryingcable. The problem arisesout of the interior. Most signal-carrying cablesareboth screened
capacitanceand mutual inductancewhich edsts and twisted;some,whereintegrity is especially
betweenthe cables.A pair of wiresmay be twisted important, e.g. radio altimeteroutput, may have
togetherto reduceboth types ofinterference- the double screening.
pick-up or cross-talkon adjacentloops,formed by The screenaround a wire must be earthedin order
the twist, tendingto cancelout. An earthedmetallic to be effective. Howeverif both endsof the screen
screenor shield will provide an effective reduction in are earthed,an earth loop may be formed sincethe
capacitiveinterferencebut low-frequency inductive completecircuit through the screen,remoteearth

14
Wirthor ndu
Locrlizrr No.

Locrlizcr
No. 1 end tlo. 2

Loft tnd right AFT


nos. 9e8r door glidc
slopo tracl end capturr
antcnna sy3tams
Ccntor .furolegcJ
aqulpment cantcr
Low rmgc rrdio altimotrr
ADf loop No. 1
l{rrtrr
batcon
ADF loop
llo. 2
ADF rns.
antoma
ADF srnse t{o. 1
entcnnaNo. 2

VORNo.1
VOR No. 2

Fig.l.l2 Boeing747..
typicalnavigation
systems
aerial
(courtesy
locations BoeingCommercial
AeroplaneCo.)

points and the airframe is of non-zero resistance. As a number of signalcarryiqg wires are brought together,
consequence, interferingsourcesmay causea e.g.audio signalsbeingfed to an interphoneamplifier.
potential differenceto edst betweenthe endsof the Suitably designedpotential divider networkskeep
screen.The resultingcurrent flow and its associated this conducted cross-talkto a minimum (Chapter 2).
H field would causeinterferencein the inner Adequateseparationof antennasoperatingwithin
conductor. Earth loops are a particularproblem in the samefrequencyband is necessary to prevent
audio systemsand must be avoided. mutual interferenceby radiation. Frequency and
The earth pointsfor screenedcablesand a.c.power time domain filtering may be usedin helping to avoid
must be remote from one another. If a screenwereto suchinterference,the former in c.w. systems,the
be connecteddirectly to an a.c. power earth, latter in pulsedsystems.Different polarization(E
conductedmainsinterferencemay result. Another field direction) will assistin preventing cross-coupling
form of conductedinterferenceis cross-talkwhere a betweenantennas.

15
,/
WPTO
\Mnd dircction
dnd velocatY

On tnck

\Mnd dircction
and velocity

Fit; l.l3 Navigationnomenclature(courtesyLitton Systems


lnternational lnc., Aero hoducts Division)

16
Table 1.6 Navigation nomenclature - abbreviations electrical equipment will interfere with the magnetic
compass. Units are marked with their 'compasssafe
Abbreviation Meaning distance' as appropriate but care should also be taken
with cables,particularlyfor d.c. power.
HDG Heading - angle,measuredclockwise
betweenNorth and the direction in which
the aircraft is pointing,
TK Track - direction in which the aircraft is
Maintenance
moving.
DTK This is not the placeto go into greatdetail on this
Desired'Track- direction in which the pilot
wishesthe aircraft to move. important practicaltopic but somenotesof a general
DA Drift Angle - anglebetweenhcadingand natureare in order to supplementthe notes included
track measuredto port (left) or starboardin most of the following chapters.In practicethe
(right). maintenanceengineerrelieson his training and
TAE Track Angle Error - angle bctween track experienceand also regulations,schedulesand
and desiredtrack, usually quoted as left or
procedureslaid down or approvedby national bodies
rght.
responsiblefor aviationin generaland safetyin
GS Ground Speed - spdedof the aircraft in the
particular.
directionof the track.in the'plane' parallel
to the earth's surface(map speed). . The aircraft maintenanceenginber,of whatever
Comparewith air speedwhich is the speed specialism,is responsiblefor regularinspectionsof
of the aircraft relative to the air mass equipmentas laid down in the aircraft schedule.For
through which it is moving. the radio engineeran inspection will consist of a
POS Position. thorough examination of all equipment comprising
WPT Waypoint - a significant point on the route
the radio installationfor cracks,dents,chafing,dirt,
which may t c usedfor reporting to Air oil, grease,moisture,buming, arcing,brittleness,
Traffic Control, turning or landing.
breakage,corrosion,mechanicalbonding, freedomof
DIS Distanceto go from position to waypoint,
movement,springtension,etc" as applicable. In
XTK CrossTrack - the perpendiculardistance
carrying out specific tasks the engineershould look
from the aircraft to the line joining the two
waypoints betweenwhich the aircraft is for damageto parts of the airframeor its equipment
flying. which are not directly his or her responsibility.
ETA Estimated time of arrival Vigilance is the key to flight safety.
Carrying out functional tests when called for in th0
schedule,or when a fault hasbeen reported,should
be done in accordancewith the procedurelaid down
Adjacent channel interference occurs when a in the aircraft maintenancemanual. A word of
receiver'sbandwidth is not sufficiently narrow to waming should be givenhere,sinceproceduresarenot
attenuateunwantedsigralscloseto the required alwayswhat they shouldbe: often testingof certain
sigtal. Secondor imagechannelinterferencemay aspectsof a system'sfunction are omitted and,
occurin superhetreceiverswhen an unwantedsigral rarely, there m.aybe errors in the procedure.
{ separated froin the required sigrralby twice the A thorough knbwledge of the system is the best
intermediatefrequencyand lies on the oppositeside guardagainstmistakesor omissionswhich, if noticed,
of the local oscillatorfrequency. A high intermediate strouldbe amendedthrough the proper channels.
frequency will help reduce secondchannel Modern equipmentusuallyhassufficient built-in
interferencesince the image will be outside the r.f. test equipment(BITE) and.monitoringcircuits to
bandwidth,the separationbeinggreater. carry out a comprehensive check of the system. With
Unfortunatelyfor a given Q factor, the bandwidth of radio systems,however,specialportable test
the intermediate frequency amplifiers will be wide for equipmentmust be usedin addition to BITE in order
this solutionto the secondchannelproblem. to be in a position to certify the system asserviceable.
Increasingchannelseparationis not really acceptable Test setsshouldbe capableof testingby radiationand
sincedemand for more channelsis forever rising. of simulating the appropriate sigrals to test all
Somereceiversemploy two intermediatefrequencies functionsnot coveredby BITE.
producedby two mixer stagesand two local The r.f. circuits,includingantennasand feeders,
oscillators;this can give good adjacent and second are often neglectedwhen functional tests are carried
drannel rejection. out. In particulartest set antennasshouldbe
Magrreticfields associatedwith electronic and correctly positioned if a false impressionof the
receiversensitivityor power output is to be avoided. Strengtheningof the structurearound the
Whenfault-firtdhg a completefunctional test antennain the form of a doublerplatewill
shouldbe carriedout as far as posible in order to probablybe necessary.A groundplaneis
obtain a full list of symptoms. Naturally symptoms essentialand must not be forgotten if the
suchasa smell of burning or no supply must call a antennais to be mountedon a non-conducting
halt to the procedure. Fault-findingchartsin surface. If the antennais movable,adequate
maintenancemanualsare usefulbut there is no clearanceshould be left. Any alignment
substitutefor knowledgeof the system. requirements must be met.
One shouldnot forget the possibleeffects of 7. Interface: qompatibility with other systems/
non-radiosystemsand equipmentwhen investigating units must be ensured. Both impedance
reporteddefects.Poorbonding,brokenstatic matching(including allowing for capacitiveand
dischargers, open circuit suppressioncapacitors,low inductive effects) and signalcharacteristics
or inadequatelyfiltered d.c. supplies,low voltageor should be considered. Loading of outputs
lincorrectfrequencya.c. supplies,etc. will all give rise should be within limits. Particularcareshould
\o symptomswhich will be reportedby the pilot as be taken in decidingwhere synchro devices
radiodefects. obtain their referencesupplies. Programming
Sometimessymptomsare only presentwhen the pins for choiceof outputs and/or inputs must
aircraft is airborneand the systemis subjectto be correctlyconnected.
vibration,pressure and temperaturechanges, etc. 8. Compass:safedistance.
A functional test during engineruns will gc part way 9. Radiationhazards.
to reproducingthe conditionsof flight.
One should mention the obvioushazardof loose The last item in the abovenon-exhaustivelist raises
articles;so obviousthat many aircraft accidentshave the topic of safety. Electric shock is an obvious
beencausedin the past by carelessness. Tools and hazardw'ren working on aircraft and it shouldbe
test equipment,including leads,must all be accounted rememberedthat one is liable to receivea shockfrom
for when a job is finished. A well-run store with radiatingantennas,particularly h.f. antennas.
signing-inand signing-outof equipmentis an added A radiation hazardexistswith all transmitting
safeguardto personalresponsibility. antennas,thus the operator should ensureno-oneis
Installationof equipmentshouldbe in accordance working, particularly doping or painting, near an
with the manufacturer'sinstructionswhich will cover antennawhen the associatedtransmitter is on. The
the following, particularhazardsof microwaveradiation are
-
consideredin Chapter9. It is up to all personnel
l. Weight of units: centre of gravity may be working on aircraft to becomeawareof the dangers
affected. of harmful substances, the use(and position) of fire
2. Current drawn: loadingof suppliesshould be extinguishers,the dangersof mixing oil or greasewith
carefully consideredand the correct choiceof oxygen,elementaryfirst aid, warning symbols,etc.
circuit-breakermade.
3. Cooling: more than adequateclearanceshould
be left and forced air-coolingemployedif Regulatingand Advisory Bodaes
appropriate. Overheatingis a major causeof
failure. All countriesset up bodieswhich are responsiblefor
4. Mounting: anti-vibrationmounts may be mattersconcernedwith aviatione.g. CAA (UK),
necessarywhich, if non-metallic,give rise to a FAA (USA), BureauVeritas (France),etc. These
need for bonding straps. bodiesdraft air law and issueregulationsconcerned
5. Cables:length and type specified. Usually with the hcensingof engineersand aircrew,aircraft
maximum length must be observedbut in some operations,aircraft and equipment manufacture,
.' casesparticularlengthsarenecessairy.Types of minimum equipment fits (including radio), air traffic
cableusedmust provideprotection against control, etc. They are also the bodieschargedwith
interferenceand be ablerohandle current seeing,by meansof examinationsand inspections,
drawn or supplied. Current capabiltiesare that the law is obeyed.
reduced for cablesin bunches. Aviation is an international activity and
6. Antenna: approvedpositionsfor particular co-operationbetweencountriesis essential.This
types of antenna or particular types of aircraft co-operationis achievedmainly through the ICAO,
are laid down by aviation authorities. an agencyaffiliated to the United Nations. All

t8
nationswhich are signatoriesto the Chicago radio, the Chicagoconvration provides that aircraft
Conventionon Civil Aviation 1944 aremember-srates registeredin contractingstatesmay carry radio
of the ICAO which was an outgrowth of that transmitting apparatusonly if a licence to install and
convention. operatesuch apparatushasbeenissuedby the
appropriateauthoritiesof the statein which the
Table 1.7 Organizations,ordersand conference aircraft is registered.Furthermore,radio transmitting
concernedwith aircraft radio systems apparatusmay only be usedover the territory of
contractingstates,other than the one in which the
Abbreviation Orsanization aircraft is registered,by suitably licensedflight crew.
Various non-regulatory bodies exist with a view to
ARINC AeronauticalRadio lnc. extendingco-operationacrossnational boundariesin
ATA Air TransportAssociation respectto aircraft equipmentand maintenance.
AEEC AirlinesElectronicEngineeringCommittee
ARINC is one such organization. It is a corporation
CAA Civil Aviation Authority
CAP
the stockholders of which are drawn from airlines and
Civil Aviation Publication
FAA FederalAviation Agency manufacturers,mostly from the USA. As well as
lcAo InternationalCivil Aviation Organization operatinga systemof aeronauticalland radio stations
IFRB InternationalFrequencyRegistrationBoard ARINC sponsorsthe AEEC, which formulates
CCIR InternationalRadioConsultativeCommittee standardsfor electronicequipmentand systems
ITU InternationalTelecommunications Union designedfor usein airlinersasopposedto general
TSO TechnicalStandardOrder aviation. Characteristics and specificationspublished
WARC World AdministrativeRadioConference by ARINC do not havethe force of law but
nevertheless are,in the main, adheredto by
manufacturerswho wish to sell their equipmentto
The ICAO issuesannexesto the convention. the airlines.
Annex l0 beingof particularsignificanceto aircraft A specificationrelatingto the presentationof
radio engineerssinceit is concernedwith aeronautical maintenanceinformation is the ATA 100. A standard
telecommunications and, amongother things,lays Iayout for technicalpublicationsrelatingto aircraft
down a minimum specificationfor airborne radio hasbeen promulgatedand widely adopted. Of
systems.The materialpublishedby the ICAO does particularinterestto readersare Chapters23 and34
not automaticallybecomethe law or regulationsin all of the maintenancemanualwhich cover
member-states; ratification is necessaryand may not communicationsand navigationrespectively.In
take placewithout considerableamendment,if at all. addition to prescribinglayout, a set ofstandard
In particular,systemspecificationsemergdin forms symbolsfor electricalwiring diagramshas beenissued.
considerablydifferent from Annex 10, although similar So far, bodiesconcernedwith aircraft and their
in content. In the USA specificationsare issuedin the equipmenthavebeenconsidered;in addition
form of TSOswhile in the UK there is CAP 208. organizationsconcernedwith telecommunications
Volume I with its companionVolume 2 listing strouldbe mentioned. The ITU is an agencyof the
approvedequipmentunder variousclassifications. United Nations which existsto encourage
Licensingof engineersis one areain which, as yet, internationalco-operationin the useand development
there is little internationalstandardizationin of telecommunications.The CCIR is a committeeset
accordancewith Annex l. The licensedaircraft radio up by the ITU to deal with radio communications.
maintenanceengipeeris unknown in the USA but, Among topics of interestto the CCIR arespectrum
of course,organizationsoperatingwith the approval utilization and aeronauticalmobile services.The
of the FAA do so only if they employ suitably IFRB has alsobeen set up.by the ITU for the
qualifiedpersonnel. In the UK the [censed engineer assignmentand registrationof radio frequenciesin
reignssupreme,except in the certification of a masterfrequencylist. In November 1979 an
wide-bodiedjets and supersonictransportswhere a internationalconference(WARC '79), with
systemof companyapprovalof personnelexists,the representatives from 154 countries,met in Genevato
companyitself being approvedby the CAA for the considerradio regulationsand re-allocate
operationand maintenanceof such aircraft. France frequencies.The resultsof WARC '79 will not be
hasno systemof statelicensing,it being left to the publishedwhile this book is beingwritten but it is
operatorsto assess the compettncy of its maintenance unlikely that the frequenciesallocated to aeronautical
personnelunder the watchful eye of officials. mobile serviceswill suffer significant amendment -
Of further interestto those concernedwith aircraft the cost would be too great.

19

h
2 CommunicationsYstems

on v.h.f. lrequenciesis often found; unfortunately


lntrodoction
aeronauticaliommunicationssatellitesare not to be
found (1979).
There is a fundamental need for communication
The audio integrating system (AIS) complexity
beiweenaircrewand ground controllers,amongthe
dependson the type of aircraft. A light aircraft
aircrew and between aircrew and passengers.External
,yrt.* may provide two transmit/receivechannelsfor
communicationis achievedby meansof
(R/T) link while internal dual u.h.f.iomms and receiveonly for dual v'h'f'
radio-telephone
nav.,ADF, DME and marker. Each receivechannel
communication'(intercomor audio integratingsystem)
hasa speakeroff'phoneswitch while the microphone
is by wire as opposedto wireless.Although intercom'
canbe switchedbitween v'h.f. comms I and v'h'f'
is not a radio system,it is includedin this chapter
comms 2. A multi-crew large airliner has very many
becauseof its intimate relationship with the aircraft
more facilities,as describedlater.
radio systems.Voice recordersand in-flight
entertainmentsystemsarealso consideredsincethey
areusually the responsibilityofthe aircraft radio
technician/engineer- V.H.F. Gommunications
The first items of radio equipmentto appearon
aircraftwerelow-frequency(l'f.) communications Basic Principles
setsin the World War I daysof spark gap transmitters. An aircraft u.h.f. comrnstransceiveris comprisedof
lntercom was by meansof a Gosport(speaking)tube' either a singleor double conversionsuperhetreceiver
By the 1930sthe early keyed continuouswave(c'w') and an a.m. transmitter' A modern set provides720
(radio-telegraphy) was beginningto be replacedby channelsat 25 kHrzspacingbetween I l8 MHz and
R/T although
'key-bashing'hadits placeaslong as 135'975MHz; until recently the spacingwas 50 kHz
aircraft carriedradio operators. Early R/T was within givingonly 360 channels.The mode of operationis
the l.f. and h.f. bands,the setsoperatingon only one iinglJ.itutntl simplex(s,c.s.),i.e. one frequencyand
both receiverand transmitter' If
or very few frequencies.With airfieldswidely spaced onJ antennafor
and low-poweredtransmission,there was little provision for satellite communication is included in
interferenceand so the need for many channelsdid iccordancewith ARINC 566 then in addition to
not arise. a.m. s.c.s.we will have f.m' double channelsimplex
The situation has drastically changedsinceWorld (d.c.s.), i.e. different frequenciesfor transmit and
War II; air traffic and facilities have increased with the re ceive.. 'line of
consequentdemandfor extra channelswhich cannot Communicationby v.h.f. is essentially
be providedin the Lf., m.f. or h.f. bands. sight'by direct (space)wave. The rangeavailablecan
'23 (\/.\ + y'ft1)nm where ftt is
Fortunatelyv.h.f. equipmenthasbeensuccessfully be approximated by I
-
developedfrom early beginningsin World Wu II *re trilght, in feet, abovesealevel of the receiver
figtrtercontrol. while ftl.is the samefor the transmitter' Thus, with
The current situation is the v.h.f. is used for the ground station at sealevel, the approximate
*tort-range communication while h'f. is used for ,nr*I*urn range for aircraft at l0 000 and 1000 ft
long-range. A large airliner, such as aBoeing74T , (30 000 and 3000 m) would be 123 and 40 nm
carriesthree v.h.f.sand dual h'f. In addition, in such respectivelY.
aircraft, selectivecalling (Selcal) facilities are '
provided by a dual installation such that a ground trstallation
station can call aircraft either singly or in groups A singlev.h.f. installationconsistsof three parts'
without the need for constant monitoring by the namJy control unit, transceiverand antenna' In
are connected to the v'h'f' via
crew. Provision for satellite communication (Satcom) addition crew phones

m
Frg.2.1 KY 196 v.h.f. comm.transceiver
(courtesyKing
Radio Corp.)

Fi& a2 CN-201Iv.h.f.comm./nav. equipment


(courtesy
BendixAvionicsDivision)

selectionswitchesin the AIS. Light aircraft v.h.f.s frequency control for internal circuits and d.m.e. and
usuallyhavea panel-mountedcombinedtransceiver last but not least,audio selectionswitches.Such
and control unit, an examplebeingthe King KY 196 equipmentwill be consideredin Chapter12.
illustratedin Fig. 2.1. The current trend is for Figure2.3 showsone of a triple v.h.f. comms
combinedCOM/NAV/RNAV; Fig. 2.2 illustratesthe installationas might be fitted to a largepassenger
BendixCN-2011,a generalaviationpanel-mounted transportaircraft: VHF2 and VHF3 are similarto
unit comprisingtwo commstransceivers, two nav. VHFI but aresuppliedfrom a different 28 V d.c. bus
receivers,glidepathreceiver,marker receiver, bar and feed different selectionswitchesin the AIS.

21
ATE

v.h.f.COMM

cO rcool Freq.
liitool
o @ FWD
MTR PWR REF
oFF-\ \ t t . / fPwa
Mic
r\
l \ I
\_./
P.t.t. SOUELCHDISABLE
Ars fo
Rcv Audio (o) Aerial
Sidetone
PHONO
E O MIC.

v.h.f. No. 2 v.h.f No.


Rcv 28 V d.c.
Audio Stby
To Selcal Bus

Fig.2.3 Typicalv.h.f.l installation

The transceiver.which is rack-mounted,contains Frequencycontrol is achievedby concentricknobs,


all the electroniccircuitry and hasprovisionfor the the outer one of which variesthe tens and units while
maintenancetechnicianto connectmic. and tels the inner pne variesthe tenths and hundredths. An
direct, disablethe squelch,and measureVSWR. alternativeis shownin Fig. 2.1 wherethere is one
Theseprovisionsfor testingareby no meansuniversal frequencycontrol and two displays' On rotating the
but if the systemconformsto ARINC 566 a plug is frequencyknobs clockwiseor anticlockwise,the
providedto which automatictest equipment(ATE) standbyfrequencyonly will incrementor decrement
canbe connected.A protectivecoverfor the ATE respectively.Standbymay then becomein-useby
plug is fitted when the unit is not in the workshop. operationof the transferswitch. Thereare many
The antennacan take variousforms: whip, blade controllersin servicewith only in-useselection.
or suppressed.In a triple vl.f. commsinstallation Someor all of the following switches/controls may
thesemay be two top-mountedbladeantennasand be providedby manufacturerson request.
onebottom-mounted:an altemativewould be two
bladeand one suppressed within the fincap dielectric. Volume Control A potentiometer,which allows
The whip antennais to be found on smalleraircraft. variableattenuationof audio,prior to feedingthe AIS
All antennasaremountedso asto receiveand may be fitted asa separatecontrol or as a concentric
transmitverticallypolarizedwaves. knob on the frequencyselector(s).Sucha volume
The blade antennamay be quite cornplex. It will control may havesidetonecoupledthrough it on
be self-resonant nearthe centreofthe band with transmit.
bandwidthimprovementprovidedby a short'circuited
stub acrossthe feed terminal or a more complicated $uelch Control A squelchcircuit disablesthe
reactivenetwork built in which will permit height and receiveroutput when no sigralsare beingreceivedso
hencedrag reduction. preventingnoisebeingfed to the crew headsets
betweenground transmissions.The squelchcontrol is
Controls and Operation a potentiometerwhich allowsthe pilot to set the level
It is common to have in-useand standby frequencies at which the squelchopens,so allowingaudio output
available,the former controlling the transceiver from the receiver.Whenthe control is set to
frequency. This is the situationin Fig.2.3 wherewe minimum squelch(fully clockwise) the Hi and l,o
have two setsof frequency controls and two displays, squelch-disableleads,brought to the control unit
the in-useone being selectedby the transfer switch from the transceiver,shouldbe shorted,so givinga
and annunciatedby a lamp abovethe display. definite squelchdisable.

z2
Mode Selector Control Providesselectionof normal ReceiverThe riceiver is a singleconversionsuperhet.
a.m.,extendedrangea.m.or Satcom.If the Satcom The r.f. stageemploysvaractordiode tuning, utilizing
antennahas switchablelobessuchswitchingmay be the tuning voltagefrom the stabilizedmaster
includedin the mode switch,or couldbe separate. oscillator(s.m.o.). Both the r.f. amplifier and mixer
are dual gatefield-effecttransistors(f.e.t.). The r.f.
On-Off Switch Energizesmaster power relay in amplifier f.e.t. has the input signalappliedto gate I
transceiver.The switch may be separate,incorporated while the a.g.c.voltageis appliedto gate2. The
in mode selectorswitch as an extra switch position, or mixer connectionsare: gate l, signal;gate2, s.m.o.
gangedwith the volume or squelchcontrol. The differencefrequencyfrom the mixer, I l'4 MHz,
is passedby a crystalfilter, providingthe desired
ReceiverSelectivity Switch Normal or sharp narrow bandpass,to the i.f. amplifiers. Two stagesof
selectivity. WhenSatcomis selectedsharpselectivity a.g.c.-controlled i.f. amplificationareused;the first of
automaticallyapplies. which is a linear integratedcircuit.
The detectorand squelchgateutilize transistorson
an integratedcircuit transistorarray. A further array
Block Diagram Operation (KY 196)
Ftgure2.4 is a simplifiedblock diagramof the King is used for the squelch-controlcircuitry. Noiseat
8 kHz from the detectoroutput is sampledand used
KY 196 panel-mounted v.h.f.comm.transceiver.
for the general aviation to closethe squelchgateif its amplitudeis as
This equipment, intended
expected from the receiveroperating at full gain.
market, is not typical of in-servicetransceivers since
frequencyand displaycontrol is achievedwith the aid
When a sigral is received,the noise output from the
detector decreases due to the a.g.c.action;asa
of a microprocessor;however within the lifetime of
consequence the squelchgate opensallowing the
this book suchimplementationwill become
audio signalto pass. The squelchcap be disabledby
commonplace.

Frequencydisplay
118.70 121.90
Use 1 Standby

t;:
I

F
F
F '__--__--.1

MHz Code kHz Codc

P.t.t. lncremenV
Decrement

Fig. 2.4 King KY 196 simplified block diagram

a
t
F
A(
F
F,
R.F.
Input

Tuning
Volts
{s.m.o.}

Fig.2.5 KingKY 196simplifiedreceiver


blockdiagram

meansof a switch incorporated in the volume transmitter chain comprisesa pre-driver, driver and
control. When the receivedsigral has excessivenoise final stageall broad band tuned, operated in ClassC
on the carrier,the noise-operated squelchwould keep and with modulatedcollectors. The a.m. r.f. is fedvia
the squelchgate closedwere it not for a low-passfilter, which attenuatesharmonics,to the
carrier-operated or backupsquelch. As the carrier antenna. On receivethe t.r. diode is forward biased
levelincreases, a point is reachedwhere the squelch to feed the receivedsignalfrom the antenna through
gate is opened regardlessof the noise level. the low-passfilter to the receiver.f. amplifier.
The meandetectoroutput voltageis usedto The modulator chain comprisesmicrophone
determinethe i.f. a.g.c.voltage. As the i.f. a.g.c. pre-amplifier,diode limiting, an f.e.t. switchingstage,
voltageexceedsa set referencethe r.f. a.g.c.voltage integratedcircuit modulator driver and two modulator
decreases. transistorsconnectedin parallel. The pre-ampoutput
The detectedaudio is fed via the squelchgate, is sufficient to subsequentlygive at least 85 per cent
low-passlilter, volume control and audio amplifier to modulation,the limiter preventingthe depth of
the rearpanelconnector. A minimum of 100 mW modulation exceeding100 per cent. The mic. audio
-audio power into a 500 O load is provided. line is broken by Jhe f.e.t. switch during receive.

Tiansmitter The transmitter(Fig. 2.6) feeds l6 W of Stabilized Master Oscillator The s.m.o. is a
a.m. r.f. to the antenna. Modulationis achievedbv conventional phaselocked loop with the codesfor the
superimposingthe amplified mic. audio on the programmabledividerbeinggeneratedby a
transmitter chain supply. The carrier frequency microprocessor.Discretecomponentsare usedfor
corresponds to the in-usedisplay. the voltagecontrolledoscillator(v.c.o.)and buffers
Radio frequency is fed from the s.m;o. to an r.f. while integratedcircuits(i.c.) areusedelsewhere.
amplifier. This input drive is switched by the The referencesigrralof 25 kHz is provided by an
transmit receiveswitching circuits, the drive being oscillatordivideri.c. which utilizesa 3'2 MHz crystal
effectively shorted to earth when the pressto to give the necessarystability. Only sevenstagesof a
transmit(p.t.t.) button is not depressed.The fourteen-stageripple-carry binary counter are used to

24
R.F.
{s.m.o.}

P.t.t.

Fig. 2.6 King KY 196 simplified transmitter block diagram

Phase
detector v.c.o.

MHz cont. MHz cont.


lrom pp lrom gp
Fig. 2.7 King Ky 196 simplifiedprogrammabte
divider
bkrck diagram

gtve the necessarydivision of 21 = l2g.


This reference, is made;i.e. zerosafter the displayeddecimalpoint.
with the outpur of the programmable
l9e9lner The prescalerwhich perlbrmsthis division is a u.h.f.
divider,is fed to the phasedetecior-whichis part
of programmable divider(+ l0/l l) followedby a
an i.c., the rest of which is unused. The pulsating
d.c. divide-by-four i.c. The wholeMHz diviclerusesa
on the output of the phasedetectortrasa a.O.
7 4 L S l 6 2 b . c . d .d e c a d ec o u n t e ra n d a 7 4 L S l 6 3b i n a r y
componentwhich after filtering is used to control
the counterwhich togethercan be programmedto divide
frequencyof the v.c.o. by varactortuning.
If there is by an integerbetweenI l8 and 145,hencethe
a synthesizermalfunction, an out-ofloclisignal
from
"s.m.o. prescalerand whole MHz divider give a total division
the phasedetectoris usedto switch off the
o,t^llSO(40 X I l8) to 5800 (40 X 145)in stepsof
feedto the transmitter.
40. Thus a requiredv.c.o.output of, say, t IO.OOUHz
The programmabledivider consistsbasicallyof
. would be achievedwith a divisionof 5200 (40 X 130)
thrce setsof countersas shownin Fig. 2.7. Tie
since130 MHz + 5200 = 25 kHz = reference
v.c.o.output is first dividedUy "ittrei+O o,
!r1f!rea- frequency.
41, the former being so when a discreti MHz
selection The 25 kHz stepsareobtainedby forcing the

25
prescalerto divide by 41, the requirednumber of The 8048 has been programmed to generatea
timesin the count sequence.Each time the division 'use' and 'standby' frequencies.
binary code for the
ratio is 41, one extra cycleof the v.c.o.frequencyis The code,aswell asbeing storedin the 8048, is also
neededto achievean output of 25 kHz from the storedin a l40o-bit electricallyalterablereadonly
programmabledivider. To seethat this is so, consider memory (EAROM). This external memory is
the previousexamplewherewe had a division ratio of effectively a non-volatileRAM, the data and address
5200 to give 130'00MHz, i.e. 5200 cyclesat being communicated in serial form via a one-pin
130'00MHz occupies40 ps = periodof 25 kHz. bidirectionalbus, the read/write/erase mode being
Now a prescalerdivisionratio of 4l once during 40 ps controlledby a three-bit code. When power is
means5201 cyclesof the v.c.o.output occupy40 ps appliedthe microprocessorreadsthe last frequencies
so the frequencyis 5201/(40X 10-6) = 130.025MHz stored in the EAROM which are then utilized as the
asrequired. The prescalerratio is controlled by the 'use'and 'standby' frequencies.In the eventof
initial
fractionalMHz divider, againemploying a 7 4LS| 62 failure of the EAROM the microprocessorwill display
and 74LS163. The numberof divide-by-41eventsin 120'00 MHz as its initial frequencies.The EAROM
40 ps is determinedby the kHz control code from the will store data for an indefinite period without power.
microprocessorand can be anywherefrom 0 to 39 The 'standby'frequency is changedby clockwise
times. Thereforeeachwhole megacyclecan have or counterclockwisedetent rotation of the frequency
N X 25 kHz addedwhereN rangesfrom 0 to 39. This selectknobs. I MHz, 50 kHz and 25 kHz changescan
produces25 kHz stepsfrom 0 kHz to 975 kHz. be made with two knobs, one of which incorporatesa
push-pull switch for 50125kHz step changes.The
microprocessoris programmedto incrementor
Microprocessorand Display The microprocessor 'standby'frequency
decrementthe by the appropriate
used,an 8048, containssufficientmemory for the step whenever it sensesthe operation of one of the
programand data requiredin this applicationto be frequency-select knobs.
storedon the chip. In addition to this memory and, The code for the frequency in use is fed to the
of course,an eight-bit c.p.u.,we havean eight-bit programmabledividersfrom the microprocessor.
timer/counterand a clock on board. Through 'Use' 'standby'
and frequenciesare exchangedon
twenty-sevenI/O linesthe 8048 interfaceswith the operationof the momentary transferswitch. When
programmabledivider, displaydrive circuits and the transceiveris in the receivemode the
non-volatilememory. 'us€' frcquency
microprocessoradds I l'4 MHz to the
code since the local oscillator signal fed to the
receivermixer should be this amount higher than the
desiredreceivedcarrier in order to give a difference
frequency equal to the i.f.
'standby'codesare fed to the
Both luse'and
Clock 1024 words 64 words display drivers. The'use'code representsthe
program data transmit frequency and is not increasedby I l'4 MHz
memory memory
in the receive mode. Each digit is fed in tum to the

__JI___J
cathode decoder/driver, an i.c. containing a seven-
segmentdecoder, decimal point and comma drives
and programmable current sinks. The decimal point
8-bir
CPU 'l and comma outputs (i and h) are used to drive the
segments
'T'is
displaying'l',
'.'and 'T' (seeFig. 2.10).
The illumfrrated when in the transmit mode.
(
The display is a gasdischargetype with its
8-bit intensity controlled by a photocell located in the
27
Timer/ I/g lines display window. As the light reaching the photocell
evont counter decreasesthe current being supplied to the
programming pin of the cathode decoder/driverfrom
the display dimmer circuit decreases,so dimming the
display.
Fig. 2.8 8048 eieht-bit microcornputcr (courtery King Time multiplexing of the display dri'res is achieved
Radio Corp.) by a clock sipal being fed from the microprocessorto

216
T
C
n
s llrito?y
t array q
d IOO x 14
d
f C2
e
s C3
s
LSB

1O-bits
Fig. 2.9 Electrically alterableread only memory, e.a.r.o.m.
(courtesy King Radio Corp.)

Display

A1 A2 A3 A4 A6 A7

",,
A5 A8
f l tl'lo
&'-
Anode'
driver
AA
lf"
Cathode
h l .Ll.
d

o h
decoder/driver T h

1f
A B C D

I l T I T
B.C.D. Dimming
Multiplexer
code current

Clocft

- Anode
drive A1 A7

B.C.D.
code
I l l-l l-ll-l- t_-t ll t-l
r_-l l-1. l-t ll U. U t:l

l/1lo sec.
Fig.2.l0 King KY 195 simplifieddisplaydrive block
diagram

n
arulofJurrsr/rrruuP
(Al to A8) are switched scquentially. As the anode dcsiredsignal,ttrc resultantaudiooutput shallnot
drivesare switchedthe appropriateb.c.d. information exceed-10 dB with referenceto the output prcduced
from the microprocessoris beingdecodedby the by a desiredsigralonly whenmodulated30 per cent
cathodedecodery'driver,the result being that the (underspecified sigtallevel/offresonanceconditions).
necessary segmentsof eachdigit are lighted one digit
at a time at approximatelyI l0 times per second. UndesiredResponses
A synchronizationpulseis sent to the multiplexer in band108-135MHzshallbe
All spuriousresponses
from the microprocessor every 8 cyclesto maintain downat least100dB otherwise,includingimage,
display synchronization. at least80 dB down.

Audio Output
Characteristics
Gain
The selectedcharacteristicswhich follow are drawn A 3 pV a.m.sigralwith 30 per centmodulationat
from ARINC Characteristic566 coveringairbome 1000Hz will produce100mWin a 200-500Q load.
v.h.f. communicationsand SatcomMark l. Details
of Satcomand extendedrangea.m. are not included. Frequmcy Response
Audio poweroutput levelshallnot vary morethan
System Units 6 dB overfrequencyrange300-2500Hz.
l. V.h.f. transceiver; Frequencies > 5750Hz mustbe attenuated by at
2. modulation adaptor/modem- f.m. provision least20 dB.
for Satcom;
3. power'amplifier- Satcomand extendedrange; HarmonicDistortion
4. pre-amplifier- Satcomand extendedrange; [.essthan 7'5 percentwith 30 per centmodulation.
5. control panel; Irss than2Opercentwith 90 per centmodulation.
6. remote frequencyreadoutindicator - optional;
7. antennas- separateSatcomantenna. AGC
Note: I and 2 may be incorporatedin one line No morethan 3 dB variationwith input signalsfrom
replaceable unit (l.r.u.). 5 gV to 100mV.

Frequenry Selection Transmitter


720 channelsfrom I l8 through 135.975MHz,
25 kHz spacing. Stability
Receivermuting and p.t.t. de-energization
during Carrierfrequencywithin t 0'005 per cent under
channelling. prescribedconditions.
2i 5 channelselection.
Channellingtime: ( 60ms. PowerOutput
25-40W into a 52 O loadat theendof a 5 ft
Recciver transmission
line.

Sensitivity Sidetone
3 pV, 30 per cent modulation at 1000 Hz to give With90 per centa.m.at 1000Hz the sidetoneoutput
S+N/N>6d8. strallbe at least100mWinto eithera 200 or 500O
load.
Selectivity
Minimum 6 dB points at I l5 kHz (t 8 kHz sharp). Mic. Input
Maximum60 dB pointsat I 31.5 kHz (t l5 kHz Mic.audioinput circuitto havean impedanceof
sharp). 150O for usewith a carbonmic.or a transistormic.
Maximum 100 dB points at i 40 kHz (t l8'5 kHz operatingfrom the (approx.)20 V d.c.carbonmic.
-sharp). supply.

Qoss Modulation Antenna


With simultaneousreceiverinput of 30 per cent Verticallypolarizedandomnidirectional.

2A

,J
'i6
,$
$
To match 52 O with VSWR ( l'5 : l. The current and future norm is to use single
sideband(s.s.b.)mode of operationfor h.f.
Ramp Testing
communications,although setsin servicemay have
After checking for condition and assemblyand
provisionfor compatibleor normal a.m.,i.e. carrier
making availablethe appropriate power suppliesthe
and one or two sidebandsbeing transmitted
following (typical)'checksshouldbe madeat each
respectively.This s.s.b.transmissionand reception
stationusingeachv.h.f.
hasbeen describedbriefly in ChapterI and
l. Disablesquelch,checkbackgroundnoiseand extensivelyin many textbooks. A featureofaircraft
operationof volume control. h.f. systemsis that coverageof a wide band of r.f. and
2. On an unusedchannelrotate squelchcontrol useof a resonantantennarequiresefficient antenna
until squelchjust closes(no noise). Pressp.t.t. tuning arrangementswhich must operate
button, speakinto mic. and checksidetone. automatically on changingchannelin order to reduce
- 3. Establishtwo-way communicationwith a the VSWR to an acceptablelevel.
remotestation usingboth setsof frequency
control knobs,in conjunctionwith transfer Installation
switch,if appropriate.Checkstrengthand A typical large aircraft h.f. installation consistsof
quality of signal. two systems,eachof which comprisesa transceiver,
controller, antennatuning unit and antenna. Eachof
NB . Do not transmiton I 2l '5 MHz (Emergency). the transceivers are connectedto the AIS for mic.. tel.
Do not transmitif refuellingin progress. and p.t.t. provision. In addition outputs to Selcal.
Do not interrupt ATC-aircraftcommunications. decodersare provided. Suchan installationis shown
i n F i g .2 . 1l .
The transceivers contain the receiver,transmitter,
H.F. Communicataons power amplifier and power supply circuitry. They are
mounted on the radio rack and providedwith a flow
BasicPrinciples of cooling air, possibly augmentedby a fan. A
The useof h.f. (2-30 MHz) carriersfor communication transceiverrated at 200 W p.e.p.needsto dissipate
purposesgreatly extends the rangeat which aircrew 300 W when operatedon s.s.b.while on a.m. this
canestablishcontact with AeronauticalMobile figure risesto 500 W. Telephoneand microphone
Servicestations. This beingso, we find that h.f. jacks may be providedon the front panel,asmight a
comm.systemsare fitted to aircraft flying routes meter and associatedswitch which will provide a
which are,for somepart of the flight, out of rangeof meansof monitoring variousvoltagesand currents.
v}t.f. service.Such aircraft obviouslyinclude public Coupling to the antennais achievedvia the
transportaircraft flying intercontinentalroutes,but antennatuning unit (ATU). Somesystemsmay
thereis alsoa market for generalaviationaircraft. employ an antennacouplerand a separateantenna
The long rangeis achievedby useof sky waves couplercontrol unit. The ATU provides,
which arerefractedby the ionosphereto suchan automatically,a match from the antennato the 50 Q
extent that they arebent sufficiently to return to transmissionline. Closed-loopcontrol of matching
earth. The h.f. ground wavesuffersquite rapid elementsreducesthe standingwaveratio to l'3 : I
attenuationwith distancefrom the transmitter. or less(ARINC 559A).
Ionosphericattenuationalsotakesplace,being Since the match must be achievedbetween line and
greatestat the lower h.f. frequencies.A significant antennathe ATU is invariablymountedadjacentto
featureof long-rangeh.f. transmissionis that it is the antennalead-in,in an unpressurized part of the
zubjectto selectivefadingovernarrow bandwidths airframe. For high-flyinga'ircraft(most jets) the ATU
(tensof cycles). is pressurized,possiblywith nitrogen. Someunits
The type of modulation used,and associated may contain a pressureswitch which will be closed
detailssuchas channelspacingand frequency wheneverthe pressurizationwithin the tuner is
channellingincrements,havebeenthe subjectof adequate. The pressureswitch may be used for
many papersand ordersfrom users,both civil and ohmmeter checksor, providingswitch reliability is
military, and regulatingbodies. ARINC Characteristic adequate,may be connectedin serieswith the key
No. 559A makesinterestingreading,in that it reveals line thus preventing transmissionin the event of a
how conflictingproposalsfrom variousauthorities leak. Altematively an attenuatormay be swit;hed in
(in both the legaland expert opinion sense)can exist to reducepower.
at the sametime. Light aircraft h.f. systemsin serviceare likely, for

A
Mic. No. 1
Xmit No. I
28V---2- t.r.
Tcl.

No. I
p.t.t.

No. 2
interlock
28V
No. I 2av
interlock

No. 2
p.t.t.

Mic.
- l

28vl ruoz
Tel. +

Fig 2.1I Typicaldualh.f. installatbn

financial reasons,to have a fixed antennacoupler. antennason aircraft which fly faster than, say, 400
Sucha systemoperateson a restrictednumber of knots, haveled to the useofnotch and probe
channels(say twenty). As a particular channelis antennaswhich effectively excite the airframe so that
selected,appropriate switching takesplace in the it becomesa radiatingelement.
coupler to ensurethe r.f. feed to the antennais via Modernwire antennasare constructedof
previously adjusted,reactivecomponents,which copper-cladsteelor phosphorbronze,givinga reduced
make the effective antennalength equal to a quarter r.f. resistance comparedwith earlierstainless.steel
of a wavelength,thus presentingan impedanceof wires. A coveringofpolythene reducesthe effectsof
approximately 50 O. The required final manual precipitationstatic. Positioningis normally a single
adjustmentmust be carried out by maintenance spanbetween forward fuselageand vertical stabilizer.
personnelon the aircraft. I:rger aircraft will have twin antennaswhile a single
'V'
The antennaused variesgreatly, dependingon the installation,possiblyin a configuration,is more
type of aircraft. For low-speedaircraft a long wire common for smaller aircraft. The r.f. feed is usually
antennais popular although whip antennasmay be at the forward attachment via an antennamast. The
found on somelight aircraft employing low-powered rear tetheringis by meansof a tensioningunit.
h.f. systems. The aerodynamicproblemsof wire The aniennamaqtis subjectto pitting and erosion

c,
of the leadingedge;a neoprpnecoveringwill provide through the h.f. equipment. Build-up of precipitation
someprotection,nevertheless regularinspectionsare static on antennas,particularlyprobes,is dealt with
called for. Protection againstcondensationwithin the by providinga high resistance static drain (about
mastmay be providedby containersof silicagel 6 MSl) path to earth connectedbetweenthe antenna
which shouldbe periodicallyinspectedfor a changein feed point and the ATU.
colour from blue to pink, indicatingsaturation. It is important in dual installationsthat only one
Hollow mastsare usuallyprovidedwith a water-drain h.f. systemcan transmit at any one time;this is
path which shouldbe kept free from obstruction. achievedby meansof an interlock circuit. This basic
The two most important featuresof the rear requirementis illustratedin Fig. 2.11 whereit canbe
tetheringpoint are that the wire is kept under tension seenthat the No. I p.t.t. line is routed via a contact
and that a weak link is providedso asto ensurethat of the No. 2 interlock relay, similarlywith No. 2
any break occursat the rear,so preventingthe wire p.t.t. The interlock relayswill be externalto the
wrappingitself around the verticalstabilizerand transceivers often fitted in an h.f. accessory box.
rudder. On light aircraft a very simplearrangementof While one of the h.f. systemsis transmittingthe other
a spring,or rubber bungee,and hook may be used. systemmust be protectedagainstinducedvoltages
The springmaintainsthe tensionbut if this becomes from the keyedsystem.In addition,with some
excessivethe hook will open and the wire will be free installations,we may havea probe usedas a
at the rearend. On largeraircraft a spring-tensioning transmitting antennafor both systemsand as a
unit will be usedto copewith the more severe receivingantennafor, say,No. I system. The No. 2
conditionsencountereddue to higherspeedsand receivingantennamight be a notch. It follows that on
fuselageflexing. The unit loads the wire by meansof keying either systemwe will havea sequenceof
a metal spring,usuallyenclosedin a barrelhousing. eventswhich might proceedas follows.
A serratedtail rod is attachedto the tetheringpoint
HF I keyed:
on the aircraft and insertedinto the barrelwhereit is
l. HF 2 keyline broken by a contactof HF I
securedby a springcollet, the grip of which increases
interlock relay;
with tension. The wire is attachedto a chuck unit
2. HF 2 antennagrounded;
which incorporatesa copperpin servingas a weaklink
desigredto shearwhen the tensionexceedsabout 3. HF 2ATU input and output feedsgounded and
feed to receiverbroken.
180 lbf. Someunits incorporatetwo-stageprotection
againstoverload. Two pins of different strengthsare HF 2 keyed:
used;shouldthe first shear,a smallextension(3/ 16 in.) l. HF I keyline broken by a contactof HF 2
of overalllength results,thus reducingtensionand interlock relay;
exposinga yellow warningband on the unit. 2. HF I probe antennatransferredfrom HF l;
Notch antennasconsistof a slot cut into the ATU to HF 2 ATU;
aircraft structure.often at the baseof the vertical 3. HF 2 notch antennafeed grounded;
stabilizer. The inductanceof the notch is o 4. HF I ATU input and output feedsgrounded
series-resonated by a high-voltagevariablecapacitor and feed to receiverbroken.
driven by a phase-sensing servo. Signalinjection is via
matching circuitry driven by a SWR sensingservo. C,ontrols and Operation
'Q' Separatecontrollers are employed in dual installations,
Since the notch is high the input is transformed to
a voltageacrossthe notch which is ofthe order of eachhaving'in-use'frequencyselectiononly. Older
thousandsofvolts. This largevoltageprovides the systemsand some light aircraft systemshave limited
driving force for current flow in the airframe which channelselectionwhere dialling a particular channel
servesas the radiator. number tunesthe system,includingATU, to a
A probe antenna,which is aerodynamically pre-assigned frequency,a channel/frequency chart is
acceptable,may be fitted at either of the wing-tipsor required in such cases.With modern sets,indication
on top of the verticalstabilizer. Againseriestuning ofthe frequency selectedis given directly on the
providesthe necessary driving force for radiation. controller.
The probe antenna,aswell as the wire antenna,is The controlsshownin Fig. 2.1 I arethosereferred
liable to suffer lightningstrikes,so protection in the to in ARINC 559A; variationsare common and will
form of a lightning arrester(sparkgap)is fitted. be listed below.
Any voltagein excessof approximatelyl6 kV on the
antennawill causean arc acrossthe electrodesof the Mode Selector Switch. OFF-AM-SSB Thc'turn off'
hydrogen-iilledsparkgap,thus preventingdischarge function may be a separateswitch or indeed may not

31
be crnployed at all; snritchingon and offbeing Indicator A meter mounted on the front panel of the
achievedwith the masterradio switch. The 'AM' controller may be providedin order to give an
positionmay be designated'AME'(AM equivalentor indication of radiatedpower.
compatible)and is selectedwhenevertransmission
and receptionis requiredusinga.m. or s.s.b.plus full Block Dhgram Operation
carrier(a.m.e.). The 'SSB'position providesfor
transmissionand reception of upper sidebandonly. Tlansceiver Figure 2.12 is a simplified block diagram
Although useof the upper sidebandis the norm of an a.m./s.s.b.transceiver.The operationwill be
for aeronauticalh.f. communicationssomecontrollers describedby function.
'USB' 'LSB'positions.
have and In addition 'DATA'
and 'CW'modes
may be available.The former is for Amplitude Mo dulated Transm issio n The frequency
possiblefuture use of data links by h.f. using the selectedon the controller determinesthe output from
uppersideband- the receiveris operatedat the frequencysynthesizerto the r.f. translatorwhich
maximumgain. The latter is for c.w. transmissionand shifts the frequency up and provides sufficient drive
reception,morsecode,by 'key bashing',being the for the power amplifier(p.a.). The mic. input, after
information-carryingmedium. amptfication, feedsthe modulator which produces
high-levelamplitudemodulation of the r.f. amplified
Flequency SelectorsFrequency selecton consist of, by the p.a. The r.f. signalis fed to the ATU via the
typically, four controls which allow selectionof antennatransferrelay contact.
frequenciesbetween 2.8 and 24MHz in I kHz steps The PA output signalis sampledby the sidetone
(ARINC 559A). Military requirementsare for a detectorwhich feedssidetoneaudio via the contact
frequencycoverageof 2 to 30 MHz in 0.1 kHz steps, of the deenergizedsidetonerelay and the sidetone
consequentlyone will find systemsoffering 280 000 adjustpotentiometerto the audio output amplifier.
'channels'meeting
theserequirementsin full or
28 000 channelsmeetingthe extendedrangebut not Single Sideband Transmission Low-level modulation
the 0'l kHz steprequirement. is necessarysincethere is no carrierto modulateat
When a new frequency is selectedthe ATU must the p.a. stage,hencethe mic. input, /n., is fed to a
adjustitselfsincethe antennacharacteristics will balancedmodulator togetherwith a fixed carrier
change.For this purposethe transmitteris keyed frequency,/., from the frequencysynthesizer.The
momentarily in order that SWR and phasecan be balancedmodulator output consistsof both sidebands
measuredand usedto drive the ATU servos. f" + f^ andf" - f^, the carrierbeingsuppressed.
The requiredsidebandis passedby a filter to the r.f.
SquelchControl Normel control of squelch translatorafter further amplification.
thresholdmay be provided. As an alternativean r.f. Ifwe consideran audio responsefrom 300 to
sensitivitycontrol may be used,but where Selcalis 3000 Hz we seethat the separationbetweenthe
utilizedit is important that the receiveroperatesat lowestEs.b. frequencyand the highestl.s.b.
full sensitivityat all timeswith a squelchcircuit being frequencyis only 600 Hz. It follows that the filter
employedonly for aural monitoring and not affecting usedmust havevery steepskirts and a flat bandpass.
the output to the Selcaldecoder. A mechanicalfilter can be usedin which an input
transducerconvertsthe electricalsignalinto
Audio Volume Control Providesfor adjustment of mechanicalvibrations,theseare transmittedby
audiolevel. Sucha control may be locatedelsewhere, mechanicallyresonantmetal discsand coupling rods
suchas on an audio selectorpanel, part of the AIS. and finally convertedback to an electricalsignalby
an output transducer.
C:lanfter This control is to be found on some h.f. Frequencytranslationis by a mixing process
controllers. With s.s.b.signalswhile the phaseof thc rather than a multiplicativeprocesssinceif the
re-insertedcarrier is of little consequenceits u.s.b./, + /n' were multiplied by try'we would
frequencyshouldbe accurate.Should the frequency radiatea frequencyof//(/c + /n,') rather than
be inconect by, say,in excessof t 20 Hz
ft + f " + /.. The amount by which the u.s.b.is
deterioration of the quality of speechwill result. translated,fi, is determinedby the frequencyselected
A clarifier allows for manual adjustment of the on the controller. Final amplification takes place in
re-insertedcarrier frequency. Use of highly accurate the p.a. prior to feedingthe r.f. to the ATU.
md stablefrequency synthesizersmake the provision To obtain sidetonefrom the p.a. stagea carrier
of such a control unnecessary. would needto be re-inserted.A simplermethod,

32
Sidetonc
relay

To r.f./i.f. stages

f"+f-
f"- f.

Fq.2.l2 Typicalh.f. a.m./s.s.b.


trmsceiverblockdiagram

which neverthelessconfirms that a sigral has reached signal,which is dealt with in the sameway as before.
the p.a.,is to usethe rectified r.f. to operatea
sidetonerelay. When energizedthe contact of this Antenna Tuning Unit Figure 2.13 illustrates an
relay connectsthe amplified mic. audio to the output automatic ATU simplified block diagram. On
audio amplifier. selectinga new frequency a retune sigrralis sent to
the ATU control circuits which then:
Amplitude Modulated Reception The receivedsignal
passesfrom the ATU via the de+nergized antenna l. keys the transmitter;
transferrelay contact to an r.f. amplifier and thence 2. insertsan attenuatorin transceiveroutput line
to the r.f. translator. After the translatornormal.a.m. (Fig.2.t2);
detection takes place, the audio so obtained being fed 3. switcheson the tuning tone sigral generator
to the output stage. A variety ofa.g.c. and squelch (Fig.2.l2) and drivesa tune warninglamp
circuitsmay be employed. (optional);
4. switcheson referencephasesfor servo motors.
Single Sideband Reception The circrit action on The r.f. signalon the input feed is monitored by a
t s.s.b.is similarto that on a.m. until after the loading servosystem and a phasingservo system. If
translatorwhen the translated r.f. is fed t6 the product the load impedanceis high then the line current, /L,
detector along with the re-inserted'carrier' /". The is low and the line voltage ZL is high. This is
output ofthe product detector is the required audio dctected by the loading s€rvodiscriminator which

El
I
Tune Tx
Aru Rctunc tone keY

Transceiver

p;g.2.13 Typicalh.f. a.t.u.blockdiagrarn

appL:: the appropriate amplitude and polarity d.c. Tlansmitter


sigral to a chopper/amplifier which in turn provides Poweroutput: 400 W p.e.p.(200 W p.e.p.
the control phasefor the loading servomotor. The operatiohal).
auto transformertap is drivenuntil the load Absolutemaximum power output: 650 W p.e.p.
impedrnceis 50 O. Mic. input circuit frequencyresponse:not more than
Should Iy and Vynot be in phasethis is detected I 6 dB variation from 1000 Hz levelthrough therange
by the phasingservodiscriminator which appliesthe 350 Hz to 2500 Hz.
approp:iateamplitudeand polarity d.c. signalto a Spectrumcontrol: componentsat or below
chopper/amplifier which in turn provides the control /" -100 Hz and at or abovef" +29O0Hz shouldbe
phasefor the phasingservomotor. The reactive attenuatedby at least30 dB.
elemenis,inductanceand capacitance, are adjusted Frequencystability: ! 2OHz. Shop adjustmentno
untri.Il and Vy are in phase. more often than vearly. Pilot control (e.g.clarifier)
As a result of the action of the two servo systemsa not acceptable.
resistiveload of 50 O is presentedto the co-axial feed lnterlock: only one transmitter in a dual system
'first-come,
from the transceiver. When both servosreach their strouldoperateat a time on a first-served'
null positions the control circuits removethe signals basis,this includestransmittingfor tuning purposes.
listedpreviously.
Receiver
Ctaracteristics Sensitivity:4 pV max.; 30 per cent modulation a.m.
The following brief list of characteristicsare those of (l pV s.s.b.)for l0 dB signaland noiseto noiseratio.
a systemwhich conformswith ARINC 559A. A.g.c.: audio output increasenot more than 6 dB for
input signalincreasefrom 5 to I 000 000 pV and no
more than an additional 2 dB up to I V input signal
frequency Selection
An r.f. nnge of 2'8-24 MHz coveredin I kHz level.
increments. Selectivity:
Method: reentrant frequency selectionsystem. s.s.b.,6d-Bpoints atf"+ 300 Hz and /. + 3100 Hz,
Orannelling time lessthan I s. t 35 dB pointsat f"andf" + 3500 Hz.
A.m.: toensureproper receiveroperation(no
Mode of Operation adjacentch4nnelinterference)assumingoperationson
Singlechannel simplex, upper singlesideband. 6 kHz spaceda.m. channels.

g
Overall response:compatible with selectivity but in w h e r e N= 1 2 ,1 3 . . . 2 7 ,
addition no more than 3 dB variation between anv
two frequenciesin the range300-1500 Hz (for giving a total of sixteen tones betwecn 312'6 and
satisfactorySelcaloperation). 1479.1Hz. The tonesare desigratedby lettes A to S
Audio output: two-wire circuit isolated from ground, omitting I, N and O so a typical code might b,:
300 O (or less)output impedancesupplying 100 mW AK-DM. The re ue 297Ocodesavailablefor
(0'5 Selcal)into a 600 O load. assigrmentusing the first twelve tones, the addition b L*-ntgs
of tonesP, Q, R and S (1976) bring the total to
Ramp Testing ard Maintenance 10920. Codesor blocks ofcodes are assignedon
Whilst regularinspection of all aircraft antennasis requestto air carrier organizationswho in turn assigt
called for, it is particularly important in the caseof codesto their aircraft'either on a flight number or
h.f. antennasand associatedcomponents. Any aircraft registration-relatedbasis.
maintenancescheduleshould require frequent Figure 2.14 illustrates a singleSelcalsystem
inspection ofantenna tensioning units and tethering large passengertransport aircraft would norma,ly'
points in the caseof wire antennas,while for both carry two identical systems. The decoder will
probe and wire antennasthe spark gap should be recognizea receivedcombination of tones on rny of
in3pectedfor signsof lightning strikes (cracking five channelswhich correspondsto that combrnation
. and/or discolouring). selectedon the code selectand annunciator pa:;el.
A functional test is similar to that for vh.f. in that When the correct code is recogrized the chime switch
two-way communication should be establishedwith a and appropriate lamp switch is made. The lamp .witch
remote station: all controls should be checked for supply is by way of an interrupter circuit so that the
satisfactoryoperation and meter indications, if any, lamp will flash. A constant supply to the chime
strouldbe within limits. Safety precautions are svitch causesthe chimes to sound once. Each lanrp
particularly important sincevery high voltagesare holder, designatedHF I , HF I I etc. incorporatesa reset
presenton the antenna systemwith the resulting switch which when depressedwill releasethe latched
dangerofelectric shock or arcing. No personnel lamp switch and chime switch. The tone filters in the
should be in the vicinity of the antenna when decoderwill typically be mechanicallyresonant
transmitting, nor should fuelling operations be in devices.
progress.Rememberwith many h.f. systemsa change Variations in the arrangementshown and
of frequency could result in transmissionto allow describedare possible. Mechanicallythe control and
automaticantennatuning. annunciator panel may be separateunits. Should the
operatorrequireaircraft registration-related codes
there will be no need for code selectswitches.the
Selcal appropriatecodebeingselectedby jumper leadson
the rear connectorofthe decoder.
The selectivecalling (Selcal.) system allows a ground Although five resetleadswill be provided they
station to call an aircraft or group of aircraft using may be connectedindividually, all in parallel to a
h.f. or vir.f. commswithout the flight crew having singleresetswitch or to the p.t.t. circuit of the
continuously to monitor the station frequency. associated transmitter. In this latter caseisolation
A coded sigral is transmitted from the ground and diodes (within the decoder)prevent'sneak'circuits,
rcceivedby the v.h.f. or h.f. receiver tuned to the i.e. keying one transmittercausingone or more
appropriate frequency. The output code is fed to a othersto be keyed.
Selcaldecoderwhich activatesaural and visual alerts The lamp and chime srrppliesshown can be
if and only if the receivedcode'correspondsto the changed at the operator'soption. Possibilitiesare to
code selectedin the aircraft. reverse the situation and havesteady lights and
Each transmitted code is made up of two r.f. multi-stroke chimes,or havesteady lights and
bursts(pulses)eachof-l t 0'25 s separatedby a single-strokechime, in which casethe interrgpt
period of 0.2 t 0'l s. During eachpulsethe circuit is not used.
transmitted carrier is 90 per cent modulated with two The Selcalsystemswhich do not comply with
tones, thus there are a total of four tones per call; . ARINC 596 may not providefacilitiesfor decodingof
the frequenciesof the tones determine the code. five channelssimultaneously. A switch is provided on
The tones available are given by the formula the control panel with which the singledesired
channelcan be selected;in this caseonly Selcalcodes
= antilog (0'054(/V- t) + 2O), receivedon the correspondingreceiverwill be fed to
[y

35
Sslf test [amp
drive
(5 wiresl

v.H.F.1

v.H.F.2

V.H.F.3

H.F.2

Fig. 2.f4 Typical Selcalblock diagram

the decodcr. Only one annunciator lamp is required. tones A to S arc numbered I to 16 (0) the open wires
Codeselectionin an ARINC 596 systemis achieved will be as given by the correspondingbinary number;
by meansof a 'b.c.d.' format. Eachof the four tone e.g.tone M-12-l l(X), so with the wires designated
selectorshas four wires associatedwith it; for any 8,4,2 and I we see8 and 4 will be open. Note this is
particular tone an appropriate combination of the not really b.c.d. but is neverthelesstermed so.
wires will be open circuit, the rest grounded. If the Testing of Selcalis quite straightforward. If

3G
possiblea test rig,consistingofa tone generatorin sub-systems making up the total audio system. The
conjunctionwith a v.h.f. and h.f. transmittershould remainderof this chapterwill be concernedwith the
he used,otherwisepermissionto utilize a AIS on aBoeing747.
Selcalequippedground station shouldbe sought. It is unusual to considerall the systemsand
sub-systems which follow as part of AIS, a term
G which should perhapsbe restricted to the system
Audio IntegratingSystems(AlS) - lntercom which provides for the selectionof radio system audio
outputs and inpuis and crew intercommunications.
Introduction Howevera brief descriptionof all systemswhich
All the systemsin this book exhibit a variety of generate,processor recordaudio signalswill be given.
characteristics but none more so than AIS. In a light. The following servicescomprisethe complete audio
aircraft the function of the audio systemis to provide system:
an interfacebetweenthe pilot's mic. and tel. and the
selectedreceiverand transmitter;sucha 'system' l. flight interphone: allows flight deck crew to
might be little more than a locally manufactured communicatewith eachother or with ground
panel-mounted junction box with a built-in audio stations;
amplifier and appropriateswitching. ln contraSta 2. cabin interphone: allows flight deck and cabin
largemulti-crewpassenger aircrafthasseveral crew to communicate:

Attendant's chime
call

PA

bverride
VOR/ILSNAV
systom Visual
Pass.ent. audio
Markerbsacon (motionpic.)
systom system
Low range
radioaltimeter
systom
ATC system
DMEsystom
ADFsystem

HF comnr
un ication
system

Headsets
and
microph,
lSatcom I
I sysrem I
tjgg'"q"rlj
Fig. 2.15 Boeing747: typical communicationsfit
(courtesyBoeingCommdrcialAeroplaneCo.)

37
3. serviceinterphone: allows ground staff to Table 2.1 Flight interphone facilities
communicatewith each other and also with the
flight crew; UPT FlO FIE OBSI OBS2 M.E.
4. passengeraddress(PA): allows announcements
to be made by the crew to the passengers; ASP x x x x x
5. passengerentertainment system: allows the
showing of movies and the piping of music; Jack panel x x i x x
6. gound crew call system: allows flight and
Int - R-T
ground crew to attract each other's attention; p.Lt. x x x
7. cockpit voice recorder: meets regulatory
requirementsfor the recording of flight crew Handheld
audio for subsequentaccident investigation if mic. x X Jack Jack feck Jack
necessary.
llcrdrct Jack Jack Jrct Iack hck Jac*
It *rould be noted that the aboveare not completely
separatesysremsasillustratedin Fig. 2.15 and Boom mic.
describedbelow. The dividing lines between headset x x
zub-systemsof the total audio system are somewhat
Oxygen
arbitrary, and terminologl is varied; however the
mask mic. Jack trck lack Jrck J.ct
facilities describedare commonplace.
lnterphone
Flight Interphone speaker X
This is really the basic and most esential part of the
audio system. All radio equipments having mic. A'X'indicates the particular unit or component is fitted
inputs or tel. outputs, aswell asvirtually all other at that station (column),
'Jack'
audio systems,interface with the flight interphone indicatesa jack plug b fitted to enableuseof the
which may, in itself, be termed the AIS. appropriatemic. and/or tel.
A large number of units and componentsmake up
the totd systemas in Table 2.1 with abbreviated
Table2.2 Abbreviations
termsaslisted in Table 2.2. Figuie 2.16 showsthe
flight interphone block diagram,simplified to the
CAPT - Captain a.s.p.- Audio SelectorPanel
extent that only one audio selectionpanel(ASP), F/O - First Officer int. - Interphone
jack panel etc. is shown. An ASP is shown in OBS - Observer rlt - Radiotelephone
F i g .2 . 1 7 . m.e. - Main Equipment p.t.t. - hes to Transmit
A crew member selectsthe tel. and mic. signals Centre
required by useof the appropriate controls/switches mic. - Microphone tel. - Telephone
on an ASP. The various audio signalsentering an ASp
a.ie'selected by twelve combined push selectand a\dio lineswhich,togetherwith loadingresistors in
volume controls. Each ASP has an audio bus feeding the interphoneaccessory box, form an anti-crosstalk
a built-in isolationamplifier. The v.h.f. and h.f. network;if onecrewmemberhas,say,h.f.l selected
comm. ADF, interphone and marker audio signalsare on his ASPthen the resistivenetworkwill greatly
fed to the bus via the appropriate selectbuttons and attenuatesayh.f.2 whidr would otherwisebe audible
-volume controls. The vh.f. nav. and DME audio is shouldanothercrewmemberhaveselectedh.f.l and
fed to the bus when voice and rangeare selectedwith h.f.2.
the Voice pushbutton; with voice only selectedthe Six mic. selectbuttonsareprovidedon an ASP;
DME audio is disconnectedwhile the vJr.f. nav. audio threevJr.f. @mm.,two h.f. cornm.andPA. Additiond
is pased through a sharp 1020 Hz bandstop filter sritchesasociatedwith mic. selectand transmission
(FLl) before feeding the bus. With the flii-normal aretheboom-mask andr.t.-int.p.t.t. on eachASPand
switch in the fail position only one audio channel can alsop.t.t. buttonson the hand-heldmicrophones.
be selected(bypassingthe amplificr) and the pA jack panelsandthe captain'scontrolwheel
audio is fed direct to the audioout lines. Radio (R/T-int.).
altimeter audio is fed direct tb the audio-out lincs. To speakorrerinterphonea crewmembershould
The above audio switching arrangementsare illustrated selectinterphoneusingthe r.t..int. switchon the
h Fig. 2.18. Note the sericsresistorsin the input a.s.p.which will connectmic. high(boom or mask)

38
c.E@{r-8..|&
r^.&rEr.@*ccrd

'Eg-B

E]
lr.
s
lucu
O'El

or',a..,.r I i I
D+-i ll ir r t : l l l - - - - l
aaaaa

l!lri4
t t u g
rrr,r l:JJ
n ti !r !
|I iI + Il s # - . "
+= |i 1,.i,..*.
L-re'g!'e$!sret-l
i---r'"* T------1
:l---+i :i

#--i
F.--di ij-#S-.i i r
il--r---l t I
il'F.'Li"ri-i i i i

Fi& 2.lt Ardb signelselectbn(courtcsyBoeiru


CommercialAeroplaneCo.)
Fig. 2.16 Boeirg ?4?: night intqphonc (courtcry Boeirg
CommercialAeroplaneCo.)

tr trtr trtrtr i_p-


l l t l l EOOM

ooooo. rE ,r'i El

l-oo'l l-"i"_.]
I t
-G-
s o o--fio,,
o CI
**"
atr@
ql# rrr
rNr
o
xrt .3
r'
l l -
F .
Fig.l.l7 Audioselection
panel(c€urtesy
Boeing f' IC'Off hIGN

CommercialAeroplane
Co.)

to the interphone mic. high output feeding the flight


interphoneamplifier in the interphoneaccessorybox.
rrcw rs r|rrrftsa {rcaet{d rg
Alternativelythe captaincan seiectinterphoneon his ro rLrcir rrtat,da

control wheel p.t.t. switch which will energizerelay E E


r.Mro s* *rcx
K2 thus making the mic. higft connectionas before.
Note that the ASP r.t.-int.p.t.t. switchdoesnot rely Fi& 2.19 Microphone signalselection(courtesy Bocing
on power reachingthe ASP for relay operation (see CommercialAeroplaneCo.)

39
Fig. 2.19). Interphone mic. signalsfrom all ASh are Crll light
fed to the flight interphone amplifier which combines
them and feedsthe amplified interphone audio to all
ASPsfor selectionas required. Attondrnt's .t tion3
(typrcrl)
Pressing a mic. selectbutton on the ASP will
connectthe correspondingsystemmic. input lines to
relayK2 and to contactson the ASP r.t.-int. p.t.t.
switch. Thus when a p.t.t. switch is pressed,the mic.
lineswill be madeby either the contactsof K2 or by
the ASPp.t.t. switchin the r.t. position. In Fig. 2.19
the h.f.2 selectswitch is shown as typical of all comni.
selectswitches.Whenthe PA selectswitch is pressed
the flight interphonemic. circuit is interruptedand c.:to!:S"hin!
PA audio is applied to the fail-normal switch; in
Itntcrphonc I
additionthe mic. linesto the PA systemare made. lrudio acccrl
Operationof any p.t.t. switch mutesboth interphone lbox I
speakers to preventacousticfeedback.

Cabin Interphonc Ft. 2.20 Boeing 7rt7: cabin interphonc (courtcsy Boeitg
The cabin interphoneis a miniatureautomatic Commercial Aeroplane Co.)
telephoneexchangeservicingseveralsubscribers:
.** --o;*
the cabin attendantsand the captain. In addition
the systeminterfaceswith the PA to allow
announcements to be made. The systemis more complex than has been
Numbersaredialledby pushbuttonson the suggestedabovebut a basic description has been given,
telephonetype handsetsor on the pilot's control zupportedby Fi1.2.20.
unit. Eleventwo-figurenumbersare allocatedto the
subscribers, plus additionalnumbersfor PA in ServiceInterphone
'all-attendants'
variousor all compartments,an call A total of twenty-two handsetjacks arelocatedin
'all-call'.
and an Two dialling codesconsistof letters: variousparts of the airframein order that ground
P-Pis usedby an attendantto alert the pilot (call crew can communicatewith one anotherusingthe
light flasheson control unit and chime soundsonce) serviceinterphonesystem. The systemis rather
while PA-PAis usedby the pilot to gain absolute simplerthan thoseconsideredabove. Mic. audio from
priority over all other usersof the PA system. The 'pressto talk' depressed,
are
all handsets,with
directory is listed on the push-to-talkswitch combinedin and amplifiedby the serviceinterphone
incorporatedin eachhandsetto minimizeambient amplifier in the interphoneaudio accessorybox.
noise. The amplified signalis fed to all handsettels.
All diallingcode decodingand the necessarytrunk Volume control adjustmentis providedby a preset
switchingis carriedout in the centralswitchingunit, potentiometer.
CSU(automaticexchange).The CSU also contains With the flight engineer'sinterphoneswitch
three amplifiers,one of which is permanently selectedto ON the input summingnetworks for both
allocatedto the pilot on what is effectivelya private serviceand flight interphonesystemsare combined.
trunk. Of the five other availabletrunks, two are All mic. inputs from either systemare amplified and
allocatedto the attendants,two to the PA systemand fed to both systems.
-onefor dialling. (Note a trunk is simply a circuit
which can connecttwo subscribers.) PassengQr Address'
The cabin interphoneand serviceinterphone The systemcomprisesthree PA amplifiers,tape deck,
qystemsmay be combinedinto a common network annunciatorpanel,attendant'spanel,PA accessory
by appropriateselectionon the flight engineer's box, control assemblies, speakerswitch paneland
interphoneswitch panel,captain'sASP and cabin fifty-three loudspeakers.The variousPA messages
interphonecontrol unit. Any handsetmay then be havean order of priority assigredto them: pilot's
lifted and connectedinto the network (dial'all-call'). announcemen ts, attendant'sannouncements,
In a similarway the flight interphonecircuits may be prerecordedannouncementsand finally boarding
usedto make specificcallsover.thecabin interphone music. All PA audio is broadcastover the speaker
system. systemand also,except for boardingmusic,overrides

n
L--------

r----- --
T----1

,:.*Q
I

*.*A
i
L-

L__------.J
l-*.,^f-J,
.*,,"."
fr aLaclioir6 cricull
I ,".",*,.1-liii',T:f..
i''' *llF^*.; '
r!r6xr ,i[ma l;n:'6--'"'"" ; *,,*,*
,"* lf,b__^-rc,
^*'
euo'o
f
?il6
L____r
(courtesy
address
F1g.2.22Boeing?4?:passenger Boeing
Fig,2.2l Boeing?47: serviceinterphone(courtesyBoeing
AeroPlane
Commercial Co')
CommercialAeroPlaneCo.)

entertainmentaudio fed to the passenger stethoscope amplifiers. When the aircraft is on the ground with
headsets.A prerecorded emergencyannouncement ;;;i;g gearlocked down and ground powgl applied
may be initiated by the pilot or an attendant,or the lev-efofspeakeraudio is reducedby 6 dB'
The tape deck containsup to five tape cartridges
automaticallyin the event of cabin decompression'
'fasten
A chimeis generatedwhen the pilot tums on apart from the necessarytape'{rive mechanism'
'no smoking' siglts. piaybackhead and a pre-amplifier' Boarding musicis
seat-belt'or
The passenger addressamplifiersare fed via the Ltectea at an attendint'spanelwhile prerecorded
flight or cabininterphone systemsfor pilot or- imnouncementsare selectedby meansof twelve
atiendantannouncementsrespectively.Distribution pushbuttonson the annunciatorpanel'
of audio from the amplifiersto the speakersin various
PassengerEntertainment SYstem
zonesdependson the classconfiguration,sincesome
The pa-ssenger entertainmentsystemof the Boeing
*noun.itntnts may be intended for only a certain
classof passengers. 747 andan! other modern largeairliner is perhaps
also
The necessaiydistribution is achievedby meansof the mmt complex of 3ll airbome systems'lt is
the systemliklly to caus€most trouble and,
switcheson the speakerswitchingpanel. Audio is also the
fed to the flight interphonesystemfor sidetone fortunatelv, teait litcelyto affect the safety of
aircraft unlessbad servicing leads to a fire or
purposes. ^
-
Number 2 and number 3 ampliliers ere slavedto loose-articlehazard. Evenon the sametype ol
number I for all'classannouncements.Should aircraft a variety of serviceswill be availablesince
separateclassannouncements be requiredthe parallel different op.r"iott will offer different entertainment
the
control relay is energized,so separatingthe number I in a bid to capturemore customers' In view of
abovecomments, the following description is
audio from that of number 2 and 3. The control
assembliesin the PA accessorybox contain particularlybrief and doesnot do justice to the
potentiometersused to set the gain of the PA complexitY involved.

41
Movie P.A.
audio override

Other
submultiplexers

Seats
1 2 3
Channel select

Other seat
Other seat demultiolexers
colurnns

1 2 3
Seats
Fig.2.23 Boeing747: simplified passengerentertainment
system

Both moviesand music are provided,the movie 'system',


as can be seenfrom the schematicdiagram
audio being fed to individual seatsvia the music n Fig.2.?4. The horn and flight-deckcall button are
portion of the system.Ten tape-deckchannels,four locatedin the nosewheel bay while tl'reground-crew
movieaudio channelsand one p.a.channel(total call(with illumination)and auralwarningbox areon
fifteen) are provided usingtime multiplexing. A time the flight deck. Operation is self-explanatoryfrom
interval,ternreda liame, is divided into fifteen the diagram. Should horn or chinte sound, the ground
channeltimesduringwhich the signalamplitudeof crew, or flight crew respectively,will contact each
eachchannelis sampled.The audiosigrralamplitudes other usingone of the interphonesystems.
arebinary coded(twelve bits) and transmitted,
togetherwith channelidentification, clock and sync.
pulses,over a co-axialcablerunning throughout the
aircraft.
The music channels(five stereo,ten monauralor a
mixture)aremultiplexedin the main multiplexer,the
resultingdigitalsignalbeingfed to six submultiplexers
CFO CiCW CALL
in series,the final one being terminatedwith a suitable +.
load resistor. Movie and PA audio are multiplexed
with the musicchannelsin the zonesubmuliiplexers,
eachof which feedsthree or four columnsof seat Fig.2.24 Boeing747:groundcrewcall(courtesy Boeing
Conrmercial Aeroplane Co.)
demultiplexers.Channelselectionis madeby the
passenger who hearsthe appropriateaudio over his
- stethoscopeheadsetafter digital to analogue Cockpit Voice Recorder
conversionin the demultiplexer. Alternate zone An endlesstape provides30 niin recordingtime for
submultiplexersare usedasback-upin the event of audio signalsinput on four separatechannels.The
prime submultiplexerfailure (classpriorities exist if channelinputs are captain's,first officer's and flight
failuresmean somepassengers must havethe engineer'stransmitted and receivedaudio and cockpit
entertainmentservicediscontinued). areaconversation.Passenger addressaudio may be
The controls necessaryfor activationof the substitutedfor the flight engineer'saudio in an
entertainments systemarelocatedon attendants' aircraft certified to fly with two crew members.
control panels. The microphoneinputs should be from so-called
'hot
mics', i.e. microphoneswhich are permanently
Ground Crew Call Syrtem live regardless of the setting of ASP or control
Ground crew call is hardly worthy of the title column switches. The areamicrophone(which may

42
Flt. eng.
hot mic.
tel.

lst. off. Record


head

lo
hot mic.
tel.

Area Mic. Q Playback


Pre-amp- I head

Erase Test
Jack

4,
Landing parking Essontirl
P"::; ffif flt. inst.
bus bar
Ft1.2.25 Typicalcockpitvoicerccorderblockdiagram

be s.eparate from the control panel) is strategically separatelyor all together. A playbackhead and
situatedso that it can pick up night crew speechand monitor amplifier allowsa satisfactorytest to be
generalcockpit sounds.
observedon metersor heardover a headsetviajack
While the control panelis situatedin the cockpit, plug sockets. Pressingthe test button on the control
.,
the recorderunit (CVR) is locatedat .:heother end of panel or the all-testbutton on the CVR causesthe
the aircraft where it is leastlikely to suffer damagein
channelsto be monitored sequentially.
the event of an accident. The CVR is constructedso
The power supply for the system should be from a
asto withstand shock and fire damage,and additionally sourcewhich provideqmaximum reliabilitv. Sincethe
is paintedin a fire-resistantorangepaint to assistin
tape is subjectto wear and thus has a limiied life, the
recoveryfrom a wreck.
CVR should be switchedoff when nqt in use. A
The recorded audio may be erasedproviding the
suitable method would be to remove power to the
landinggearand parking brake interloik relav'
CVR wheneverexternalground power is connected.
contactsare closed. As a further safeguardaiainst
accidentalerasurea delay is incorporited in the bulk
erasecircuit which requiresthp operator to depress Testingand Trouble Shootingthe Audio
the 'erase'switch for two secondibefore "r"a*"
Systems
commences.
Test facilities are provided for all four channels,
Variousself-test
facilitiesmaybeprovided
by which

tl:l
tonesmay be generatedand heardover headsets. finding short circuits or howls due to coffee-induced
However,to testproperlyall switchesshouldbe tel.-mic.feedback(i.e. spilt liquid providinga
operatedand all mic. and tel.jacks,aswell as conductingpath betweentel. and mic. circuits).
speakers,shouldbe checkedfor the requiredaudio. Whereone has a number of units in series,e.g.
This shouldbe sufficiently loud, clearand noise-free. demultiplexersin an entertainmentsystem,
Amplifier gainpresetsin accessoryboxesmay needto disconnectingcan be a particularly rapid method of
be adjusted. A full functional test is best done by fault-finding;it is usually.best to split the run in half,
two men, althoughit is not impossiblefor one man then in half again,and so on until the faulty unit or
with two headsetsand an extensionlead to establish connectionis found. Continuity checkson very long
two-way contact betweenvariousstations. cablescan be achievedby shorting to earth at one end
Faults can be quite difficult to find owing to the and then measuringthe resistanceto earth at the
complicatedswitchingarrangements.Howeverthe other. The resistanceto earth should also be
wide rangeof switchingcan be usedto advantagein measuredwith the short removedin casea natural
order to isolatesuspectunits or interconnections. short exists.
Disconnectingunits providesa good method of

4
3 Automaticdirectionfinding

Introduction receiverswhich, when tuned to two distinct stations


or beacons,would automaticallydrive two pointerson
Most readerswill havecome acrossthe principle on an instrumentcalleda radio magneticindicator (RMI)
which ADF is basedwhen listeningto a transistor so that eachpointer gavethe bearingof the
radio. As the radio is rotated the signalbecomes correspondingstation. The aircraft position is where
weakeror stronger,dependingon its orientation with the two directionsintersect. Sincesucha system
respectto the distant transmitter. Of courseit is the requiresthe minimum of pilot involvementthe name
antennawhich is directionaland this fact has been radio compasshascome to be replacedby automatic
known sincethe early days of radio. direction finder (ADF).
In the 1920sa simpleloop antennawas usedwhich
could be rotated by hand. The pilot would position
the loop so that there was a null in the signal from the BasicPrinciples
station to which he was tuned. The bearingof the
stationcould then be readoff a scaleon the loop. TheLoop Antenna
'l
Tuning into anotherstation gaverise to another he first requirementof any ADF is a directional
bearingand consequentlya fix. Apart from antenna. Early loop antennaswere able to be rotated
position-fixingthe direction-findingloop could be first by hand and subsequentlyby motor,
usedfor homing on to a particularstation. This automatically. The obviousadvantageof havingno
primitive equipmentrepresentedthe first use of radio moving partsin the aircraft skin-mountedantennahas
for navigationpurposesand came to be known as the led to the universaluseof a fixed loop and goniometer
radio compass. in modern equipments,althoughsomeolder types are
The systemhas been much developedsince those still in service.
early daysand in particularits operationhasbeen The loop antennaconsistsof an orthogonalpair of
simplified. Within the band 100-2000kHz (I.f./m.f.) coils wound on a single flat ferrite core which
thereare many broadcaststationsand non-directional concentratesthe magnetic(H) field componentof the
beacons(NDB). An aircraft today would have twin e.m. waveradiatedfrom a distant station. The plane

Athwartships
loop Rotot
(sctrch coil)
Forc and aft loop

Fb.3.l Loop entcnnaand goniometcr

45
ol one coil is alignedwith the aircraftlongitudinal
axiswhile the other is alignedwith the lateralaxis.
The currentinducedin eachcoil will dependon
the directidnof the nragneticfield. Whenthe plane
of the loop is perpendicular to the directionof
propagation, no voltageis inducedin the loop since
the linesof flux do not link with it. lt canbe seen
that if one loop doesnot link with the magneticfield
the other will havemaximumlinkage. Figure3.1
showsthat the loop currentsflow through the stator
windingof a gonionreter (resolver)where.providing
the characteristics o1'eachcircuitareidentical,the
magneticfield detectedby the loop will be recreated
in so far asdirectionis concerned.We now Fig,3.3 Loopaerialpolardiagram
effectivelyhavea rotating loop antennain the form
of the eoniometerrotor or searchcoil. As the rotor broadcaststations.Howevera verticallypolarized
turnstf,rough360otherewill be two peaksand two signaltravellingovernon-homogeneous earth and
nullsof the voltageinducedin it. The output of the strikingreflectingobjects,includingthe ionosphere,
rotor is the input to the ADF receiverwhich thus sees can arriveat the loop with an appreciable
the rotor asthe antenna.Suchan arrangement is horizontallypolarizedcomponent.The currentin
known asa Bellini-Tosisystem. the loop will then be due to two sources,the vertical
Sincewe areeffectivelybackwith a rotatingloop and horizontal cornponents,which will in generalgive
situationwe shouldconsiderthe polardiagramof a non-zeroresultarrtnull, not necessarilyin the
suchan antennaaswe areinterestedin its directional direction of the plane of the antenna. This
properties. polarizationerrordictatesthat ADF ihould only be
In Fig. 3.2 we havea verticallypolarizedt.e.m. usedwith groundwavesignalswhich in the l.f./m.f.
wavefrom the direction shown. Tl.ratcomponentof bandsare usefulfor severalhundredmiles. However.
the H field linking with the loop will be H sin 0, so a they arecontaminated by non-verticallypolarizedsky
plot of the loop current againstI producesa sine wavesbeyond,say,200m at 200 kHz and 50 m at
curveasshown. The polar diagramof such an 1600 kHz, the effect beingmuch worseat night
antennawill be asin Fig. 3.3. It canbe seenthat (night effect)
because of the sinusoidalnatureof the plot the nulls $*o read ,
arefar more sharplydefinedthan the peaks. The SenseAntenna
The abovehasassumeda verticallypolarizedwave The polar diagramof the loop (Fig. 3.3) showsthat
which is in fact the casewith NDBs and most the bearingof the NDB will be givenas one of twtr

Plane of looP

l / H field

Direction of
tl
l,/
propagatron -------------+ i

(l
E fieldO

\
| .-0,,

F8. 3.2 To illustrate degrccof coupling of loop acrbl

tt6
figures,l80o apart, sincethere are two nulls. In althoughnot as clearlydefinedas the nulls for the
order to determinethe correctbearingfurther figure-of-eight(Fig. 3.4).
information is neededand this is providedby an
omnidirectionalsenseantenna. In a verticaliv
polarizedfield an antennawhich is omnidireitional in
the horizontal plarreshouldbe of a type which is Simplified Block Diagram Operation
excited by the electric(E) field of the t.e.m. wave
i.e. a capacitanceantenna. The output of suchan Automatic direction finding (ADF) is achievedby
antennawill vary with the instantaneousfield meansof a servoloop. The searchcoil is driven ro a
stablenull position,a secondnull beingunstable.
strengthwhile the output of a loop antennavariesas
the instantaneousrate of changeof field strength - The searchcoil o-utput,after amplification,is
(Faraday'slaw of inducede.m.f.). As a phase-shifted by 90" so as to be either in phaseor out
of phasewith the senseantennaoutput, dipending on
consequence, regardless of the direction of the t.e.m.
the direction of the NDB. prior to addingto the
wave,the senseantennar.f. output will be in phase
sensesignalthe phase-shifted loop signalis switched
quadraturewith respectto the searchcoil r.f.butput.
in phasein a balancedmodulator at a rate determined
In order to sensethe direction of the NDB the two
by a switchingoscillator,usuallysomewherebetween
antennaoutputs must be combinedin such a way as
a 50 Hz and 250 Hz rate. Whenthe compositesignal
either to cancelor reinforce,and so either the sense
is formed in a summingamplifier it will be
or the loop signalmust be phaseshifted by 90..
amplitude-modulatedat the switchingfrequencysince
A compositesignalmadeup of the searchcoil
for one half period the two input signalswill be in
output phaseshifted by 90' and the senseantenna
phasewhile for the next half period they will be in
output would appearas if it camefrom an antenna
antiphase(seeFigure3.6).
the polar diagramof which was the sum of thosefor
The amplitudemodulationis,detected in the last
the individual antennas.Now the figure-of-eightpolar
stageof a superhetreceiver.The detectedoutput will
diagramfor the loop can be thought of asbeing
be either in phase,or in antiphase,with the switching
generatedaswe considerthe output of a fixed search
oscillatoroutput and so a further 90" phase-shiftis
coil for variousn.d.b.bearings or the output of a requiredin orderto providea suitablecontrolphase
rotatingsearchcoil for a fixed n.d.b.beaiing,either
for the servomotor. The motor will drive either
separatehalvesof the figure-of+ightwill be
1v%the clockwiseor anticlockwisetowardsthe stablenull.
rdu out ot phase.As a consequence the sense When the null is reachedtherewill be no searchcoil
antennapolar diagramwill add to the loop polar
output henceno amplitudemodulationof the
diagramfor somebearings,and subtractfoiothers.
compositesignalso the referencephasedrive will be
The resultantdiagramis a cardiodwith only one null,
zero and the motor will stop.
Should the servomotor Le in sucha position that
the searchcoil is at the unstablenull the sliehtest
-a--\-
.
-
disturbancewill causethe motor to drive aiay fiom
/ t / \ \ \ \
, / l \ \ this position towardsthe stablenull. The senieof the
/ t l \
/ t l \
connectionsthroughoutthe systemmust be correct
/ \ t for the stablenull to give the bearing.
. A synchrotorquetransmitter(STTx),mountedon
the searchcoil shaft, transmitsthe bearineto a remote
indicator.

r 'l
l
'. /
'. \
\ /
\- \ ./ z'
Block Diagram Detail
-\-__-i--
Tuning
Modern ADFs employ so-calleddigital tuning
wherebyspot frequenciesare selected,as opposedto
older setswherecontinuoustuning *.s usurl.
A conventionalfrequencysynthesizeris usedto
generatethe local oscillator(first l.o. if double
superhet)frequency. The tuning voltagefed to the
Fig. 3.4 Compositepolar diagram v.c.o.in the phaselock loop is alsousedfor varicap

47
Loop antenne
Synchro.torque Tx o l P

S u m m i n ga m P .

Fig.3.5 An ADF simplifiedblockdiagram

tuning in the r.f. stages.Remoteselectionis by b.c'd. b.f.o. output is mixed with the i.f. so asto produce
(ARINC 570) or someother codesuchas 215. an audio differencefrequency. Good sensitivityis
requiredsincethe effectiveheight of modern
BalancedModulator low-dragantennasgivesa low levelof signalpick-up'
Figure3.7 showsthe balancedmodulator usedin the Good selectivityis requiredto avoid adjacentchannel
King KR 85. DiodesCR 1 l3 and CR I l4 areturned interferencein the crowdedI'f./m.f. band.
on and off by the switchingoscillator(Q 3l I and
Q 312) so alternatelyswitchingthe loop signalto one Indication of Bearing
of two sidesof the balancedtransformerT I 16. The In all indicatorsthe pointer is alignedin the direction
output of Tl l6 is thus the loop sigral with its phase of the NDB. The angleof rotation clockwisefrom a
swiichedbetween0o and 180" at the oscillatorrate. lubber line at the top of the indicator givesthe relative
bearingof the NDB. If the instrumenthas a fixed
Receiver scaleii is known as a relativebearingindicator (RBD'
A conventionalsuperhet receiveris usedwith an i.f. More common is a radio magneticindicator (RMI)
frequencyof 14l kHz in the caseof the KR 85 ; i.f. which hasa rotating scaleslavedto the compass
andr.f. gain may be manuallycontrolledbut in any heading. An RMI will give the magretic bearingof
casea.g.c.is used. An audio amp, with normal gain the NDB on the scaleaswell as the relativebearingby
control, amplifiesthe detectsdsignaland feedsthe the amount of rotation of the pointer from the lubber
AIS for identificationpurposes.A beat frequency line. Figure3.8 illustratesthe readingson RBI and
oscillator (b.f.o.) can be switched in to facilitate the RMI for a givenNDB relativebearingand aircraft
identificationof NDBs transmittingkeyed c.w- The heading. An RMI normally providesfor indication of

/t8
two magneticheadingsfrom a combinationof two
A A ADF receiversand two VOR receivers.Figure 3.9
NDB 1 NDB 2 showsa typical RMI while Fig.3.l0 showsthe RMI
which may
circuit and typical switchingarrangements
be internal or external to the RMIs.
Assumesearchcoil aligned with zero bearing

NDB 1 to left NDB 2 to right Sourcesof SystemError

Loop
I Automatic direction finding is subjectto a number of
sourcesof error, asbriefly outlined below.
r.t.
\A/\A
ra_ I hdg.
Switching
voltage
I
Balanced
mod. O/P

Sense
M,|AA I
N.D.B.
A
r.f.
AAA
Composite
signal
-iAA
I
Detected
Rx out
I

Reference
l-.-1
phase
r i r -
N.8. Waveshapes and relative time
scalesare not exactly as shown. R.M.l. R.B.I

Fig. 3.6 DiagramshowingADF phaserelationships Fig. 3.8 Diagramof RMI and RBI readings

T116

Astable
multivibrator
o311-312

Fig. 3.7 King KR 85 balancedmodulator - simplified

49
Night Effect This is the polarizationerror mentio,ned
previouslyunder the headingof the loop antenna.
The effect is most noticeableat sunriseclr sunset
when the ionosphereis changingmost rapidly.
Bearingerrorsand instabilityareleastwhen tunedto
an NDB at the low end of the frequencyrangeof the
ADF.

CoastalRefraction The differing propertiesof land


and waterwith regardto e.m.groundwaveabsorption
leadsto refractionof the NDB transmission.The
effectis to changethe directionof traveland so give
riseto an indicatedbearingdifferent from the actual
bearingof the transmitter.

Mountain Effect If the wave is reflected by


mountains,hills or largestructures,the ADF may
measurethe direction of arrivalof the reflectedwave.
The nearerthe reflectingobject is to the aircraft the
greaterthe error by the geometryof the situation.

Stotic Interference Static build-up on the airframe


Fig.3.9 KNI 581 RMI (courtesyKing RadioCorp.)

ADF No. 1 ADF No VOR No.l VOR No. 2.

No.1. No. 2.
cto cto

No. 2. R.M.l

No'1 R'M'l'
t ,/tr\
---/ (w E)
26V / Red \9/ A_-A
4OO Hz
Ref.

Fig. 3.10 Radio magneticindicator: simplified circuit

50
and the consequentdischargereducesthe effective result. As previouslymentionedhigh selectivityis
rangeand accuracyof an ADF. Thunderstormsare requiredfor adequateadjacentchannelrejection.
alsoa sourceof static interferencewhich may give
rise to largebearingerrors. The ability of ADF to Quadrantal Enor (QE) It is obvious that the two
pick up thunderstormshasbeenusedby one fixed loops must be identicalin electrical
manufacturerto give directionalwarning of storm characteristics,asmust the stator coils of the
activity (Ryan Stormscope). goniometer. If the signalarrivesat an angle0 to the
planeof loop A in Fig. 3.1I the voltageinducedin
Vertical or Antenna Effect The vertical limbs of the loop A will be proportionalto cos0 and in loop B to
crossedloopshavevoltagesinducedin them by the cos(90-d)= sin0. If now the searchcoil makesan
electriccomponentof the e.m.wave. If the planeof angled with the stator P then the voltageinducedin
a loop is perpendicularto the direction of arrivalof the searchcoil will be proportionalto
the signalthere will be no H field coupling and the E (cosOX cos@)- (sinOX sin@)providedthere is no
field will induce equalvoltagesin both vertical limbs mutual couplingbetweenthe interconnectingleads.
so we will havea null as required. Should, however, So when the searchcoil voltageis zero:
the two halvesof the loop be unbalanced,the current
cosOXcos@=sinOXsin@
inducedby the E field will not sum to zero and so the
direction of arrival to give a null will not be or:
perpendicularto the plane of the loop. An
imbalancemay be due to unequalstray capacitanceto cot0 = tan0
earth either sideof the loop; howeverin a and:
well-designed Bellini-Tosisystem,where eachloop is
balancedby a centretap to earth, this is not a severe 0=6+ 90+ifX 180
problem. wherey'y'is 0 or any integer. This is simply a
mathematicalmodel of the situationpreviously
Station Interference When a number of NDBs and ddscribedunder the headingof the loop antenna.
broadcaststationsare operatingin a given areaat Now considerthe two loopsnot electrically
closelyspacedfrequenciesstation interferencemay identicalso that the ratio of the maximum voltages
inducpd in the two loops by a given signalis r. The
condition for zero voltagein the searchcoil is now:

Direction of
arrival

Fig. 3. I I Diagram showingsearchcoil signalas a function of


direction of arrival

51
cotO=rXtan@' circuits and the loop connectionswill lead to errorsin
the searchcoil Position.
when
0=O cotp=o
lnstallation
therefore
A typical transport aircraft ADF installationis shown
t a n @ ' = es o Q'=90+NXl80
i n F i g . 3 . l 2 ; N o . 1 s y s t e mo n l y i s s h o w n ,N o ' 2 b e i n g
when sirnilir except that different power bus barswill be
used. Main power is 28 V d.c', the 26 V, 400 Hz
0=90 cot0=0
being usedto supply the synchros' lt is vital that the
therefore 26 V 400 Hz fed to the ADF receiveris from the
samesourceas that fed to the RMI'
tan6'=0 so 0'=0+NXl80 The loop antennaand its connectingcableform
In thesetwo cases (alsowhen g = 180 or 270) we part of the input circuit of the receiverand so must
h a v et h e s a m es i t u a t i o na sb c l o r el . e . p = 0 ' s t tn o iravea fixed known capacitance(C) and inductance
error. (L). This being so the length and type of loop cableis
At intermediate angles there will be an error' so the ipecified by the manufacturerof the loop. The
not be exceeded,but it can be
bearingindicatedby the searchcoil will be incorrect' length specifiedmust
value tlnee in made shorter provided compensatingC and L are
Sincethis type of errorhasa maximum
quadrantal error' correctly placed in the circuit.
eachquadrantit is called
t.e.m. wave from the NDB will cause r'f' The QE corrector loop equalizercontainsthe
Now the
reactive components to compensatefor a
currentsto flow in the metalstructureof the aircraft' necessary
Eachof the loops will receivesignalsdirect from the short loop cable and to provide QE correction' A
signals trom the airframe' typical ciicuit is given in Fig. 3.13. Cl,C2,Ll,L2
NDB and alsore-radiated (loop
Sincethe aspectratio of the aircraft fuselageand una C:, C4,L3, L4 providecompensation
energy equalization) while L5, L6,L7 provide QE correction
wingsis not I : I the effect of the re-radiated
is equivalent by attenuating the current in the appropriate stator of
on th. t*o loopswill be different:this
the goniometer.The QE corrector loop equalizer is
to makingtwo physicallyidenticalloopselectrically
to the IooP.
dissimilar.The resultingquadrantalerror could be up mounted close
to 20" maximum. Similar considerationsapply to the senseantenna
to
Fortunately,compensation can be nradeby usinga which is required to presenta specifiedcapacitance
and possibly the receiver. Again we have a given length of cable
QE correctorloop equalizer QE
correctionbuilt into the loop. Nt>rrnaliy the combined which must not be exceededbut can be madeshorter
r.f. field producesa gleatervoltagein the longitudinal proviclecl an iqualizeris fitted. Often both an
identical' equalizer and a suscepti-former are usedto achieve
loop than in the lateralloop if the loopsare
antennas have more the statetl input capacitance to the receiver'The
This beingthe casesomeloop
susceptlformeris a passive matching devicewhich
turnson the lateralloop than the longitudinallocp,
utilizesan auto transformer to increase the effective
typical correctionUelngt Z|' in the middle of the
capacitance of the sense antenna.Typicalunitsare
quadrants.
shbwnin Fig. 3.14. As an alternativethe necessary
may be achievedin a single
Loop Alignment Error If the longitudinalloop plane matchingand equalization
senseantenna coupler. The matching/equalizing
is not parallelto the aircraft longttudinalaxis then a
unit(s) are mounted close to the antenna'
constantloop alignmenterrorwill exist.
Tire loop antennawill consistof the crossedcoils
Field Alignment Error If the loop antennais offset wound on a ferrite slab and encapsulatedin a
from the aircraft centreline the maxima of the low-draghousing. On high-speedaircraft the loop will
quadrintal error will be shifted, as will the zeros' be flush with the skin but on slower aircraft the
Consequentlythe situation wherethe NDB is at a housingmay protrude slightly, givingbetter signal
relativebearingof 0, 90, 180pr 2?0o will not give pick-up.
-
zeroerror. The senseantenna can take many forms' On large
c-apacitiveplate is
Ft transport aircraft a suppressed 'towel rail'
comrnon,whereason slower aircraft a
Loop Connector Stmy Coupling Reactive coupling
between the loop connections or between external type of antennamay be used. Generalaviation

52
N o .1 2 8 V d . c .
4OOHz

Panel
lights
supply

Corrector
box
I
No. I
VOR From Compass
No. 2 ADF hdg
or No. 2 VOR

Sense
aerial
Fig.3.l2 TypicalADF installation

aircraft might usea wire antennaor, asan alternative,


a whip antenna. Somemanufacturersnow producea
o i combinedloop and senseantennafor the general
-cc
aviationmarket.
The position of both antennasis important. The
loop shouldbe mounted on, and parallelto, the-
cenire line of the aircraft with nomore than 0'25"
Fig. 3.13 Quadrantalerror corector/loop equalizer
alignmenterror. While the loop may be on top or
(straight-through
connectionsnot shown)

Sense ae. cable


equalizer

lnsulated
sense ae.
terminal

lnner
screen
Fig; 3.t4 Senseaerial matchin!

53
bottom of the fuselage it shouldnot be mountednear
the nose,tail, largeor movableprotuberances or near
othersystemantennae.Similarconsiderations apply
to the senseantenna,althoughbeingomnidirectional
alignmentis not a problem. Ideallythe senseantenna ottO'oo'
will be mountedat the electricalcentreof the aircraft
in orderto giveaccurateover-station turn-aroundof
the bearingpointer.
The interconnectionsin the systemmust take into
accountthat the phasingof voltagesproducedby Fig. 3.15 ARINC 570 control panel (typical)
senseand loop antennaswill be different for top and
bottom mounting. The methodusedwill dependon
the manufacturer but if the systemconformsto
ARINC 570 the synchrorepeaterconnections Functiort Switch. OFF-ANT-ADF In the antenna
will be
asin Table3.1. If, asin somelight aircraft position(ANT) the receiveroperatesfronr the sense
a n t e n n ao n l y , t h e b e a L i n p g o i n t e rb e i n gp a r k e da t 9 0 "
Table3.1 Synchroconnectionsfor alternateaerial r e l a t i v e
b e a r i n g .
T h i : p o s i r i o nm a y b e u s e dl b r
locations.Indicatorsynchroreceivercorrections t u n i n g a n d N D B , l s t l t i o n
i d e n t i f i c a t i o nI.n t h e A D F
positionsignalsfrorn both loop and senseantenna
Aerial position
p r o v i d en o l n r a lA D F o p e r a t i o nt,h e R M I i n d i c a t i n g
Bottom Bottorn Top Top
loop, loop,
t h e b e a r i n go l ' t h e s t a t i o n .
loop, loop,
bottorn top top bottom
sense scnse sense sense Fretluenq,St,/ecl(rrobs Threeknobsareused;one
is nrorrntedco-ariallywith the functionswitch,to
SI sl sl S3 S3 s e l e c ft r e q u e n c yi n, 0 . 5 , l 0 a n d 1 0 0k H z i n c r e m e n t s .
Synchro 52 s2 s2 S2 s2 D i g i t r l t v p e t ' r e q u e ny ed i s p l a ys e g m e n ti sn d i c a t et h e
transmitter S3 s3 S3 SI sl selectedflr'qrrencv.The informationis passedto the
corrections Rl RI R2 RI R2 r e c e i r eur sp l r l l k ' l b . c . t i .
R2 R2 RI R2 RI
Ilcat F-requt'rtct'Oscillatr'r Sx,itch Selectsthe BFO
installations,the goniometeris in the indicator and lirr useu'henthe NDB selec:ted is identifiedby
the bearingis presented directlyratherthan by synchro t ' r n - o lk- ie-r i n g o l ' t h e ea r ri e r .
feed then the following correctionsare necessary: A nurrrberof other su,itches nraybe found on
l. loop from top to bottom: longitudinalcoil v a r i o u sc o r r t r o l l e r as s. b L i e l l yd c s c r i b ebde l o w .
connections
to goniometerstatorreversed:
2. sensefrom top to bottom: searchcoil Ftur<'tit,rrSrt,irclr. OFI-'-ANT-ADI:-l.OOPAn extra
conneCtionS
reverSed. p o s i t i o nr r l ' t l r ef u n c t i o t rs w i t c hn t a l b e p r o v i d e dt o
()pr'rilethe receiverfronr the loop ;rc.rial only. This
Obviouslyone must check fcrrwhich positior.r.t()p (rr p o s i t i o nL . O O P .w o u l db e u s e di n c o n i u n c t i o n with a
bottom, the connections arernadt-in tht supplicd I o o pc o n t r o l .
unit.
Protectionfrom interferenceis of vital intportance.
Ittop Corttrol Springloadedto ot'f. Whenop!'rated
and to this end adequatescreening of cablesshouldbe clockwiseor anticlockwise the searchcoil rotatesin
employed.ARINC 570 callsfor four individually
t h e s e l e c t e d i r e . c t i o nT. h i s c o n t r o lc l n b r .u s e df o r
shieldedco-axialcablesinsulatedand twisted.then
n r a n u adl i r e c t i o n - l i n d i n tgh. e s- e a L ccho i l b e i n gr o t a t e d
jacketed.The senseantennaconnectorshoulduse
until an audionull is achit'vedor. il'pr,rvidcd.I visual
doubleshielding(tri-axial)cable. Thc.cableruns
t u n i n gi n d i c a t o ri n d i c a t eus n u l l . A l t h o t r g hr t o t u s e d
shouldbe clearof any high-leveltrlnsrrrittingcables
in most rnodernequipmentsthis doeshuvethe
or a.c.powercables.
advantage overADF that the nulls arr.sharper;ADF
operationwould lraveto be usedto scnsethe correct
null.
Controls and Operation
Gain Cotttntl An auiliogaincontrol is usually
A standardARINC 570 control prrrcirsillustratedirr providedand rnayhe annolatedvolume. On at least
F i g .3 . 1 5 . one svstr'nrthe gain0f'tht' R.F. ampsis manually

54
adjustablewherrANT or LOOP is selected,whereas Sensilivity
audio gain is controlled on ADF. Signal+ noiseto noiseratio 6 dB or better with
35 pV/m field strengthmoduiated30 per cent at
Beat Frequency Oscillator Tone A rotary switch, = l'0.
1000Hz and l.ri-root-cap
givingb.f.o. on-off,and a potentiometermay be
mounted on the sameshaft turned by the b.f.o.
Station Interference
control. Whenswitchetlon the frequencyof the
An undesiredsignalfrom a source90o to that ofthe.
b.f.o. canbe adjusted,so varyingthe tone in the
desiredsignalat the frequenciesand relativcsignal
headset.
levelslisted in Table 3.2 shallnot causea changein
indicatedbearingof more than 3".
heselect Frequency Capability Provision can be
madefor in useand standby frequenciessele'cted by Receiver Selectivity
meansof a transferswitch. Whenfrequencyselection
Passband at leastl'9 kHz at -6 dB pointsnot more
is madeonly the standbyfrequencychanges.
than 7 kHz at -60 dB points. Resonantfrequency
Switchingthe transferswitch (TFR) will now reverse
within 1 175 Hz of selectedfrequencv.
the rolesof in-useand standby frequencies.Both
frequenciesare displayedand clearannunciationof
which is in useis required.
Calibrationand Testingon the Ramp

Loop Swing
Characteristicrs The procedurefor determiningthe signand sizeof
errorsin an ADF installationis known as a loop
The following characteristicsare selectedand
swing. On initial installationa swingshouldbe
summarizedfrom the ADF SystemMark 3 ARINC
;arriedout at l5o headingintervals.Checkswings
570.
should be carriedout whenevercalledfor in the
maintenanceschedule,after a lightning strike, when
Frequency Selection
an airframemodification closeto the ADF antennais
Range:190-1750kHz; spacing:0.5 kHz; channelling
completedor when a new avionicsystemis installed.
time lessthan 4 s; parallelb.c.d.frequencyselection
The checkswingis carriedout at 45o intervals. A
with provisionfor serialb.c.d.
sving should not be carriedout within + 2 h of sunset
or sunriseto avoid night effect.
ADF Accuracv
+ 2o excludingq.e. for any field strengthfrom The loop swingmay be carriedout in the air dr on
the ground. The advantageof an air swingis that the
50 !V/m to 100000 pV/m, assuminga senseaerial
aircraft is operatingin its nclrmalenvironmentaway
quality factor of 1.0. (Senseaerialquality factor =
from external disturbancesbut, in someways, a
effectiveheight X squareroot of capacitance,
ground swingis to be preferred,sincereadingsmay be
i.e.ii-root-cap).
taken more accurately. If the loop is mounted on the
13- excludingq.e.for a field strengthaslow as
bottom of the t'uselage the swingmay be affectedby
25 pYlm.
+ 3" after q.e.correction. the closeproximity of the ground,in which casean
air swing should be carriedout. An installation
should be checkedby air test after q.e.shavebeen
ADF Hunting
corrected.
k s s t h a nI 1 " .
Ground Swing A groun{ loop swing must be carried
Table 3.2 Station interferenceconditions.with out at a site known not to introduce bearingerrors.
referenceto desiredfrequency A basesuitablefor compassswingswill not necessarily
be suitable for loop swings. A survey using portable
Undesiredfrequency Unde sired signal stre ngth direction finding (D/F) equipmentmust be carried
out if the site is doubtful.
t2kHz -4 dB The loop may be swung with referenceto true or
t3kHz -10 dB magneticnorth. Using true north hasthe advantage
t6kHz -55 dB that the loop swingingbasemay be permanently
t7 kHz -70 dB marked out. If the swing is with referenceto
magretic north the loop should be calibrated using a

55
datum compass,suchas the medium landingcompass' are recordedon a loop swingrecord chart, a specimen
whic,hshouldbe alignedwith the longitudinalaxis of of which is shownasTable3.3.
the aircraft and positionedabout 100 ft from the The correction(D) is the sigred anglewhich must
aircraft. To sight the longitudinalais, sightingrods be addedto the indicatedmagneticbearingof the
or clearlyvisibleplumb linesmay be fixed to the station (B + C) in order to give the true ma^gnetic
aircraft centreline. Use of an upright nose'mounted bearingie). So, for example,adding-5'5o to 41" +
propellerand the verticalstabilizermay suffice 354' gives389'5' = 29'5oasrequired.
providingsightingis carriedout carefullyfrom a When completedthe valuesobtainedin the final
suitabledistance. For a checkswingthe aircraft gyro column shouldbe plotted as a q.e- correctioncurve,
magneticcompassmay be usedprovidedthis hasbeen asshownin Fig. 3.16. The average of the absolute
recentlyswung,correctedand a calibrationchart values of the peaks gives the amount of correction
madeout. required.the polarity being givenby the sign of the
The aircraft must contain its full complementof correctionin the first quadrant. So in the example
equipment. Doors and panelsin the vicirfity of the givenwe have:
ADF antennasmust be closed. Internal power
suppliesshouldbe usedwheneverpossiblesincethe 12.5+ 12.5+ 16 + l7'5 = +14'625"
externalgeneratorand lead may causeerrorsin the 4
readings.
The ADF is tuned to a station or NDB within asthe requiredcorrection. The correctionis made by
rangeand of a known magneticbearingfrom the site. suitablechoiceof componentsin the QE corrector
With the aircraft on the requirednumber of headings loop equalizeras instructedby the manufacturer.
The correctionshouldbe more or lessthe samefor
the ADF readingand the aircraft magneticheading
identicalinstallationsin a particularaircraft type.
Once the prototype hashad a calibrationswingand
Table 3.3 Loop swing recordchart the componentvaluesare chosen,subsequentswings
on seriesaircraft shouldshow the error boundedby
A/CTailNo ............. A/CType............-..I 3" asrequired.
Loop alignmenterror is givenby the averageof the
Time10.00 Base'..'...........-......'.
Date....................,....
-
Station Droitwich Freq.200kHz Mag'Brg (A)029'5 peaks. So in the examPlewe have:

Magneticheading Autornattc direction Correction l2'5 - 16+ l2'5 - l7'5 = -2'125


datum compass linding relative bearing (D) 4
(B) (c)
Sincethis is in excessof t 0'25o this error should be
028 001.5 0
-5.5 taken out by re-alignmentof the loop.
041 354
-l1.0 The line correction= -2'125 has beendrawn on
054.5 346
073 333 - l6'5 Fiq. 3.16. The correctioncurveshouldcrossthis line
089 318 - 17.5 atb, gO, 180 urd 270' if thereis no field alignment
105'5 298 -14.0 error. Within the limits of the accuracyof the plot
r22 272 -4.5 and the scalewe can seethat this is the casein our
135 247 7-5 example.If therewerea field alignmenterror it
153 224 12.5 would be measuredalongthe horizontal axis.
t72 206 I1.5
184 197 8.5
Air Swing An *ir swing should be carried out in
198 187 4.5
-2.5 smooth air conditionsin order to eliminatedrift
213 179
230 169 -9.5 errors. There are variousmethodswhich may be
242 160 -12.5 employedbut all involveflying a particular pattern
257 r48 - 15.5 over a clearly definedpoint or points sgmedistance
271.5 134 - 16.0 from the transmitterwhich is to be usedfor the swing'
286 115 -11.5 Magneticheadingand ADF relativebearingare noted
302 088 -0.5 forl number of headings,every 10" or I 5o,depending
317 063 9'5 on the pattern flown. The aircraft should be inland
332 u5 12.5 of the transmitterwhen readingsare taken to avoid
34s 032 t2'5 '
coastalrefractionproblems' Recordingand plotting
358 02l 10.5
is as for the ground swing.

s6
various headinp when overhead of the referenoe
point.

SenseAntenna CapacitanceCheck
The total capacitanceof the senseantennaand feeder
shouldbe checkedwhen calledfor in the maintenance
schedule.wheneverthe senseantennaor feederis
changed,upon initial installationor if a possiblefault
condition is suspected.A capacitancebridgeor Q
meter operatingat 650 kHz shouldbe usedfor the
measurement.

Functional Test
Ideally there will be at leastone station or NDB
within rangein each quadrant; in busy regionsthis will
ccrtainly be so, for example,at London Heathrow
more than twenty beaconscan be receivedunder good
conditions. The true magneticbearingof those
beaconsto be usedmust be known. An accuracy
checkis performedby tuning into a beaconin each
Fig.3.16 Quadrantal errorcorrectioncurvefor Table3.3 quadrantand ensuringthat for eachthe pointer
indicatesthe bearingto within the limits laid down in
the procedure,say t 5o. The figure givenwill only be
Two possiblemethodsare position-lineswinging achievableif the aircraft is well away from largemetal
and single-pointswinging. With the first method a objects,and if the test is not carriedout within 2 h of
seriesof landmarkswhich give a ground referenceline sunriseor sunset. Useof externalpower may also
alignedwith a distant transmitterare chosen. A giveerroneousreadings.
zig-zagpattern is flown, both toward and away from All controls shouldbe operatedto ensurecorrect
the transmitter,the readingsbeing taken'asthe functioning. In particularif a loop control is^
aircraft crossesthe line at variousheadings.With the providedthe pointer shouldbe displaced170" first
secondmethod a clearly defined point, some distance clockwiseand then anticlockwisefrom the correct
from the transmitter,is chosen. A cloverleaf pattern reading,to which the pointer shouldreturn without
is flown centredon this point, readingsbeing takenon excessive hunting.

6'
4 V.h.f.omnidirectionalrange
(voR)

lntroduction to, or departurefrom, a stationon a particular


bearing,steeringinformationcanbe derivedfrom the
Prior to World War II it was realizedthat the receivedVOR signals.It is this latter facility which
propagationanomalies experienced with low- and makesVOR so usefulin airwaysflying, stationscan
medium-frequency navigationaidslimited their be placedstrategicallyalongso-called Victor airways
usefulnes3 asstandardsystemsfor a sky which was and the pilot can then, by selectionof the appropriate
becomingevermore crowded. A systemcalled radials,fly from stationto stationeitherby obeying
four-course low-frequencyrangewaswidely steeringcommandsor by feedingthe sameto the
implenrented in the United Statesduringthe 1930s; autopilot.
this gavefour coursesto or from eachgroundstation To obtain a position fix liom VOR one needs
and fltted in quite nicelywith a systemof fixed bearingsto two separatestationstwhen usedin this
airways.A problenrwith the four-coursesystemis way VOR can be considereda theta-tl-reta system.If a
that eachstationonly providesfor two intersecting VOR stationis colocated with a DME stationan \
airways;a more complexjunction requiresrnore aircraftcan obtain a fix usingthe pair asa rho-thetai
courses.The above,coupledwith increasedaltitude system.The VOR/DME systemircurrentliTil
of flying rnakinglineof-sightfrequencies usefulat internationalshort-range navigationstandard.ln
longerranges,and the developtnent of v.h.f. comms, recentyearsthis systenrhasbecomeevenmore
led to the adoptionof v.h.f.omnidirectionalrange versatileu'ith the adventof airborneequipmentwhich
( V O R ) a ss t a n d a r d i n t h e U n i t e dS t a t e si n 1 9 4 6a n d caneffectivelyrepositionan existingVOR/DME
internationallyin 1949. The competitionftrr an s t a t i o nt o g i v ea ' p h a n t o mb e a c o n ' c o m p l e twei t h
internationalstandardsystemwas fierce,the leading radialswhich can be flown usingVOR-derived
contenderafter VOR beingDeccaNavigator.lt is steeringinforrnation. This developmentis considered
debatablewhetherthe technicallysuperiorsvstem i n C h a p t e r1 2 .
waschosen,but certainlyVOR wascheaper.had the
advantage of a largehome market,and hasdone the
job adequatelyeversince. Basic Principles
The VOR systemoperatesin the 108-l !8 MHz
band with channelsspiced at sO kHiffiT[ A sinrpleanalogyto VOR is givenby imagininga
sharedwith ILS localizertt. ffiing lig;hthouse which enritsan omnidirectionalpulseof
allocatedto
160of the 200 availablechannels.Of these160 light everytime the beam is pointingdue north. If
cfrannels12Oareallocatedto VOR stationsintended the speedof rotation of the beamis known, a distant
for en route navigationwhile the other forty are forobservercould recordthe time intervalbetweerr
tClrn!ryLYQR statim!_(TVORL The output porver seeingthe onrnidirectionalflashand seeingthe beam,
o f a n e n r o u t es t a t i o nw i l l b e a b o u t2 0 0 W p r o v i d i n s
and l'rencecalculatethe bearingof the lighthouse.
a serviceup tL49-laulieal n,iles.itTfleouency wilf In realitya VOR stationradiatesv.h.f. energy
modulatedwith a retbrencephasesignal- the
b e w i t h i n t l r eb a n d I l 2 - l l 8 M H z . A T V O R w i l l h a v e
an output power of Ebgnl5)-t{-providing a serviceof omnidirectionallight - and a variablephasesignal-
up to about ]5_!sg.l[salmiles,its frequencywill be the rotatingbeam. The bearingof the aircraft
within the bundI9&I2_I4I&, thisbelngthe part of dependson the phasedifferencebetweenreference
thetotalbandshared with ILS localizer. and variablephases-- time differencebetweenlight
The crew of an approp.iatelyequippedaircraftcan a n db e a m .
tune into a VOR stationwithin rangeand readthe The radiation frorn a qgnventionalVOR (CVOR)
bearingto the stationand the relativebearingof the stationis a horizontallypolarizedv.h.f.wave
station. Should the flight plan call for an approach modulatedas follows:

58

$el{*,!
Sin pt coc \
a/

Cosnt
rcos
Cos qrt I
I

I
I
I

2r.3OHz
2n.1"MHz

Fig.4.l Groundstationblockdiagram,
v.o.r,

t . 30 Hz a.m.: the variablephasesignal. at Xo magneticbearing/roz the station the variable


2 . 9 9 6 0 H 2 a . m . : t h i s i s a z u b c a r r i e r f r e q u e n c y , p h a s e w i l l / a g t h e r e f e r " e n c e p n u t " u y i ;r.i g u r e s + . t ,
modulatedat 30 Hz with a deviation of 4.2 and4.3 illustrate th. b.ii" priniiples.
1480 Hz. The 30 Hz signalis the reference The airborneequipmentreceivesthe composite
phase' signalradiatedby ihe station to which the receiveris
3 . l02Q Fz a'm': identification signalkeyed to tuned. After deiection the variousmodulatingsignals
providemorse code identification at least three- are separatedby filters. The 30 Hz referenceiigrul is
gjnes each39-s. Wherea voR and5ffitre-
co-locatedthe identificationtransmissions are
synchronized (associated identity,see Variabled
Chapter7). 3O Hz a.m.
4. Voice a.m.: the VOR systemcan be usedas a
ground-to-aircommunicationchannelas long as
this doesnot interfere with its basicnavisational
function. The frequency rangeof the vo]ce
modulation is limited to
SQOXZ-
The 30 Hz variablephaseis spacemodulated in
that the necessaryamplitude variation in the received
signalat the aircraft is achievedby radiatinga cardioid
patternrotatingat 1800 r.p.m. The frequency
modulated9960 Hz sub-carrieramplitude modulates
the r.f. at sourcebefore radiation. It is arransedthat
an aircraft due north of the beaconrryillreceiie
variableand referencesignalsin phase,for an aircraft Flg 4.2 Frequency spectrum:CVOR spacesignals

59
:l
1
,s
I

REFER€'{CE PHASE
SIGNAL (FM)
ALL RAOIALS

V A R I A E L €P H A S E
S I G N A L( A M )

sEcoNo
ib

FESULI ilI
ROTATTNGPATTERil

I O oR A D i A L
I 996otsr SU8CAnRIER
UNIO0ULATE0 FR€O MOO AT 3oxt
ROfAT ING
oIPOLE PATT€RI

stcono
I
+sEcoro -

-"2to'

r-f-F-1- -r-
o r tttono

I
R E f E R E T C EP H A S € V O L T A G E
I A F T E Rf X O E T E C T I O N )

= ' .
c <
Z l
VOLTAGESAT AIRCRAFT
ON 24O' RADIAL
a

240"

.l .
o r R € c T l O NO F P O Sr r V E L O S E
vaRrAEL€ IHASE VOLTIGE o OF ROTATING ATTENNA
TAFTERAT OETECTIOtr)

CVOR (courtesyKing Radio


Fig 4.3 Phaserelationships,
Corp.)

be presentedto the pilot' Figure 4'4


phase compared with the variablesignal,the difference station ian stationis the
'ln itfurt*t.t thatihe relativebearingto the
ohaseeivinethe bearingfrom the station' The the station
to Aiii.r.n.. betweenthe magneticbearing-to
actualreiding presentedto the pilot is the bearing An RMI is used to.display
in .na tn. aircraftheading.
the station ralher than from, so if the difference in
signalis 135' the information. Suchinstrumentsare considered
ohasebet*een variableand reference 3. In this application the card is drivenby
'to' bearingwould be 135 + 180 = 315", asshown air;;i.r
ift" readingat
th. .n*putt, asnormal,so that the card
-- Fig.4.4.
in heading' At the same
lubber line is the aircraft
liio.p*s information (heading)is combinedwith ttre to a position determined by
the titnt u pointtr is driven
the VORderived bearingthe relativebearingof

60
fly-left or fly-right signalsare derived and presentedto
the pilot.
A complicationis that radial information depends
135"(Froml only on the phasedifferencebetweenmodulating
signalsand is independentofheading; hencethe
fly-right or fly-left information may sendthe aircraft
'long way
the round'. Further, when an aircraft is on
course,i.e. the steeringcommandis nulled, the
aircraft may be headingeither toward or away from
the station on the selectedradial. A TO/FROM
indication removesthe ambiguity. With the aircraft
heading,roughly, towards(away from) the station
and the TO/FROM indicator indicatingTO (FROM),
the steeringinformation givesthe most direct path in
order to intercept the selectedradial.
If the referencephase(R) is phaseshiftedby the
Fig.4.4 To/frommagnetic bearingsandrelativebearing selected course(C) and then comparedwith the
variablephase,a fly-right indicationwill be givenif
R + C lagsV, while if R + C leadsV, the command
the differenceb€tweenthe bearingto the station and will be fly-left. If we now add 180 to the
the heading. A differentialsynchroor resolveris used phase-shifted relbrencephasewe haveR + C + 180
to give the requiredangulardifference. Figure4.5 which will, on addition, either cancelV, partially or
strowsthe RMI presentationcorrespondingto the completely,in whict casea TO indicationwill be
situationdiagramshownin Fig.4.4. Only one pointer given,or reinforceV, partially or completely,in
is shown,for clarity. which casea FROM indication will be given.
'automatic' Figure4.6 showstwo possiblesituations. ln both
The previoustwo paragraphsrefer to
VOR, so calledsincethe pilot needdo no more than casesthe selectedcourseis 042,i.e. the pilot wishes
svitch on and tune in to an in-rangestation in order to fly towardsthe station on the 222 radial or away
to obtainbearinginformation. 'Manual'VOR from the station on the 042 radial. With aircraft A
requiresthe pilot to selecta particularradial on which we havea fly-left and a TO indication;with aircraft B
he wants to positionhis aircraft. The actual radial on we havea fly-right and a FROM indication. Note that
which the aircraft is flying is comparedwith the if the headingsof the aircraft were reversed,the
indicationswould be the satne,so sendingthem the
desiredradial. If the two are different the appropriate 'long
way round'. Figure4.7 showsan electronic
deviationindicator correspondingto aircraft B. The
indication at top right showsthe aircraft to be on the
022 radialfrom a secondVOR station.

DopplerVOR (DVOR)

The useof CVOR leadsto considerablesite errors


where the station is installedin the vicinity of
obstructionsor where aircraft are requiredto fly over
mountainousterrain while usingthe station. The
error is causedby multi-path receptiondue to
reflectionsfrom the obstructions,and givesrise to
coursescalloping,roughnessand/or bendswhen the
aircraft is flown to follow steeringcommands.The
terms useddescribingthe courseunder these
conditionsrefer to the nature of the departurefrom a
straightline course. DVOR is relativelyinsensitiveto
siting effectswhich would renderCVOR unusable.
Although the method of modulationis completely
Fig. 4.5 RMI presentation different DVOR is compatiblewith CVOR in that

61
Flv right

O42 (Froml

Fly left

From

R+420

v.-
From
fly right
(R + 42' lags V)

R+1800t42'

R+42'

il, :;ii
,'i'

To
O42 (To) fly left
(R + 42' leads V)

R+1800+42"

Fig' 4.6 Fly'left/flv-right and'to/from' situation diagram

,i*- :
airbome equipment will give the correct indications at 30 Hz anticlockwisearoundthe ring of antennas.
when usedwith stationsof either type. In the DVOR To a receiver,remote from the site,it appearsasif the
the referencesigrralis 30 Hz a.m. while the variable signalsourcesareapproachingand receding,and
sigrralis 30 Hz f.m. on a 9960 Hz sub-carrier.Since hencethe receivedsigral suffers a Doppler shift
the rolesof the a.m. and f.m. are reversedwith respect (see Chapter l0). -With a diameterof l3'5 m and
to CVOR the variablephaseis arrangedto lead the rotation speedof 30 r.p.s.the tangentialspeedat the
reference phase by X" for an aircraft at X" magtetic periphery is n X l3'5 X 30 = 1272m.p.s. At the
bearingfrom the station (cf. CVOR). centrefrequencyof the v.h.f. band, I l3 MHz, one
In a double sidebandDVOR (DSB'DVOR) the rycle occupiesapproximately2'65 m, thus the
carrier,/", with 30 Hz (and identification)a.m. is maximum Dopplershift is 127212'65= 480 Hz.
radiatedfrom an omnidirectionalantenna. Two ln the airbornereceiverthe sidebandsmix with the
unmodulatedr.f. sidebandsigrals,one 9960 Hz above carrierat /. to produce9960 t 480 Hz. Single
/c, the other 9960 Hz below /", are radiatedfrom sidebandand altematesidebandDVOR are possible,
antennasdiametricallyopposite in a ring of about but sincethey compromisethe performanceof the
fifty antennas. Theselatter sigtals are commutated systemthey will not be discussed.

62
instrumentson which VOR information is displayed
aremulti-function hencequite complexswitching
arrangements are involved. Figure4.9 showsone
VOR/ILS systemof a typical dual instatlation;only
thoseoutputs from VOR are shown.
The antennamay serveILS aswell asVOR but
someaircraft haveseparateantennas,particularlyif
all-weatherlandingis a requirementwhen the.
optimum position for the localizerantennamay not
suit VOR. If separateantennasare usedwith a
common r.f. feed to the receiverthe switchinglogic
will be derivedfrom the channelselectionmadeat
the control unit. The VOR antennaemploys
horizontal polarizationwith an omnidirectional
radiationpattern. A horizontal dipole is often used
with the dipole elementsforming a 'V' shapeto givea
more nearly omnidirectionalpattern. Sincethe
dipole is a balancedload and the co-ax.feederis
unbalanced(with respectto earth) a balun (balanced
to unbalancedline transformer)is used. The dipole
may be mounted on the verticalstabilizeror on a
Fig.4.7 IN-2014electroniccoursedeviationindicator stand-offmast, top-mountedon the fuselage.
(courtesyBendixAvionicsDivision) The VOR/ILS receivercontainsa conventional
superhet,a filter for separationof signiilsand a
Referencery'
converterto providethe requiredoutputs which aro
30 Hz a.m.

l. audioto AIS;
2. bearinginformation to two RMIs;
3. deviationfrom selectedradial;
4. TO/FROMsignal;
5. flag or,warningsignal.

The RMI feed is the result of the automaticVOR


operation. Sincethe pointer on the RMI movesto a
position givingrelativebearingwith respectto the
lubber line the magneticbearing(omnibearing)must
9960 be combinedwith headinginformation aspreviously
t +8oHz described.The necessary differentialsynchroor
Fig.4.8 Frequencyspectrum- DVOR spacesignals resolverwill be in the receiveror, in the caseof
equipmentconformingwith ARINC 579,in the RMl.
ln the former casemagneticbearing(mag.)is required
by the receiver,this beingobtainedfrom the compass
Aircraft lnstallation systemvia the RMI. The necessary switchingfor
displayingVOR as opposedto ADF information, on
SinceVOR and ILS localizers occupythe sameband either or both of the pointers,is on the RMI.
of frequenciesthey invariablysharethe samereceiver The deviationand TO/FROM signalsare the result
which will alsocontain the necessary circuits to of manualVOR operation. Thesesteeringcommands
extractthe requiredinformation. It is not aredisplayedon a coursedeviationindicator(CDI) an
uncommonfor v.h.f. comm. and v.h.f. nav. to share electronicversionof which is shownin Fig.4.7. The
the samereceiver,particularlywith generalaviation CDI, however,may not be a stand-alone unit; it is
equipment.It is expectedthat the 'all v.h.f.in one likely to be part of a multi-function indicator known
box' trendwill continue- by a variety of namessuchashorizontal situation
A largeairliner,and indeedmost aircraft from indicator(HSl) or pictorial navigationindicator PNL
twins up, hasa dual v.h.f. nav.installation. The In the installationshownin Fis. 4.9 an HSI is used

63
Captain'scontrol panel

Norm
DME1
l1lo S/byt ) Test
DME
Comprss

Power RF

Captain -:-| Audio ,.


N o .1 V O R / I L S R x -----f Fl ight interohone
RMI F----------,-----

To DEV Flag
From
FlO
RMI
transfer relay
I
J
oBs Captain'sVOR/ILS
transfer relay
lentral
nstrumenl
rarning panel

rNs Captain'sRAD/INS
relay

Captain'sHSI

Fig 4.9 TypicalVOR installation

with remote courseselection(o.b.s.- omnibearing


selection)fitted, say,on an autopilot/flightdirector
mode selectpanel. Figure4.10 illustratesthe
King KPI 552 PNI wherethe built-ino.b:s.,
iniolporated(courseknob),hasbeensetto 335", a
fly-right commandis beinggivenby the deviationbar
and we havea TO indication(largearrow'headabove
aircraft symbol).
Variousswitchingarrangements arepossible;those
shownillustratethe captain'schoiceof VOR/lLS I '
VOR/lLS2 or inertialnavigationsystem(lNS)
informationbeingdisplayedon his HSI. Switching
betweenVOR/lLS I or 2 is achieved by meansof the
transferrelay(TFR/RLY) while VOR/lLS or INS
switchingis by meansof the radio/lNS(R.AD/lNS)
relay. The first officer (F/O) hasa similar
arrangementat his disposal.Deviationsignalsfrom
numberI systemto F/O'sHSI and from number2
systemto captain'sHSI may be via isolation
Fig.4.l0 KPI 552 pictorialnavigationindicator amplifiers.
(courtesyKing RadioCorp.) The flag signalis of vital importance since it gives

il

.ir*
warningof unreliabledata from the VOR/ILS
out of phasethere is no lateralmovementof the
receiver.It will be fed to all instrumentsselected
to deviationbar. Sinceit is simplerto determinewhen
displayVOR/ILS information and often to a central two signalsare in phasequadrature(at 90.) a 90"
instrumentwarningsystem(CIWS). Shouldthe phaseshifter may be inclutledin the referencechannel
deviationsignalbe fed to the automatic flight control prior to feedingthe phasecomparatorwhere
system(AFCS),then obviouslyso must the flag or
detectionof phasequadraturewill giveno movement
warningsignal.
ofthe deviationbar. In the absenciofeither or both
of the signalsthe flag will be in view.
'To'or 'from'
informationis derivedby comparing
Controls and Operation the variablephasewith the referencephaseshifted bi
the OBSsettingplus l80o It follows-tharif the
The controlleris not particularlycomplicated. referencephasehas beenshifted by 90o before
Frequencyselectionis achievetlby roiation of two feedingthe deviationphasecomparatorwe only
knobs,mountedco-axiallyor separately, so reqrrirea further 90" phaseshift before feedingthe
determiningthe appropriate2/5 code fed to the 'to/from'phase
comparatorratherthan a lgOdphase
receiver.It is normal for DME frequencyselection shift asillustratedin Fig. 4.1l. If the inputs to the
to be madefrom the sarnecontroller with DMg 'to/from'
phasecomparatorarewithin, say,+ g0o of
standby,normal and test switchingalsoprovided beingin phasethen a TO indicationis given;if within
(s-eeChapter7). Self-testswitchingfaciities for t 80'of being in anri-phasea FROM intication is
the
YOR/ILSareprovided. Additiona]controls,other given;otherwiseneither a TO nor a FROM indication
than thoseshown in Fig. 4.9, may be provided, is given.
namelyVOR/lLS on-off and audio vo-lume. For automaticVOR operationthe reference
The locationof displayswitchesand the course channelis phase-shiftedand comparedwith the
.
selector hasbeentnentionedpreviously,ashas the variablephase.If the two inputsarein phase
interpretationof indicationsgiven to itre pilot. quadraturethere is no drive to the motor, otherwise
the motor will turn, changingthe amount by which
the referencephaseis shifted until phasequadratureis
Simplified Block Diagram Operation achieved.The motor connectionsare arrangedso that
the stablenull of the loop givesthe requirei shaft
Receivedsignalsare selected,amplified and detected position which representsthe magneticbearingto the
by a conventionalsingleor doubie superhetreceiver. station. Compassinformationis fed to a differential
The detectedoutput is a compositesignalwhich must synchro,the rotor of which is turned by the motor
be separated into its cornponentpartsby meansof following station magneticbearing. ThL difference
appropriate filtering circuits. signalrepresentsrelativebearingwhich positionsthe
The audiosignal,1020Hz identification,is routed appropriateRMI pointer via.asynchrorepeater. The
.
via an amplifier and possiblya volume contiol on the RMI card is positionedby compassinformation.
v.h.f. nav.controller to the flight interphone
sub-system of the AIS. The associatedaudio filter
may be switchableto give a passbandof 300-3000Hz Characteristics
when the VOR systemis being usedas a ground-to-air
communicationlink. The following characteristics
are selectedand
^^ lh9_referencephasechannel(CVOR) consistsof a summarizedfrom ARINC characteristic579-1. li
9960 Hz filter, a discriminatorto deteci the 30 Hz shouldbe noted that there are radicaldifferencesin
l.m. and,-not shown, amplifier circuits. Limiting of outputs,betweenARII{C 579-l and the older
the signaltakesplace before the discriminatorto re- ARINC 547 with which many in-servicesystems
move unwantedamplitude variatipns. The 30 Hz ref- conform.
erencesignal(R) then undergoesvariousphase
shifts.
For manualVOR operation,as previously Frequency Selection
mentioned,we need to shift R by the selectld 160 channels,50 kHz spacing,range108-117.95MHz.
course.This is achievedby the phase-striftresolver, Standard2/5 selectionsystem.
the rotor of which is coupledtqthe courseor OBS Channellingtime lessthan 60 ms.
knob. A digital readoutof the selectedcourseis
provided. The phase-shiftedR is now comparedwith Receiver
the variablephasesigrral. If they are in phaseor lg0" Satisfactoryoperationwith 1.5 pV sigral.

65
To AIS

Ref. channel

Deviation
bar

Flag

cDt/oBS

To/From

-------l

Compass

VOR
blockdiagram'
Fig.4.lI Simplified

"
natf "t 31'5kHz' i"pr1""l'it'-i:"t:mmfll fri?:n|;Tfii:"'
Nomorethan6dBattanuationat/.i|7kiz;atanaloguesigralprooortionaltoperpendicularlinear
60dBattenuatio
reast stationis requtrt of the
of whichis ananalogue
o*'' the spaiing
'Tt;digh-leutl
outputshouldgive2 V across
outputs . ^^n .nn , ffiil;
of 200-500Q within
Audio:at least100mWinto a load ..nt'lt"'
adjustable
i ziio ii r*a.fo'?"ou'* deviation corresponding
I modulated30 per
t:: -:- rhe
from a 3 pV input ,ignuirnoaututed ;;;; t s to t lb nautical miles'
1000Hz.
infractional
ouJput
it blli:'fo'* io*i'u'r ":f:;.'lfi1.Ti;:'%tti\;b"o*;l*"
digital
omni-bearing:
#:'fi:iJffift,:ft1,;Tlsts":lT{:: :J"'i,*:::i1!";;;;;:;r'.'^'n3-n1
flightcontrolsystem
i;;; ;t usedby the automatic
-ih. of the ""'"'
bearing, In the eventof lossof
one
voltages, proportiori?,rr."rt. moi.iocprt'
theotherto its cosine. .nulogu.ou,puti, Gat-l 19 DMEthe deviation
t*o iistanctinfotmationfrom the
to feed"t OBS ;i;l''"'*irnu*'of revertto an angular
desiened
nr'" friiJn'.;. not lnt"r.t 'r^6-*-'- o;tp"t should.automatically
uigruute v for 10" off
purau.lconnected atui'tion *"d;;'f;;;;'n er-vi1g^z
*i*, Wts used with ARINC 547' . to ARINC 579 deviationoutputs
ani'f-.*-i**f d'c' voltage "out"' (Note:iti"i
Deviation:a trigh-levef

66
Fig.4.l2 Ttc T-308VOR/ILStestset(courtesy
Tel-lnstrument
Electronics
Corp.)

representedangulardisplacenrent.) The CRM 555 operateson any of the 160 VOR


TO/FROM:groundreferenced providing2 mA for channelswith a frequencyaccuracyof
eachof two 200 Q loadsin parallel. In additiona 10.0035 per cent(--10'C to +30oC).Modulationof
lowlevel output of 200 gA may be provided to feed the carrieris suchthat the simulatedbearingmay be
olderinstruments. set to any readingbetween0 and 360o with a
Warning:high level,28 V d.c. valid, absentinvalid. calibrationaccuracvof t l" or mav be switchedin
low level,between300 and 900 rnV valid, lessthan 45o stepswith an u..uru.y of t 0.3". Carrierpower
100 mV invalid. The low level signalshould be canbe attenuatedin I dB stepsbetween0 dBm and
capableof driving frorn one to five 1000 Sl parallel -120 dBm (0 dBm corresponds to an output of
loads. The VOR digital output should also include I mW). A self-testfacility is provided. The
warningbits. NAV-401L offers similarfacilitiesbut is more 'state
of the art' and so offersStighttymore in the way of
Ramp Testing performance.
The TIC T-278 is part of the T-308 test set
Testingof VOR shouldalwaysbe carriedout with a illustratedin Fig.4.12. The facilitiesarenot as
ramp test set capableof being tuned to any VOR 'extensiveas either of the previouslymentionedtest
frequency,radiatingsufficient energyto allow setsbut it has the advantageofeaseof operationand
satisfactoryoperationof the VOR and providing a lesscost. It is FCCtype accepted.Operationis on
meansof simulatingvariousVOR radials. Most test 108'00MHz radiatedfrom a telescopicantenna.
setsincludeprovisionfor testingILS aswell as VOR. Bearings of 0,90, 180 and 270" canbesimulated
Among thoseavailableare the CossorCRM 555. both TO and FROM, alternatelyvariation,90-l l0'
'to'
IFR NAV4OIL. or270-290o'from', is available.A J lo switch

6'

*:;
givesa usefulsticky needlecheck. set attenuatoror moving the test set antennafurther
Actual testingshouldbe carriedout in accordance away. Various bearingsshouldbe simulated(check
with the procedureslaid down, but briefly it would 'to'or 'from'
whether they are station), the
involvecorrectly positioningthe test set antennaand appropriatereadingshouldbe checkedon the RMI
radiatingon sufficient frequenciesto test frequency and the OBS operatedso as to check the manual
selectionof the VOR. Sensitivitymay be checkedby mode of VOR.
reducingthe r.f. levelreceivedeither by use of the test

68
5 lnstrumentlandingsystem

Introduction Table5.1 ICAOvisibilitycategories

In order to be able to land the aircraft safelyunder Category d.h. r.v.r.


visualflight rules(VFR), i.e. without any indication
from instrumentsasto the aircraft'sposition relative I 60 m (200ft) 8 0 0 m 2( 600ft)
to the desiredapproachpath, the pilot must haveat II 30 m (100ft) 400 m l 200ft)
least3 mileshorizontal visibility with a ceilingnot IIIA 200m 700 ft)
lessthan 1000 ft. Although most landingsare carried IIIB 3 0 m l 50 ft)
out under theseconditionsa significantnumber are IIIC Zerc
not; consequently, wereit not for instrumentaidsto
landinga considerableamount of revenuewould be
lost due to flight cancellationsand diversions. operationalcapabilities.Thus if the ILS facility is
One method of aidingthe pilot in the approachto categoryII, the pilot would be able to land the
an airport is to usea precisionapproachradar(PAR) aircraft in conditionswhich correspondedto those
systemwhereby the air traffic controller,havingthe quotedin Table5.1. An obviousextensionof the
aircraft 'on radar',can giveguidanceover the idea of a pilot manuallyguidingthe aircraft with no
v.h.f.-r.t. The alternativemethod is to provide extemal visualreferenceis to havean autopilot which
'flies'
instrumentation in the cockpitgivingsteering the aircraft in accordancewith signalsfronr the
information to the pilot which, if obeyed,will cause ILS (and other sensors includingradioaltimeter)i.e.
the aircraft to make an accurateand safedescentand automaticlanding.
touchdown. The latter, which may be
complemented/monitored by PAR, is the method
which concernsus here. BasicPrinciples
Early ILS date back to beforeWorld War II; the
GermanLorentz beingan example. During the war Drectional radio beams,modulatedso€s to enable
the currentILS wasdeveloped and standardized in airborneequipmentto identify the beamcentres,
the United States. The basicsystemhasremained define the correct approachpath to a particular
unchangedeversincebut increasedaccuracyand runway. In addition verticaldirectionalbeams
reliability haveresultedin landing-minimum providespot checksofdistance to go on the approach.
visibilityconditionsbeingreduced. The total systemcomprisesthree parts,eachwith a
The ICAO havedefinedthree catesoriesof transmitteron the ground and receiverand signal
visibility.the third of which is subdivided . All processor in the aircraft. Lateralsteeringis provided
categoriesare definedin termsof runway visualrange by the localizerfor both front-courseand
(RVR) (seeICAO Annex 14) and,exceptCategory back-course approaches; the glideslopeprovides
III, decisionheight(DH), belowwhich the pilot must vertical steeringfor the front courseonly while
havevisualcontactwith the runwayor aboit the markerbeaconsgivethe distancechecks.
landing(seeICAO PANS-OPS).The various
categoriesare definedin Table 5.1 where the [,ocalizer
standardsaregivenin metreswith approximate Forty channels areallocatedat 50 kHz spacingin the
equivalents in feet (in parentheses).Sometimes band I 08' 10-l I I .95 MHz usingoniy thoseliequencies
categories IIIA and B arecalled'seeto land'and wherethe tenthsof a megacycle count is odd; so,for
'see
to taxi'. example108'I0 and 108.I 5 MHz arelocalizer
The ILS equipmentis categorizedusingthe same channelswhile 108.20and 108'25MHz arenot.
Romanirumeralsand lettersaccordingto its Thosechannelsin the band not usedfor localizerare

69
allocatedto VOR. The coverageof the beaconwill (extendedcentreline) and limited by the lineson
normally be asshownby the hatchedparts of Fig. which thereis a d.d.m.of 0'155. The changein
5.1,but topographical
featuresmay dictatea d.d.m.is linearfor I 105 m alongthe line
wherebythe ! 10" sectormay be
restrictedcoverage perpendicular to the courseline and passingthrough
reducedto l8 nauticalmilesrange. the IIS datum point on the runway threshold;these
points 105 m fronr the courseline lie on the 0'155
Azimuth d.d.m.lines,asshownin Fig. 5.2. The beaconis
situatedsuch that the abovecriterion is met and the
coursesectoris lessthan 6'. Outsidethe course
s e c t o rt h e d . d . m . ' i sn o t l e s st h a n0 ' 1 5 5 .
The ICAO Annex 10 specification for the
localizer-radiated pattern is more complicatedthan
the descriptionaboveindicates,in particularin the
varioustolerances for categoryI, II and iII facilities;
howeverwe havecoveredthe essentialpoints for our
purposes.
The airborneequipmentdetectsthe 90 and 150 Hz
tonesandhencecauses a deviationindicatorto show
a fly-left or fly-right command. Full-scaledeflection
is achievedwhen the d.d.m.is 0'155, i.e. the aircraft
is 2-3ooff course.Figure5.3 showsa mechanicaland
electronicdeviationindicator both showingslightly
overhalf-scaledeflectionof a fly-right command.
Providedthe pilot flies to keep the commandbar at
zero,or the autopilotfliesto keepthe d.d.m.zero,
Fig.5.l Localizer frontbeamcoverage
the aircraft will approachthe runway thresholdalong
the courseline.
The horizontally polarizedradiatedcarrieris In addition to the 90 and 150 Hz tonesthe
modulatedby tonesof 90 and 150 Hz suchthat an localizercarrieris modulatedwith an identification
aircraft to the left of the extendedcentreline will be tone of 1020 Hz and possibly(exceptionallycategory
in a regionwherethe 90 Hz modulation predominates. III) voicemodulationfor ground-to-air
Along the centreline an airbornelocalizerreceiver communication.The identificationof a beacon
will receivethe carriermodulatedto a depth of 20 consistsof two or threeletterstransmittedby keying
per centby both 90 and 150 Hz tones. Deviation the 1020 Hz tone so as to give a Morsecode
from the centreline is givenin d.d.m.(differencein representation.The identification is transmittednot
depthof modulation),i.e. the percentage modulation lessthan six times per minute when the localizeris
of the largersignalminus the percentagemodulation operational.
of the smallersignaldividedby 100.
The localizercoursesectoris definedas that sector Glideslope
in the horizontalplanecontainingthe courseline Glideslopechannelsarein the u.h.f. band,

15OHz > 90 Hz

0.155DDM

Bercon
Course sector < 6o
ILS datum point 0 ' 1 5 5D D M

150 Hz < 9O Hz

Fig. 52 Localizer ooursc,lelector

70
Fig. 5.3 Electromechanical and electronic course deviatron
indicators (courtesy Bendix Avionics Division)

s p e c i f i c a l l3y2 8 . 6 - 3 3 5 .M
4 H z a t 1 5 0k H z s p a c i n g .
Eachof the forty frequencies allocatedto ihe
glideslope systemis pairedwith a localizerfrequency, Localizer Glidepath
the arrangement beingthat localizerand glidesiope l0e.-s0 332.60
beaconsservingthe sarnerunway.will haveliequencies 1 0 9 .55 332.3s
takenfrom Table5.2. pilot selectionol'the required l0e 70 333.20
localizerfrequencyon the controllerwill cause'both 109.75 333.05
localizerand glideslope receivers to tune to the 109.90 333.80
appropriatepairedfrequencies. 109.95 333.65
I10.10 334.40
Table5.2 Localizer/glideslope l 10.15 334.25
frequencypriring (MHz) 110.30 335.00
I10.35 334.85
Lot'alizer ()li<lepatlt I l0'50 329.60
I 10.55 329.45
108.10 334.70 l10.70 330.20
1 0 8 .51 -r,r4.55 110.7s 330.05
t08.30 3 3 4 .0r I10.90 330.80
r08.35 33.r.95 l10.95 - 330.65
r0 8 ' s 0 329.90 ll l.l0 3 3 1. 7 0
r0u.55 329.75 lll'15 331.55
r0 8 . 7 0 330.50 I I 1.30 332.30
108.75 330.35 l l 1.35 332'15
108.90 329.30 I I 1.50 332'90
108.95 329.15 l I 1.55 332.75
109'10 33r .40 I I1.70 333.s0
109.15 3 3 1. 2 5 I I1.75 3 33 . 35
109'30 332.00 I I 1.90 3 3l . 1 0
109.35 3 3 1. 8 5 I l l.9s 330.95

71
The principle of glideslopeoperation is similar to the steeringcommandshe will not maintain the
that of localizerin that the carrieris modulatedwith correspondinganglesof descent.The first stablenull
90 and 150 Hz tones. Above the correctglidepath o".un at S 0 wtrich for a glidepathof 3" is at l5o.
the 90 Hz modulationpredominateswhile on the This is sufficiently different from the desireddescent
correctglidepaththe d.d.m. is zero,both tonesgiving angleto createfew problems;howeverto avoid
'captured'
a 40 per cent depth ofmodulation. The coverageand confusionthe glideslopebeamshouldbe
beamcharacteristics shown in Figs 5.4 and 5.5 are from below.
givenin termsof the glidepathangle,typically Oncein the correctbeam fly'up and fly-down
2|-3'. CategoryI facilitiesmay haveasymmetrical signalsare indicatedto the pilot in much the same
upperand lower sectors,the figure of 0'0875 d.d-m- *-uVur with the localizer. Figure5.3 illustratesa
corresponding to an angulardisplacementof betweert fly-up commandof just over half-scaledeflection.
0'070 and 0'140 0. By contrasta categoryIII facility The glideslopeoutput is more sensitivethan localizer
is asshownin Fig. 5.5 with a toleranceof + 0'02 0 on in that typically a |' off the glidepathwill give
the 0'12 0 lines. deflection(about0'175 d'd.m.) compared
full-scale
Althoughd.d.m.= 0lines occur al2 0,30 and4 0 with about 2t off the courseline for full'scale
thev are not stablein the sensethat if the pilot obeys deflection.

Marker Beacons
I t o n 'n I A marker beaconradiatesdirectly upwardsusinga
carrierfrequencyof 75 MHz. The modulatingsignal
dependson the function of the marker.
Course line
An airways,fan or'Z'marker is a position aid for
en-routenavigationlocatedon airwaysor at holding
points. As suchit is not part of ILS. The carrieris
Azimuth modulatedwith a 3000 Hz signalwhich causesa
white lamp to flashin the aircraftwhile station
identificationin Morsecode is fed to the AIS.
The outer marker is normally located4f miles
from the runway threshold. The carrieris
amplitude-modulated by 400 Hz keyed to give two
dashes per secondwhich can be heardvia the AIS and
causesa blue (or purple) lamp to flash.
The middle marker is located3500 ft from the
runway threshold. The carrieris amplitude'modulated
by 1300Hz keyedto givea dot-dashpair 95 timesper
minute which can be heardvia the AIS and causesan
amberlamp to flash.
The ILS markerbeamwidths are sufficiently wide
in the planeperpendicularto the courseline to cover
Fi;. 5.4 Glideslopecoverage the coursesector.

DDM : 0.0875 SimplifiedBlock DiagramOperation

Sincethe localizerand VOR frequenciesoccupy the


sameband it is normal to havea v.h.f. navigation
receiverwhich selects,.amplifies and detectssignals
from either aid, depending on the frequencyselected.
Figure 5.6 illustratesthe basicblock diagramof a
localizerreceiver.A conventionalsingleor double
o.0875
superhetis employed.A.g.c.is importantsincean
increasein the 90 and 150 Hz output signalsby the
samefactor would increasethe magnitudeof the
Fig. 55 Glideslopebeamcharacteristics difference,so givingmore deflectionof the deviation

72
3OO-3OOOHz

I Deviation indicator
r__ _ ___:=___ __J
Fig. 5.5 Localizer simplified block diagram

Fig.5.7 KingKN 72 bandpassfilter,simplified

indicator for the samed.d.m. Sigral separationis localizeroperation. Figure5.7 showsthe circuit used
achieved by threefilters:audio,90 and 150 Hz. The in the King KN 72 VOR/LOC converter. Whena
audio signal,identification and possiblyvoice,is VOR frequencyis selectedthe ILS Hi line is low, so
passedvia audio amplifiers(incorporatinga noise turning off Ql which effectivelydisconnectsR2 from
limiter)to the AIS. The 90 and 150 Hz iignalsare the circuit, the centrefrequencyof 30 Hz is set by
full waverectified, the differencebetween-the R3. Selectionofa localizerfrequencycauses the ILS
rectifieroutputsdrivingthe deviationindication Hi line to go high,so turningon Ql and placingR2 in
while the sum drivesthe flag out of view. parallelwith R3. R2 is setto givea centrefrequency
The 90 and 150 Hz filters,togetherwith the of 90 or 150 Hz asappropriate.
rectifienand any associated circuitry.are often part The glidepathreceiverconverterblock diaeramis
of the so-calied VORi LOC converterwhich may be similarto that of the localizerexceptthat the-audio
within the v.h.f.navigationreceiveror a separaieunit. channelis not required.A separate receivermay be
A combinedconverterwill usuallyenrployactive usedor all navigationcircuitry may be within the
filters which serveaseither 30 Hz bandpissfilters for sameunit. In any eventseparate antennas areused
VOR operationor 90/ I 50 Hz bandpassfiltersfor for localizerand glidepath.
3
5
:t

White

Blue

Amber

To AIS

blockdiagram
Fig.5.8 Markersimplified

The marker is fixed tuned to 7 5 MHzand may


employ a t.r.f. (tuned radio frequency)or superhet
.r..iu.r. The detectedaudio is t-edto three filters for
tone separationand alsoamplifiedand fed to the AIS'
The filtir which givesen output causesthe
appropriatelamp-switchingcircuit to give an - .
interruptedd.c. output to drivethe associated lamp'
When sq'itched to Hi the sensitivity of the receiver
is such that it respondsto airwaysmarker beacons
eventhough the iircraft is at a relativelyhigh
altitude. Wittr trigtrsensitivitythere is a dangerthat
when at lower altitudes,for examplewhen flying over
the outer and middle markerson approach,the lamps
is
may be lit for longerthan the maximumof 10 s' It
evenpossiblefor the outer and middle marker lamps
to be lit simultaneously.To avoid this, low sensitivity
is selected,wherebyan attenuator(i0 dB) is piacedin
line with the receiverinput. Switchingmay take
placeat 10000 ft.
Fig.5.9 Typical attitude director indicator
"l*': J'
the
Installation and scaleconventionallyon the left-handsideof
instrument. tn the ADI the localizerdrives a rising

in Chapter4 an installationincorporatinga runway laterally tc displaydeviation(vertical.


VOR/IiS receiverwas discussedand illustrated movementrepresentingradio altitude) while the
ILS we areinterestedin glideslopedrivesa pointer over a scale,againon the
(Fig. a.9). In considering
left-handside of the instrument'
itro"seouiputs derivedfrom the localizer'glidepath
glideslope Localizer,glideslopeand marker signalsarealso
and marker receivers.Localizerand
deviation(fly-leftifly-right, fly-up/fly-down fed to an autolandsystemwhen fitted' The localizer
respectively)will be fed to a conventionalor deviationwill be usedto supply the appropriate
(rudder)
Lt.it.onic ieviation indicator (Fig' 5 '3) and/or
an HSI ciemandsignalto the roll (aileron) and yaw
channels.ihe pitch (elevator)channel will respond
(Fig.a.l0) and an attitudedirectorindicator'ADI approachestouchdown
localizerdrivesa iateral to glideslope.As the aircraft
ieii. s.sl. In the HSI the while thJresponie of the pitch channelto glideslope
aril.tion bar right and left of the course arrow
deviatiln signalsis progressivelyreduced;this
glideslopedeviationis givenby a deviationpointer

74
reductionis triggeredby the outer marker and thence deviationoutput circuit hasan output impedanceof
controlledin accordancewith the radio altimeter 200 O and suppliesthe required current to five
output. A modern ILS will provide dual parallel indicators in parallel then when lessthan five
outputsfor both localizerand glidepathdeviationin indicatorsare usedthe deflectionwill not properly
orderthat the AFCS.may acceptinformation only correspondto the d.d.m. Considera d.d.m.of 0.155,
when the samesignalappearson eachfeed of a then 750 pA must be suppliedfor five loadsin
parallelpair. parallelfrom a generateddeviationvoltageof
A generalaviationinstallationis illustratedin 300 mV. Now considerfour loadsfed from a 300mV,
Fig. 5.10 incorporatingKing equipment. The 200 Cl source,the total current will be
KX 175Bis panel-mountedand containsa 300 x 103(200 + 250) = 666.7ptA divided equally
720-channelv.h.f. comms receiver,a 2O0-channel amongthe four loadsso that eachload has
v.h.f. nav. receiverand all necessarycontrols with 666'7l4 = 166'7 pA, i.e. the indicatorswill over-read
digitalreadoutof comm. and nav. frequencieson the by about I I per cent. Unlessthe receiveroutput is a
front panel. The KX 175B alsoprovidestuning constantvoltagefor a variety of loads(ARINC
hformation for the DME and glideslopereceiver. 578-3)we must comp€nsatefor loadingvariations.
Various methodshavebeenusedfor loading
compensationin the past. One possibilityis to
choosedifferent receiveroutput impedances
dependingon the numberof loads;inthis casethe
receiverand the mounting rack shouldbe suitably
labelled. Another possibilityis to fit a shunt resistor
in an aircraftjunction box throughwhich the deviation
signalis fed. With two indicatorsa 330 O shunt
would be neededgivinga 330 O and two 1000 Q
loadsin parallel,i.e. total load of 200 (-). Finally,
but not exhaustingthe possibilities,five separate
buffered outputs may be provided,eachindicator
beingfed from one of the buffer amplifiers. Similar
considerations apply to flag circuitswhere using
four 1000Q loadsin parallelis standardprocedure.
F8. 5.10 Kirg general aviationcomm./nav. system Antenna arrangements vary betweendifferent
typesof aircraft. Mentionof combinedVOR/
The KN 72 andKN 75 are remote-mounted
VOR/LOC converterand glideslopereceiver
respectively. The KN 72 gles localizerdeviationand
flagsignals (aswell asVOR deviation,TO/FROM and
flag),while the KN 75 givesglideslopedeviationand
flag. The KMA 20 is an audio control console
providingspeaker/phoneselectionfor sevenreceive
channelsand mic. selectionfor two transmit channels
aswell as containinga marker receiverplus its controls
Phillip3 hcad scrcw
andlamps.The indicator,Kl 206, showslocalizer (16 pt.ccs)
deviation(verticalbar) and glideslopedeviation
(horizontalbar) aswell as showingVOR deviation
and TO/FROM indication if a VOR frequencyis
selected,the deviationrelatingto the OBS setting also
on the KI 206. lf a Kl 204 is usedinsteadof the Lo[r l@rlirct
antennt
KI 206 then the KN 72 may be omitted sincea
VOR/LOCconverteris built in.
Typically a deviationindicator movementwill be
of 1000S) impedanceand require150 pA for Fig. 5.t I Boeing747 localizer aerials (note Bendix weather
full-scaledeflection(f.s.d.), thereforethe voltage radar scanner with spoiler grid on parabolic reflector for
acrossthe deviationoutput of the receivershould be mapping purposes - see Chapter 9). (Courtesy Boeing
1 5 0m V f o r a d . d . m .o f 0 . 1 5 5 . I f t h e r e c e i v e r C o m m e r c i a l A e r o p l a n eC o . )

75
localizer antennashasbeenmadein Chapter4 but installed in each door leading edgewhile two tunable
the glideslopeand marker antennaswill alwaysbe arrays(captureantennas)are mounted on the sidesof
separate.As an exampleof a largepassenger aircraft, eachdoor. A total of four hybrid antennacouplers
considerthe Boeing747. ThreeVOR/ILS receivers combinethe r.f. outputs of the glideslopeantennas
areinstalledfed by one V-type VOR antennaat the providingsuitableimpedancematching.
top of the verticalstabilizer,two dual localizbr
antennasin the noseand a total of six glideslope
antennasin the nose-wheeldoors. One marker Controlsand Operation
beaconreceiveris instalied,fed by a flush-mounted
antennaon the bottom centrelineof the aircraft. Normallya combinedVOR/ILS/DME controlleris
The localizerantennasare mounted aboveand employed(Fig. a.9). Such a controller is briefly
below the weatherradarscanner.The lower antenna describedin Chapter4. The marker receiver
feedsreceiversI and 2 while receiver3 is fed from switchingis likely to be remote from the combined
the upper antenna. Antenna switchingbetweenVOR controllerand its action hasbeendescribedabove.
and localizeraerialsis achievedby either solid stateor In usethe glidepathshouldbe capturedfrom
electromechanical switchesmounted behind the below, approachingfrom a direction determinedby
VOR/ILS receivers. the approachproceduresfor the particular airfield.
The six glideslopeantennasare split into two The marker sensitivityshouldbe on low for the
groupsof three,one group in eachnose-wheeldoor. approach.The appropriateselectionshould be made
A non-tunableslot (track antenna)dual unit is on the audio control panel.

VOR/ILS receiver No. 3

Glide slope
antenna
hybrids
8554 and 8555
and att€nuators
8582 and 8583
Trrck antenna Capture antcnna
coaxial cable coaxial cable
{ Coaxial
G/S track cable recbiver No. 2
antenna 9uard
B 561 Antcnna coaxial
connectors D8558
Antenna coaxial
connector D8561
See@r
G/S capturc
G/S capture a n t e n n a8 5 5 8
a n t e n n a8 5 5 8
G/S capture antenna hyg49-{-\--
8560
c/S;;t';; \ Right aft
. .antennaarray \\ nose gear door
t \
t -- Attachins
Tuning"trg, . screws(5 places)
]\'*.
-.\\ S rwo
. .\\.

Aft door shown in retraciedposition


(6t
\J

Fig.5.l2 Boeing?47 glideslopeaerials(courtcsyBoeing


CommercialAeroplaneCo.)

76
Track antennas

Capture antonnas Right door

Track aerials

Fig.5.l3 Boeing747 simplified glideslopeaerial coupling


alrangements

Characteristics carrierwithin I l2 kHz of tuned frequency.


Sensitivityis such that the flag shouldclearwith a
The basisfor the following is ARINC Characteristic 5 pV 'hard' input sigral ('hard' pV: the output of a
578-3 althoughmuch of the detail hasbeenomitted signalgeneratorcalibratedin terms of open circuit
and not all sectionscovered. load). The receivershouldbe protectedagainst
undesiredlocalizersignals,VOR sigralsand v.h.f.
Units Tlte receivershouldcontain all the electronic comm. signals.The a.g.c.shouldbe such that the
circuitry necessaryto providedeviationand flag receiveroutput shouldnot vary by more than 3 dB
signalsfor both localizerand glideslope.The control with an input signallevel rangeof l5-100 mV.
unit should provide for frequencyselectionof ILS,
VOR and DME using2/5 coding. Gli<leslopeReceiver Forty channelsat 150 kHz
spacing,328'6-335.4MHz. Channelsto be paired
Antennas Separatelocalizerand glideslopeantennas with localizerchannelsfor frequencyselection
shouldbe provided coveringthe appropriate purposes.The selectivityis specifiedin a similarway
frequencybands(108.00-l12.00MHz and to localizerbut the 60 dB points are at + 80 kHz
328'6-335.4MHz respectively)and both having while the 6 dB points are at t 2l kHz. The flag should
characteristicimpedancesof 50 O with a VSWR of clearwith a20 pY'hard'.sigral. Protectionagainst
l e s st h a n 5 : l . unwanted glideslopesigralsmust be guaranteed.The
a.g.c.should be suchthat the input signallevel to the
Power Supply I l5 V, 400 Hz, singlephase. tone filters shouldnot vary by more 163n+| to
-2 dB for an increasein input from 200 to
Localizer Receiver Forty channelsat 50 kHz spacing 20 000 pV and should not vary by more than *3,
108'00-l I l'95 MHz. Maximum channeltime 60 ms. -2 dB thereafterup to an input of 100 000 pV.
Selectivityis such that a carriermodulated30 per
c€nt at 1000 Hz shouldprovidean output at least Deviation Outputs
60 dB down when separatedfrom tuned frequency Localizer:.high-level2 V for 0.155 d.d.m.,low-level
by t 3l'5 kHz; responseshouldbe within 6 dB when 150 mV for 0.155 d.d.m. Dual outputsin parallelfor

77
AFCS. Output characteristics shouldnot vary for beingmarkedin decibels,e.g.:
loadSbetween200 Q and no load. When90 Hz 6'6 dB fly-right(+ 0'1549 d.d.m.)'
'hot'
predominatesthe sideof all deviationoutputs 4 ' 0 d B f l y - l e f t ( - 0 ' 0 9 2 ed . d . m . ) '
'common' side;
shouldbe positivewith respectto the 3 ' 7 6d B f l y - u p ( + 0 ' 1 7 5d ' d . m ' ) e' t c .
'fly-left'is given.
in this case
Glideslope:similarto localizerbut high- and lowlevel Further switch positionson the d.d.m. switch allow
outputsare2Y and 150 mV respectively for for deletingone or other of the tones. ln additiona
0 ' 1 7 5d . d . m . variable0 to 1 150gA deviationis available.Stepped
attenuatorsprovideoutput levelsvariablebetween
Flag Outpu* Two highJevelwarningsignals(super 0 dBm and - 120 dBm in I dBrn steps,in orderthat
flag) and one lowlevel waming signalshould be receiversensitivitymay be checked(testsetaerial
providedby both localizerand glidepathreceivers- positioningwill affectthis check). Modulatingtones
The high-levelflag characteristicis 28 V d.c. for valid of 400. 1300and 3000 Hz are available fbr marker
statuswith current capabilities;25 mA for AFCS checks.Finally, l0l0 l-lzmodulationis available for
waming;250 mA for instrumentwamings.The audiochecks.As menticlned in Chapter 4 the
low-levelflag shouldprovidea voltageof between CRM 555 canalsobe usedto checkVOR.
300 and 900 mV into up to five parallel1000 Q
loads. IFR NAV402 AP Conttinsa modtrlatedsignal
generatorfor marker,VOR, localizer,glideslope and
Monitoring c o m m u n i c a t i o nt es s t i n g .T h e o u t p u t< - r l ' t htee s ts e ti s
Warningsigtalswhen: no r.f., either90 or 150 Hz variablebetween 7 and - I l0 dBnr on all frecluencies
missing,total depthof modulationo1'composite s e tb y a v a r i a b l et ) e q u e n c cy o n t r o l( p h a s e - l o c k e adt
90/150 Hz signalis lessthan 28 per cent,etc. 25 kHt.on eacltblnd exceptfor glidepatltwhcre
irrtervalis 50 kt-lz). The localiz-er deviatitlncanbe
0
s w i t c h e dt o 0 ' 0 9 - 1 . ' 1 5 5 o r 0 ' 1 0 0 d . d . n rw . hile
RampTesting g l i d e s l o pde. d . t no. f l e r s0 ' 0 9 1 , 0 ' 1 7 5a n d0 ' 4 0 0 '
T o n ed e i e t i o nc a nb e s e l e c t e dA . l l t l r r e cr t t a r k ctro n c s
A radiatingtestsetmustbe usedwith a basic a r ea v l i l a b l ea. si s 1 0 2 0t l z .f o r l u d i o c h c c k '
capabilityof simulatingoff-glidepathsignals.In
additionthe testsetshouldoperateon one or more
accuratespot frequettcies and providefaciliticsfor
deletingeitherof the modulatingfrequencies.
TIC T-308 This test set wasmentionedin Chapter4
WM,n*#]"
in connectionwith VOR testing.In additionto the
VOR testset modulewe havethe T-268,T-288 and
T-298 for testingthe marker,localizerand glideslope
F r c r 6 +. -,' ; - , ,
receivers respectively.The T-268 providesat least
7Cper centmodulationfor the 400, 1300and -EFf,Gr,t
3000Hz tones. The T-28Boperateson 108'I MHz
Fig. 5.14 NAV402 AI' tcst sct (cotrrlcsyllrR l'llcctrontcs
a n dc a ns i m u l a t e0 d . d . m . , 0 ' 1 5 5d . d . m . l e f ta n dr i g , h t
lnc.)
(switched)or 0 to t 0'199 d.d.m.(variable).The
T-298 ooerateson 334'7 MHz and cansimulate
b a.a.m.,0.175 htrcedure The prdredure for a lunctional checkis
d . d . m .u p a n dd o w n( s w i t c h e do) r
0 to t 0'280 d.d.m.(variable).Eitherthe 90 or the straightforward if the operationof ILS is understood
150Hz tonesmay be deletedwith both the T-28B and full detailsof the testset areknown. In practice,
and the T-298. the procedurewill be listedin the aircrllt nlaintcnance
manual. Carefulattentionmust be paid to testsct
CossorCRM 555 Forty localizer and forty glideslope antennapositioningif receivers with low sensitivity
channelsmay be selected,all crystalcontrolled. are not to be passed as serviceable. Self-testfacilities
Thereare sevend.d.m. settingsfor localizer-simulated on both the testset and the aircraftinstallationshould
deviationand five for glidepath,the d.d.m. switch be usedif available.

78
6 Hyperbolicnavigationsystems

GeneralPrinciples be discussed we usethe terms circularl.o.p. (lines of


position)and hyperbolicl.o.p.-
The needfor a co-ordinatesystemfor navigation The patternsconsideredare not suitablefor
purposesis self-evident,the most important being the position fixing sincetwo circularLo.p. intersectat
geat circlelinesof longitudeand the linesof latitude two placeswhilst knowing the differencein rangeto
parallelto the equator,itself a greatcircle. Figure6. I two points simply placesone anywhereon one of two
illustratestwo alternativesvstemssuitablefor usein hvperbolic l.o.p. Knowing the startingposition and
ndio navieation. subsequentlythe track and ground speed(or heading
and true airspeed)will make it possibleto usethe
rho-rho system,sincea position caiculatedby dead
reckoningwill identify at which of the intersections
the aircraftis. To usethe hyperbolicl.o.p.we must
generateanotherfamily of linesby taking a third
fi;red point, we then havethe co-ordinatesystem
shown in Fig.6.2. A fix is givenby the unique point
wheretwo hyperbolicl.o.p.cross.Of coursethe use
of three fixed points givesthe possibilityof a
rho-rho-rhosystemwhere three rangecircles
intersectat a uniquepoint.

Fig.6.l Circular
andhyperbolic
co-ordinate
systems

If two fixed pointson earthhavea sequence of


concentriccirclesdrawn around them, eachcircle
representinga particularrangefrom the fixed centre,
then points of intersectionare definedbut ambiguous
excepton the line joining the two points (baseline)
where they areuniquely defined. Sucha systernis
calledrho-rhosincetwo distance(rho) measurements
areinvolved.
We can usethe concentriccirclesto define
hyperboliclines. Whereany two circlesintersectwe Fig.6.2 Hyperbolic positionfix (courtesy
navigation Litton
will havea differencein rangedefined;for example, Systems Inc.,AeroProducts
International Division)
the rangeto point A lessthe rangeto point B. I,he
locusof points which havethe samedifferencein The co-ordinatepatternsdescribedaboveare
rangewill describeahyperbola. Thusin Fig. 6.1 the currently usedin three radio navigationequipments,
hyperbolicline hh' is the locusof the point X such namelyLoranC, DeccaNavigatorand Omega.
that AX - BX = constant.By plottingthe linesfor Predecessors of thesesystemsinclude GEE, a British
severaldifferent constantswe obtain a family of World War II hyperbolicsystemdevelopedto navigate
hyperboliclines. In the radio navigationsystemsto bomberson missionsto Germany.

79
It shouldbe clearby now that the requirementof
a hyperbolicsystemis that it can measuredifference
in rangewhile a rho-rho-rhosystemmust nleasure
absoluterange. Two methodsare in use: time
for Loran C and phase
differencemeasurements 'r"
measurements for Deccaand Omega. Thesemethods
dictatethat Loran C is a pulsedsystemwhile the
r"l
other two arecontinuouswave(c.w.).
A basicproblem with phasemeasuringsystemsis 'Raceivor ,fi
that rangecan only be determinedif the whole l0^-06l./ Tg
numberof cyclesof e.m. radiationbetweenthe LOPS
aircraft and the transmittingstation are know. This is
illustratedin Fig. 6.3. An aircraft at X measuresthe Fig.6.4 Continuous navigation
uiavehyperbolic
phaseof the signalfrom station,4 which is (courtesr- Inc.,AeroProducts
International
LittonSystelns
Division)

subdividedinto say.centilanes ( | / l00th of a lane)


and so determiningon which l.o.p.the aircraftis
llying is sirnplya matterof laneand centilanecounting
liorrrsonreknown point. A lix requiresa separate
count to be rnadeof the lanesand centilanes between
anotherpair of transnlitters. onc transmitternlay be
conlrnor.r to the two pairs. The two l.o.p' will
intersectai the aircraft'sposition.
The possibilityof laneslipexists;i.e. missingI lane
Fig. 6.3 Received signal phase measurement
in the count. lf this happensthe correctlanetttttstbe
established, this prt'rcess beingterrnedlaning.
Obviouslylaningis easierwlten liuresarewidcr.
transmittingat a frequencyof l0 kllz. The Supposethe frequencyof transmitterA is l0 kHz
wavelength, L, is givenby C/ I 0 000 where C is the while that of B is l5 kHz. tltenwe havea dit'ference
speedof light; thustr = l 6 nauticalnriles.lf the frequencyot'5 kt{z which corresponds to a lanewidth
phasenreasured is. sayt)0", the distancc,4Xis of 30 000 nr as opposed to l5 000 m for l0 kHz and
( l6// + 4) nauticalrnileswhereN is the nurnberof l0 000 m for l5 kHz. In this way lanewidth canbe
wlrolecyclesoccupyinglhe spacebetwccnA andX. madewide without havingto transmitimpossiblylow
Wc-sav that thc lanewidth is l6 nauticalrnilesand fiequencies.While the useof wide lanesis of
thc lircr:rl'tis (N + i-) l:rnesl'ronrA. inrportancefor tlte purposesof laning.narrowlanes
givegreaterresolutionand hencegreaterpotential
ContinuousWaveHyperbolic Principles accuracy.
W i t l rl h y p c L t r o l iscv s t c nw r c a r cc o n c e r n ew dith Measuring the dift-erence in phasebetweensignals
dil'lr'rcrrcc in nrngcnrthcr than ubsoluterurge: from two transntitters will only be nreaningfulif the
consctyrrcrrtly tlrt' uirlrornc' crluiirrnentrnustnleasure transnrissions ltavea knowtrand t'ixedphase
thc'rlil'li'rcrrcc in phlsc bt'twcenrrdio wavesfronr two relationship.Tyo possibilities exist:
l n r n s r r r i t l i rgr gr o t r n tsl t a t i o r r sl." ' i g u r6e. 4 s h o w st l t a t
tlrcrcrvill br.'zcrrrplrlsedil'lert'nccbctwcen l. one of'tl'retransntitters canbe tlesignated the
svrrchltlrt izctl t nrnsrrtissions r'vcry lrll [' l wavelength. master,the other the slavewhich. clnreceivittg
An lircrll'i nrcusuring a phlsc dil'ti'rcnccol- the transnrission frotrttltc'ntaster.will ensulc
0A d l | c o r r l d
b c o n u n y o l ' t h c d r s l r r dl . o . p . .
i . e .i n its own transtnissiott is synchronized:
a n y o l ' t l r c I l n c sl r c t w e e rl r a r r s r r r i l t cAr sa n d l l . e a c h 2. both transntittcrs aresynchr-oniz-ed to sotrre
o l ' w h i c hi s h l l l ' a w u v c l c n g tw h i d c a t t l r eb l s c l i n e . standardtinrescalesuchasprovidedby an
S i n c c ' c v c rlya n ci s i t l c r r t i c at o l t l r r 'r e c c i v eor n t h e a t o n t i cc l o c k .
luircrll'ta lunt'corrntnruslbc cstlblishcdcitlrcr ll'orn
l h c l i r c r u l ' t ' s t l r t i r r gp o i n l o r , t l u r i n gl l i g h t .l ' r o n ra n PrrlsedHyperbolic PrinciPles
indcpcndt'rrt positionlix. lilch lanerrraybe lrr suchsystertts laningis.rrota problclttsitrcc'

80
d<T<2t+d

Extended Extended
T = 2t+d -- - - - - - t : o-
base line Master Slave base line

L.O.P.= line of constant time


difference.T '

Fig.6.5 Pulsedhyperbolicnavigation

unambiguousl.o.p.sare obtained. Considerthe two


L.O.P.3
transmittersat A and B in Fig. 6.5. One is designated
the master;this transmitspulsesof energyat a fixed
publishedp.r.f. On receiptof the masterpulsethe
slavewill transmit, usually after somefixed delay,say ).P.2
d ps. If the propagationtime from masterto slaveis L.O.P.
I gs then we c.ul seethat an airCraftat the master
stationposition, or anywhereon the extendedbase Best geometry very accurate
line outward from the master,will measurea time L . O . PI.
differenceof (2t + d) gs when comparingthe tinre of
arrivalof the masterand slavetransmissions.An
aircrafton the extendedbaseline outward from the Multiple L.O.P. good
Worst geometry poor accuracy
slavewould record a time differenceof d ps. Should accuracy due to redundancY
an aircraftbe anywhereother than on the extended
Fig. 6.6 Various geometrics for hyperbolic systenrs
baseline the time differencewill be someunique
readingbetweend and (2t + d) ps.
Disadvantages of hyperbolic systemsare that lane point B. The airborneequipmentwill tncasurctlre
width varieswith distancefrom baseline and that differencein phasebetweenthe receivcdsignaland
signalgeometryis important. With a hyperbolic the referencesignal,i.e.:
co-ordinatesystemthe angleof cut betweentwo l.o.p. Q^=Qr-Qr
canbe suchthat the tangentsto the lines at the
aircraftposition are almostparallel;for other aircraft when the aircraft is at point A, while:
positionsthe hyperbolicI.o.p.may cut almostat
Qm=h-Q,
right angles.Of courseif more than two l.o.p. are
availablethe geometryproblem is of little when the aircraft is at point B. The changein phasc
consequence sincea most probableposition can be asthe aircraft moveswill providea measureof the
computed. Figure6.6 illustratesthe variousl.o.p. changein range,we have:
geometries.
@.:(0" -Q)- ( 0 b- 0 ' )
=Qa-Qb (6.1)
Continuous Wave Rho-Rho and Rho-Rho-Rho
Systems Theseideasare illustratedin Fig. 6.7.
To measurethe phaseof a receivedsigral a suitable The aboveworking hasassumedthat the reference
referencemust be available,generatedwithin the sigrraldoesnot drift in the time it takesfor the
receiver.Let the phaseofthe referencesignalbe @r, aircraft to travel from A to B. If the referencephase
the phaseof the receivedsignal be @"when the is @r.and @16when the aircraft is at point A and B
aircraft is at point A and fu when the aircraft is at respectively,then equation(6.1) must be modified

81
AtB

+ 0 ^ : Q a- 6 u

Fig. 6.7 Changein measuredphasewith afucraftmoveinnenl

to accountfor this drift, it becomes: 3. estimate the phaseoffset throughout flight by


utilizing signalsfrom more than two
Q^=(0^-@u)-(0'"-0'u) (6.2)
transmitters(this is the rho-rho-rhoapproach)'
Thus an equipmentcontinuouslymonitoring the
changein measuredphasein order to calculatechange The operation of a rho-rho system is illustrated in
in rangewill be in error by an amount dependingon Fig. 6.8. As the aircraft flies from I to 2 the phase
the referenceoscillatordrift. changesin the signalsreceivedfrom transmittersA
At the moment of switch-onthe referencesignal andB are continuously measured;this allowsthe
on board the aircraft is not phaseJockedto the airborneequipment to count the number of range
gound transmitter'sfrequency. Further, sincethere lanesand centilanestraversedwith respectto both
is a signalphaseshift due to the transmissionpath, transmitters.Equation(6.1) applies,sincereference
therewill be a phaseor clock offset (@o)between oscillatordrift is negligible. Thus if the aircraft
receivedsignaland the local reference.If at position at point I is known it can be computedat 2.
switch-onboth the transmitterand receiverpositions
areknown @ocan be calculated,and if at subsequent
aircraft positions this phaseoffset remainsthe same
then by measuringphasedifferenceas described
earlierthe changein rangefrom the known starting
point may be computed. Referenceoscillatordrift
can be consideredas a changein phaseoffset'
Errors arisingdue to a changein phaseoffset can
be minimized in three ways:

l. usc difference in phasebetween synchronized


sigrralsfrom two remote transmitters,in which
caseany changein referencephasecancelsout \dIA-(6A2-aLO2) - l c l 1 1- d s 6 1 ) l 6 M O ' l d 3 2 - O ! O 2 l- t o g l - C 1 g 1 ;
(this is the hyperbolic approach); .t.'12-6A1t-{6192-cLg1) -tc62-ca1l-16192-{1611

2. a precisionreferenceoscillatorof atomic clock rclE LGAL mnLUrOn OrrFt ' t6LO2 - 6LOtl

standardcan be carried on the aircraft, in which


cas€drift is negligible over the duration of the Fig. 6.8 Rho-rho navigation (courtesy Litton Systems
flight (this is the rho-rho approach); International Inc., Aero ProductsDivisio')

82
With a rho-rho.rho s),stenltwo range(circular) hyperbolic and rho-rho-rho methods require three
l.o.p. givea position fix while a third can be usedto ground transmittersfor a fix but the geonretryof the
eliminateerror in phaseoffset,@". ln Fig.6.9 it can aircraft and transmitterswill degradethe accuracyof
be seenthat a non-zero@,givesus the situation where the hyperbolicsystemmoreso than eitherrho-rho-rho
threel.o.p.do not intersectat one point but-form a or rho-rho. A hyperbolicsystenrhasthe most
trianglewithin which the aircraft is positioned. complexcomputerprogram,but is nevertheless

o
Transmitter 2
x Transmitter
, ,'\1 \ True position
True position

Ptc- - -

P. P^ P. Kncwn points

--- CalculatcdL.O.P.
- T r u eL . O . P .

Fig.6.9 Rho-rho-rho
navigation

Consideration of this positiontrianglcshou.sthat the probably the leastcostly sinceits local oscillator
p e r p e n d i e u ld a irs t a n c elsi o r r rt l r c t' r u e p o s i t i o nt o t h e stabilityrequirenrents arelessstringentthan eventhe
c a l c u l a t eld. o . p .u r ee q u a lt o e l c h o t h r . -l rn d g i v ea rho-rho-rhosystem.
n l c e s u roc f 'f " . S u l ' l i c i c nitr r t i r r n r a t i oi rsra v a i l a b l e
l i o n r t h e t h r e el . c l . p t. o e v a l u a t p e " . a s s u n t i nteh a t
rr-fercnce oscillatordrift is the orrlv sorrrceof t'rror. Omega Navigation System (ONS)
S h o u l do t h e re r r o r sc o n t r i b u t et o t h e c a l c u l a t e d
l . o . p .t h e p e r p e n d i c r r ldairs t a n c els' r o mt h e t r u e Omegais a very low-frequency. c.w.,long-range
p , o s i t i otno t h e c a l c u l a tdel . o . p .w i l l n o l n c c e s s a r i b he
, navigationsystem.Threetime-multiplexed signalsof
L-qual and an approxinratesolutionnrustbe sought. l 0 ' 2 , I l ' 3 3 a n d l 3 ' 6 k H z a r et r a n s n - r i t t e d
omnidirectionallyfrom eachof eight stations
Cdmparisonof Systems strategically locatedaroundthe world. Althoughthe
Thereis no clear-cutbestsystemto enrploy,and in conceptwaspatentedin 1923it wasnot until the
fact all are in useas follows: mid 1960sthat the US Navy establishedthe first
pulsedhyperbolic experimentalstations.By 1968it wasestablished
I-oranC
that ONS was t'easible and the setting-upof a
c.w. hyperbolic DeccaNavigator,Omega
worldwidenetwork commenced.The USA is
c.w. rho-rho Omega
c.w. rho-rho-rho responsible for the stationsin North Dakota,Hawaii,
Omega
Liberiaand a temporarystationin Trinidad,while
It is interestingto observethat manufacturersof stationsin Norway,Japan,Argentina,La Reunion
Omeganavigationsystemshaveopted for different and,by 1980,Australiaarethe responsibilityof
methodsof calculatingposition,illustratingthat nationswhich haveestablishedbilateral agreements
thereis no universallyacceptedbestmethod. with the USA. Although the responsibilityfor
The rho-rhomethodis certainlythe simplestof co-ordinationwasoriginallyallocatedto the US Navy
the three,needingonly two qroundtransmittersand it hasnow beentaken overby the US CoastGuard.
employinga relativelysimplecornputerprogram.
It does,however,havethe costlydisadvantage of 'The Omega Stations and Broadcast Patterns
requiringa very stablereferenceoscillator. Both Eachstationhasa transmitterDowerof l0 kW with

83
Table5.1 Sigralformat,o.n.s.

{_-Ios
Stations 0 ' 9s 1 ' 0s l'l s 1.2s I'I s 0 ' 9s 1 - 2s I'0 s
<---' <|*.' H H <----} e H <'_}

Norway A r0.2 r3 ' 6 I1.33


Liberia B t0.2 13.6 I 1.33
Hawaii C to.2 13.6 I l-33
North Dakota D 10.2 13.6 I1.33
[: Reunion E ro.2 13.6 I 1.33
fugentina F to.2 13.6 I I '33
Trinidad/Australia G I 1.33 10.2 13.6
Japan H r3.6 l 1.33 10.2

the exceptionof the temporarystation in Trinklad


which hasa I kW transmitter. Radiationis from an
omnidirectionalantennawhich takesthe form either
of a verticaltower, approximately450 m high, 16 NM 9 CYCLES

supportingan umbrellaof transmittingelements,or a


valleyspantypically 3500 m in length. Equipment
redundancyensuresreliableoperation99 per cent of
the time.
As mentionedabdveeachstation transmitsthree 1 4{ N M lo cYcrts
frequenciesin a time-multiplexedpattern which is
uniqueand providesidentification. The transmission
formatis shownin Table6.1. It canbe seenthat at
any one time only three stationswill be transmitting,
eachon a different frequency. There are short
intervals(0'2 s) betweentransmissionbursts. The
pattern is repeatedevery l0 s. Fig. 6.10 Omegafrequencyrelationships(courtesyLitton
All transmittersare phase-locked to a nearly SystemsInternationalInc., Aero ProductsDivision)
absolutetime standardprovidedby the useof atomic
clocksat eachof the station locations. The result is
that the three frequenciesin all transmitters
simultaneouslycrosszero with positiveslopeat
precisetimes every l5/ l Tths of a millisecond. This
phaserelationshipis illustratedin Fig. 6.10. The net
resultis that the timing error betweenstationsis at
most I ps, leadingto a maximum error in position fix
of 300m.
Fig.5.1I Earth-.Ionosphere (courtesy
waveguide Litton
hopagation Systems Interpational Inc.,AeroProductsDivision)
The band of frequenciesl0-14 kHz is an appropriate
choicefor a phase-measuring navigations1)'stemsince predictabilityof the changesin phase.
e.m. radiationat thesefrequenciescan travel A requirementof the systemis that four or more
thousandsof mileswith predictablephase-change stationscanbe receivedeverywher€.Account must
characteristics.A natural waveguideis formed by the be taken of the attenuation of the signalwhich varies
earth'ssurfaceand the D layer ofthe ionosphere,the with direction due to the rotation of the earth.
dimensionsof which are suitablefor.propagationof Signalstravellingin an easterlydirection suffer
the ONS frequencies.This mode of propagation approximately2 dB/1000 km attenuation,while
accountsfor the rangeof the signalsand the thoseon a westerlypath suffei approximately

84
4 dB/1000km. North and southattenuationis the meansthat a conductivity map can be stored in the
sameat 3 dB/1000km. A further consideration is computer,so enablinga propagation-correction factor
that signalscannot be usedcloseto the sourcesince to be calculatedfor the path betweenthe receiverand
the phasevariationsare unpredictablein this region. the known stationlocation.
The implementationof ONS with eightstations,which A complicationarisesin that it is possibleto
arenot equi-spaced around the world, leadsto a receivea direct sigral and one which hasgonethe
situationwhere,undernormalconditions,between 'long
way round', in which casewe havea mutual
four and sevenstationsare usabledependingon the interferenceproblem. Automatic deselectionof
receiverlocation. stationsat rangesin excessofsay 8000 nauticalmiles
is usedto minimize this effect.

3. Geomagnetic FieA
The earth'smagnetic(H) field altersthe motion of
ions and electronsin the lower regionof the
ionosphere,thus affectingv.l.f. propagation. Again
the equipmentsoftwaremay be usedto apply
corrections.

4. Norspheroidal Effects
The computationof aircraft position must take into
accountthat the signalpath from transmittingstation
to aircraft receiveris not on the surfaceof a sphere.
Further, pressuredifferencesat variouslatitudes
effect the height of the ionosphereso compensation
must be made for the effect on phasevelocity.

5. Modal Interference
There are variousmodesof propagationin the
earth.ionosphere waveguide.If one mode is
dominant the phasegrid producedwill be regular;
Fig,6.12 Typicalusablecoverage howeverin practicea competingmode can be almost
equal to the dominant mode in which case
irregularitiesappearin the phasepattern. The most
seriouscaseoccurswhen one mode is dominant at
Factors Affecting Propagation night and a secondduring the day. It follows that
during sunriseand sunsetthe two modeswill be
l. Diurnal Effect equal. SomeOmegareceiversautomaticallydeselect
The height of the ionospherevariesby approximately station B (Liberia) at critical times sincesignalsfrom
20 km from day to night, beinghighestat night. The this station are particularlysusceptibleto modal
phasevelocity of the propagatedwavewill be greatest interferenceat night.
during the day when the dimensionsof the 'waveguide'
areleast;this leadsto phasevariationswhich 6. Solar Effects
fortunatelyarepredictableand cyclic. Correctionsto A solar flare givesriseto a largeemissionof X-rays
compensate for diurnai effect may be implemented which causesa short-termdisturbancein a limited
by meansof a softwareroutine. The entry of GMT part of the ionosphere.Suih an eventis calleda
anddateat switch-onis requiredbv the routine. suddenionosphericdisturbance(SID) or a sudden
phaseanomaly(SPA) and may last for I h or more;
2. Ground Conductivity l.o.p. in the affectedregionsmay be shifted by up to
The different attenuatingeffectsof the oceansand say 5 nauticalmiles. TheseSIDsoccur about 7 to l0
varioustypes of landmasschangesthe phasevelocity times per month, but during the peak of the I l-year
of the v.l.f. signal.The greatestlossof signalstrength sunspotcycle a major solarflare may product a shift
occursin the ice-capregionswherethe changein in l.o.p.by up to 15 nauticalmiles. This latter event
phasevelocityis significant.Waterhasleasteffect. is predictable,and warningsmay be issued.
The effect of ground conductivitybeingwell known Infrequently largequantitiesof protons are

85
releasedfrom the sun,producinga so-calledpolar cap which 3.4 kHz lanethe aircraft is flying. Phase
disturbance (p.c.d.).The effectof a p.c.d.,which is measurementof the l0'2 kHz signalgivesthree
to shift l.o.p. from say 6 to 8 nauticalnriles,may last possiblel.o.p.while the l3'6 kHz signalgives tbur
for severaldays. Only thosetransmissionpaths possibleLo.p. Only one of the possibleLo.p. from
passing overthe polesareaffected.Sincethe p.c.d.is eachgroupis coincident,this beingthe uniquel.o.p.
of long duration navigationwarningmessages may be on which the aircraftis positioned.
broadcast.
Rate Aiding
Position Fixing The ONS transmission patternextendsovera period
As previouslydiscussed ONS may usehyperbolic, of l0 s. If the phasesof all usablesignalsare
rho-rhoor rho-rho-rhomethods,a root meansquare measured overthis periodand then l.o.p. are
accuracyof l-2 nauticalmilesbeingobtainablewith generated for positionfixing.an error will result.
all methodsprovidingthe computersoftwarecorrects sincesomeof the phaseinformationwill be up to
for predictableerrors. l0 s old. Aircraft directionand speedinformation
Whatevermethod is usedthe lane in which the niay be usedto updatethe phaseinforrnationlor
aircraft is flying must be established.Lane widths for l.o.p.calculations, this processbeingknown as rate
the basicfrequenciesand differencefrequenciesare aiding. In practicewe cangenerate l.o.p.at lessthan
givenin Table6.2. It canbe seenthat the broadest l0 s intervals,sayeveryI s, thusONS can be
lane for the direct rangingmethodsis 144 nautical considered asa deadreckoningsystemwith
mileswhile that for the hyperbolicmethod is 72 position-fixingupdateseverysecondor so.
nauticalmiles. If it is known which broad lane the Directionand speedinformationcan comefrom a
aircraftis in thenit is possibleto resolvelane numberof sources, for examplecompass headingand
ambiguityfor the narrowerlanesautomatically, as true air speedfrom an Air DataConrputeror track
shownin Fig.6.l3. In this exampleit is known in and groundspeedtiom Doppleror INS. SomeOmega
equipmentsgenerate trackand groundspeed
Table6.2 Frequencies
and lanewidths,o.n.s. internallyfrom computedpositionchanges.
(lanewidthsin nm) If for any reasonthereis a lossof signaldead
reckoning,dataon directionand speedinputsot
Dircct ronging ltltperbolic last-knowninternallygenerated track and ground
speedcan be usedto continuouslycalculatethe
1 0 . 2k H z 16 8 aircraft'sposition.so that on receiptof sufficient
Basic
1 1 . 3k H z 14.4 7.2 usablesignals, laneambiguityis easilyresolved.
frequ encies
1 3 . 6k l ' l z 12 6 Obviouslyif the internallygenerated last-knowntrack
13.6-10= .2 3.4 kHz 4ti 24 and groundspeedareusedduringdeadreckoning
'12
l 3 ' 6 - 1I 3 = 2.3 kHz 36
then aircraftmanoeuvre duringtlrisphase.may cause
I 1 . 3 - 1 0 .=2 l.l ktlz 114 i2
laningproblemswhen signalslre receivetiaglrin.

'13 10.2KHZ lanes


6 KHZ lanes Broad lane

10-2 KHZ
13.6KHZ LOP
LOP
Unique LOP

Fig: 6.13 Resolvinglane ambiguity (courtesyLitton Systems


lnternational Inc., Aero ProductsDivision)

86
In sucha caseaircraft approximatepositionwould Fig. 6.14. The ONS consistsof a receiverprocessor
haveto be enteredby the pilot. unit (RPU), control displayunit (CDU) and antenna
. couplerunit (ACU). Sucha break-downof 'black
Most Probable Position boxes' conformsto ARINC Characteristic599 but
Thereis a redundancyin the Omegasystemin that somemanufacturerschooseto separatethe receiver
normally more signalswill be receivedthan are and computerand alsothe antennaand couplingunit.
necessary to computethe two l.o.p. neededfor a fix. The RPU is fitted in a convenientlocation. the
ln this case,data from all receivablestations,and as most important considerationbeingcooling
many frequenciesaspossible,may be usedto generate arrangements, a forced downdraughtor integal
a numberof l.o.p. If all frequenciesarereceivedfrom blower being typical. The CDU must of coursebe
all stationstherewould be 3 X 8 = 24 phase mounted in view, and in reach,of the pilot;
measurements every l0 s, givingup to twenty-four normally specialcoolingarrangements are not
l.o.p.for a singlefix. The multiplel.o.p.will not required.
crossat a point but will definea smallpolygon The antennausedmay be of H field or E field
within which the aircraft is positioned. The computer type, the latter possiblyemployinga separatecoupler
will calculatethe aircraft'smost probableposition unit with a suppliedinterconnectingcable. An E
within this polygon. field systemis sensitiveto precipitationstatic
In practicetherewill be far fewer than twenty-four discharge, thus good bondingand sufficient
phasemeasurements available.Automatic deselection strategically spacedstaticwicks are essential.An H
will take place for reasonsof poor signalto noise field system is sensitiveto magnetic(a.c.)noise
ratio, poor geometry,susceptibilityto modal sourcesand a skin mappingshouldbe carriedout on
interferenceor outsideusablerange(too closeor too initial installationto determinethe optimum location
far). Manualdeselectionwill be accomplishedas a for the antennawhich may be on the top or bottom
resultof pre-flightor in-flight information received of the fuselage.
concerningstationstatusor unusualionospheric
activity. Skin Mapping Detailed procedureis given in
manufacturer'sliterature,but basicallythe aircraft
Communication Stations, v.l.f. shouldbe parkedaway from all powerlines,both
A worldwide high-powermilitary communications aboveand below ground,and away from all
network operatingin the band l5-25 kHz is obstructions. Ambient signalplus noiseis then
maintainedby the US Navy. As a secondarypurpose initially recorded approximately100 ft from the
of the network is to provide worldwide aircraft with a spectrum analysersetat l0'2, I l'3 and
synchronizationof time standards,the carriersignals l3'6 kHz. Similarmeasurements aremadewith an
arepreciselytimed, and so may be usedfornavigation ACU securedby tape at variousairframelocations.
purposes.Sincecontrolof the stationsis out of the Comparisonof ambientand airframemeasurements
handsof thosebodies,eithernationalor international, will identify severalpossiblepositions. The optimum
responsiblefor civil aircraft navigation,use of the position(s)can then be found by repeatingthe
network for navigationcan only be consideredas measurements undervariouson and off conditions
supplementaryto other forms of navigation. ofengines, lighting, electronicsand fans. The final
Hyperbolicnavigationis not suitablefor usewith position shouldbe checkedout for signalto noise
v.l.f. commsstationssinceabsolutephasedifferences ratio with enginesrunningat 90 per cent minimum.
betweentwo receivedsignalscannotbe determined
due to eachstation operatingon an unrelated Brief Description of Units
frequency. A further disadvantage is that the diurnal The descriptionswhich lollow arebasedon the Litton
phaseshifts are not aspredictablefor v.l.f. signalsas LTN-2 I l; other systemshavesimilarunits which vary
they are for ONS sigrals. in detail.
Severalmanufacturersoffer equipmentwith v.l.f.
and Omegacapability;in somecases v.l.f. is optional:
Receiver hocessor Unit The RPU is the major part
In suchequipmentOmegasignalsprovidethe primary of any ONS. Omegabroadcastsignalsfrom the ACU
navigationinformation while v.1.f.signalsprovide are processedtogetherwith inputs from other sensors
back-upshouldinsufficientOmegasignalsbe usable. to give presentposition and guidanceparametersas
required. The major partsof a RPU will typically be:
Installation
A typical simplifiedinstallatibndiagramis shownin r.f. circuitry;

cl
Autopilot

H.S.t.
Installation
Program
F.D.t.

Aircraft
Atc Data Bus
Speed Source

Aircraft
Instrumentation

Fig. 6.14 Litton LTN-21I ONS installation(courtesyLitton


SystemsInternational Inc., Aero ProductsDivision)

88
central processorfor computing function; 2. 26V a.c. 400 Hz reference:from external
scratch-padRAM for temporary data storage; equipment acceptingsynchro feedsfrom ONS;
specialRAM in which pilot-entered data is saved 3. aircraft data bus: interfacewith digital air data
during power interrupt; syst€m(DADS), inertial referencesystem(lRS),
ROM to store program which will incorporate flight muragementcomputersystem,etc.
corrections;
power supply assembly; In stalla tio n Programming
analogueinterface; Various receiverprocessorunit connectorpins,
digital interface; termed 'programdiscretepins' are groundedby
BITE; meansof a link to earth in order to select:
antennaswitching; l. Speedinput format;
.chassis. 2. frequencystandard;
3.magnetic/trueheading input/output;
bnnol Display Unit T\e CDU provides the 4. oleo strut logic;
interface between the flight crew and the ONS. Data 5. synchrooutput;
transmissionbetween CDU and RPU is via two 6. gid mode: local, Greenwich or t$ro alternatives;
one-wayserial digital data buses. The RPU transmits 7. antennamount: top/bottom.
four 32-bit words to the CDU while the CDU
transmitsone 32-bit word to the RPU. The d.c. System Outputs
voltagesfor the CDU are provided by the RPU. The
CDU annunciatorsare driven by signalsfrom the Analogue/Discrete
RPU. l. Track angle;
2. crosstrack deviation;
Antenna Coupler Unit Two H field bidirectional 3. track angleerror;
loop antennasare wound on ferrite rods arrangedat 4. drift angle;
right anglesto eachother. Pre-amplificationof the 5. track angleerror plus drift angle;
signaltakes place in the ACU. Provision is made for 6. true heading:
the injection of a test signalto eachloop. 7. desiredtrack angle;
8. track changealert;
ONS Interface 9. track leg change;
10. steeringsigral (roll command);
Operator Inputs I l. To/from.
l. Presentposition latitude and longitude: entered
duringinitialization, i.e. during preparationof the Digital
systemprior to take off; 12. Presentposition (lat./long.);
2. waypoint latitude and longitude: rrp to nine 13. heading(mag./true);
enteredas requiredduring initialization; editing 14. track angle;
facility availablefor in-flight entry; 1 5 . g r o u n ds p e e d ;
3. GreenwichMean Time/date: enteredduring 16. distanceto waypoint;
initialization. 17. time to GO;
18. wind angle;
Extemal SensorInputs 19. wind speed;
l. Speed:from air data computer(ADC) or Doppler 20. crosstrack distance:
radarin a variety of sigral formats; 21. track angleerror;
2. heading:from compasssystem; 22. drift angle;
3. drift angle:from Doppler radar,optional; 23. desiredtrack.
4. speedvalid sigral;
5. headingvalid signal; Warning
6. compassfree/slavedinput; 24. Cros track deviationfailure;
7. oleo strut switch input; 25. true headingwarning;
8. drift anglevalid signal. 26. steeringsignalwarning.

Other Inputs Figure l.l3 definespictorially thoseoutputs relating


l. Frequencystandard:rho-rho opti6n; to angleand distance.

89
Right numerical
display Alcrt ann
Dim control (amber)
Dead reckoning
ann (amber)
From/to and
waypoint display
Sync ann
(amber)
Waypoint
soloctor switch Ambiguity
ann (amber)
Track change
Warn ann
pushbutton (red)
(green)
M a n u a la n n
(amber)
Mode switch

Entcr pushbutton roi ..orsrrME Hold pushbutton


I (greenl

Clcar pushbutton
-
(green)
64r;'l][\s11 rAS

Data keyboard
pushbuttons

Fig. 5.15 Litton LTN-21I CDU (courtesyLitton Systerns


lnternationalInc., Aero ProductsDivision)

C-ontrols and Operation The following information may be displayedby


Figure6.15 showsthe Litton LTN-21I CDU which is appropriatepositioningof the displayselectorswitch:
similarto thoseof other manufacturers.A very
comprehensive rangeof controlsand displayeddata is GMT/DAT GreenwichMeanTime and date
available.Brief detailsonly are givenhere. TK'GS Track angleand ground speed
The pilot is able to enter his presentposition and HDG/DA Heading and drift angle
up to nine waypointsdefininga great-circlenavigation XTK/TKE Crosstrack distanceand track angleerror
flight plan which can be updatedduring flight' POS Presentposition
Information displayed to the pilot helpshim to fly WPf Waypoint (selected)
the specifiedroute from waypoint to waypoint or fly DIS.TIME Distanceand time (to'go')
parallel offsets from the flight plan. If the autopilot WIND Windditection and velocity
is engagedsteeringinformation from ONS causesthe DTK/STS Desiredtrack and status(malfunction)
aircraft to automatically follow the flight plan, in MH/TAS Magneticheadingand true airspeed
which casethe display is used for monitoring STA Station status
purposes. FROM/TO From and to waypoints for current leg.
The system also demandsentry of GMT and date.
A keyboardis usedfor all dataentry which is System Softward
checkedfor operator error, in which case a coded The major tasks for the software employed in a
warning is given. System failure waping is given by rho-rho-rhoOmegasystemare describedbriefly
the WRN annunciatorwhen malfunction and action below.
codesmay be displayed. Severalother annunciators
givewaming of track leg changeimminent (ALR), Synchronization The transmissioripattern must be
'identified
systemin deadreckoningmode (DR), synchronization in order that the ONS will know when each
of systemwith transmittedsignalformat taking place stationis broadcasting.Sincethe Omegatransmission
(SYN),lane ambiguity(AMB) and manuallyent;red patiern repeatsevery l0 s synchronizationis attempted
true airspeed,magneticheadingor cross track offset by ampling l0 s of data in order to try and find the
being displayed (MAN). stait time (station A transmitting lO'2 kHz burst).

90
If synchronizationis not successfula further l0 s l. eliminatemanuallydeselectedstations;
periodis sampledand so on. 2. eliminatestationsfor which the aircraft is not
Sincebefore synchronizationis completesignal within areacovered(seeFig.6.l2);
directionis not known, the antennais set to an 3. eliminatestationswith known modal
omnidirectionalmode. interferenceproblem at night in certain areas
The idea of the synchronization routine is to look (Liberia);
for correlationin phasemeasurements from sample 4. eliminatestationson the basisof poors.n.r.;
to samplefor the three broadcastfrequencies.Noise 5. eliminatefrequenciesfrom particularstations
alonewill of courseappearwith random phase,not whosephasedifferencebetweencomputedand
correlatedbetweensamples. measuredexceedsa certainfigure.

Phaseand Signal-to-NoiseMeasuremenrs The phase All qualifying frequenciesare used for position
differencebetweenthe receivedsignaland a local determination. If lessthan minimurn number of
referenceis sampledat regularintervalsthroughout stationsare available,the deadreckoningmode is
the burst. Forming sineand cosinesumsof the entered.
sampledphaseangleswill allow a burst phase
measurement(averageof samples)and signal-to-noise hopagation Conection The computer must calculate
measurement to be made. If no signalis being a propagationcorrection0p, the valueof which will
receivedduring the samplethen no contribution will dependon the path from station to aircraft, the timg
be made to either the sine or cosine sums. We have: of day and the date. Factorsaffectingpropagation
havebeendiscussed earlierand while complete
=tan-r
f bursr
. t /
/r t'urg
\\
phase
) )- antennashiftHllT::lx'L:
ilir:",,Ti::TlT;:ii'"illfo*'
cosd (6'J)
\lJ l // ti,nitin.a in orderto savestorage
andcomputation
tim;' simplifications include:
R burst= (rrin o\' * /> .o, p\' (6.4)
\-N / \-T-/ integationstepsizealongpathto say
l. increasing

wherethe summationsare of the samplesover the 2. usingcoarsememory map, i.e. subdividingearth


burst, @is the phaseangleand R, which lies between into, say,4" x 4" block and assigtinga
0 and l, givesa measureof sigral to noise ratio conductivity index to eachcorrespondingto
(s.n.r.). averageconductivity in that area;
The valuesof @burst and R burst are fed to a 3. simplifyingsub-routinewhich computesbearing
trackingfilter in order to give smooth values@andR. of signalpath to earth'smagrreticfield.
Thereare a total of twenty-four tracking filters
(threefrequenciesX eight stations). Rate aidingis Computercomparisonsof simplihedand more
appliedto @to compensatefor known aircraft accuratemodelshavebeencarriedout and show
motion. Each tracking filter is updatedafter the excellentagreement.
appropriateburst, i.e. every 10 s, rate aiding values
arecalculatedevery 0'l s. Cunent Least-SquaresEnor Cabulttton The
measuredphase@is correctedfor propagationshifts,
Antenna Selection Every l0 s the bearing to the 0p, and estimatedclock offset, f., and then compared
eight stationsis computedand stored. Every second with the phase,@r,derivedfrom the current calculated
the differencebetweenbearingand headingis rangebetween aircraft.and station to give A 0, we
computedand usedto selectthe longitudinal loop, have
lateralloop or combinationof loops to make the LQ=(Q-Op-QJ-Qr (6.5)
antennadirectional,the main lobe being in the
direction of the station to be received.. There is one A@for eachstation frequency so there
will be at most twenty-four. If thereis no error, that
Station Selection For Omegarho-rho-rho navigation is 0p, 0. and @,are all correct,then A0 will be zero.
threestationsmust be receivedto calculatethe three In practiceeqrorswill exist,so the purposeof the
unknowns(latitude, longitudeand clock or phase least-squareserror estimationroutine is to find
offset). Various criteria areusedin the selectionof correctionsto @.,and the computedposition to
stationsto be employed: minimizeAd for the stations/frequencies in use.

It
Sincethe mostreliableinformationcomesfrom the is wind (north and east),latitude and longitude. The
strongest
signaleachA@is weightedby its s.n.r. wind is not computed when the aircraft is on the
(smoothed R from equation(6.4)). Thesquares of ground,asindicatedby the oleo strut switch.
theA@arecomputedto preventcancellation in the
sum.Wehave: Summary The above notes on system softwaveare by
minimize>R(AO)2 (6.6) no meanscomplete;somefunctions of the softwave
havenot been mentionedalthoughhavebeen implied
where the sum is taken over all the stations and elsewherein the chapter. The major navigationtasks
frequencies in use. and their implementationare best summarizedby a
The phasedifference,LQ, canbe expressedin flowchart (seeFig. 6.16).
termso(A@., AN, AE and B where the first three
termsare the correctionsin clock offset. north The Program
position and eastposition respectivelywhile B is the The actualprogramusedin any ONS is proprietary
bearingto the station. If we considerthe signal and will vary greatly dependingon the type of
receivedfrom station I on frequencyJ, we have: microprocessorused,the method of navigationand
A0(l,J) = Adc - AN . cosB(l) - AE . sin B(l) the ingenuity ofthe author.
(6.7) In generalthere will be a main loop which checks
for power interrupts, computespropagation
Thus equation(6.7) is usedin (6.6), the correction,carriesout self-testing,etc. The main loop
minimization of the weighted sum of squares,giving a will be interruptedwhen 10.2, I l'3 or 13.6kHz
least-squares
estimateof the current error which information is availablefor processingand alsowhen
enablescorrectionof clock offset and position. the CDU is ready to input or output data.
The correctionvectorX = (A0., AN, AE)T is In the LTN-21I the phasedata interrupts for the
smoothedby clock and position filters, rate aidingof three frequenciesoccur regularlyat 6.25 ms intervals.
speed,resolvednorth and eastabout aircraft heading, The I I '3 and I 3'6 kHz interrupt loops simply serve
beingappliedto thesefilters. The output of the filters to read the appropriatephasedata while the

Clock

Omegr Phase | 0 -lSin/Cosine SinI Burst C o u'sr(1,J)


signal detector look up C"t C processing R - "il' J)

Clock
offset
Qc estimator
LOc
+ -
Tracking t(r, J) Least
AN AE
filter R (r,Jl ?
estrmator
6o
6,
t
Propagation GMT
Rate aid prediction Lat./Long.

-t Position
f ilter +
Lat./Long. Rangeto
station
-l Expected
phase
L
Wnd
Rrtc rid Ratc aid
north oast

Fig.6.16 Softwareflow chart

gi2
l0'2 kHz interruptloop processes all phasedataand amplified and limited sigrals are comparedin phase
drecksto seeif it is time to startloopswhich occur with referencesigrals derived from a 4.896 MHz
regularlyandperformvariouscomputationsand clock. A real-time interrupt is generatedon
drecks.Brieflyu,ehave: completion of a phasemeasurementfor each of the
'update Omegafrequencies.The l0'2, I l'3 and 13'6 kHz
lfl) msloop: clock interruptsareeachgenerated160 timesper secondto
rate aid computation
inform the computer that phasedata is availablefor
check synchronization
368 gs, during which time the appropriate interrupt
antennaselection
routine is entered and the data read. The sensor
burst processing phasedata forms word I in a four-word, l6-bit
serveCDU
digital multiplexer. -
I s loop: horizontal steeringcommands
Heading and speedinputs enter the system in the
l0 s loop: least-squares estimator
form of three-wire synchro feeds. Scott-T
savekev data
transformersresolvethis input into the sine and
Hardware cosinecomponentswhich are then demodulated and
filtered to provide d.c. signalsto an analogue
C.omputo Inputs Figure 6.17 showsa simplified multiplexer controlled by the computer. After
systemblock diagramof the LTN.2I l. Omegasignals analogueto digital conversionthe headingand speed
from the ACU are fed via an anteniraswitching matrix sine and cosine componentsare multiplexed asword 2
to three narrow-band receivers.one for each of the in the digital multiplexer. Words 3 and 4 contain
three Omegafrequencies. Antenna switching is data relatingto variousdiscretes,programpins,
derived from the computed relative bearingof the validities and sourceselectors.
station being receivedat that particular time. The ARINC 575 data from the CDU is converted to

l?u?*^ss'-s
I
l ; -

sTtiltNG rNTtttAct

[**r**'
)

POWTISUPPTY

Fq. 6.17 Litton LTN-21I block diagram(courtesy Lftton


SystemsInternationalInc,, Aero ProductsDivision)

sl
TTL (transistor-transistor logic) levelsand shifted into on which interrupt is beingserviced.Not all the
a serialto parallelshift register.When the input data availableaddresses are assigned in the LTN-21l.
is ready an interrupt is generatedand the contentsof The computercan recognizesixteeninterrupt
the registerare readby the computer. levelswith the highestpriority level0 and the lowest
A digital interfacecard,part of the steering priority level 15. An interrupt maskis containedin a
interface.is a link betweenthe ONS and other statusregisterand continuouslycomparedwith the
systems.Thereare four ARINC 575 receiversfor system-generated interruptcode. Whenthe levelof
DADS TAS (digital air data systemtrue air speed), the pendinginterrupt is lessthan or equal to the
flight management,IRS (inertial referencesystem) current-enablinginterrupt masklevel(higher or equal
and an inter-systemb.c.d. or binary bus for interface priority) the processor recognizes the interrupt. On
with anotherONS or possiblyanothertype system. recognitionthe current instructionis completed,
The addressbus from the computeridentifiesthe detailsof the position in current programstoreo,
requiredreceiverwhich storesthe particularinput the appropriateinterrupt serviceroutine started,and
word in a registerand generates an interrupt. The the interrupt mask forced to a levelthat is one less
computeracknowledges this interrupt, so requestinga than the level of the interrupt beingserviced.When
transferofdata onto the l6-bit paralleldata bus via a the interrupt routine is completethe interrupted
serial-paralleltri-stateregister. Sincethe ARINC 575 programcontinueswhereit left off. In the LTN-21I
word is 32-bitslong, transfertakesplacein two seveninterrupt levelsare impiemented:
sections. reset(power on)l
0
I pendingpower fail or programcycle fail;
Memory The navigation computer program is stored 2 lO'2 kHz sensordata input;
in a 20K X l6-bit word (K = 1024) UVEROM 3 l3'6 kHz sensordatainput;
(ultravioleterasableROM) which can be programmed
4 1 l'3 kHz sensordatainput;
from cassettetapeusinga programmingadapter. The
5 reservedfor a sensordata input;
datais retainedin the WEROM for an estimated100 CDU ARINC data ready;
6
yearsunlesserasedby exposingall twenty chips to
7 ARINC receiverdataready.
ultravioletlight.
Additional memory is providedon the
Cttmputer Outputs A l6-bit word is transmittedto
computer/processor card in the form of a 2K word
the receivermodule for control of the
scratchpad RAM for temporary storageand a
antenna-switching matrix and the antenna-calibrate
128-worddata savememory usedto store present
functions.
position,time/date,waypointsand additional data
Various output functions respondonly to the
requiredto resumenormal operationsafter a
addressbus stateand do not requirespecificdata to
temporarypower failure. Back-uppower for data
be placedon the output bus. Thesefunctions,with
saveis provided by a 4500 pF capacitor for at least
hexadecimaladdresses are:
7 min.
resetprogramcycle fail (F100), selectanalogue
The Computer The computer usesthe input and multiplexer address(F2X0), start analogueto
storeddata referredto in the aboveparagraphsto digital converter(F300), acknowledgec.d.u.
carry out the necessarynavigationproblem ARINC Rx (F600) and ARINC interrupt
computations and to output the resulting acknowledgement(CFAO).
information. The microprocessor employedis a 'X' in addressF2X0 can be any number from 0
The
TMS-9900,a l6-bit CPU (centralprocessingunit)
to 7 dependingonthe funption, e.g.headingsine,
capableof addressing32K words of length l6 bits.
headingcosine,speedsine,etc.
Input/output (l/O) functionsare treatedin the
Sigralsassociatedwith other systemsand
sameway as memory for addressingpurposes,the
instrumentsare output from the computer via the
addressmap beingsplit into sixteensectio,ns, twelve
steeringinterfacewhich is dividedinto three main
of which are assigredto WEROM and two each to
RAM, savedata memory, steeringinterfaceI/O and sections:(l) analoguefunctions;(2) digital
communications;(3) discreteflag drivers.
other I/O. As an example F A 0 0 hexadecimal=
1 5x 1 6 3+ l 0 x 1 6 2+ 0 x 1 6 r + 0 x 1 6 ' = 6 4 0 0 0 1 e , The analogueinterface card provides four three-wire
synchrooutputs and both high- and lowlevel two-wire
is the addres of the digitd multiplexer phasesensor
word which will contain phasemeasurementdata d.c. cross-trackdeviation. Digital data is fed to the
analoguecard on the data bus and convertedto d.c:
correspondingto l0'2, I I '3 or l3'6 kHz depending

94
in a digital to analogueconverter. The analogued.c. of an ONS is suchthat comprehensive monitoring and
sipal is fed in parallelto sampleand hold circuits self-testroutinesmay be incorporatedin the system
addressed by the computervia a decoder. Each of software. Monitoring of systemperformancetakes
the synchrochannelshasa modulator for the sine and placevirtually continuouslyduring flight. In
cosined.c. inputs followed by a Scott-T transformer addition, operatorerror detectionaidssmooth
which providesthe three-wiresynchrooutput. The operationand a reductionin reporteddefectsdue to
particularoutputs are determinedby the stateof two 'finger
trouble'. With a malfunction code readoutand
synchrooutput selectprogrampins, ground or open. self-testdisplay,turn-rounddelaysfor ONS.
In this way synchronumber I will giveheadingor installationdefect investigationand repair are
track, synchronumber 2 will give 1 drift angleor minimized.
track angleerror, synchronumber 3 will give track
angleerror + drift angle,track angleerror or desired
track anglewhile synchronumber 4 will give aircraft The Decca Navigator
steeringor track angleerror.
The digital interfacecard hasbeenreferredto above
Introduction
in connectionwith its input function. In addition
Deccanavigatorwasinventedin Americaby
there are ARINC 575 and ARINC 561 serialdigital
W. J. O'Brienbut first usedby the Britishin the
outputs,two-wireb.c.d./binaryfor the 575 and
closingstagesof World War II. Sincethen a number
six-wire(clock, sync and data) for the 561. The
of marks of the equipmenthaveemergedfrom the
ARINC transmittersare selectedwhen the
continuousdevelopment of this, the most accurateof
appropriatedata is on the data bus by suitable
all the radio navigationaids. The systemcamesecond
addressingfrom the computer. The output word is
in the two-horseracefor adoption by the ICAO as
32 bits long, and so must be enteredinto a registerin
the standardshort-rangenavigationsystem. That it
two parts under the control of the addressbus.
survivedis a credit to the DeccaNavigatorCompany
Parallelto serialconversiontakesplacewhen the
whoseconfidencein the basicmerits of the system
word is assembledin the register.
were such that it continuedits airbornedevelopment
Flag signalsat TTL levelsare output from the programdespitethe setbackin 1949.
computerand latchedvia drivers. The signalsare then Deccais a low-frequencyc.w. hyperbolic
buffered,scaledand/or levelshifted befoie output. navigationsystem. The serviceis providedfor
suitably equippedaircraft, shipsand land vehiclesby
Characteristics . chainsof transmittingstations. Each chain comprises
Much of this sectionon ONS hasbeenbasedon the a masterstation and normally three slavestations,all
Litton-21I which is an ARINC 599 system.'This at known geographicallocations(typically 70 miles
being so, what follows is a particularlybrief apart), radiatingphase-locked signals.The choiceof
summaryof the ARINC Mark 2 ONS sincedetails frequencycould givea ground wavecoverageof
zuchasinput and output havealreadybeencovered. l0O0 nauticalmilesbut c.w. operationpreventsthe
The systemcomprisesthree units: a receiver separationof ground and sky wavesignalsso the
processor,control/displayand antenna/couplerunit wable rangeis limited to about 240 nauticalmiles
which, togetherare capableof receivingand by night and about twice that by day. There are
processingOmegaground station signals(v.l.f. not chainsin variousparts of the world, in particular
precluded)so as to provideminimum functional north-westEuropeand the northeast seaboardof
capabilitiesofpresept position readoutand North America.
horizontal track navigation.The systemshould Phasedifferencesbetweenthe masterstation and
operateworldwide with a presentposition error of eachof its slavesare displayqdto the pilot on three
lessthan 7 nauticalmiles. phasemetersor Decometers.The observedphase
The power supply for the systemis I 15 V 400 Hz differencesidentify hyperboliclinesmarked on
singlephasefed via a circuit breaker. In addition a speciallypreparedcharts. By noting at leasttwo
26 V zt00Hz referencein accordancewith ARINC phasereadingsthe pilot can plot his position as the
4134 will needto be suppliedvia a circuit breaker intersectionof the correspondinglines. For easeof
from the appropriateinstrumentationbus for use the charts are printed with the three different
excitation of synchros. familiesof hyperboliclinesin purple, red and green,
hencethe red slavestation and the greenDecometer,
Rmp Testing etc. Decometersare still usedbut for airborne
Uttle needsto be said here since the computing po*er systems,automaticand computer-based methods

s
are uzually found, with aircraft position being shown
on a roller map (flight log display)'

The Radiated Signals


Each chain is assigneda fundamental frequenry / in
the range 14-14'33kHz. The stationseachradiatea
harmonicof /, namely6/from the masterznd 5f,8f
and 9/from the purple, red and greenslaves
respeitively. Thus with f = 14kHz we haveradiated
=
frequenciesof 6f = 84 kHz, 5f = 70 kHz, 8/ l.l2'ktlz
andg/= 126 kHz. Using different frequencies for
the stationsin a chain allowsseparationin the
airbornereceiver.
Deccachains are designedby an alphanumeric
code. The basiccodesare08, lB, . . ., l0B' the
correspondingfundamentalfrequenciesbeing
separated by a nominal 30 Hz (separationis 29'17,
30 or 30'83 Hz). A subdivisionof this basic
'half
allocation is provided by the so'called
frequencies'0E, lE, . . ',98 which havea nomind
spacingof l5 Hz from the B fundamentalfrequencies.
Additional subdivisionis achievedby the use of
frequencies516Hz aboveand below the B and E Co'
Fig.6.l8 Zonepatterns (courtesytheDeccaNavigator
frEquencies tb givegroupsof six frequencies
Ltd)
designated by the appropriatenumber and the letters
A, B, C, D, E, F. An examPleof a grouPof
frequenciesis givenin Table 6.3 showingcode,
fundamental and master (6/) frequencies;the slave fundamental frequency of the chain.
frequenciesarepro-rata. The zonesare subdividedin two ways' depending
on the method of phasecomparisonusedin the
-
Table 5.3 Deccafrequencies numerical group 5 aircraft. The transmittedsignalscannotbe compared
in phasedirectly sincethey are of different
or division may
Chain Fundamental Master frequerrcies;frequency multiplication
the signalsto a common frequency'
code lf (Hz) 6f (Hz) be usedto bring
Sincethe transmittedfrequenciesare relatedto the
5A 1 41 6 5 . 8 3 84 995 fundamentalby multipliers5,6,8 and 9 (purple'
5B t4166.67 85 000 master,red and greenrespectively)comparisoncan
5C l4 167.50 85 005 take placeat the l.c.m. of any two of the multipliers
5D l4 18c.83 8s08s which include 6, Thus purple and master
5E 1 41 8 1 . 6 7 85 090 transmissions canbe'phasecomparedat 30/, i'e' at
5F l4 182.50 85 095 between 420 and 429'9 kHz. Similarly the red and
greencomparisonfrequenciesare24f and l8f
respectively.A lane is definedasthe regionbetween
PositionFixing hyperbolic lines with zero phasedifference,at the
Aswith anyhyperbolicsystemtwo hyperboliclines comperisonfrequency,i.e. everyhalf'wavelength
of positionmustbe identified,the fix beinggivenby (pig. O.+). Thus there are 30 purple,24 ted and
wherethey intersect.With Deccathe hyperbolic i8 gtt.n lanesper zonewith baselinewidths of
patternsaredividedinto zonesandlanes.Zones are app-roximately-352 m,440 m and 587 m respectively'
designated by letters A to J startingat the master end Lane numbering startsfrom the masterand runs
of the master/slave baseline. Thesequence of letters 0-23 for red,3O'47for greenand 50-79for purple'
repeatsasnecessary to coverthe wholepattern Decometerscan be readto one or two hundredthsof
(Fig.6.18). Alongthebaseline,zoneshavea a lane. Figure6.19 illustratesa position fix in terms
constant width of between10'47and l0'71 km, oflanes: the red Decometerreadszone I (bottom
corresponding to haff a wavelength at the window), lane l6 (outer scale),lane fraction 0'30

96
at';

z InEiaEcTtoIlot ndt
totmox LtxEs ts./ .
at oF Potntox / - osl

DEccA co ORDTNAT€ DECQACO-OnDttrATC


RtD I ro i0\ dar:l O rs.O

FB 6.19 Plotting a position fix from Decometerreadings


(courtesythe DeccaNavigatorCo. Ltd)

(inner scale)while the green Decometer reads zone Although the dividing type receiverdoes not
D, lane35,lane fraction0.80. Thus the Decca measurelanesthere is still ambiguitywithin a zone
co-ordinatesare I 16.30 and D 35.80, intersectingas causedby the divisionprocess.For exampledividing
$town. the mastersignalby six givesriseto an output which
The accuracyobtained by using frcquency can start on any of six cycles,only one of which is
rnultiplicationis often not required for air navigation;
correct. The ambiguouscyclesare known as notches.
furthermorea better s.n.r.can be achievedby The resultingambiguity is the sameasdescribedin the
dividing the receivedsigrals down to the fundamental. previousparagraphsince,for example,an error of*l
Sincephasecomparisonis at / the zonesare the notch in the masterdivider output givesan error in
'lanes'
for a dividing type receiver. Fractionsof a the zone fraction readingof 1/6 while an error of -l
zonearemeasuredto a resolutionof I llO24, i.e.just notch in the red divider output givesan error in the
over l0 m. zone fraction readingofl/8. The net error in the red
zone fraction readingwould be ll6 - l18 = ll24 zone
Resolvinglane Ambiguities or I lane.
Sinceeach lane appearsto be the same,in so far as To resolvelane ambiguitiesmost Decca chains
phasedifferencemeasurementis concerned,the pilot operatein the MP (multipulse)mode (an older V
$rould know where he is, to within half a lane, in mode will not be discussedhere). Eachstation in
order to initially set the appropriateDecometerby tum, startingwith the master,transmitsall four
hand. Thereafter,sincethrough gearingthe lane frequencies (5f,6f,8f ,9f) simultaneously.A
fraction pointer drivesthe lane pointer and zone read- s€quenceof transmissions lasts20 s during which
out, the Decometerwill recordthe correctco-ordinate time eachstation transmitsthe MP signalsfor 0'45 s.
by an integratipnprocess.Any interruption in ln the receiverthe four frequenciesare summed,
receptionwould require a resettingof the Decometers. producinga compositewaveformwhich has a

97
predominant spike or pulse occurring at the
5f fundamentalrate (Fig. 6.20).
In a receiveremploying the multiplying method,
6t with readout on Decometers,lane ambiguity is
resolvedby feeding a lane identification meter such
that one arm of a six-armedvernierpointer, identified
by a rotating sector,indicatesthe correct lane. The
sector is driven in accordancewith the phase
differencebetween l/6 of the mastertransmission
(rememberedduring the MP transmissionby a
phase-locked oscillator)and the fundamentalderived
from an MP transmission.The vernierpointer is
drivenin accordancewith the phasedifference
betweenthe mastertransmissionand six times tne
fundamentalderivedfrom an MP transmission,the
drive being through I : 6 gearing. During the master
MP transmissionthe lane identification meter should
readzero and may be adjustedto do so if in error.
- summatibn(courtesy
Fig. 6.20 Multipulsetransmission
the DeccaNavigatorCo. Ltd)

Fig. 6.21 Mk 19 DeccaNavigationSystem(courtesythe


DeccaNavigatorCo. Ltd)

98
As eachMP trafismissionoccursthe appropriate
Decometerlane readingshould correspondto the
lane identification meter readingand may be adjusted
if necessary.The current lane identification may be
held to assistcheckingbut will only be valid for a few
secondsdue to aircraft movement.
ln a receiveremploying the dividing method the
MP transmissions provide a referencefrequency/
with which the phaseof eachdivider output can be
compared. The phaseconrparisonand subsequent
correctiontakesplace automaticallywithin the
divider circuits. This process,known as notching,
removesambiguity from the zone fraction data.

ResolvingZone Ambiguity
We haveseenhow the particularlane (within a zone)
in which the aircraftis flying can be identifiedbut the
porsibilityof an incorrectzonereadingstill exists
sincezones,like lanes,areindistinguishable by the
normalphasenreasurements. A zoneidentification
meterresolves the zoneambiguity,not completely
but to *'itlrin a group of five zones,i.e. a distanceof
over50 km on the baseline.
An 8'2/signal is transmittedwith the MP signals
from eachstationin turn. A beat note betweenthe
8f and8.2f componentsof an MP transmissionis
producedhavinga frequencyof fl5. The masterbeat Fig.6,22 DeccaMk l5/Danacnavigation (courtesy
system
frequencyis 'remembered' and comparedwith each theDeccaNavigator
Co.Ltd)
slavebeat tiequencyin turn. The resultinghyperbolic
pattern haszero phasedifferenceson lines five zones feederrun. The antennashould be mounted as near
apart,givingthe required resolution. to the centre of the aircraft aspossible,either above
or below the fuselage.If below a fixed I 80" phase
hstallation shift is appliedin the pre-amplifier.
Different options are availabletwo of which are
strownin Figs6.2 I and 6.22. The Mk 19 receiveris Mk lS/Danac Block DiagramOperation
capableof drivingDecometers (or digitalieadout) Figure6.23 showsa sirnplifiedblock diagramof a
and/ora l1ightlog; the multiplyingmethod is usedto Mk l5i Danacinstallation.A significantfeatureof
drive the Deconreterswhile the dividing method is the systemis the degreeof automaticcontrol
usedto drive the flight log through a computer unit. achieved.
The Mk l5 receiverusesthe dividingmethod only The receiveroutput is fed to the computer as four
with readouton a flight log. pulsetrainsrepresenting the receivedmaster,red,
Wherespaceis at a premium,a Dectracposition greenand purple signalsdivideddown to the
fixing unit (PFU) may be installedin conjunction fundamentalfrequency,f. .Themaster/slavephase
with eithera Mk 15 or Nlk l9 receiver.The Dectrac differencesat f aredigitallymeasuredin the computer,
PFU containsone indicatorwith four scalesand a thus givingthreehyperboliclinesof positioneach
singlepointer, effectively replacingthe Decometers derivedasa l0-bit binarynumberrepresentinglll}2a
but not allowingthe samedegreeof accuracyin of a zone.
reading.althoughthis may be recoveredby the The computer convertsthe Deccaco-ordinatesinto
additionof anothersmallunit. A zoneidentity X and Y demandsignalsfor the servosdriving the
readingcan be taken from the singleindicator. laterallymoving stylus and the verticallymoving chart
A capacitivetype antennais used,comprisinga respectively.The major computingeffort is carried
coppermeshwithin a fibreglassplate mounted flush out oft'-lineon a more powerful computer which
with the aircraft skin. The meshis at least2 ft2 in calculates constantsto be usedin the hyperbolicto
area. A pre-amplifier/matching unit allowsa long X-lz conversion.Theseconstantsarewritten on a

99
Fast/normal lock
zln"i"J",
Low signal Flightlog
warning

P/E cclls

Warning lamp
Decca Navigator Mark 15 Receiver

#r; ffil I controlI


r|*'r L- l |Irl\ ./ a
\v_-/

Danac controller

F i g . 6 . 2 3 D e c c a M k 1 S / D a n a cn a v i g a t i o ns y s t e m b l o c k
diagram (courtesy the Decca Navigator Co. Ltd)

non-visible part of the chart,amongother data,in the 3. zone fraction computation takesplaceusing
form of a black and white ten-trackdigital Gray code MP transmissionsfor notching;
readby a line of ten photoelectriccells. 4. stylus takesup a position within a zone on the
The )/ servoposition feedbacksignalis in the form chartcorresponding to the aircraftposition
of a 9-bit word derivedfrom nine of the digital tracks within the true zone. If the zone is correctthe
referredto above. The X servoposition feedback OP button is pressedand thereafterthe stylus
sigrralis a 9-bit word derivedfrom printed circuit and chart shouldmove so as to foilow the
tracksreadby wiper contactsmountedon the stylus aircraft'smovements.lf the stylusis in the
carriage.The servodrivesare,of course,the wrongzoneit may be manuallysetby pressing
differencesbetweenthe demandand feedbacksisnals. SET and operatingthe pressure-sensitive
Selectionof the correctDeccachainis slewingcontrol.
automaticallyachievedby includingthe code
represenlingthe frequencyamongthe constantsread The correctzoneis known from the zone
by the photoelectriccells. Otherdata amongthe identification indicator and the pilot's knowledgeof
constantsare the zone valuesfor one or two his positionto within five zonewidths. Whenthe
'flies off'-the current chart and on to the next
checkpointson the chart (to which the stylus goes aircraft
initially) and the chart scale. (on the samechart roll) the stylus goesstraightto the
Settingup is largelyautomatic. If the required aircraft position on the new chart except under
chart is in view the following sequencetakesplace certainconditions,e.g.chainchange,in which case
when the systemis switchedon: the aboveinitial procedurerelatingto zone
identificationand slewingis cariied out.
l. pushbutton lampslight for checkingpurposes, The pilot may bring anotherchart into view by
and the chart constantsareread into the pressing LOOK AHEAD and operatingthe slewing
computerl control. Pressing the LOOK AHEAD button a second
2. the stylus movesto a checkpoint and receiver time causes the new chart to remainin view,otherwise
locks on to requiredsignals; the stylusis returned io the aircraft'spresentposition

100
(still calculatedduring LOOK AHEAD) on the with it, up to four slavetransmittersdesignatedW, X,
previouschart. Y and Z. The masteroccupiesa centralposition
Pressing the INT button causes the systemto go surroundedby the slavesso far as the geography
into the integration only mode where.the MP and allows. Baselinesareof the orderof 500-1000
zoneidentificationfacilitiesareswitchedoff. It may nauticalmilesoverseabut arereducedoverland.
be desirableto selectINT when flying in a fringe area The rangeof the systemis about 1000 nautical
sincespuriousor imperfect notching signalsmay miles(from master)usinggroundwavesand up to
causethe warninglamp to comeon, indicatinga about 2000 nauticalmilesusingskywaves.The
discrepancy betweendisplayedpositionand receiver accuracydependson the geometryof the chainbut
output. On somechartscoveringfringe areasor may be in the orderof about400 ft at 350 nautical
chainswithout MP transmissions, INT is selected miles rangeto 1700 ft at 1000 nauticalmiles range
automaticallyby a suitablechart constant. providedgroundwaves are used. With skywavesthe
The LOCK button hasseveralfunctions,one of accuracy would be in the orderof l0 nauticalmiles
which is to put the receiverphase-locked oscillator at 1500nauticalmilesrange.
hto a fast lock condition, providingthe warning lamp
is on. It may alsobe usedto initiatethe automatic The Radiated Signals
setting-uproutine when a new chart, brought into Pulsesof 100 kHz r.f. are transmittedfrom all
view by LOOK AHEAD, doesnot havethe same stations. The slavetransmissions are synchronized
coloursasthe previouschart. with thoseof the mastereither directly (triggeredby
The stylus may be preventedfrom marking the mastergroundwave) or by useof atomicclocks. The
chart by selectingWRITE off, otherwisethe track of delaybetweenthe time of transmissionof the master
the aircraft will be tracedout on the ghart. The and eachslave(codingdelay) is fixed so that
TEST-DIM-BRILswitchis the only control not whereverthe aircraft receiveris locatedin the area
previouslymentioned,it may be usedfor lamp test covered,the slavesignalswill alwaysarrivein the same
or to selectthe brightnesslevel of the lamps. order after the master.
Theabovedescriptionis sketchyto saythe least,but Sinceall chainstransmit the samer.f., mutual
I hopeit will givethe readeran ideaof how one Decca interference must be avoidedby useof differentpulse
Navigatorsystemconfigurationperformsits function. repetitionperiods(p.r.p.)for eachchain. Therearea
total of six so-called basicrates,eachof which have
eightspecificratesasgivenin Table6.4. The chains
Loran C areidentifiedby their p.r.p.,thus chainSS7(Eastern
seaboard of North America)hasa basicrateperiodof
lntroduction
l.oran A was proposedin the USA in 1940, hdd trials 100000 (SS)which is reducedby 700 ps sincethe
ps
n 1942andwasimplementedovermuch of the north specificrateis 7, hencethe periodbetween
has transmissions from the master(and from eachslave)
and westAtlantic in 1943. Sincethen coverage
is 99 300 1,rs, per
i.e.fractionallyover l0 transmissions
beenextendedto many of the oceanicair routesof
the world, but sometime in 1980the last Loran A
Table 6.4 Basicand specificratesfor
transmittershouldbe switchedoff. Sincethe
Loran C
implementationof Loran A the family hasbeen
extendedto B, C and D. Loran B wasfound to be
Basic Specific
impracticaland Loran D is a short-range,
repetition periods
low-altitudesystemintendedfor usewhereline-of-sight
peiod ( subtract)
systemcoverageis inadequate
( t t s ) (tts)
pulsedhyperbolic
LoranC is a long-range"
navigationaid with accuracyapproaching that of
H 30 000 0 0
Deccaunderfavourablecircumstances. It was
L 40 000 I 100
introducedin 1960and now providesa valuable
S s0 000 2 200
servicein rpanypartsof the world, in particularthe
SH 60 000 3 300
north andeastPacificand Atlantic. The systemis.
SL 80 000 4 400
usedby many shipsand aircraftandwould appearto
SS 100000 5 500
havean indefinite future.
6 600
(hain Layout 7 700
8 800
A transmitter,designated
the master,hasassociated

101
second. Not all the basicratesare in useand indeed To measurethe time differencebetweenmasterand
somemay neverbe usedsince6 X 8 = 48 chainsare slavetransmissions corresponding'events' must be
unlikely to be needed. identified in each. Obviouslyfrom Fig. 6.24 it is
Groupsof eight pulsesof r.f. are transmittedfrom impracticalto measurefrom leadingedgeto leading
eachstation once during a repetition period. With edgeor evento usethe laggingedges,consequently
synchronousdetectionin the receiverthe eight pulses one of the cyclesmust be chosenin masterand slave
are combinedto give a much better s.n.r.than one transmissions and the time betweenthem measured.
would obtain with a singlepulse. The spacing Such a processis known as cycle matchingor
betweenpulseswithin a group is I ms. The master indexing.
transmitsa ninth pulsein its group, 2 ms after the From the point of view of s.n.r.the eighth cycle is
eighth, for identification. the obviousone for indexing;howeverit may be
Sometypes of interference(e.g.skywave subjectto skywavecontaminationand therefore
contamination)can be discriminatedagainstby use of difficult to identify. The minimum differencein
phasecoding. The r.f. of certainpulseswithin a group propagationtimesbetweenskywaveand groundwave
hasits phasereversed;unlessthis is properly decoded is 30 prs,so up to and includingthe third cycle the
in the receiversynchronousdetectionwill give a loss pulseis clear. For this reasonthe third cycle is
of sigral power. Additionally, sincemasterand slave usuallychosenfor indexing,particularlyin fully
phasecoding is different for a particularchain, automaticequipment.
decodingcan be usedto separatethe receivedmaster An automaticreceiverwould selectthe third cycle
signalsfrom the slavesignals. by looking for the unique changeof amplitude
betweenthe secondand fourth cycle; in this way the
indedng circuitsare able to lock on. The transmission
of the first eight pulsesmust be accurateand
consistentsincean error in indexing of one cycle
would give a l0 ps time differenceerror.
If indexingis carriedout manuallyusinga c.r.t. to
display the pulses,on time-bases of decreasing
durationasthe processproceeds, useofup to the
eighth cycle may.bepossiblewith a skilled operator.

Installation
A Loran C systemmay consistof up to five units,
namely antenna,antennacoupler,receiver,c.r.t.
indicatorand controlunit. A c.r.t. displayis used
where the indexingprocedureis manualor where,
if automatic,it is thought necessaryto provide the
operatorwith monitoring of the procedure. On some
Fig 6.24 Loran C pulseand pulse format systems indexingis manualbut thereafterthe third
cycle is trackedautomatically.
Figure6.25 showsthe DeccaADL-S1 Loran C/D
The pulseduration is approximately270 ps, i.e. a receiverand control indicator; an aerialand coupler
total of about 27 cyclesof r.f. in eachpulse. To would be neededto completethe installation. The
radiatea pulseof short rise-timeleadsto problemsin ADL-8 I is fully automaticprovidingdigital time
frequencyspectrumspreadingand transmittingantennadifferencereadoutswith a resolutionof 100 ns on the
designat the low carrierfrequencyinvolved. In fact control indicator and 50 ns via a computer interface.
-indexing
99 per cent of the radiatedenergymust be in the band Synchronizationprovidesthird cycle in
90'l l0 kHz, hencethe slow rise and dbcaytime goundwave covdrand optimum cycle indexiig during
illustrated\n Fig. 6.24 (in which the signalformat, iky*au. working. Three time-difierencesare
m:Nterand three slaves,is alsoshown). The maximum computed,two of which may be displayed. Tunable
amplitudeoccursby the eighth cycle. automaticnotch filters providerejeition of the
strongestinterferingsignals.Overallsystem
Principlesof Operation . performimcechecksmay be performedusingbuilt in
The basicprinciplesof a pulsedhyperbolic iest equipment(BITE).
navigationaid havebeengivenearlierin the chapter. The antennais usuallya capacitivetype, sometimes

102
Fig.6.25 ADL-81LoranC/D (courtesy
theDeccaNavigator
Co.Ltd)

servingboth ADF senseand Loran, in which casean carriedout by a computerto which the three
antennacouplerwould providethe necessary time-differencereadingswould be fed.
impedancematchingand isolationlor the two Gatepulseformersfeedthe p.l.l.swith a seriesof
receiversserved.A pre-amplifiermay be included for eight pulsesspacedby I ms and of, say,5 ps duration.
the Loran feed. The object of the p.l.i. is to providea signalto the
appropriateoscillator,.drivingthe correspondinggate
Block Diagram Operation pulseformer, so that the phaseof the oscillator,and
The receivedsigralsare separatedinto n:asterand hencetiming of the gatepulse,is alteredsuchthat
slavegroupsby the phasedecodecircuits,the groups eachgatepulseis coincidentwith somespecificpoint
beingfed to the appropriatemasterand slavephase on the third cycle in any receivedpulse. The rate at
lock loops(p.l.l.). In Fig. 6.26 only one slavep.l.l. is which the gatepulsegroupsaregeneratedis set to
shownbqt in practicethere will be a minimum of two equalthe rateof the requiredchain.
to providethe two hyperbolicl.o.p. requiredfor a fix. The basicideaof indexing,as carriedout by the
Threeslavep.l.l.swould enablean automaticsystem p.l.l.s,is asfollows. ln Fig. 6.27 line I is a
to selectthe two which gavethe bestangleof cut, representation of the leadingedgeof a receivedpulse.
althoughthe calculationsinvolvedwould probably be Line 2 is a representationof the leadingedgeof a

103

,
Fig.6.26 LoranC simplifiedblock diagram

edge. Line 3 is a representationof the result of


subtractingthe delayedand amplifiedreceivedpulse
from the receivedpulse. Sincethe crossoverpoint of
this differencesignalis at 30 ps it can be usedasa
servosignalto set the gatepulsetiming for
coincidencewith the tlfrd cycle. The futl bandu,idth
of 20 kHz is requiredto preserve pulseshapeduring
the indexingprocess,althoughinitial signal
acquisitionmay take placewith a restricted
bandwidthin orderto improvethe s.n.r.
Oncephaselock is established, time-difference
rcadoutis easilyachieved b1istartingand stoppinga
counterwith the masterand 4ppropriateslavegate
pulsegrouprespectively.
Acquisitionof the receivedfrasterand slave
pulses.i.e. the initial aligrmentto a point wherethe
p.l.l. can takeover,may be carriedout by the
operatoror automatically.With manualacquisition
O 10 20 30 40 5O rrs
both receivedpulsesand gatepulsesaredisplayedon
Fig.6.27 A methodof indexing a c.r.t.;a slewingcontrolallowsthe operatorto align
the gatepulseswith the third cycleof the received
pulsesby useof diff'erenttime-baseselectionsfor the
A-typedisplay(time-base horizontaldeflection,signal
receivedpulseafter it hasbeendelayedby l0 ps and verticaldeflection).With automaticacquisitionthe
amplifiedby a factor of 1.5. It can be seenthat lines gatepulsegroupsmustbe slewedor swept
I and 2 crossat a time 30 ps after the pulseleading autolnaticallyuntil the p.l.l. cantrack successfully.

104
,
7 Distancemeasuringequipment

Introduction VOR in fact providethe standardICAO short-range


navigationsystem. A DME beaconmay also be
Distancemeasuringequipment (DME) is a secondary locatedon an airfield equippedwith ILS, thus giving
radarpulsedrangingsystemoperatingin the band continuousslantrangereadoutwhile on an ILS
978-1213MHz. The originsof this equipmentdate approach,suchuseof DME is limitedat present.
back to the Rebecca-Eureka systemdevelopedin I'ACAN is a military systemwhich givesboth
BritainduringWorld War II. International agreement range and bearingwith respectto a fixed beacon.
on the characteristicsof the current systemwas not The rangingpart of TACAN has the same
reacheduntil 1959but sincethen implementationhas characteristics as civil DME. Thereare,however,more
beenrapid. channelsavailablewith TACAN sinceit utilizes an
The systemprovidesslantrangeto a beaconat a extendedfrequencyrangeof 962-1213MHz. Thusa
fixed point on the ground. The dift-erencebetween civil aircraft equippedwith DME can obtain range
slantrangeand ground range,which is neededfor measurementfrom a TACAN beaconprovidedthe
navigationpurposes,is srnallunle5sthe aircraft is very DME canbe tunedto the operatingfrequencyof the
high or closeto the beacon. Figure7.1 showsthe TACAN concerned.Many civil aircraftcarry a DME
relationshipbetweenslant range,ground rangeand which coversthe full frequencyrange.
heightto be:
Transponder lnterrogator
s2 = G2+ (r46oso)2 (7.1)
igroring the curvatureof the earth. To seethe effect
of this consideran error in rangeof I per cent, i.e.
S = l'01G. Substitutingfor G, rearrangingand
evaluatingwe have:
s +/t8s3
for a I per cent error. Thus at 30 000 ft if the DME
readoutis greaterthan about 35 nauticalmiles the
error is lessthan I per cent,while at 5000 ft greater Frg.7.2 The d.m.e.sYstem
than about 6 nauticalmiles readoutwill similarlv
givean error lessthan I per cent.
BasicPrinciples
Givingrange,DME alonecan only be used for
position fixing in a rho-rho scheme,three readings
The airborneinterrogatorradiatescoded r.f. pulse
beingneededto removeambiguity. With the
pairsat a frequencywithin the band978-1213MHz
additionof bearinginformation, suchas that derived antenna.A ground
from an omnidirectional
from VOR, we havea rho-thetascherne;DME and
transponder(the beacon),within rangeof the aircraft
and operatingon the channelto which the interrogator
is selected,receivesthe interrogationand
automaticallytriggersthe beacontransmitterafter a
fixed delayof 50 irs. The omnidirectionalradiation
from the beaconis codedr.f. pulsepairsat a frequency
63 MHz below or abovethe interrogationfrequency.
Gnm
This reply is receivedby the suitablytuned
Fig. 7.1 Slantrange/ground
r?ngetriangle intenogator receiverand after processing is fed to the

105
rangecircuits where the round trip travel time is beaconif there are reflectingobjectsinconveniently
ccmputed. Rangeis givenby: placedwith respectto the aircraft and the beacon.
This possibilityarisessincethe antennasat both ends
R = (r - so)lt2'3s9 (7.2)
of the link areomnidirectional.Shouldsucha 'dog
where:R is the slant rangedistancein nautical
leg'path occur.the round-triptraveltime Z in
milesto or from the beacon;I is the time in
equation(.7.2\ may be that for the long way round
microseconds furs)betweentransmission of the
and thus lead to a readoutin excessof true short
interrogationand receptionof the reply. The
range.
constantsin the equation are 50 prscorresponding
To describethe way in which the systemdesign
to the fixed beacondelay,l2'359 prsbeingthe
copes with this it is necessary
to introduceseveral
time taken for r.f. energyto travel I nautical mile
new termswhich aredefinedand explainedbelow.
and return.
Both beaconand transponderusea single Jitter Dellberaterandom variationof the time
omnidirectionalantennasharedbetweentransmitter intervalbetweensuccessive interrogations.Each
and receiverin eachcase. This is possiblesincethe i n t e r r o g a t oprr t r d l l g sa5J i t t e r i n gp u l s e( p a i r )
systemis pulsed,and diplexingis simplesincethe repetitionl-requency (p.r.f.)'which,overa periodof
transmit and receivefrequenciesare different. severalinterrogations, describes a uniquepattern
Onceevery30 s the beacontransmitsits identity sincethc variationsare random. With an
which is detectedby the pilot asa Morsecodeburst interrogationrate of, say, 100,the average interval
of threelettersat an audiotone of I 350 Hz. It should betweeninterrogations will be l0 ms,with any
be noted that the r.f. radiatedfrom the beacondurine particularintervalbeingbetweensay9 and I I ms.
identificationis of the samelorm aswhen The uniqueiuterrogationpatternenablesthe DME to
transmittingrepiies,i.e.pulsepairs. The difference recognizerepliesto its own interrogationby
is that when replyingthereare randomintervals stroboscopictechniques.
betweentransmissions whereasduringidentification
the intervalsareconstantat l/l350th of a second. Automatic Stattdby Often rei'erredto as
signal-activated search.Whenthe aircraftis out of
Further Principles and Terminology rangeof the beaconto rvhichthe airborneDNIEis
By now the readermay haveidentifiedseveral tuned,no signalswill be received.This stateinhibits
problemswith the principlesof systemoperationas interrogations until suchtime as the aircraftis within
described.With DME, many aircraftwill be asking range and signals are received.
the beacon'what is my range?',the beaconwill reply The implementationof this featuredetermines
to all of them,the problembeinghow eachis to whetherinterrogations commenceasa resultof mean
identify its own reply. Anotherproblemis how to signallevelexceedingsomepredetermined levelor the
preventthe airborneDME interrogatingan rateof signalsbeingreceivedexceedssome
out-of-rangebeaconsincethis would be wastefulof predetermined rate. The two alternativesareequivalent
equipmentlife. asthe aircraft approachesthe beaconfrom beyond
It is obviousthat the DME operationmust be in at maximum range,and typically interrogations
leasttwo phasessincewe cannot expect an commencewhen the receivedsignalcount is in excess
instantaneous readoutof the correctrangethe of 300-400per second.They arenot equivalentwhen
momentwe selecta beacon.Theremust be some the aircraft is closeto the beaconsincethe mean
periodwhen the DME is acquiringthe rangefollowbd signallevelwill be raiseddue to signalstrength;
by a period, hopefully much longer,during which the consequentlythe requiredrate is much reducedfor
indicatorcontinuoushdisplaysthe correctreading. the former altei'native.This is of littie consequence
In this latter period rvemust considerthe eventuality when the aircraft is well within range;one would not
of a temporarylossof reply suchasoccursduringthe expect the DME to be on auto standby. When
transmission of the identiflcation(ident)signalby the gound testing,however,an auto standbycircuit
beacon,or perhapsduring'manoeuvre'when all which monitors mean signallevel-cangive unexpected,
signalsmight be iost. but not unexplainable, resultssincethe test set
We haveassumedthat the r.f. anergywill travelin (beaconsirnulator)will normallyoutput
a straightline from aircraft to beaconand back. This constant-strength signaisregardless of rangesimulated.
of coursewill be the caseunlessthere are any
obstructionsintervening;however,it is possiblethat Squitter The auto standbycircuit will not allow
theremay be more than one path to or from the interrogations to commenceuntil it detectssignals

106
from the beacon. When a sufficient number of Should more than 2700 interrogationsper secondbe
intenogatingaircraft are within rangeof the beacon receivedthe sensitivityis reducedstill further, thus
thereis no problem, sinceanother aircraft coming maintainingthe servicefor thoseaircraft closestro
within rangewill receiveall the replies and thus bigin the beacon.
to interrogate. If, however,we considerthe beacon In fact the nominal madmum of 100 aircraft is
havingjust come on line or the first flight, after a exceededsinceinterrogationrateson track (see
quiet period, approachingthe beacon,we havea below) are considerablylessthan twenty-sevenfor
-chicken-and-egg situation: the beaconwill not reply modernequipment,and further the interrogatordoes
unlessinterrogated;the interrogatorwill not not need 100 per cent repliesin order to maintarn
interrogateunlessit receivessignals. readoutofrange. The beaconcapabilityof 100
From the explanation thus far there are in fact aircraft may be reducedif peak traffic is much less
sigralsavailable,namely ident, but this meansan than this figure.
aircraft may haveto wait 30 s, perhapsmore in weak
signalareas,before coming out of auto standby. This Search During searchthe range-measuring circuits of
is unacceptable;consequentlythe beaconis made to the interrogatorhavenot recognizedthose pulses
transmit pulse pairs even in the absenceof arnongstthe total receivedwhich have the same
interrogations.Such transmissions from the ground jittering pattern as the interrogation. The
beaconare known collectivelyas lsquitter' to interrogationrate is high so as to decreasesearchtime,
distinguishthem from replies. When the random the maximum rate allowedbeing 150 s-r. The search
squitterpulsepairs are receivedthe airborne time in a modern equipmentis typically lessthan I s.
equipmentstartsto interrogate. A p.r.f. of 135 is avoidedsinceit may cause
A beaconmust transmit randomly distributed interferencewith the bearingmeasurementfunction
pulsepairsat a repetition rate of at least700; this of TACAN. The readoutwill be obscuredby a .flag'
minimum rate includesdistancerepliesas well as if of the mechanicaltype, or will be blankedif
squitter. Beaconswhich supply a full TACAN service, electronic.The counterdrumsof an electro-
i.e. rangeand bearing,must maintain a rate of 21.00 mechanicalindicator can be seento be rotating when
pulsepairsper second. In order to achievethis during the interrogatoris searching;an electronicindicator
ident an equalizingpair of pulsesis transmitted may havea lamp or Le.d.which illuminatesduring
100ps aftereachidentity pair. A range-onlyDME search.
beaconat a constantduty cycle of 27OOpuisepairs It is an ICAO recommendationthat if after l5 000
per secondis not ruled out. pairsof pulseshavebeentransmittedwithout
Ifwe considerthe caseof a beaconwith a constant acquiringindication of distancethen the p.r.f. should
duty cyclein a quiet period all transmittedpulsepairs not exceed60 until a changein operatingchannelis
aresquitter,apart from during the dots and dashesof madeor a successfulsearchis completed. In practice
the ident signaltransmission.With one aircraft using useof automaticstandbycircuitsand searchp.r.f.s as
the beaconinterrogatingat a rate of, say, 27 then the low as,say,40 in modernequipmentsmakesthis
numberof squitter pulsepairswill be recommendation redundant.
2700 - 21 = 2673 s-r while the reply pulse pairswill
number27 s-t. Two aircraftwould Gad to isquitter Track Dunng track the range-measuring circuits,
rate of 2646 s-t and a reply rate of 54 s-r andio on havingacquiredthe reply pulses,follow their early or
until we arriveat a condition of beaconsaturation late arrivalas the aircraft movestowardsor away from
with a nominalmaximumof 100 aircraft the beacon.Continuousrangereadoutis givenwith
interrogating.We can seethat all the squitter pulse. the'flag'out of view. The p.r.f. is low. In order to
pairshavebecomesynchronizedwith received optimize beaconcapabilitya maximum averagep.r.f.
interrogations.From the interrogator'spoint of view of 30 is laid down. This assumes that 95 per -ent of
all receivedpulsepairs appearto be squiiter except the time is occupiedby tracking,thus:
thoseidentified by the rangecircuits as being ,rp-lim
to its own interrogations. 9sr+ss < 3000 Q3)
Maintaininga constantduty cycle for the beaconis where:7is the track p.r.f. andS the searchp.r.f.
achievedby varying the receiversensitivity. When no In practicemodernequipmentsmay havetrack p.r.f.s
interrogationsare receivedsensitivityis sufficiently o f l e s st h a n 1 0 .
high for noiseto trigger the beaconmodulator 2700 In someequipmentsthe transitionfrom searchto
timesper second. As interrogationsare receivedthe track, during which the rangemeasuringcircuits check
sensitivitydecreases so maintainingthe duty cycle. they havein fact acquiredthe correctsignals,is

107
known asacquisition.lt is convenientttl identity simulates a rangeof zero,or nearzero,nauticalmiles.
'lhus
this eventby a separate terntsinceit takesa llnite. after self-testthe outbound searchcommences
thoupilrshort.time and the equipntcntis neither fiorn at or nearzero.
s e a r c l t i rnr go r t r a c k i n g .
PcrcentageRepll' rNecan seefrom the abovethat not
Mennry If repliesarelost an interrogatorwill not all interrogations will giveriseto repliesevenif the
immediatelyrevertto searchor auto standbybut will aircraftconcernedis well within range.lt may
enterits memorycondition;this rrtaybe one of two happenthat an interrogationarrivesduringthe
W
, i t h e rs t a t i co r v e l o c i t y .
t y p e se i t h static m e n l o r y groundreceiverdeadtirne. Other causes of lossof
the readout is maintained steady, whereas with replies are ident transmission from the beacon and
velocitymemorythe readoutcontinttesto changeat suppression of the interrogatorrecbiverby other
its lastknown rate. Mentorytime will norrnallylie airborneL band equipment.Everytime an L band
between4 and 12 s. equipment, i.e. ATC transponderor DME
If, duringmemory,repliesare re-acquired, the interrogator,transmits,a suppression pulseis senton
equipmentwill continuetracking:thus the pilot will a commonline to all other L band equipment.This
havebeenspareda falsewarning. At the end of may well be when a reply would otherwisehavebeen
nremory,if tltereareho signalsat all beingreceived, received.
autostandbywill ensue;otherwise the equipmentwill Ignoring,for the moment, ident transmissionfrom
commencesearching. the ground and suppressiondue to ATC transponder
replieswe can calculatea worst-casepercentagereply
Echo Protection The possibilityof the interrogator figure. Assuminga beacondeadtime of 60 ps and
trackingreplies which have suffered reflection must maximum capability operatingconditionsof 21OO
be guardedagainst,both on the ground,for the interrogationsper second,we havea total deadtime
= ps d e a dt i m e
interrogationpath,and in the air, for the reply path. o f 6 0 X 2 7 0 O 1 6 20 0 0 s - r ; i . e .
constitutes 16'2 per cent of total time. The
On the ground,dependingon the geographyof the
will arrive maximum p.r.f. (average) of No. 2 DME is 30 with
terrain,the reflectedor echointerrogation
line-of'sight interrogation' Thus a suppression pulse width of not greaterthan 60 ps;
a short time after the
for long enough thus No. I DME will be suppressed for at most
if the ground receiveris suppressed
3 0 X 6 0 = l 8 0 O p s s - r ; i . e .0 ' 1 8 p e r c e n to f t h e t i m e .
a{'terreceptionof an interrogationthe echowill not
Thus we are left with 100 - l6'38 = 83'62 per cent
trigge.r a reply. Normallya suppression period, or
deacltime, of up to 60 gs is sufficient;exceptionally asthe reply rate exPectation.
up to 150ps may be necessarY. The ident transmissionoccursonce every 30 s
A similarsituationexistsin the air but a different when the total key-downtime will be lessthan 4 s.
solutionis normallyemployed.The line-of-sight and The code group transrnittedconsistsof dots and
'dashes
the echo replies will both exhibit the same jittering o f t i m e d u r a t i o n0 ' l - 0 ' 1 2 5s a n d0 ' 3 - 0 ' 3 7 5s
p.r.f. asthe interrogator;however,the line-of-sight respectively.The time betweendots and dashesis
reply arrivesbeforethe corresponding echo' To uuullubl.for replies. We havethe situation where
achieveecho protection the interrogator is arranged about three replieswill be lost during a dot, and
If the search commences at zero about ten duringa dash,assuming a track p.r.f. of
to searchoutbound.
about2l . For a modern equipment with a lower
nauticalmilesand movesout, then the first set of
p.r.f., reply losses will be even less. Under these
repliessatisfyingthe rangecircuit's searchfor the
jitter patternwill be thosecorresponding to the true circumstances it is not sensible to calculate the
To guarantee echo protection on changing exp'ected percentage reply since the effect of the
iung..
channelor before commencingsearchafter memory ident is possibiyto make the interrogatorgo into
or auto standby,the rangecircuitsshouldbe memory, particularlywhen a dashis transmitted'
returnedto the zero nautical miles condition. This is Sincethe memory time is at leastaslong as the
done in someequipmentswherethe reverse total key-downtime the momentaryswitch between
will not be
movementtowards zero may be known as a reciprocal track and memory and back to track
search,althoughno interrogationtakes place. In noticed bY the Pilot.
other equipments,wheresearchis outbound from the It shouldbe noted by the maintenanceengineer
last reading,echoprotection is likely but not that in simulatingident durlrg a ramp test the ident
guaranteed.In this latter situationuseof the self-test sigpalwill be continuous,ratherthan keyed,aslong
svitch or button will givefull echo protection since asthe appropriateswitch on the test set is held on.
virtually all interrogatorshave a self-test facility which Thus if ident is simulatedfor longerthan the memory

108
time the interrogatorwill start to search,This is circularpath centredon the beaconwould registera
usefulsinceoperationof one switch on the test set ground speedof zero on the DME indicator!
allowsthe checking of ident tone with its associated If the airborneequipmenthas calculatedgound
volume control, memory time and searchp.r.f. speed,it is a simplematter to give time to station
= DST/KTS whereTTS is time to
The ATC transponderproducesreplies,and hence (beacon)sinceTTS
suppression pulses,only when interrogated. If an station.DST is slant rangeand KTS (knots) is the
Again this is only a usefulindication
aiiciaft is wilhin rangeof one interrogatorit will only gound speed.
be interrogatedabout thirty timesper sweep' With a wtren ttrJ aircraft is on courseto/from the beaconand
say some distance from it.
sweeprateof say 12 r.p.m.and a beamwidth of
will occur during a time The time constant of the ground speedmeasuring
5o thesethirty interrogations
interval givenby the product of 5/360 and 60112, circuitis longbut cancopewith aircraftacceleration'
i.e. aboui 0'07 s. For thirty interrogations the p.r.f' ln groundtesting.however,one mustwait sometime
-
would needto be 30/0'07 430 which is closeto the foithe groundspeedreadingto take up the simulated
a similar situation to value of velocityselected on the ramp testset,slnce
maximum p.r.f. of 450. We have
loss during ident transmission, i.e' the in switching-in a velocity one is simulatingan infinite
the reply
o..uti.n". is relativelyinfrequent;for example0'07 acceleration.
in 5 s. If the aircraftis within rangeof more than one
interrogatorthe total interrogationtime in, say, 5 s is
increased. Interrogation
Consideringthe effect on DME only during the
time the ATC transponderis replyingwe have, The full TACAN interrogationfrequencyrangeis
assuming an ATC interrogation rate of 450 and a 1 0 2 5 - l1 5 0M H z w i t h 1 N { H zs p a c i n gT. } r u st h e
suppression pulse duration of 30 ps, percentage interrogation will be one of 116 possiblefrequencit's
suppression iime = 450 X 30 X 100/I 000 000 = l'35 tlependingon the channelselected.The r'f is keyed
'rn
per cent. If we alsotakeinto accountthe worst'case by pulsepairs. The timing,which is dcpendenl
reply for the DME system of 83'62 per cirannel selection, X or Y' is illustrated in Fig' 7'-1'
percentage
-
..nt *. haveduring this short time 83'62 1'35,
82 per cent replies.In fact the DME interrogator - 1 3'5trs
stroutO.op. *ith this and remainon track' l l x
J
The aboveis not quite the whole story. The
intention is to allay the fearsof studentswho, on L=--------*l
I l2irs I
findingout how manywaysrepliescanbe lost, wonder
how on earthDME worksat all. The few simplecal-
culationsgivenshowthat the situationis in fact
quitesatisfactory. It can,however,be worsethan sug-
gestedsincethe ICAO specification only requiresthat
iit. OVf beaconhavea 70 per centreplyefficiency; pulsespacing
Fig.7.3 Interrogation
one of the reasons, not previouslymentioned,being
that time mustbe allorvedfor self-monitoring' Even
will cope with percentage The p.r.f. is dependenton the nlodeof operationof
so most DME interrogators
theDME:
repliesasiow as.orlower than 50 per cent'
Search 40-I 50 Average
Ground Speedand Time To Station The interrogator Track l0-30
-Average
continuouslymonitorsthe slantrangeto the beacon actualp.r.f.dependson tl-reequipmentdesign
The
which,of course,will changeasthe aircraftflies
of and may be lower than minimutrlliguresgiven. There
awayfrom the beacon.Measurement
' towardsor will be a smallvariationin the average p.r.f. due to
the rateof changeof slantrangegives. the speedof
jitter. The average p.r.f.,assuming that 95 per centof
approachor departureto the beacon.Such
the time is spenton track' must be lessthan 30' The
measurement is carriedout by most airborneDMEs with verticalpolarization'
groundspeed.tt is radiationis omnidirectional
and presenteci asso-called
importantthat the pilot realizes that the readoutcan
only be consideredasground speedwhen the aircraft R e p l y
is flying directly towardsor away from the beacon
The r.f. at one of 252 frequencies between962 and
and is somedistancefrom it. An aircraft flying a
r09
l2l3 MHz isteyed by pulse pairs the timing
of which
conjunction with VOR and, largely
is similar to that given in f ig. I .5, the differince as a future
being
requirement,ILS. To achievettris,
e1l f channelspacingis 30 prs,not 36 pr. ffrc OUe Uru.on, "r.
co-locatedwirh VOR or ILS beaconr,
radiationis omnidirectionalwith verticalpoiarization. in1r" i.j"g
prescribedmaximum separation
fi.its 1a"nr"'i to
the conventionon InternationalCivil
A'v",j"rl.
Wherewe havecoJocationconstituting
X and Y Channel Arrangements a sinele
fapility the two systemsshould
;;;il ""'"ii""o"ra
frequencypairing(Table7.1).r,i rr."r1nii
r""''
and 252 replyfrequenciesassociatedidentity signal.
Jh...rr1.-..lZ!^i1t-elryCation
in the full
trequency IA!{I-fr.guency range.The-repty_.._.
is 63 MHzaboveor belowtheintiriogating
Table7.1 Frequencypairing
fre.quency, asshownin Fig.7.4. fne chann.ispacing
is I MHzfor bothinterrogation andreply. The' v.h.f. nav.freq. v.h.f. allocation
TACANchannels arenumbered lX,ly,'. . . liOX, TACAN channel
r26Y.
UsingFig.7.4we seethat channel20X say, r08.00 VOR l7x
, 108.05 VOR
corresponds to aninterrogation
at 1044M;Hz';nda t7Y
replyat 981MHz,whilechannel r08.10 ILS l8x
I16I,, say, 1 0 85 .1
corresponds to aninterrogation ILS t8Y
at I140 MHzanda
replyat 1077MHz. ii1lo 19t .'?{
l I 1.95 ILS 56Y
Eeacon Aircraft Beacon
reply interrogation I12.00 VOR 57X
reply
X
l12.05 VOR 57Y
1213 126X
n2.ro VOR 58x
--'--'t'-
63Y 1 1 5 0 I r50 1't51 d4x 112.25 VOR 59Y
I Y 1c|aR t088 -'f-'-r- r12.30 VOR
r26Y 1087
70x
1 0 8 7 -*__\l\_
64Y 1025 1 0 2 5 -_|.__\a t17'95 VOR t26y
to24 63X
962 t x
Fig,7.4 .Y/y channel
arrangements With standardfrequehcypairingthe
need for
separate DME and v.h.f.nav.contiol unitsis
For civil DME beaconsthe 52 channels eliminated.It is normalpracticefor u .o.Uin"O
l-16, X controllerto be used,the selectedfrequency
and nd 60-69,X andy,are avoidedi"it*.
reasons.Firstly DME is meant to be used indication beinggivenin termsof tne v.h.f.nav.
in
coniunctionwith VOR and ILS, which occupy frequency.Thusa selectionof 10g.05Uffr-woufO
200
channels ratherthan 252. Secondly,havingh'fty_two tune the v.h.f. nav. receiverto that frequencyund the
redundantchannels,the gapsare chosen DME to the pairedchannell7y.
to-overlap
Someequipmentshavea hold facility whereby,
lle lTC transponder fre[uencies"f l0i0;;;' .
when engaged.
1090MHz to avoid any p-ossible interference, a changein the selectea".fr.f."u".
althoughdifferent codesand ,nr,u.i ,"iprJrJion lrequencywill not causethe DME channel
"r" to change.
also usedfor this purpose. W.hen.using hold, rangeand bearinginfo.rn"iion i,
The useof_thefifty+wo missingchannels givenbut not to a common point.
is, how- This could lead to
ever,not precludedby the ICAO;they pilot navigationerror, to .uoid ttris
may be alloc- illuminat a warninf tr*nr r,
areoon a nationalbasis.The fact that ed when hold is selected; n.*rtf,.i."rr,'ror.
civii aircraft
rnay wish to useTACAN beaconsmeans national authoritiesfrown upon the availabilit
thai many of
DME interrogatorshavethe full ZSi.f,.""rfr.' sucha faciliry.
In Table 7.1 the frequencypairingarrangements
lt1:Lo*n. The frequenciesshown.i Uring"uiio.ut.O
to-ILS are,ofcourse,localizerfrrqu.n.irrit.
The Link With v.h.f. Navigation tigtrrt
of which is I I I .95 MHz. The gfi.iepatfr/ioJirel
frequencypairingis not affectel tV IUE
As statedpreviously DMEis meantto beusedin p.iri"g.
ThoseTACAN channelsnot pairedwith
v.h.f. nav.
110
dnnnels may nevertheless still be required. In this v.h.f. nav. controllers. The RNAV facility (see
casethe pairingsfor channelslX to I 6Y are Chapter l2) nray not be available,in which caseslant
134.40-135.95 MHz and for channels60X to 69Y are rangewould be fed direct to the HSI or often, a
133'30-134'25MHz solely lor the purposeof separateDME indicator in which speedand time is
selectionon combinedcontrollers.Selectionof one computed. wirh a DME indicator fitted the HSI may
ol thesechinnelswould only give rangeinformation still act asa repeaterfor slant range.
ro an aircraftnot equippedwith full TACAN.
Associatedidentity is the term givenfor
qynchronization ofthe ident signalsfrom co-located
beacons.Each30 s intervalis dividedinto lbur or
rnoreequalpartswith the DME beaconident
transn'rittedduringone periodonly and the associated
v.h.f.facility ident duringthe renrainingperiods.
Associated identity would alsobe usedwith a Vortac
beaconwhich providesbearingand rangeinformation
to both civil and military aircraft. A TACAN (or
DME) beaconnot co-located with VOR would use
ndependentidentity. .

Instattation

The DME interrogatorcomesin rrranyforms; airline


standardequipmentis rack-mounted whereasgeneral
aviationinterrogators rriaybe panel-rnounted with
integralcontrolsand digrtalreadout. King havegone
one betterwith their KNS 80 integratednav.system
sinceone panel-rnounted box containsthe DME
interrogator: v.h.f.nav.recejverand converter,
glideslopereceiver,RNAV computerplus integral
controlsand readoutof range,groundspeed,and
time to station(seeFig. I .10).
Fig.7.6 KPI 533pictorialnavigation indicator(courtesy
KingRadioCorp.)
Figure7.5 showsa singleDME installationwith a
combinedv.h.f. nav./DMEcontroller,an output to an Co-axialcablesareusedfor antennafeederand
suppression.With a dual ATC transponderand dual
DME installationall four setswill be connectedin
parallelfor suppression purposes,so that when one
transmitsthey are all suppressed.The antennais
mounted on the undersideof the fuselagein an
approvedposition. Sufficientspacingbetweenall
Lband equipmentantennasmust be allowedto help
prevent mutual interference,althoughsuppression,
different frequencies,p.r.f.s and pulsespacingall
contribute to this.
Tuning information to both DME and the v.h.f.
nav. receiveris likely to be 215,althoughb.c.d. and
Fig.7.5 DMEinstallation with RNAVtie-in slip codesmay be found. Screenedcables,preferably
twisted and screened,areusedfor transferof
RNAV computer/controllerand with slant rangeand analogueor digital data and alsofor audio
groundspeedor time to station displayedon an HSI identificationto the audio integratingsystem. The
(Fig. 7.6). All largeraircraft would havea dual audio may be routed through the controllerif a
installation,possiblywith changeover relaysfor HSI volume control is irrcorporatedin the system. Other
feeds. A combinedcontrolleris usuallyfound, but it controller/DMEinterconnectionsare for self-test,off,
is possibie(not advised)to haveseparateDME and standbyand on.

111
Controls and Operation The pulsests are fed to the modulator and thus
decidethe time of transmission.The modulator
A drawingof a combinedcontrolleris shown in producespulsepairsof the appropriatespacingwhich
Chaptera (Fig.4.9). Controlsfor DME areminimal. in turn key the transmitterpower amplifiers. The r.f.
Frequencyselectionis usuallyby rotary click stop is generatedby a frequencysynthesizerthe output of
knobs,the digitat readoutof frequencyon the which servesas receiverlocal oscillatoraswell as
controllerbeingthe v.h.f.nav.frequency,e'g. transmittermasteroscillator. The amplifiedr.f. is fed
108'00 MHz. The DME on/off switching may
'standby' to and radiatedfrom an omnidirectionalantenna.
incorporatea standbyposition. Usually The peak power output of a modem airline standard
indicatesthat VOR/ILS is on, while DME is on DME will be about 700-800W nominal.
standbyi.e. transmitterdisabled.Sucha switchis Receivedpulsesare fed to the receivermixer via a
'off'-v.h.f. nav, and DME off;
often marked tuned preselectorwhich givesimagerejectionand
'receive'- v.h.f.nav.on, DME standby;
someprotection from the transmittedsignal. In
'transmit' - both v.h.f. nav.and DME on. A self-test
addition duplexingaction will normally be employed
switch will be providedon the controlleror, rarely, to ensurereceivermixer protection during
be panel-mounted.Further switchingtakesplaceon transmission.Sincethe transmit and received
the indicatorfor groundspeed(KTS or SPD)or frequenciesare always63 MHz apart,the frequency
time-to-station (TTS or MIN). A hold switchmay synthesizercan be usedasdescribedaboveand the i.f.
alsobe found (see previousnote on'hold'). amplifieris tunedto 63 MHz. A dual superhetmay
Operationis simple;just switchon, tune to be employed. The receiveroutput will be the
requiredbeaconand ensurelock-on after a brief detectedvideo signal.
search.lf the indicator employsa mechanicallydriven The decodergivesan output pulsefor each
digital readouta flag will obscurethe readingduring correctlyspacedpair of pulses.The decoderoutput
search, whereaswith an electronicdigitalreadoutthe consistsof repliesto all interrogatingaircraft plus
displaywill be blanked. Whentuning to a different squitteror pulsesat the identificationp.r.f. of
beaconthe ident signalshouldbe checkedto ensure 1350Hz, in which casea bandpassfilter givesa
the correctchannelhasbeenselected.Also if the 1350Hz tone output to the audiointegratingsystem.
DME is of a type which searches out from its The auto standbycircuitcountsthe pulsescoming
last-knownreadingthe self-testmust be operatedto from the decoderand if the rateexceeds a
return the dialsto near zeroso that an outbound predeternrinedfigure(say400 per second)euablesthe
searchwill resultin lock'on to a line-of-sightreply jitter generator.If the rateis low therewill be no
andnot an echo. Evenwith DMEswhich modulatortriggerandhenceno interrogation.A third
automaticallysearchout from zero af'tera channel decoderoutput is fed to the rangegate.
changethe self-testshouldbe operatedoccasionally' The zero time pulses/o are effectivelydelayedand
stretchedin the variabledelay which is controlled
eitherby the searchor track circuits' The output of
Simplified Block Diagram Operation the variabledelay,often termedthe rangeSate
The bl<rckdiagramof Fig. 7 .7 canbe usedto explain waveform,opensthe rangegate?'ps after every
the operationof virtuallyall DME interrogators. interrogation.If a reply or squitterpulseis received
Naturallyvariationswill occur when comparingtypes at a time when the rangegateis open.a pulseis fed to
of DME; in particularthe range'measuring circuitswill the cr.rirrcidence counter' Assumethe DME is
reflect the ingenuityof the designerand further. as searching with an interrogationrateof 100,and
one rvouldexpect,havein recentyearsmadethe further,assume the rangegatewavelormgatingpulses
transitionfrom analogue to digrtaltechniques. are20 ps in'duration,then on average duringa period
of l/100 = 10000 prsthe range gate will be openfor
A jitter generatordividesthe p.r.f. of a timing
oscillatoroutput by a variabledivisor. For example o n l y 2 0 p s ,i . e . l / 5 0 0 t h o r 0 ' 2 p e r c e n to f t h e t i m e '
with a basicp.r.f. of 400 a divisorof approximately Now squitterand unwantedrepliesoccurrandomly
20 would providea track p.r.f' of 20, while a divisor so the chanceof full coincidenceat the rangegateis
of approximately 4 would providea searchp.r.f. of roughly I in 500 for eachof the decoderoutput
puises.Sincethere are2700 received pulsepairsper
100. Of vital importanceto the operationof DME is
secondwe will have,on average' 2700/500,i'e.
that the divisorvariesrandomly,so that if on track
thenbetween,say, l5 and 25 timingpulsesmay occur 5-6 pulsesper secondfrom the rangegate.
betweensuccessive output pulses/s from the jitter During searchthe variabledelay is continuously
generator. increasedat a rate correspondingto anythingfrom

112
Suppression
pulse gen.

PRF change

t-
I *-oirt"-nJl
to ind.
I
r l
l l
_ll Range.
I measunng
I circuits
I
I
I
I
I
replios

Rx supprcssion
Frg.7 .7 Interrogator block diagram

liming gen.
o/P i li l i l l i l i l i l l l l l ll ll ll ll ll l l l l l l l ll ll l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l
Jittcr gcn.
otP r t l
Rengo gate
YVtVCtOrm

Dodcr

H
otP

l|nec g!r.
otP
r---1
F3 7.8 Stroboscopicprinciple

It3
20 to 400 nautical miles per second,dependingon the zero crossingsof the delayedsine wave turn on
vintageof the design. While in searchthe rangegate, (Q = l)a bistablewhich is turned otr (Q = 0) by the
output rate, as detectedby the coincidencecounter, zero time pulsesfrom the jitter generator. The
is low. When the delay lps is equalto the round bistableoutput is connectedto the positive-going
trip travel time plus the 50 ps beacondelay the range triggerinput of a monostable;in this way the
Bateoutput rate increases by a sigrificant amount. resulting30 ps pulsesoccur at a time determinedby
Assumingas abovea searchp.r.f. of 100, and also a those delayed timing pulseswhich occur I ps after
50 per cent reply rate, then the output.of the range transmission.The elapsedtime I representsthe
gatewill jump from say 5 pulsesper secondto 50 rangereadout which will be obscured'by a flag during
pulsesper second. This is the situation shown in search.
Fig. 7.8. Whenthis easilydetectedincreasein rate In the logic employed in Fig. 7.9 a low rate output
occursthe mode control circuit will: (a) enablethe from the rangegate will give a logic zero output from
tracking circuit; (b) inhibit the searchcircuit; the coincidencecounter, so enabling the search
(c) senda p.r.f. changesigral to the jitter generator; circuit but disablingthe early and late gates.When
and (d) lift the indicator blanking or flag as Zps correspondsto the actualslant rangeofthe
appropriate. beaconthe rangegateoutput rate is high, hencethe
During track the variabledelay is controlled by thesearchcircuit is disabledand a logic one is fed to the
trackingcircuitsso as to keepeachwanted reply in early and late gates. The other inputs to the earlyand
the centreof the correspondingrangegatewaveform late gatesare the decodedpulsesand a ramp
pulse. Should the aircraft be flying towards the waveformsymnietricalabout zero volts and coincident
beacon,successive replieswill appearearly within thewith a 30 ps rangegatewaveformpulse. The ramp
gatepulse,so causingthe delay to be reduced. The input to the late gateis invertedso that the late gate
opposite occurswhen the aircraft is flying away from is open for almost all of the latter half of the 30 ps
the beacon. The variabledelay representsthe slant period,while the early gateis open for almostall of
rangeand so a signalproportionalto or representing the first half. The slopeof the ramp waveformis
this delayis fed to the indicator and/or RNAV chosenso as there is a period (equalin duration to the -
computer. decoderoutput pulsewidth) when neither early nor
Ifwanted repliesare lost, the coincidencecounter late gateis open. Thus when on track the wanted
output registersa zero tate and hencethe mode repliesare steeredto the decreaseor increaserange
control switchesto memory. With static memory the circuits,dependingon whether the repliesarriveearly
trackingcircuits are 'frozen', whereaswith velocity or late within the rangegatewaveformpulse
memory the trackingcircuitscontinueto changethe respectively.
variabledelay at the last known rate. The motor drive circuits supply the motor so that
when in searchthe readoutand delay progressively
increases.While in track the motor will turn in a
RangeMeasuringand ModeGontrol direction dependenton which of the decreaseand
increasecircuits givesan output. It can be seenthat
Analogue in track we havea servosystemwhich maintainsthe
Typically in an older analogueDME the variable delay wantedrepliesin the centreof the rangegate
takesthe form ofa phaseshifter resolver,the rotor of waveformpulses.
which is fed from the timing oscillator and is The memory circuit is enabledwith the early and
mechanicallycoupledto a distancemeasuringshaft. late gateswhen it clearsthe flag. Subsequently,should
The trackingcircuitsin suchequipmentoften employ therebe a lossof replies,searchwill be inhibited and
a ramp generatoi. Figure7.9 illustratesa block the motor held (staticmemory)or madeto continue
diagramand waveformswhich may be used to explain rotating with the samesenseand speed(velocity
the operationof sucha DME but is not meant to memory) for the memory time.
representany particularequipment.
The timing generatoroutput is sinusoidaland so Digital
must be fed to a pulseformer (zero crossingdetector) What follows is an explanationof the principlesof a
beforethe jitter generator.The timing signalis also first-generationdigital DME basedon, but not
fed to a phaseshift resolverwhereit is phase-shifted accuratelyrepresenting,the RCA AVQ 85. Currently
(delayed) by an angledependingon the position of the trend is to usea special-purpose l.s.i. chip to
the distance-measuring shaft which also drives the perform the rangemeasurementand mode control
readout. Pulsescoincidentwith the positive-going tasks.

114
----l
I

I
I
I
I
I
I
roln I
ming I
\ - l l
en. i
l I
Delayed I t -'l I
timing ; \ I
t l
pulses i____ -J---..i

M
o
T
o
R
D
Ranoe R
oat"" Enable I
V
E

ro
r r l
Delayed +iTe ' I
tlmrng
pulses

Bistable
o
t ' l

Mono^stabre h j* so r,s h
o l

Monostable
o

Ramp gen.

Earlv n Late
Decoder o/P

Fig. 7.9 Analoguerangemeasuringand mode control block


diasram

The AVQ 85 hasa searchp.r.f. of 40, a track p.r.f. is measured.If rn is the time measured after the
of l2 and a maximumrangeof 400 nauticalmiles, nth interrogationthen /1111is the time to the first
which correspondsto a two-way travel time of decodedpulseto arrivesuchthat tn+1) tr, where
5000ps. Duringthis time the nuntberof pulsepairs r,l= 0, L . ., and /o = 0. Whenwe haveequality,i.e.
receivedfrom a beaconwill be, on average: tn+L = /r, then /r, is, subjectto further checking,the
roundtrip traveltime to the beacon.It can be seen
5000x10-6x2700=13.5. that if the aircraftis at rnaximunlrangewe shallneed,
Of the thirteen or fourteenpulsepairsreceivedone on average, l3-14 successive interrogations to complete
will, hopefully,be a wantedrepiy. the searchtime- At a searchrate of 40 this will take
During the searchmode the elapsedtime between sayl3'5/40 s,i.e.about one-thirdof a second.The
f6 and the time arrival of a particulardecodedpulse acquisitiontime of the AVQ 85 is quotedaslessthan I s.

115
Int.rrogatiorl

lst mcesurornont

2nd measuremart

3rd measurement

4ttl melsurc|tranl

Sth mcaermont

6th measuremetrt

7th- moasurotnctrt
Valid
reply

- search
Fig.7.l0 Digital rangemeasurement

With the aboveoperationonly one time which, when detected,signalthe end of search.
measurement needsto be storedin a register. With a In Fig. 7.1I we return to the one measurementper
modestamount of memory the wanted reply could interrogationsituation. Initially the distance
be identified within two successive interrogations, measuringcircuit countersand registersare cleared.
providedthat sucha reply was receivedafter eachof Time measurementfrom /6 is carriedout by the
the interrogations.If we assumea 50 per cent reply distancecounter which counts809 kHz clock pulses,
rate then four interrogationswould be needed. thus givinga rangeresolutionof one-tenthof a mile.
During a 5000 ps interval lessthan eighty-fourpulse The sequenceof eventsfollowing the (r + I )th
pairswill be received,assuminga minimum spacingof interrogationof a searchcycle is as follows:
60 ps betweenbeaconsquittertransmissions and
allowingfor a 60 ps deadtime. Eachtime l. te+20ps
measurement would need l2 bits if a resolutionof Distancecountgrciears.
one-tenthof a nauticalmile is required. Thus'a faster Blankingcounter loadedwith contentsof
searchtime could be achievedif a RAM of distancestorageregister= rn.
12 X 84 X 4 = 4032 bits were provided. A practical 2. ts + 47 tts
circuit would consistof 4 X lK bit (lK = 1024\ Blankingbounterstartsto count down.
RAMs, the pulsearrivaltimes,expressedas distances, 3. ls + 50 r/s
dfter eachof four interrogationsbeing recorded Distancecounter startsto count up towards
successively in eachRAM chip. The first chip would maximum range.
thus record the arrival times after the first, fifth, 4. to+tn
ninth, etc. interrogations,similarly for the second, Blankingcounter reacheszero and hence
third and fourth chips. Of courseonly one 4K bit enablesblanking gateand triggersrangegate
drip is needed,providedit can be organizedinto four waveformgenerator.
linear arraysof l2-bit words. With a searchp.r.f. of 5. ts + tral
40 thereis a periodof 30000 ss (= l/40) less A decodedpulsearrivesand passes through
5000 ps in which to checkfor equal arrivaltimes enabledblanking gateto stop distancecounter

116
tlccodcd
pulsos
Distance
to lnd s PRF Ind
8O9kHz T chang€ enable
o
P

Range
gate
wavaform Decoded
809 kHz gen. pulsss

F!. ?.ll Digital rarge measuringand mode control block


diagram

and trigger transfer of data to distancestorage interrogations rrtust give rise to a rangeSateoutput;
register;n becomesn + I and circuit waits for failure initiates a switch to memory. Five seconds
next to. after memory is entered the mode will revert to
search,subject to auto standby, unlessthe four-from'
The abovesequenceis repeatedafter each sixteen check indicatessuccess,in which casetrack
interrogation. Within, on average,fourteen resumes.
interrogationsthe time to a wanted reply will be
counted and the distancestorageregisterwill contain
the number of tenthsof a nauticalmile actualrange. Characteristics
After the next interrogationthe blanking counter will
enable the blanking gate 3 prsbefore the arrival ofthe is drawnfromtheARINC
Thefollowingsummary
wanted reply, sincethe blankingcounterstart is Characteristic568-5for the Mk 3 airborneDME, it is
47 ps after re while the distancecounter start is not completeand doesnot detail all the conditions
50 ps after fe. It thereforefollows that the distance under which the following should be met.
counterwill recordthe samed'.stance, subjectto
aircraft movement.thereafter. Channels
The pulse from the rangegate waveform generator 252 channelsselectedby 215switching.
is of 6 ps duration,its leadingedgebeingX ps after te
whereX is the time of arrivalof the previously hise Spacing
measureddecodedpulseless47 ps. This gatingpulse Interrogationl2 r 0'5 ps modeX;36 x 0'5 prsmode X
is fed to the rangegatetogetherwith the decoder Decoderoutput if lZ ! 0'5 1rsmodeX; 30 i 0'5 tts
output. Coincidenceindicatesthat the two latest mode Y.
pulsesto be measuredhavearrivedwith the sametime Decoder: no output ifspaeing of receivedpulse pain
delay t 3 prswith respectto /s and are thus probably more than I 5 ps from that required.
wanted replies. The percentagereply checkingcircuit
then checksthat two of the next eight interrogations Range
giverise to a decodedpulsewithin the track gateand 0-200 nauticalmileswith overrideto extend to
if so the mode switchesto track. On track the p.r.f. is 300 nauticalmiles.
reducedand the indicator givesa readoutofthe range
asmeasuredby the distancecounter. After switching TmckW Sped
to track, at leastfour of any sixteensuccessive 0-2000 knots.

717
:r i : i: -
AcquisitionTime Intenogation Rote
I s or less. Overalllessthan 30, assumingon track 95 per cent of
time, searching5 per cent of time.
Memory
4-12s velocitymemory. Auto Standby
At least650 pulsepairsper secondreceivedbefore
r.f. PowerOutput interrogationsallowed.
> 25 dBWinto 50 O load.

Fig.7.l2 TIC T-24A (courtesyTel-InstrumentElcctronics


Corp.)

118
Tx Frequency Stability 3. Rangerate pulsetransmittedfor each0.01 nautical
Better than t 0.007 per cent. mile changein range.
4. Audio ) 75 mW into 200-500Q load.
Rx Sensitivity 5. Output impedance< 200 st.
-90 dBm lock-on sensitivity.
6. Warningflag( I V d.c. for warning,2i.S y d.c.
satisfactoryoperation.
Suppressiort PulseDurat ion
Blanket: l9 prsmodeX;43 ttsmodeL RangeOutput Accuracy
Pulsefor pulse: 7 gs. From t 0.1 to t 0.3 nauticalmiles,dependingon
sigral strengthand time sinceacquisition.
Antenna v,s.w.r.
l'5: I over 962-1213MHz referredto 50 O.
Ramp Testing
Antenna Isolotion
> 40 dB betweenL-bandantennas.
A DME installationshouldbe testedusinga ramp test
set which will test by radiation,simulatevarious
Outputs
rangesand velocities.operateon at leastone spot
l. Digital: 32-bit serialb.c.d.word at leastfive times
frequencyfor mode X and mode I/, and provide for
per second,resolution0.01 nauticalmiles.
simulationof identification. Two suchtest setsare
Buffers in utilization equipment.
the TIC T-24A (Fig. 7.12) andthe IFR ATC"600A
2. Analogue:pulsephirs5-30 timesper secondwith
( F i g .8 . 2 3 ) .
spacing,in ps, 50 + l2'359d (d beingslant
range). Eachload l2K in parallelwith lessthan
TIC T.24A
I 00 pF.
A battery-operated,one-mantest set operatedfrom

*
.*tF
d* in$

-trf:l;l:
a{{dtir-ril @ *rt tlt
/! *,

'k "r | -,'a.


^
{i *. nl'
* { r t f * @ r f

-EE-I
: 4*. .. :a.r/:{ . a

*$ -.** e
,. ..:;,..
?. ciil, tlq
_ft i*+ffi
. t. *.r& nfr
4,frwa.:r
.s,:,ai: d; :i {
fr
:
.,") ;
Et
t , e a

d T ^t
ld

Fig. 7.13 TIC T-50A (courtesyTel-lnstrument


Elcctronrcs
Corp.)

'!19
the cockpit and testingby radiation. ChannelslTX 50-2400knots inbound or outbound. The identity is
and 17Y are available(108.00 and 108.05MHz VOR equalized1350 pulsepairsper second. The percentage
frequencies)with rangesimulationftom 0 to 399.9 reply is either50 or 100 per cent by selection.
nauticalmilesin 0.1 nauticalmile increments. The Featuresof the ATC 600A not availablewith the
velocity, inbound or outbound, can be selectedin T-24A arean interrogatorpeak r.f. power readout,
lO-knot incrementsfrom 0 to 9990 knots. Squitter accuracyt 3 dB (t 50 per cent) and interrogation
is selectableat 700 or 2700 pulsepairsper second. liequency check.
Identity is availableas 1350 or equalized1350 pulse
pairsper second. An additionalpulsepair l0
nauticalmilesafter the reply pulsepair can be Bench Testing
selected,to enablea checkof echo protection. The Various test setsexist for the benchtestingof DME,
p.r.f. meterhastwo ranges0-30 and 0-150. Finally one of theseis the TIC T-50A (Fig. 7.13) which also
the percentagereply may be selectedin l0 per cent providesfacilitiesfor ATC transponderbench testing.
incrementsfrom l0 to 100 per cent. This is not the placeto detail all the featuresof sucha
complex test set; sufficeit to say that the test set is
ATC 600A madeup of optional modulesso that the customer
This test set doesnot have all the facilities ofthe can choosethe most suitablepackage.One feature
T-24A but doesoffer comprehensive testingability which must be mentionedis the ability to measure
for the ATC transponder(Chapter8). Like the the pulsedr.f. from the DME interrogatorwith a
T-24Athe ATC 600A operateson channelsl7X and resolutionof l0 kHz. TIC havefound that many
l7Y. The rangecan be set from 0 to 399 nautical units changetheir output frequency,sometimes
milesin I nauticalmile steps. Twelvedifferent beyond allowablelimits, when a changein pulse
rrelocitiesmay be simulatedin the range spacingoccurs;i.e. X to I/ mode or vice versa.

120
I ATC transponder

Recognitionof thesedisadvantages, in particular


lntroduction
No. 3, led to the developmentof a military secondary
surveillanceradar (SSR)known as identification
With the rapid build-up of international and domestic
friend or foe (lFF). With this systemonly specially
civil air transportsinceWorld War II, control of air
equipped targetsgive a return to the ground. This
traffic by meansof primary surveillanceradar (PSR)
system has sincebeenfurther developedand extended
and proceduresis not adequateto ensuresafetyin the
to cover civil aswell asmilitary air traffic; the special
air.
equipmentcarriedon the aircraft is the air traffic
control (ATC) transponder.

?---=__
m
Fig E.l Primarysurveillance radar
BasicPrinciples

Secondarysurveillanceradar forms part of the ATC


radarsurveillancesystem:the other part being PSR.
Two antennas,one for PSR,the other for SSR,are
mounted co-axiallyand rotate together,radiating
directionally.The SSRitselfis capableof giving
A PSRdoesnot rely on the activeco-operationof rangeand bearinginformation and would thus appear
the target. Electromagnetic(e.m.) radiation is pulsed to make PSR redundant:howeverwe must allow for
from a directionalantennaon the ground. Provided aircraft without ATC transponderfitted or a possible
they arenot transparentto the wavelengthused, failure.
targetsin tine with the radiation will reflect energy We can briefly explain SSRin terms of Fig. 8.2.
back to the PSR. By measuringthe time taken, and The SSR transmitterradiatespulsesof energyfrom a
noting the direction of radiation, the rangeand directionalantenna.The directionand timing of the
bearingof the target are found. Display is by means SSRtransmissionis synchronizedwith that of the
of a plan position indicator (seeChapter9). Such a PSR. An aircraft equippedwith a transponderin the
qystemhasthe following disadvantages: path of the radiatedenergywill reply with specially
codedpulsedr.f. providedit recognizes the
l. Sufficient energymust be radiatedto ensurethe interrogationasbeing valid. The aircraft antennais
minimum detectablelevel of energyis received omnidirectional.
b! the p.s.r.after a round trip to a wanted The coded reply receivedby the ground is decoded,
targetat the maximum range. Rangeis and an appropriateindication givento the air traffic
,' proportional to the 4th root of the radiated controlleron a p.p.i..display.The reply will give
energy. information relatingto identity, altitude or one of
2. Targetsother than aircraft will be displayed severalemerElency messages.Figure8.3 showsa
(clutter). This can be much reducedby using typical data presentation. As can be seen,a variety of
Doppler effect (seeChapter l0) to detect only symbolsand labelsare usedto,easethe task of the
moving targets. controller.
3. Individual aircraft cannot be identified except
by requestedmanoeuvre. Interrogation
4. An aircraft's altitude is unknown unlessa One interrogationconsistsof a pair of pulsesof r.f'
separateheight-findingradaris used. energy,the spacingbetweenthe pulsesbeing one of
5. No information link is set up. four time intervals. Different modesof interrogation

721
Fig 8.2 Secondarysurveillanceradar

The maximum interrogationrate is 450 although,


in order to avoid fruiting (seebelow - FalseTargets),
the rate is as low as possibleconsistentwith each
targetbeing interrogatedtwenty to forty times per
sweep. The pulsesof r.f. are 0.8 ps wide and at a
frequencyof 1030 MHz (L band) this being the same
for all interrogations.

Reply
A transponderwill reply to a valid interrogation,the
form of the reply dependingon the mode of
interrogation. A valid interrogationis one received
from the interrogator mainlobe(seebelow,- Side
I-obe Suppression),the time interval betweenpulses
beingequal to the mode spacingselectedby the pilot.
In every reply two pulsesof r.f. 1090 MHz, spaced
^-
20.3 ps apart are transmitted,theseare the frame or
bracketpulses,Fl and F2. BetweenFl and F2 there
are up to twelve code pulsesdesignatedand spacedas
shown in Fig. 8.5; a thirteenth pulse,the X pulse,
may be utilized in a future expandedsystem.
The presenceof a code pulsein a reply is
determinedby the settingof code selectorswitcheson
the pilot's controller when the reply is in responseto
a mode A (orts) interrogation.If the interrosationis
Fig. 8.3 Typical data presentation mode C the codc pulsestransmittedare autoriaticallv
determinedby an encodingaltimeter.
A pulse4.35 gs after F2 may be transmitted. This 'i

is the specialposition indicator (Spl) pulse.otherwise :i


known as the indicateposition (I/p) or simply ident j
lre codedby the different time intervals,eachmode pulse. lf the reply is in responseto a mode A 'i

correspondingto +different ground-to-air.question'. interrogationthe SPI pulseis selectedby a


For examplemode A - 'what is your identity'? spring-loadedswitch or button on the pilot's controller. -3
Figure 8.4 illustratesthe modesof interrogation. A brief depressionof the switch will causethe Spl
Many transpondershaveonly mode A ind C
capability;this is sufficient to respondto an
pulseto be radiatedwith every reply to a mode A 3
.:
I
interrogationreceivedwithin l5-30 s. Someolder
interrogatoroperatingon mode interlacewhereby transponderswill transmit a SpI pulsein reply to a
mode A and C interrogationsare transmittedin mode C interrogationwhen the reply code containsa
sequence,thus demandingidentification and altitude D4 pulse;this corresponds to an altitudein excessof
information. Mode D hasyet to be uti[zed. 30 700 ft.

122
ldontity

ldentity
o
!
o
=
Altitude

Unassigncd

Fig 8.4 Interrogation pulse spacing

Fr cl A1 c2 A2 C4 A4 'X' 8r _Dr 82 d2 84 D4 F2

l*z.sr,t-l

Fig 8.5 Replytrainformat

Coding: Identification Table 8.1 Group A codeselection(similarly for


The codepulsestransmitteddependon four code groupsB, C and D)
selectorswitches,each of which controls a group of
threepulsesin the reply and may be set to one of A4 A2 AI Selection
eight position,0-7. The code groupsare designated
A, B, C and D, the pulseswithin eachgroup having 0 0 0 0
suffixes4,2 and I (seeFig- 8.5). The resultingcode 0 0 I I
is binary codedoctal, the most significantoctal digit 0 I 0 2
beingdetermined.bythe group A pulses,the least 0 I I 3
significantby the group D. 0 0 4
Selectionof the A pulsesgivesthe familiar binary 0 I 5
code,asshown in Table 8.1. Similarly with selection I : 0 6
of the B, C and D pulses. I I
The number of possiblecode combinationsis
easilyarrivedat sincewe havefour octal digits giving
8a = 4096. Someof the code combinationsare siven
specialsignificance;we have: il ,o,o
'7600 Radio failure 77OO Emergency

Thereis also a specialcode for hijack.


o'o'
Coding: Altitude Fig. 8.6 Examples of pulse trains lbr particular selected
The flight level of the aircraft referencedto a pressure codes

123
of 1013.25mbar(29.92 inHg) is encoded Table8.2 100-Footincrementcoding
automaticallyin incrementsof 100 ft, the codeused
beinglaid down by the ICAO. The maximumencodedMod,o(A) cr c2 c4
rangeis from -1000 to 126700 ft inclusive.With
100 ft incrementsthis requires1278differentcode 8 0 I
combinations, with 4096 availablewe seethereis 9 0 I
considerable redundancy.It is impracticalto usemore 0 0 0 :
rl

of the availablecodessincethe aciuracy of I I 0


barometricaltimetersis suchthat it is not sensibleto 2 I 0
have,say,50 ft increments; in any casethe objective Reflection
is to indicateflight levelswhich arein hundredsof - I 0
feet. 4 I 0
To accommodatethe redundancythe Dl pulseis ) 0 0
not usedand, further,at leastone C pulseis 6 0 I
transmittedbut neverCl and C4 togetherin a single 1 0 I
reply. Thus for eacheightpossibleA group
combinationsof pulseswe haveeight B group,five C
goup and four D group,giving8 X 8 X 5 X 4 = 1280 The A, B and D pulsesform a Gray code givinga
possiblecodecombinations; two more than necessary.total of 256 incrementsof 500 ft each,i.e.
The extra two. if assigned. would correspondto 128000 ft, commencingat -1000 ft. In orderof
i
I 1 0 0a n d - 1 2 0 0 f r . frequencyof bit changewe have84,82, Bl, 44, A2, ,
The C pulsesform a unit distancereflectedbinary Al , D4, D2; thus 84 changes every 1000 ft whereas
I

codegivingthe 100 ft increments.As shownin D4 doesnot enterthe codeuntil 30 800 ft and D2


Table8.2 the reflectedpattern,startingat :
until 62 800 ft. Needlessto sayaircraftin the general
C l = C 2 = 0 , C 4 = l , b e g i n sr v h e nM o d l e ( A )= 8 ; aviationcategorywill not needto employ encoding
i.e.when the renrainder on dividingthe altitude(in altimetersgivingD4 and D2 selection.
hundredsof feet)by 10 is 8. Thus to find the C To find the A, B and D pulseswe can use
pulsesin the codefor. say,25400 ft we have Table8.3. Sincethe entriesin the tablecommence {
A = 2 5 4 ,M o d 1 6 ( A = ) 4 , s o C l a n d C 2 a r ei n t h e r e p l y . with zero,whereasthe altitudecommences at

Table8.3 500-Footincrementcodins

B4 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 r 1 0 0 1 t 0
B2 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 t r 1 r 0 0
B1 0 0 0 0 I. r t 1 1 1 I r 0 0 0 0
A4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 r t I I I I I

D2 D4 AI A2

0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 s 5 7 8 9 l0 lt t2 13 14 15
0 0 0 I 31 30 29 28 27 26 2s 24 23 22 2t 20 19 l8 t7 16
0 0 I 32 33 34 35 36 3 7 3 8 39 40 4 1 42 43 44 45 46 47
0 0 0 63 62 61 60 s9 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 5l 50 49 48
- 0 0 64 55 66 6't 58 69 70 7 t 7 2 . 7f 74 7S 76 77 78 79
o I 9s 94 93 92 9l 90 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 82 8t 80
0 0 I 96 97 98 99 100 101 t02 I 03 104 1 0 5 106 107 108 109 ll0 l1l
0 0 0 t27 126 125 t24 t23 122 t2t I 2 0 ll9 ll8 tt7 116 l15 114 l13 tr2
I 0 0 t28 129 130 131 r32 r33 134 I 3 5 135 137 138 139,140 l4l 142 r43
0 I 159 158 r57 156 155 154 153 Is 2 1 5 l 150 t49 148 t47 146 145 t44
I I I 160 161 162 163 t64 165 166 I 67 168 169 170 l7l 172 r'13 174 t' t5
I I 0 l9l 190 189 188 187 186 185 I84 183 182 r8l 180 t79 178 t77 t76
I 0 0 t92 193 t94 195 196 r9't 198 I 99 200 20t 202 203 204 205 206 207
I 0 I 221 222 22r 220 219 218 217 21 6 2 t 5 2r4 2t3 212 2tr 210 209 208
t 0 0 I 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 23 1 2 3 2 233 234 23s ?36 23't n8 239
0 0 0 255 2s4 253 252 25t 250 249 24 8 2 4 7 246 245 244 243 242 241 240

124
-1000, we must add 1000 to the altitude before repliesmay thus be sortedon this basis.
enteringthe table. The tablerecordsthe altitudein A reply from a transponderlastsfor a period of
incrementsof 500 ft. The followingalgorithmwill 20'3 ps, thus the transmittedpulsetrain will occupya
give the requiredcode: distanceof 163000 X 20.3 X l0-6 = 3.3 nautical
milesin space(speedof propagationbeing
(i) add 1000 to the altitude; 163000 nauticalmilesper second).As a consequence
(ii) enter table with the integerpart of the result any two aircraft in line with the interrogator,and
of (i) dividedby 500; with a differencein slantrangeof lessthan 1.65
(iii) readthe code:row, column. nautical miles,will transmit replieswhich overlapin
spaceand consequently mutuallyinterfereat the
As an examplewe will find the completecode for interrogatorreceiver. Such repliesare said to be
I l0 200 ft: garbled. Secondarysurveillanceradaris most useful
when traffic densitiesare greatest.These
( i ) 1 1 0 2 0 0 +1 0 0 0 =l l l 2 0 0 ; circumstances, of course,giveincreased garbling.
( i i ) I n t . ( l l l 2 0 0 / s 0 0 )= 2 2 2 ; Reflectionsof the transmittedenergy,either
( i i i ) 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1= D 2 D 4 A l A 2 A 4 B l 8 2 F . 4 . interrogationor reply,from mountains,hills or large
structureswill givean indicatedreply at an incorrect
To find the C pulses: range.Sincethe directpath is shorterthan the
reflectedpath echoprotectionmav be used;i.e. the
Modls (l102) = 2, therefore100 = Cl C2 C4. receivermay be suppressed or desensitizedfor a
C o m p l e t ec o d ei s l 0 l 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 . limited periodon receiptof a pulse.

False Targets Side Lobe Suppression(SLS)


There are severalcausesof unwanted returnsbeing When a reply is receivedits angularposition on the
displayedon the air traffic controller'sp.p.i.,one of controller'sp.p.i.is determinedby the directionof
which is interrogationby sidelobes. This is discussed the main lobe radiationfrom the interrogator.If the
in somedetail below under the headingside lobe reply is due to an interrogationtiom a sidelobe then
suppression. the indicatedbearingwill be incorrect.Two systems
Sincethe transponderantennais omnidirectional havebeen designedto suppressrepliesto sidelobe
the reply pulsesnreantfor one interrogatormay also interrogation:they are the ICAO 2 pulseand the
be receivedby another,providingit is within range FAA 3 pulseSLS systems.Someoldertransponders
and its antennais pointingin the directionof the havecircuitry applicableto eithersystem;however
aircraftconcerned.Suchunwantedreturnswill not three-pulseSLS hasadvantages over its virtually
be synchronized with the transmission of the obsoleterival and is the only systemconsidered,
interrogatc'rsufferingthe interferenceand would The polar diagramfor the interrogatorantenna
appearas randombright dots on the p.p.i. This type systemis shownin Fig. 8.7. Pl and P3 are the
known as fruiting.carrbe dealtwith
of interi-erence, a t 8 , 1 7, 2 l o r 2 5 p s
i n t e r r o g a t i opnu l s e s p a c e d
by makinguseof the tact that different radiatedfrom the directionalantenna.P2 is the SLS
interrogatorswork on difl-erentinterrogationrates, control oulseradiatedfrom an omnidirectional

P 1 ,P 3

r
*'J
I2rs f-
Fig. 8.7 Three-pulse
s.l.s.

125
antenna. The field strength for P2 is such that an lnstallation
aircraft within the Pl/P3 main lobe will receiveP2 at
a lower amplitudethan Pl/P3 whereaselsewhereP2 Figure 8.9 showsa typical transport category aircraft
will be greater. The condition for a reply/no reply dual installation. Two transpondersare mounted side
are: by sidein the radio rack mating with back plate
n >Pl connectorsin the mounting tray junction box. Two
no reply
encoding altimetersand the control unit havetheir
P2<Pl-9dB reply
connectorsrouted through the back plate to the
otherwisemry reply
transponderswhile direct connectionsto the front of
In the grey regionthe probability ofa reply increases the transpondersare made from two L-band antennas
with decreasing P2 amplituderelativeto Pl. and the suppressionline interconnectingall L-band
equipments. Powersuppliesare routed through the
Probability backplate.
of reply
The encodingaltimetersmay be blind (no altitude
indication) or panel-mounted.On largertransport
aircraft encodedaltitude information may be derived
from a static pressure-activated capsulemechanismin
a centralair data computer(CADC).
The transpondersare fitted on a shock-mounted
tray. Coolingis by convectionand radiation. Most
transpondersdesignedfor the generalaviation market
combinetransponderand control unit in one box,
which is panel-mounted.To ensureadequatecooling
sufficient clearancemust be allowedaround eachunit.
n-P2 A common co-axialcableinterconnectsthe
(dBsl transpondersand DME interrogators.A transmission
, I 'black
Grey by any one box' will causethe receiversof the
Fig. 8.8 Probability ofa reply :i
j
l
J
{
Supply: 115V, 4OO Hz
and/or 28 V d.c.

lllumination
S0ppressioninlout

.s
..{
EE EE E
,i
,rrl/{o
@@
3
!
*-(/ I

Fig. 8.9 Dual transponderinstallation

126
other threeto be suppressed for a perioddepending alternative. The code setectedappearsin a window
on the_source; a transpondersuppression puir. will be abovethe switchesand will determinethe code
about30 ps.
pulsespresentin the reply in responseto a
controlunit is, of course,panel-mounted modeA
in (or.B) in_terrogation.Sometranspona.r,
t .u" "
the cockpitandprovidesthe piloiwith.o*fi.t"
facility for remote automaticteying fo, moOes
controloverthe transponders. Only onetransponder e ana
B; this may be selectedby settingtlie code
at a timeis in usewhilethe otheriJon standbv. ,rit.h.,
to 8888. In fact the necessaryextra equipment
has
neverbeenintroduced.

Controls and Operation I/P.Syvit-chSpring-loadedto_off pushbuttonor toggle


s'uritchfor selectionof the SpI puise. May be labelled
FunctionSwitch Off-Standby-A-B-C_D. ModeC SPI or ldent.
operationwill dependonly on thepositionof
the
altitudereporting(a.r.)switch;henceif the function Lo SenseSwitch Whenselectedto .on'reduces
the
svitch hasa'C' positionsucha selection wouldserve transponderreceiversensitivityby l2 dB. This
to switchmodesA, B andD off but haveno effect featurewas introducedas an inteiim measurefor
on
the selection
of modeC. Manytransponders have reducingsidelobe response.Subsequent
only A andC capabilityin which.ur. th. function developmentshavemade this facility unnecessary.
switchmighthavepositionsOff-standby-A.
A.R. Switch On-off selectionfor altitude reporting.
Rotaryswitches
mountedco-axiaily
?!:.S*:!rhes
m palrs;thumbwheel Test (T) Switch Spring-loadedto off pushbutton
switches
area common or

Spike
eliminator
pulse width
limiter

Visual monitor
Fig. 8.10 Transponderbtock diagram

727
.,i
i
I
j
j
i
.{
toggleswitch which energizesthe self'testcircuitry. transmitter. Radiationis by an omnidirectional ?
antenna. {
Indication of a successfulself-testis givenby a green *
The sidelobe suppression circuitsare fed with the
visualmonitor lamp which alsoilluminateswhen a
reply is sent in responseto a valid interrogation. The receivervideo output. In the event of an interrogation I1
by sidelobe, the receiverwill be suppressed for about :q
self-testswitch and visualmonitor may be repeated ii

on the transponderunit for the use of the 35 ps commencingat a time coincidentwith the P2 n

maintenance engineer. pulse,thus blocking the passage of P3.


The suppression circuit is triggeredwheneverthere
is a reply. The suppression pulseso producedis used
TlansferSwitch Selectseither transponderNo' I or
No. 2 in a dual installation. to suppressthe receiverand is alsofed to other
Pilot work load with transponderis minimal, there L-bandequipmentfor the samepurpose. The
beingno indication other than the monitor lamp suppression featurebetweenL-bandequipmentsis
while control switch changesareinitiated on ATCs mutual.
instructionseitherby r.t. or throughstandard Automaticoverloadcontrol(a.o.c.)otherwise
procedures. known asgroup countdown,progressively reduces
the receiversensitivityafter the reply rate exceeds
typically 1200groupsper second.AssumingI 5 pulse
replies,0'45ps pulsewidths and a maximumreply
Simplified Block Diagram Operation
rate of 1480 groupsper secondwe havea typical
airline requirementof a I per cent duty cycle to
The interrogatingpulsesofr.f. energyare fed tcl the
handlernultipleinterrogations.
receiverby way of a 1030 MHz band passfilter' The
Self-testfacilitiesareprovided.On beingactivated,
pulsesare amplified,detectedand passedas a video
a test signalis injectedinto the front end of the
iignal to the spikeeliminator and pulse-wihthlimiter self-testis indicatedby the
receiver.A successful
circuits;theseonly passpulsesgreaterthan 0'3 gs in visualmonitor lamp which lights wheneverthere is an
duration and limit long pulsesto lessthan that Sometransponders havean
adequatetransmission.
duration which will causetriggering.The decoder
audiomonitor facilityin additionto the visual
examinesthe spacingof the interrogationpulsesPl
monitor.
and P3, if it is that for the mode selectedan output
will be givento the encoder.If the Pl-P3 spacingis {
2l prsan output will be givenregardless of the mode n
I
selected. Block Diagram Details :
The encoder.on being triggeredby the decoder.
Transmitter Receiver !
':i!
producesa train of pulsesappropriateto the required
reply which is determinedby codeswitches(mode A) The r.f. sectionswill employnormalu.h.f. techniques .t

or encodingaltimeter(modeC). The encoderoutput suitablefor processingsignalsin the regionof $


internalco-axialleads i
triggersthe modulator which keys the 1090 MHz 1000MHz. Interconnecting
l
.;
j
l
l

I
'i

To vidco
st6gos

Fig. 8.1I Logarithmici.f. amplifier

128
must be of a length laid down by the manufacturer as Table8.4 Comparison of conventionaland
they play a part in the circuit action; in particularthe logarithmic
amplifiers
lead to the transmitterwill be of a leneth such that
receivedsigralswill seethe transmitteifeed as a high Input signal Output signal
impedance,thus assistingin the duplexing action.
In flying from maximum rangetowards the Conventional Logarithmic
interrogator a large dynamic rangeof signalstrength
is received,at least50 dBs from minimum triggering V AV AV
level. Providingadequateamplification for the weak I3
signalscan result in saturation of the last stage(s)of
the i.f. amplifier when strongersignalsare received. V AV 2AV
Such saturation may give rise to the suppressionof T2
valid interrogations by the SLS circuit since the
strongerPl main lobe pulseswill be limited. V AV 3AV
Successive detectionof the video sigral can T
overcomethe saturationproblem. Figure 8.11 shows
a logarithmicamplifier usingsuccessive detection. v AV 4AV
fusuming a gain of A for each stageand a maximum
stageinput signalZ before saturationof that stage,
an input to the i.f. amp. of VlAi wrll causestage4 to beingpassedto the decoder. Long pulseswhich
saturate.In this event the detectedoutput to the might causea'reply are reducedin duration by the
video stagewill be (VlA') + (VIA) + (V) + (AV) pulse-widthlimiter monostable,the output of which
which is approximatelyequal to AV for'a reasonable is a pulseabout 0'5 ps in duration regardlessof the
gajrnA. Table 8.4 illustratesthe differencebetweena width of the input pulse.
conventional and logarithmic amplifier. The decoderinput monostableensuresthat only
the leadingedgeof Pl (positive-goingt) triggersthe
Decoder mode A and C delay circuitseachof which consistsof
Many transpondersstill in serviceuse multi-tapped a monostableand a differentiatingcircuit. The mode
delaylinesin both decoderand encoder;howeverall A and C AND gateswill givean output if the delayed
moderntranspondersemploy monostablesand shift Pl pulsesfrom the differentiatorsare coincidentwith
registers,in the form of integratedcircuits,which will the undelayedP3. An output from either AND gate
be the only type of transponderconsideredhere. will give a trigger('T') output from the OR gate.
The detectedvideo signalsare appliedto the spike
eliminator and pulsewidth limiter in series. The Encoder
action of the 0'3 ps delay and AND gateis to prevent ln the exampleof an encodershown,two lO-bit shift
any pulsesor noisespikeslessthan 0'3 ps in duration registersare used(e.g.Signetics8274).The operating

O ' 5p s

Output
O'3lrs
Pulse width
limiter
Odprrt

Spike eliminator

fig. E.f 2 Spike eliminator and pulse width limiter


wavcforms

129
.{
r
,{

J
{
Pulse :
.!

width :
limiter :.

Fig.8.l3 Decoder

n
t t
n
t l
Input | Ln-]
P'I P2 P3

l . l
30 trs mono output -

8 lrs mono-output
I lrs

21 1rsmono output

n
t l

Differentiator I O/P

Differentiator 2 O/P
n
n
l l
'A'
output

'C'
output

T'output

- modeA intertogation
Fig,8.14 Decoderwaveforms

mode is controlledby inputsS0 and Sl, hold, clear, 'lhc


s e q u e n o el o a d , s h i l t , c l c a r , h o k l . S 0 w a v e f o r mi s
load and shift being selectedby the input values a . l s ou s e d t ( ) g a t c a c l o c k g c r r c r a t o r p
, c r i o d 1 . 4 5g s .
$rown in the truth table(Fig.8.l5). Thesetwo
control waveformsare producedby two monostables, 'l
Load l'ha lcading cdgc of triggcrs thc controlling
one triggeredby the positive-going edgeof the T m o n o s t a b l c ss o t l r a t S ( ) = l , S l . , ( . 1a n d t l r c s h i f t
output from the decoder,the other by the r e g i s t e re l e r n c n t sw i l l b c l o a d c r lw i t l r t l r c b i n a r v
negative-goingedge. This anangementgivesus the information present on tlrc input lirres. Since il an<l

130
sxo $lBo,,o

10 bit 10 bit
shift register shift re$ster

I Pilot ct
: code
switch
Encoding
altimeter D4
switch

r-
Fig 8.15 Encoder

F2 are requiredin all replies,the appropriateinputs low for the dur4tion of the load mode, the NOR gate
arehigh (+5 V). The one time-slotbetween.A4and outputscorresponding to selectedcodesgo high and
B1 and the two time-slotsbetweenF2 and SPI are thusset the appropriateshift registerelement. Similar
neverused;consequently their input lines,together action.occurs whenevermodeC interrogations are
with the two spareafter SPI.arelow (earth). The receivedalthoughDl selectionis not involved.Noise
dynamicinput linesCl to D4 will be high or low filteringis employed(r.c.networks)within the
dependingon the code switch selection(mode A transponder for eachof the altitudeinformation
interrogation)or the altitude(modeC interrogation). input leads.SPIloadingoccurswhen the A pulseis
Assuminga validmode A interrogationhasbeen coincidentwith the l5-30 s output pulsefrom the
'A' line SPItimer producedon depression of the SPIswitch.
receivedtherewill be a pulsepresenton the
from decoderto encodercoincidentin time with the
'T'line. After inversionthis A pulseis. Shift The trailing edgeof pul5eT triggersthe S1
puiseon the
appliedin parallelto one of twelveNOR gates,the monostablethus S0 = Sl = I and the shift registers
otherinputsof which areconnectedindividuailyto arein the shift operatingmode. Shiftingoccurswith
the twelvepilot code switches.Thosecode pulses a high to low transitionof the clock pulses,thus in
selectedresultin a groundon the appropriateNOR the l'45 1lsafter the first transitionthe shift register
gateinput. Sincethe other input in eachcaseis also output is high (Fl); after the next transitionthe

131
:l
::
s1 I

l
:

so

cLx
c2 A2 C4 A4 D2 B4 D4 F2

S/R out
oooo :

S/R out
7777

Differentiator
o|rt

AND out
oooo

AND out
7777

Fit. 8.16 Encoderwavefolms

output will be high or low dependingon hqw the Cl monostable is to provide pulsesof the correct
elementwas loaded,and so on. duration to the modulator.

Aear and Ho;ld S0 and Sl pulsesare each of Encoding Altimeter


approximately30 ps duration, thus S0 goeslow ltrst As the aircraft ascends,the decreasein static pressure
= = causesexpansionof the capsuleand consequent
$ving S0 0, Sl I when all the elementsclear.
movementof a position-sensing device,an optical or
ln fact during shift all elementswill haveclearedso
magnetictransducer (Fig. 8.17). The resulting
this clearmode of operationis not vital. What is
important is that S0 goeslow first, sincewe do not servo-assisted drive, through appropriategearing,
want to load againuntil just before the next drivesthe altitude display and encodingdisc. The
transmission.At the end of SI we haveS0 = SI = 0, pressurereferencefor the indicatedaltitude can be
the hold mode which is maintained until the next lhangedby the barosetcontrol. It should be noted
valid interrogation. *rat this doesnot affect the encodingdisc position
The output ofthe shift registercontainsthe coded which is alwaysreferredto 1013'25 mbar (29'92 in'Hg)
information but not in the form required,i.e. a train the standardmean sea-levelpressure'As a result all
of pulses. Differentiatedclock pulsesare fed to an aircraft report altitude referencedto the samelevel;
AND gatewhich is enabledby the shift register an essentialrequirementfor ATC purposes.
output, thus positivepulsesappearat the output of Variationson the aboveareencodingaltimeters
the AND gatein the appropriatetime-slots. The final which give no indication of altitude, blind altimeters,

132
ffi Barowr

i l
i'---@
I
I
Tach.
gen.
fu--ffi
-{ no,o,
I T
-l ffi' t--:
I
I
I

Posi ----- Lioht


sensrng Light sonsitive
d e v i ce sourcc devices

Encoding
disc

\-^-N
Capsule
I *1.- Porver
crr(urts
-l switch i n g
c l r c u l ts

Static connection Supply To transponder

Fi& 8.17 Servoenodingaltimetet

drivesbut
and thosewhich do not haveservo-assisted minimizesthe error when the readingline is aligned
do employ a vibrator to givesmooth movementof with the junction of two segments.
pointer and encodingdisc. In the simplifiedencodercircuit shownin
Fig. 8.20 with A/R switchON ZenerdiodeVR2 is
Altitude Encoding shortedand emitterof Q2 returnedto earth. When
A transparentdisc,usually glass,is divided into tracks light from LED VR1 falls on photo transistorQl, via
and segments.Eachconcentrictrack representsone a transparent part of the encodingdisc,currentis
of the code pulses,the outer track beingC4, while a drawn through R switchingon Q2. Thus collector of
segmentrepresentsa oarticularaltitude. An opaque Q2 falls to a low value,i.e. input 2 to NOR gateis
pattern is formed on the disc so that on a particular low. If input I is drivenlqw by an output from the
s€gmentthe areaof intersectionwith eachtrack will decodera high output lrom the NOR gateis available
be either opaque or transparent depending on the for loadinginto the encodershift register.
code assignedto the altitude representedby that If no light falls on Ql we haveno volts drop across
segment. R, thus Q2 is off and input 2 to NOR gateis high.
The disc rotatesbetweena light sourceand Undertheseconditionsa'zero'will be loadedinto
photosensitive.devices, one for eachtrack, aligned the appropriateshift registerelement.The circuitry
'reading describedis repeatedfor eachtrack of the disc.
along the line'. As the disc is driven by the
barometricaltimeterthe appropriatesegmentis read.
Referringback to Tables8.2 and 8.3 we seethat Side Lobe Suppression
the codechanges by I bit for each100 ft increment. Of the severalpossibleways of desigringan SLS
This useof a l-bit changeor unit distancecode circuitone is illustratedin Fig. 8.2l, with the

133
ft---*
||-.+
lF-+
ll-> To
ll-- transpondcr
tl-+
ll-*
t=
\.,r n,
sensitivc
devices

Fi& E.lt Encodingdisc Tracks

Fig.8.l9 Segmentfor12300ft,code0l0ll0l0o. Segments


Encodingaltimcter range- l000-32 700 ft

Mode C
load

f- +v
tl
U
I A/R onloff
*-1
Encoding j
alttmeter

-L
=
Transponder
Fig. 8.20 Simplifiedaltitudeencodercircuit

134
D2
R1

-v2 Ditch
digger
t-__

circuit
Fig.8.2l Sidelobe suppression

associated waveformsin Fig. 8.22. MonostableMl


and AND gateGl separatethe Pl pulsefrom P2 and
P3 so that M2 will be triggeredby Pl only and will
not be triggereduntil the next interrogation. M2 and
M3 provide a gating waveform about I ps wide in the
P2 pulseposition.
Th" input pulsesarealso appliedto a'ditch-digSer'
lnput circuit. Prior to Pl, Dl is forward biasedand the
junction of Cl/R2 is low. Both inputs to G2 ate
low. The leadingedgeof Pl causesDl to conduct
chargingCl rapidly. The laggingedgeof Pl causes
in, d Dl to cut off, sincethe junction Cl/R2 falls by an
amount equal to the amplitudeof Pl . Cl now
discharges through Rl and R2. WhenP2 arrivesDl
will conduct providingthe amplitudeof P2 is
GI sufficient. The time constantClRlR2 and the bias
voltagesVl and Y2 ue chosenso that if P2>Pl
AND gate G2 will receivean input via D2 which will
M2,O be coincidentwith the gatingwaveformfrom M3'
Thus the SLS pulsegeneratorM4 will be triggeredif
and only if Y2> Pl, the subsequent suppression
pulsebeing usedto inhibit the receivervideo output
M3, O to the spikeeliminator.

Characteristics
Junction
c1 R2 The followingsummaryis drawnfrom ARINC
CharacteristicNo.572.1for theMk 2 ATC
transponder. It is worthpointingout that several
featuieson the Mk I transponder arenot requiredfor
the Mk 2, however the will
engineer find many
transponders whichhavesomeor all of
still in service
Fig. 8.22 Side lobe suppressionwaveforms the following:

135
l. two-pulseSLS; Reply Delay
2. SLS countdown - receiverdesensitized when 3 t 0'5 ps.
the number of SLS pulsesexceedsa limiting
figure; Reply RateCapabiliry
3. low sensitivity selection; 1200repliesper second.
4. receivervideo signaloutput socket;
5. remote automatickeying; Reply Pulse Interval Tolerance
6. externaltransmittertriggeringposition; t 0'l gs for spacingof any pulse,other than SPI.rvith
7. audiomonitor: respectto F I ; t 0'15 ps for spacingof any pulsc'with
8. transmissionof SPI pulsewheneverD4 is one respectto any otherexceptFl: t 0.1 prsfor spacing
bit ofthe altitudereportingcode. of SPI with respectto F2.

Mutual SuBpression P.ilse


Receiver 25-331s duration.

Minimum Ttiggering Level (MTL) Manitor Lamp


-77 to -69 dBm at antennaor To light when five repliesaredctectedat a rategreater
-80 to -72 dBm at transponder. thar 150 repliesper second.To stayilluminatedfbr
l 5 s a f t e rl a s tr e p l yd e t e c t e d .
Dynamic Range
M T L t o 5 0 d B sa b o v em . t . l . Antenna
Polarization:vertical.
Frequency and Bandwidth v . s . w . r .b: e t t e rt h a n l . 4 l : I a t 1 0 3 0a n d 1 0 9 0M l t z .
Centrefrequency1030MHz.
- 3 d B p o i n t sa t 1 3 M H z .
-60 dB pointsat ! 25 MHz. Ramp Testing

Decoding Facilities A transpondercan be testedril situ usingone of


Decoderoutput lbr pulsesspaced8, I 7 and 2 I ps s e v e r apl o r t a b l et e s ts e t s .A s u i t a b l er a n t pt e s ts e t
tolerancet 0.2 gs on spacing.Automaticmode C will testby radiatitrrr._bc. ceplbleof interrogatingon
decodingregardless of modeselectionswitch. at leastmcldesA and ( . be capablerlf simulatinga
Spaceprovisionfor 25 ps decoding. sidelobe interroXptlon. displaythe transponder reply
and providea ffeansof measuringthe transponder
Side Lobe Suppression Facilities transmitterfrequency.
Pl > P2 + 6 dBs shouldgive90 per cent reply rate.
6 dBsratherthan ICAO 9 dBsensures adequate ATC 5OOA
marginto allow for performancerundown in service. A popular test set is the IFR ATC 6004 illustratedin
Figure8.23. A reasonfor its popularity is the fact
SLSPulse Duration that it can testboth DME and ATC transponder with
25-45 ps. a comprehensive rangeof checks,making it suitable
for functional testson the ramp or bench.
Transmission Pl, P2 and P3 pulsesaregenefatedand usedto key
a crystal-controlled 1030MHz oscillator.The interval
Tlansmitter Frequency betweenPl and P3.isswitchedto simulatea mode
1 0 9 0 13 M H z . Ay'Cinterlace,two mode A interrogationsbeing
transmittedfor eachmode C. The following
Minimum Peak Power characteristicsmay be variedby front panelcontrols:
500w.
l. Pl-P3 intervd - to checkdecoder;
Reply hIttlseCharacteristics 2. P2 amplitude- to checkSLS;
Duration 0.45 1 0'l ps measuredbetween50 per cent 3. Transmitterpoweroutput - to checkMTL.
amplitudepoints.
0'05-0'l ps risetime, l0-90 per cent. The reply is displayedby a bank of lamps,one for
0'054'2 ps delaytime,90-10per cent. eachcode pulseand oire for the SPI pulse. There is

136
) poweroutput of transponder
(1 50 per cent

#ffi "n[f* x: accuracy);


3 . frequencyof the'transpondertransmitter;
4 . percentage reply;
l * t
* * )
l l r t 5 . invalidaltitudecode,i.e.no C pulsesor C I and
l

r* # ' $'tl*$ i . r t

';*'!,r,".t'-'.1;u
,:-:
C4 together;
6 . absenceof code pulsesin reply to nrode C
interrogation.
i
I
ffi
t+ Supplyis by rechargeable batteryor a.c.,battery
operationis limited by a timer. Further l'eatur.es
are
Fig.8.23 ATC600A(courtesy
tFR Electronics directconnectionto the transponder via an external
lnc.)
34 dB pad, self-testing
of display,lampsand battery
and direct connectionofencodingaltirneter.
alsoa numericalreadout which showseither the pilot
codeor the altitude in thousandsof feet. In addition TIC T-33B and T-438
to this basicinformation the following can be checked: The TIC approachto ramp testingis to useseparate
testsetsfor L bandequipments,the T-338 and
l. F2 timing; T-43B beingthosefor ATC transponder.

Fig. 8.24 TIC T-438 (courtesyof Tel-InstrumentElectronics


Corp.)

137
Specificationsfor the two test setsare identical Featuresof the TIC test setsnot availableon the
exceptfor the addedfacility of direct connectionof ATC 600A are provisionof all military and civil
an encoderwhich is availableon the T'438. modesof interrogationand changeof scalefor
The capabilitiesof thesetest setsand the ATC percentage reply meter(0-10 per cent SLS on:
6O0Aare similar in so far as ATC transponderramp 0-100per cent SLS off). Thereare other minor
testingis concerned,in that they both meet the FAA differences, and one other major difference.in that
requirements.Differencesarelargelydue to the use the TIC test setsare designedftlr use in the cockpit
of the ATC 6004 as a bench test, although it should on the groundor in flight, the antennabeing
be noted that a particularATC 600A is best usedas mountedon the test set asopposedto the ATC 600A
eithera benchtest setor a ramp test setbut not both. wherethe antennais mountedon a tripod nearthe
To detailthe differences, the TIC test setsdo not aircraftantenna-The antennaarrangements l'or the
havefacilitiesfor continuouslyvaryingPl -P3spacing TIC test setsnecessitatethe useol direci connection
or strobingthe F2 pulse,and do not indicateinvalid to the tr;ulsponderfor receiversensitivitychecks.
'no altitude'informationor transmitterpower.
or

:
.J

, t
<<"

138
I Weatheravoidance

Introduction
can remainin a cloud without falling to earth is
dependenton the speedofthe up-draughtof air.
Weatherforecastingis by reputation and, until the
In the appendixto this chapterit is shown that the
introduction of satellites,in fact, notoriously signalin a weatherradaris proportional to the sixth
unreliable. Evenwith modern techniquesrapidly power of the droplet diameter,so strongsignaisare
changingconditions and lack of detailed associated with a rapid up-draught. If a small volume
information on the exact location and severityof bad of the
cloud resultsin strongsignalsfrom one part
weatherresultsin diversionsor cancellation,of fligt t, and
weak from an adjacentpart we havea steep
where the forecastis the only availableinformation. 'rainfall
gradient',most probably due to a down- and
What is requiredis an airbornesystemcapableof up-draughtcloseto one another. The region around
detectingthe weatherconditionsleadingto the this verticalwind shearis likely to be highly
hazardsof turbulence,hail and lightning.. turbulent.
Attention has been concentratedon developins The correspondingargumentfor associating
systemswhich will 'detect'turbulence.tf an alrcr-aft electricalactivity with turbulencegoes
as follows.
passesthrough regionsofsevere turbulenceit is A wind shearwill resultin the separationof positive
obviouslysubjectto rnechanicalstress,which may and negativeelectricalchargesin the air due to the
causedamage,possiblyleadingto a crash. On friction of the moving air currents. An electrical
commercialflights, passenger comfort is also dischargeoccursafter sufficientchargeof opposite
important sincethe number of customerswould soon polarity has accumulatedin
distinct parts of the
declineif the discomfort and sicknesswhich cloud. Thesedischarges occur repetitively,most
turbulencemay bring becamecommonplace. beinghidden from view but occasionallyseenas
Unfortunatelythe phenomenonof rapidly and lightning. Each dischargeis accompaniedby a large
randomlymoving air currentsis not amenableto burst of e.m. radiationwhich canbe receivedat some
detectionby any currently realizabletechnique; distance.In most radioapplications the 'noise'
however,someprogressmay be madeby utilizing a receiveddue to lightning is a nuisancebut its
pulsedDopplersystem. associationwith turbulenceis put to good usein a
As a consequence of our inability at presentto Ryan Stormscopein a way similarto that in which a
detect the turbulencedirectly, systemshave been weatherradarusesithe'nuisance'signalsof weather
developedwhich detect either water droplets or clutter.
electricalactivity, both of which are associatedwith We can summarlzeand combinethe above
convectiveturbulencein cumulonimbusclouds. arguments by saying:convective turbulenceoccurs
Clearair turbulencehas no detectableassociated wherewe havelargeshearforceswhich imply:
phenomenawhich can give a clue to its presence. (a) an up-draughtsupportinglargeraindropsformed
To detectwater dropletsor raindropsa from the water vapour in the warm moist air rising
conventionalprimary radaris usedwith frequency from ground level;(b) a nearbydown-draughtwhich
and specialfeatureschosento optimize the cannotsupport largeraindrops;(c) frictional forces
presentationof signalswhich would, in a normal search givingriseto
chargeseparation; and (d) electrical
radar,be unwanted. Weatherradar hasbeen usedfor discharge due to chargeseparation arida saturated
many years,and is mandatory for largeaircrift. interveningmedium.
Therehasbeena steadymove into the generalaviation Causeand effect are very much bound up iri this
market by radar manufacturersbut here a relatively argument,the variousphenomenabeing
recentinnovation is the Ryan Stormscope,a patented interdependent.Howeverreasonable the theory, the
devicewhich detectselectricalactivity. ultimatejustificationfor the association between
The maximum diameterof a water droplet which turbulence,steeprainfallgradientand electrical

139
activity is recordedcorrelationduring many flights. In a conventional(rho'theta) display the beant
Weatherradar is certainly well provenwith many strikesthe screenat bottom centre(origin) at the
yearsin service,while the Stormscope,although only instantthe transmitterfires. Subsequentlythe beam
availablesince1976,hasbeenindependently will be deflectedacrossthe screenin a direction
evaluatedand shown to be a useful aid' dependenton the scannerazimuthposition,e.g.if the
scanneris pointing dead aheadthe beant is deflected
vertically from the origin. In this way a time'baseline
WeatherRadar is tracedout on the screenand is made to rotate in
synchronismwith the scanner.'
Basic Principles The duration of the time-base,i.e. the length of
Weatherradar operationdependson three facts:
time it takesto tiaversethe screen,dependson the
rangeselectedby the pilot. Everymicrosecondof
l. precipitationscattersr.f. energy; round trip traveltime corresponds to a rangeof
2. the speedof propagationof an r.f. waveis 0'081 nauticalmiles,thus for a selected rangeof
known; the time-base will be about
20 nautical miles
3. r.f. energycan be channelledinto a highly
250 ps in duration. An echo received125 ps after
directionalbeam. transmissionwould causea bright spot to appear
half-wayup a 250 ps.time-base, so indicatingto the
Utilizing thesefacts is fairly straightforwardin of the target is l0 nautical miles'
pilot that the range
principle. Pulsesof r.f. energyare generatedby a
The net result of the aboveis that a cross-section
iransmitter and fed to a directionalantenna. The r.f.
of the targetswithin the selectedrangeand scanned
wave,confi4edto asnarrow a beamaspracticable,
sectorof the radarareviewedin plan. The position
will be scatteredby precipitationin its path, someof
of the bright patcheson the screenrelative to the
the energyreturning to the aircraft as an echo. The
and receptionis origin is representativeof the position of the targets
elapsedtime betweentransmission
in particular relativeto the aircraft. Figure9.1 illustratesthe .-
directlyproportional to rangeR,
= of propagation situation.
R ct 12 where c is the speed
(= 162000 nautical miles per second);t is the
elapsedtime; and the divisor2 is introducedsince
travelis two-way. The direction of the target is and Features
Choiceof Characteristics
simply givenby the direction in which the beam is
radiated. Frequency
Sincethe pilot needsto observethe weatherin a The higher the frequency(smallerthe wavelength)
the largeris the backscattercross-sectionper unit'
wide sectoraheadof the aircraftthe antennais made
volumeof the target (see A9.12) hencethe greater
to sweepport and starboardrepetitively,hencewe use
the echo power. However, high frequenciessuffer
the term scannerfor a weatherradarantenna.Any
stormcloud within the sectorof scanwill effectively more atmosphericabsorptionthan do low, and
be slicedby the beam so that a cross-section of the further cannotpenetratecloudsto the sarneextent'
cloud is viewed. Thus the choiceof frequencyis a compromise'An
Displayof threequantitiesfor eachtargetis additionalconsiderationis the beamwidth; for a
requirid: namelyrange,bearingand intensityof echo' givenscannerdiametera narrowerbeamis produced
.l ptanpositionindicator(p.p.i.)displayis invariably with a higherfrequencY'
utid tinc. this allowsthe simultaneous displayof the Practically,takinginto accountavailabilityof
'
threequantitiesand is easyto interpret. standardcompqnents,the choicecomesdown to
A cathoderay tube (c.r.t.)is usedin which the eitherabout 3'2 cm (X'band) or 5'5 cm (C-band)'
beamof electronsis velocitymodulatedin The majority of radarsin serviceand currently
accordance with the receivedsignalstrength' manufacturedare X-band.
Whereverthe beamstrikesthe'phosphorcoatingon
the back of the viewingscreena glow occurs,the Pulse Width
intensity of which is dependentof the velocity of the The volume of the target givingrise to an echo is
electrons.Thus a strongsignalis associated with a directly relatedto the pulsewidth (seeA9.8) thus use
bright spot on the screen;hence the term intensity of long pulseswill give improvedrange'
modulaiion. The beamis made to sweepacrossthe There are two argumentsagainstlong pulses:
screenin synchronismwith both the time of
transmission and the antennaposition' l. Sincethere is only one antennaand a common

140
(-,\\ ,\l
L_ \",
r\-l c\', ()
--^-\-1

l \
) \

Time-base

a
{

r \
\__

Fig.9.1 Displayprinciples

frequencyfor transmit and receive,the antenna Sincerangeresolutionand minimum rangeare not


must be switchedto the transmitter for the criticalin a weatherradar,pulsestend to be longer
duration of the pulse;thus the pulsewidth than in other radars,say2-5 ps. A shorterpulsewidth,
determinesminimum range. For a 2 ps pulse say I ps, may be switchedin when a short displayed
no return can appearfor the first 2 ps of the rangeis selected.
time-base, givinga minimum range= A techniqueis availablewhich realizesthe
2c X tO-612t one-sixthof a nauticalmile. advantages of both long and short pulses. The
2. Rangeresolutiondeteriorates with increasing transmittedpulsecan be frequencymodulatedso that
pulsewidth. A pulseof 2 ps durationoccupies the r.f. increasesover the duration of the constant
about 2000 ft in space. If two targetsare on the amplitude pulse. The frequencymodulatedreturn is
samebearingbut within 1000ft of one another passedthrough a filter designedso that the velocity
the echofrom the nearesttargetis still being of propagationincreases with frequency. Thus the
receivedwhen the leadingedgeof the echofrom higher frequenciesat the trailing edgeof the echo
the furthest targetis received.The resultis that 'catchup'with the lower frequencies at the leading
both targetsmergeon the p.p.i.display.The edge. In this way, the duration of the echo is
rangeof the targetsdoesnot affect the resolution. compressed.It shouldbe noted that the bandwidth

141
TargetI Target 2
Harfa | |
wavelength k-
= IOOO' i +

t-\-\l I --- t
l---

+ 2 time (7rs)

------ t + 3

+ 4

+ 5

Rang€

[D Incidentpulse (2 1rs)

K3 Reflectedpulse

Fig.9.2 Range
resolution

requirementsareincreasedby usingfrequency
modulationof the pulsedr.f., this being the penalty
lbr obtainingbetterrangeresolution.This technique
is known as pulsecompressionbut, so far as the
author is aware,is not usedon existingairborne
weatherradars.

hrlse Repetition Frequency,p.r.f.


Changingthe p.r.f. will affect the number of pulses
striking agivenvolume of the targetin eachsweep echoes
Fig.9.3 Second.trace
and hencechangethe displayintegrationfactor
(see A9.17). Howeverin order to maintain a constant is low, while if it is too high the seriousproblem of
duty cycle(pulsewidth X p.r.f.) an increasein p.r.f. secondtraceechoesmay arise. If the characteristics
must be accompaniedby a decrease in pulsewidth, so of the radarare such that the maximum rangefrom
keepingaveragepower and henceheat dissipation which echoescanbe detectedis, say,200 nautical
constant.Alternativelyan increase in p.r.f. miles then the round trip travel time for a targetat
accompaniedby a reductionin peak power will also maximumrangewould be about,2500ps. In sucha
keepheatdissipationconstant.The net resultis that systema pulserepetitionperiodp.r.p.(= l/p.r.f.) of
for constantaveragepower a changein p.r.f. doesnot, 2000 gs would meanthat the time-basestart would
in theory, affect the maximum rangeof the radar. occur 500 ps before the return of an echo of the
Limits areimposedon the choiceof p.r.f. sinceif previoustransmittedpulsefrom a target at 2OO
it is too low the rate at which information is received nauticalmiles. This secondtraceecho would appear

142
to be at about 40 nautical miles range. It follows that is that ground returnswill appearat closerrangesfor
in the aboveexamplethe maximum p.r.f. would be wider beamwidths,thus maskingthe cloud retums.
400 and in generalp.r.f. ( c/2R whereR is the
maximum range. Tilt and Stabilization
A popular choicefor older radarswas a p.r.f. of The reasonfor requiringstabilizationis relatedto the
4O0 synchronizedto the supply frequency. With previousparagraph.A weatherradarmay scanup to
improved performanceleadingto increasedrange,a 300 nauticalmiles aheadof the aircraft.within azimuth
submultipleof the supply frequency,e.g.200, was scananglesof typically t 90". Unlessthe beam is
used. In modernsystemsinternaltimingis controlled to move only in or abovethe horizontal
independentof the supply frequencyand one finds planepart or all of the weatherpicture may be
p.r.f.sfrom about 100 to 250. maskedby ground returns. Imaginethe aircraft rolling
with port wing down. If the sweptregionis in the
Power Output sameplane as the aircraft'slateraland longitudinal
In older radarspeak power outputs of about 50 kW axes,then when the scanneris to port the beamwill
or evenhigher were common,while maximum range be pointing down towardsthe ground,while when to
wasmodest. In modernradars,peakpoweris about starboardthe beamwill be pointing up, possibly
l0 kW with increasedrangecompared with previous abovethe weather. Figure9.4 illustratesthis
systems.This apparentspectacularimprovementis problem.
put in perspectiveby consideringthe rangeequation In fact stabilizationholds the beamnot in the
(see A9.7) where we seethat maximum rangeis horizontal planebut at a constantelevationwith
proportional to the fourth root of the peak power. respectto the horizontal. This constantelevationis
Thus reducingpower by four-fifths reducesmaximum determinedby the tilt controlassetby the pilot.
rangeby about one-third. This shortfall of one-third Detailsof stabilizationand tilt arediscussed later.
hasbeen more than madeup by improvementsin
rerial design,receiverdesignand sophisticatedsignal Contour
processing. The pilot will be interestedin thoseregionswherethe
precipitationis greatest.In order to make the
Beam Width situation clearer,thosesignalswhich exceeda certain
Although the largerthe beamwidth the greaterthe predeterminedlevel are invertedso as to show the
volumeof the targetcontributingto the echo this cellsof heavyprecipitationas dark holeswithin the
'paint' causedby the cloud surroundingthe
effect is more than cancelled out due to the inverse bright
'paint' aroundthe cell is an
relationshipbetweenaerialgainand beamwidth cell. The width of the
(G o ll02). A narrowbeamis alwayspreferred, indication of the rainfall gradient. The narrowerthe
sincethe net effect is to increaserange and improve width the steeperthe gradient,and hencethe greater
bearingresolution.Simplegeometricconsiderations the probabilityof encountering turbulence.This
show that with a 4" beamwidthtwo targetsseparated techniqueis known as iso€cho (equal echo) contour
by about 3! nauticalmiles,at a range) 50 nautical pre sen tation.
miles,will appearas one on the p.p.i. Bearing
resolution,unlike rangeresolution,is dependenton Sensitivity Time Control, s.t.c.
the targetrange.An equallyimportantconsideration For correctcontouroperationthe signalstrength

No stabilitv

./ B\
<______ __ \
Stability

No stabilitY

7///////////////////////////////ru 7//////27'////////////////////////ru
Fig. 9.4 Scannerstabilization

1/13
strould depend only on the characteristicsof the arrangementis to havea.g.c'noise'derived.During
the output
target,but of coursethe rangealso affectsthe received the time immediatelybefore transmission
ifthe contour inversion from the receiver is noiseonly, since the p.r.f. will
power. As a consequence
so as to indicate storm cells at a certain have been chosen to avoidsecond-trace echoes,i.e.
levelis set
rangethen innocent targetscloserthan that range the time correspondingto maximum rangeexpires
may causeinversionwhile storm cellsbeyond that well before the next pulse. The a.g.c.circuit is gated
rangemay not. In order to solvethe problem the so that the receiveroutput is connectedto it only for
receivergainis made to vary with range, being a short time beforetransmission.
minimum at zero range and increasing thereafter The result of havingsuch a.g.c.is to keep the
(i.e. with time), hencesensitivitytime control or receiver noise output constant,which under normal
sweptgain,asit is sometimescalled. conditions means the gainis constant. If, for any
reasonthereis excessive noisegenerated or received,
the gainwill fall, so keepingthe backgroundnoise
Tx displayedat a constantlevel,althoughsignalswill
will not highlight all storm cells.
------+Time fade and contour
An alternativearrangementis to keep the receiver
Rx gain constantregardless of how the receiveroutput
gain
(S.t.c.) may change.This hasthe virtue of keepingthe
conditionsfor inversionin the contour circuit
unchanging.Such presetgain is found in modern
digital systems,whereasnoise-derived a.g.c.is found
Fig.9.5 Sensitivity timecontrol in older analoguesystems.

The aim is to make the receiveroutput


independent'udrange. Unfortunately the received
power decreascs as the squareof the rangefor targets
which fill the beam,but as the fourth power of the Display
rangeotherwise(seeAppendix). To achievethe aim A problem in displaydesignfor cockpit useis the
would requirea complex gain control waveform largerangeof ambientiighting conditions. Some
which would, even then, only be correct for a certain storageof the informationreceivedis inevitableif it is
sizedtarget. Many systemshavebeendesigned to be viewed,owing to the relativelylow refreshrate
assuminga 3 nauticalmile diametercloud as standard; of the fleetingbasicinformation.
amongsuchsystems, s.t.c.hasoperatedto a range In olderand simplerradarsthe c.r.t. screenis
wheresucha targetwould fill the beam;beyond that coatedwith a long-persistence phosphorwhich
gainis constantwith time. It hasbeen observedthat continuesto glow sometime after the electronbeam
it is uncommonfor water dropletretumsto come haspassedon its way thusstoringthe information
from a regionwhich fills the beamvertically except overthe scaninterval. Unfortunately.suchphosphors
at closeranges. arenot very efficient and very high shieldingis
Following from the above,s.t.c.may be arranged requiredfor adequateviewingin bright conditions.
to compensatefor the rangesquaredlaw out to The directview storagetube (d.v.s.t.)is a solution
about 30 nauticalmiles for a 6o beam. A changein to the problemsof a conventional c.r.t. A meshis
scannersizewould lead to a changein maximum s.t.c. mounted immediately behind the phosphor-coated
rangesincethe beamwidthwould alter. Alternativeiy, screen. Electronsarriveat the meshfrom two
a modified law may be compensatedfor out to, say, sources:a locusedbeam,velocity-modulated by the
70 nauticalmiles,ignoringthe possibilityof beam signal,comesfrom a conventionalelectron gun while
filling. a flood gun provides,continuously,a wide beamof
electronsover the whole mesh. Sincethe modulated
beamis deflectedacrossthe meshin accordancewith
scannerposition and time sincetransmission,a charge
pattern is written on the mesh. The pattern determines
Automatic Gain Control, e.g.c. where and what fraction of incident electrons
It is neither practicalnor indeed desirablewith penetratethe meshand strike the phosphor. Since
contour operation to have a'g.c.determined by signal eachglowingelementof phosphoris excited
level asin receiversfor other systems. The normal continuously,very bright displaysare possible. A

1U
i

slow discharge.pathfor the mesh must be provided to exception


of a few noisc spotsper memory update.
preventsaturation;the possibility of changingthe
dischargerate exists and a pilot-adjustablecontrol Scanner
may be provided. On changingrangethe meshwill be There
'instantly' are two typesof scanneremployed to obtain
dischargedto prevent confusion between the requirednarrowbeam,namelya directly fed
1ew and old screenpositionsof the targets. If the parabolicreflectoror a flat plateplanararray. Of the
dischargepath is broken and updating inhibitrd *" two, for a givendiameterand wavelength,the flat
havea frozenpicture. platehasthe highergain/narrower beam/least
The modern approachto information storageis to sidelobe power,but is most expensive.Sincethe flat
..
digitize the signalwhich is then storedin an plateis almosttwice asefficientasthe parabolic
intermediatememory at a location dependingon the reflectorit is invariablyusedwith a modernsystem
scannerazimuth angleand the time of arrival
exceptwhere cost is an overridingfactor or the space
measured with respectto the time of transmission. availablein the noseof the aircraft allows a larse-
The p.p.i. time-basescanformat can be either . parabolicreflectorto be used.
rho-thetaor X-Y as per a conventionaltelevision.
The flat plateantennaconsistsof stripsof
In either casememory can be read at a much higher
waveguideverticallymounted.sideby side with the
rate than that at which information is received. With
broad wall facing forward. Staggeredoff-centre
many more picturesper secondpainted we havea
verticalslots are cut in eachwaveguideso as to
bright, flicker-freedisplay without the need for
interceptthe wall currentsand henceradiate. Several
long-persistence phosphorsof low efficiency or the
wavelengthsfrom the antennasurface,the energy
e4pensive d.v.s.t.
from eachof the slotswill be summedin space,
In the caseof a rho-thetadisplay thc scanformat is
cancellation or reinforcement takingplacedepending
the samefor receiptand displayinformationbut, as
on the relativephases.In this applicationthe phase
explained,the repetition rate is different,so only
of the feedto eachslot, and the spacingbetween
scanconversionin time is required. With a television_
slots,is arrangedso as to givea resultantradiated
type displayboth the scanformat and repetition rate
pattern which is a narrow beamnormal to the plane
are different, so completescanconversionis required
of the plate. The greaterthe nurnberof slotsthe .
from input (received)format to readout(displayed)
betterthe performance; sincethe spacingbetween
format. Useof the television-typedisplay makes
the slots is critical we can only increasethe number
multipleuseof the weatherradarindicatorrelatively
of slotsby increasingthe sizeof the flat plate.
simpleso we find such indicatorsable to display data
The parabolicreflectorworkson a similarprinciple
from other sensors (e.g.Area nav.)or alphanumeric
to a car headlampreflector. Energystriking the
datasuchaschecklists.
reflector from a point sourcesituatedat the focus will
Digitizing the signalinvolvesthe recognitionof
oroducea plane waveof uniform phasetravellingin a
only discretevaluesof signalintensity. ihe standard
direction parallelto the axis of the parabola. The
practiceis to havethreelevelsof non-zerointensity,
feedin a weatherradarparabolicantennais usuallya
the highestcorresponding to the contour inversion dipolewith a parasiticelementwhich, of course,is
level. Although thesethree levelscorrespondto
not a point source.The consequence of a dipole feed
different degreesof brightnessof the paint, with the
is that the beam departqfrom the ideal and there is
useof a colour tube they can be madeto correspond
considerablespill-over,$ivingrise to ground target
to threecolours. While thereis no standardization of returnsfrom virtually helow the aircraft, the so-called
the colour code as yet (1979) red is the obVious
height ring.
choicefor contourabletarsets.
In both typesofaptenna,scanningis achievedby
Perhapsthe mosl signifilant virtue of a digital
r o t a t i n gt h e c o m p l e t ea n t e n n aa 5 s e m b l yt h, u sa
weatherradaris the absenceof noiseon the display.
r o t a t i n gw a v e g u i djeo i n t i s r e q u i r e d .A n
The output of the receiver,the videosignal,is
electronicallysteeredbeantis possiblewith the flat
digitizedand then averaged in both time and position, platebut the considerable
complications of arranging
i.e. the videooutput occurringp gs after a
the correctphasingof the feedto all slotshavemade
transmissionis averagedwith that occurringp ps after
this impracticalfor airborneweatherradarsystems.
the next transmission and the video datawhich would Some
of the simpler.cheaperweatherradars
appearat adjacentpositionson the screenare subject
employinga parabolicreflectorrotatethe reflector
to a weightedaver-agingprocess. With a suitablechoice only. leavingthe feed
fixed and so eliminatingthe
o f m i n i r n u ms i g r a ll e v e lf o r a ' p a i n t ' u n c o r r e l a t e d
needfor an azimuthroratingjoint. A disadvantage of
noiseis virtuallyelirninatedfrom the displaywith the
this latter systemis that the feed is not at the focus

145
exceptwhen the reflector axis is deadahead;the rotation, memory write/read and all display circuitry.
'brain'
resultingdeteriorationof the beam shapemeansthe Thus in a modern weatherradar we seethat the
anglethrough which the beamis scannedmust be of the systemis situatedin the indicator while the
restricted. heart'remainsin the t.r. This view is reinforcedby
the fact that the pilot/systeminterface is achieved
completelythroughthe indicator,both for display
lnstallation and control.
The scanneris a flat plate array plus associated
Figure9.6 illustratesa typicalinstallationin block circuitry for scannerstabilizationand.azimuthdrive.
form asrepresented by the BendixRDR 1200.a The t'lat plate is mounted on a gimballedsurfaceu'hich
digitalweatherradardesigned with the upperend of allowsrotationin response to pitch and roll signals
the generalaviationmarketin mind. The installation from the aircraftverticalreferencegyro (VRG).
will be discussed in termsof the RDR I100 first. and Radiationis througha radomewhich ideallyis
then variationsand refinements will be described. transparent to the X-bandenergybut at the same
Radome time provides protectittnfor the scanner,preserves
the aerodynamicshapeof the aircraftand has
VRG adequatestructuralstrength.
Waveguide Most of the interconnections aremadeusing
N,
Trar ---i---l standard approved cables with signal and control lines
recev e r scanner J l ) s c r e e n e dT. h e i n t e r c o n n e c t i obne t i v e e nt . r . a n d
l /
2 8 V d . c .t t s v ' c f f scanlrer is, of necessity. by way of waveguide. losses
V in co-axialcablebeingunacceptable at X-band(or
Supply e v e nC - b a n d ) .
lndrcator Whilethe aboveis a simplifieddescriptionof the
BendixRDR 1200the units and tl.reircontentsare
Fig.9.6 BendixRDR 1200installation very much the samefor all moderndigitalsystems.
A trend in lightweightsystemsfor generalaviation
The transmitterreceiver(t.r.) containsall the r.f. aircraftis to combinethe transmitterand scannerin
circuitryand componentsaswell as the rnodulator, one unit. The nrainadvantage of a two unit system,
duplexer,IF stages, analogueto digital(a/d) converter t.r./scanner plus indicator,is that the waveguide run is
and powersupplycircuits. Unlikeolder systems,the eliminated,so reducingcapitaland installationcosts
basictiming circuitryis in the indicatorratherthan andwaveguidelosses.The argumentagainst
the t.r. This timing controlsthe p.r.f.,scanner combininsthe t.r. and scanneris that the unit

Fig.9.7 Primus 200 multifunction colour weather radar.


Two-unit sensor on the left, multifunction accessorieson the
right (courtesy RCA Ltd)

1tt6
installedin the noseis costly in terms of maintenance cornersand flexible sections,except where necessary,
strouldit require regularreplacement;thus reliability so reducingcostsand losses.A choke flangeto plain
assumes evengreaterimportancein such systems. flangewaveguidejoint is normal practice,the choke
Singlecnginedaircraft havenot been neglected,the flangehavinga recessto take a sealingring.
problemhavingbeen tackled in two different ways, The radomeis usuallya coveredhoneycomb
both of which involve a combined t.r./scannerunit. structuremade of a plasticmaterialreinforcedwith
Bendix havegone for an under-wingpod-mounted fibreglass.The necessityfor mechanicalstrength,
unit, while RCA have developeda wing leadingedge smallsizeand aerodynamicshape may compromise
mountedunit in which a sectionof a parabolic the r.f. performance. Lightning conductorson the
reflectoris used,as well as a pod-mountedunit. insidesurfaceof the radomewill obstruct the beam,
Corrosiondue to moisture collection is a problem but their effect is minimizedif they are perpendicular
in the waveguiderun, which may be easedby to the electricfield of the wave. Horizontal
pressurization.The ideal is to havea reservoirof dry polarizationis normal sincethere is lessseaclutter,
air feeding,via a pressure-reducing valve,a waveguide althoughwith moderateto rough seasthe ldvantage
run which hasa slow controlled leak at the scanner; is minimal.
this method is not usedon civil aircraft. Several On largeaircraft a dual installationis used.
installatiorpailow cabin air to pressurizethe Obviouslythe scannercannotbe duplicatedbut both
waveguiderun via a bleedervalve,desiccantand filter. t.r. and indicatorcanbe. In somecasesonly the
If the cabinair is not dried and filteredmore problems indicatoris'duplicated, thus eliminatingthe needfor
may be createdthan solved. Two interestingcases a waveguideswitch. Unlessone indicator is purely a
that havebeenbrought to the author's attention are: slavewith no systemcontrolsother than,say,
a nicotine depositon the inner wall of the waveguide brilliance,a transferswitch will be necessaryto
causingexcessiveattenuation,and rapid corrosion transfercontrol from one indicatorto another. Even
causedby fumes from the urine of animals if two t.r.s are fitted a transferswitchis still necessary
transported by air. lfno activepressurization is for scannerstabilizationon-off and tilt control.
enrployedthe pressurewithin the waveguidemay still
be higher than static pressureif all joints are tightly
sealed.A primary aim of waveguidepressurizationis Controls
to reducehigh-altitudeflash-over.
The following list of controlsis quite extensive;most
will be found on all radarsbut someareoptional.
The nomenclature variesbut alternativenamesfor
someof the controlsarelistedwhereknown.

RangeSwitclr Usedto selectdisplayedrange. Will


alsochangethe rangemark spacing.Selectionmay be
by pushbuttonor rotary switch,the latter possibly
incorporatingrOFF','STANDBY' and 'TEST'
positions.

OfflStandby Pushbuttonor incorporatedin the range


switch. With standbyselectedtherewill be no
transmissionwhile indicatorextrahigh tension(e.h.t.)
may or may not be on.'

Fig.9.8 Installation
of Weather
ScoutI t.r./scanner
unit Functibn Switch Selectsmodet-rf,operation
. N O R M A L " ' C O N T O U R " ' C Y C L I C i. ,M A P P I N G "
(courtesyRCALtd)
'BEACON'.
The last two of thesemodesare
described later. Normaloperationallowsthe useof
The waveguiderun should be kept as short as a . g . c(.p r e s egt a i n )o r v a r i a b l g
e a i n :s . t . c .i s u s u a l l y
possible.Inaccessibilityor inadequatecoolingmay a c t i v e .C o n t o u ro p e r a t i o ns e l e c t i o cna u s ebsl a n k i n g
nreanthat the t.r. cannotbe situatedso as to o f s t r o n g e ssti g n a l sa,. g . ca. n ds . t . c .a u t o m a t i c a l l . ,
minimizethe lengthof the run. Straightrigid s e l e c t e dC. y c l i co p e r a t i o nc a u s enso r n r aal i r dc . r i r t o u r
waveguide shouldbe used,avoidingbends,twists. presentations to alternate.Pushbuttonor rotar.y

147
'NORMAL'switch
control may be used. may be (usually)sectorscanangtes,e.g.Bendix RDR 1200
omitted, this mode of operationautomaticallybeing hast 30o or + 60o options.
selectedwhen a rangeswitchincorporating'OFF' and
'STANDBY'
is selectedto any rangewhile Contrast Control Adjusts video amplitier gain and
'CONTOUR'
or'CYCLIC' switchesare off. (Seealso henceallowssomecontrol of pictureas opposedto
'gain displaybrightnessevenwhen i.f. ampsareoperating
control'.)
undera.g.c. Sonretimescalledintensity.
Gain Control Usedt6 set gainof receivermanually.
A continuouslyrotatableor click-stopcontrol is Manual Tune Contol Associatedwith automatic
normal. The control may incorporatecontour liequencycontrol (a.f.c.)on-off switch. Whena.f.c.
on-off;by rotatingthe knob pastthe maximum gain is selectedto off, local oscillatormay be tuned
positioncontour plus presetgainwill be selected.In manuallyfor bestreturns. Generallynot usedon
this latter casea separate
springreturn pushbutton modernsystems.
may be usedto turn contouroff momentarily. In
other systenrsthe gaincontrol may simply
incorporatea presetgainon-off switch at its Operation
maximumposition.
The actual operation ofa weatherradar is quite
Test Switch A specialpatternspecifiedby the straightforward, but to get the bestuseof the system
manufacturers replace5weather(or mapping)picture a considerable amountof experienceand expertiseis
when test is selected. requiredon tl'repart of the pilot. Beginnersare
advisedto avoidby a wide marginany contourable
ScannerStob Switch On-Off Switching. targetwithin s.t.c.rangeand any targetat all outside
that range.
Tilt Control Adjustment of scannerelevationangle With experiencethe pilot is able to distinguish
t y p i c a l l yt 1 5 " . betweensal-eand unsafetargetsto the extent that
he may be ableto penetrate,ratherthan just avoid,
Brilliance or Intensitlt Control Adjustsbrightnessof weather. Severalwords of warningarein orderwhen
displayto suit arnbientlighting. attemptingpenetration:one shouldalwaysselectone
of the longerrangesbeforeattemptingto fly
Free:e or Hold Su,itch Dara updateof display betweenstorm cellssincethe way throughmay be
stopped.last updatedpicturedisplayed.Transmissionblockedfurther ahead;weatherconditionscan change
and scannerrotationcontinues.Warninglamp rnay rapidlylthe limitationsof X-bandradarin so thr as
be provided.Only availableon digitalsystemor signalpenetrationis concernedshould be remembered.
w h e r ed . v . s . ti.s e m p l o y e d .

Eraseor Trace Contol Springreturn switch to


rapidlydischarge meshin d.v.s.t.,so wiping picture
cleanor continuouslyvariablecontrol which alters
d i s c h a r grea t e .

RangeMark Cttntrol Alters intensity of rangemarks.


Finger
Azimuth Marker Sv'itch Electronicallygeiterated.
azimutlirnarksnraybe turnedon or ofl'.

TargetAlcrt Sx'itct On-off. Whenactivatedflashes


a n a l e r to n t h e s c r e e ni f a c o n t o u r a b ltea r g e ti s
'window'
detectedin l aheadof the aircral't(window
s i z - feo r R C A P r i n r u 2 s 0 0 i s 7 ' 5 ' e i t h e r s i d eo f h e a d i n g
. l r n i n gg i v e n
i i t a r u n g eo . l ' 6 0 - l i 0 n a u t i c arl n i l e s ) W Scalloped Edge U-Shap€d
regardless rli selectedrangealsorvhenin 'freeze'mode
Fig.9.9 RDR 1100displays(courtesy Bendix Avionics
Sec'torSrurrSrl'ilci Allowsselectionof one of two Division)

148
It has alreadybeenmentionedthat a narrow paint scannerstabilizationfaults exist. With the scanner
around a storm cell is a good indication of severe tilted down and stabilizationon a bright circular band
turbulencebut whateverthe width the cell should be ofterrain targetscentredon the originshouidbe
avoided;the only questionis by what margin. The presented.If the band is not circularbut is severely
'toppled'or
strapeof the return on the screenis alsoa pointer to distorted,then most probablythe gyro is
'spilled', the spin axisis not vertical.The gyro
the type of weatherahead. Targetswith fingers, i.e.
hooks, scallopededgesor that are U-shapedhavebeen will be in sucha conditionif its rotor is running
observedto be associatedwith hail. Long hooks or slow, aswill be the caseif it hasjust beenswitchedon
crescent-shaped indentationsmay indicatea tornado, or there is a supply or gyro motor defect. A gyro fast
but thereareno guarantees eitherway. erectswitchmay be providedwhich,when depressed,
This chapter,and its appendix,havethus far been increasesthe supply voltageso acceleratingthe run up
concernedmainly with rain, so a word is in order here to operatingspeed. The switch shouldnot be held on
about returns from other types of precipitation. Dry for more than half a minute or so, otherwisethe rotor
mowfall will not be seenbut wet snowfall may be speedmay exceedthat for which it was designed,so
sen with difficulty. Fog and mist will not be causingdamage.
detected.Hail may givestrongor weak returns:if it To completean airbornecheck of stabilization,the
b dry and small comparedwith the wavelength, aircraft shouldbe bankedand pitched,within the
rctums areweak:if it is water-coated. returnsare stabilizationlimits, satisfactoryoperationbeing
strong; if it is dry and of a sizecomparable with the indicated by an unchanging circularterrainband.
wavelength(an extrelnecondition with 3 cm radflr) Note that with tilt down selected. the amountof nose
lhe echo is very strong. The increasein scatteringfor up pitch that the stabilizationcircuitscan dealwith is
water*oated ice particles,hail or snow, may give rise limited.
to a'bright band'at an altitudewherethe temperature Spokingis any p.p.i. presentationwhich resembles
bjust above0"C. Lightningcreatesan ionized the spokesof a wheel. lt is almostcertainlycaused
gaseousregionwhich may, if oriented correctly, by a fault within the weatherradarsystem,although
backscatterthe radarenergy. it can be causedby unshieldedelectromagneticdevices
Severalthingsmay affect the weather picture on producingstrong changingmagneticfields. There are
the p.p.i. Icingon the radomewill causeattenuation two main classes of fault which causespoking:
ofthe transmittedand receivedsignal,so targets (a) video sigrraland noisespokesdue to abnormal
which would havebeen displayedmay, under these video output amplitudevariationssuchas might be
circumstances, remainundetecteduntil very close; causedby the automaticfrequencycircuits(a.f.c.)
'innocent'precipitationwill alsoattenuatethe signal. sweepingthrough the local oscillatorfrequenciesand
Ground or searetums may mask a storm cell; the tilt (b) sweepspokesdue to faulty displaycircuitry such
control shouldbe usedto separate weather.and ground asdamagedslip ringsin the time-baseresolver
targets,a difficult task in mountainousregions. employedin an older all-analogue radar. To
Interference, which takesthe form ofbroken, curved determine which of (a) or (b) is the cause,the gain
or straightlineson the p.p.i.display,is caused by may be tumed down and the antenna tilted to
other radar systems.The exact effect varieswith the maximumup; if the spokingpersists, the fault is in
type of videosignalprocessing and scanconversion the displaycircuitry.
(if any) and with the p.r.f. of the interferingradar. The aboveis only a brief discussionof someof the
The older type of weatherradarwith no scan factorsone.mustconsiderwhen operatingweather
conversionand no averaging of the videooutput is radar. Because of the degreeof skill involved,a pilot
particularlysusceptible to interference.High p.r.f. new to weatherradarshouldstudy the manufacturer's
interferingsignals,suchasGCA, givemany fine pilot's guidecarefully;thqy areusuallyvery good.
broken radiallineson the screen.If the interfering Equallyimportant,he shouldlearneachtime he uses
p.r.f. is closeto a harmonicof the p.r.f. of the radar the system;for example,if a detouris madeto avoid
beingintert'ered with, then curvedbrokenlines, an unusuallyshapedreturn, a simplesketchand a
apparentlymoving into or away from the origin. will phone call on landingto enquireabout the weather
result. Wheremotion is apparent,the interferenceis associated with that targetwill add to his experience.
'running Rememberthat to a largeextentthe body of
commonly referredto as rabbits',another
commonll'encountered 'rabbit tracks'. knowledgeconcerningweatherreturnsis empirical.
term is
Selectionof contourmay alleviateinterference What betterway to learnthan to collectone'sown
problems. results?
',dbnorrnal p.p.i.presentations will be observedif A final and most important point needsto be

149
/

made,and that is that weatherradarpresentsa weatherradardirectly and rystemsof this type are
considerable hazard,when operatedon the ground. still very widely used;the latter sinceit is th; currenr
Detailsare givenlater in this chapter. approachof all manufacturers.Two types of digital
systemwill be considered:rho-thetadisplayand X-y
display.
Block DiagramOperation
All Analogue System
We shallconsiderboth analogueand digital systems: The p.r.f. generatorprovidestimb synchronizationfor
the former sinceit illustratesthe principlesof the completesystem;the output is often calledthe

lAzimuthI
drive
I I
-ti
FT I

1 S
Balenced
mrxer.

l@
;l on/
I off

P.R.F.
gen. tl
-l-,- I
Mod.
I
Tx
+
Time
base
Bright
M t l
up
Range
marks ,l
A.G.C./
s.T.c. T I
Video

Fig. 9. | 0 All analogue weather radar block diasram and


waveforms

150
pre-pulse,sincethe laggingedgeis usedto triggerthe waveform coincidewith the
start of the run-down.
modulator. The transmitteris a magnetronkeyed by If the balancinghalf-cycleis madelargerthan
the modulator which determinesthe pulsewidth. necessary we havean open centrewhereby zero range
The burst of r.f. energy(main bang)ii fed from the is represented by an arc,ofnon-zeroradius,on the
transmitter to the scannervia a duplexerand p.p.i. display.
waveguiderun. The duplexerallowscommon aerial The gatewaveformis fed to the marker and
working in that it is an electronicswitch which bright-up circuitswhich providethe necessaryfeeds
automaticallyconnectsthe scannerto the transmitter to the c.r.t. for the duration
of the time-base.Range
for the duration of the transmittedpulse,thus marksare producedat equally spacedintervalsduring
protecting the receiver. the gate,and areusedto intensitymodulatethe c.r.t.
A sampleof the transmittedfrequencyis fed to the electronbeam. The bright-upwaveformprovidesa
a.f.c.(automaticfrequencycontrol)mixer alongwith biaswhich preventsthe velocity of the beam berng
an output from the l.o. (localoscillator).If the sufficient to excite the phosphorcoatingon the
differencefrequencyis not equal to the requiredi.f. screen,except during the time-baserundown.
the a.f.c.circuit appliesa controlsignalto ihe 1.o.,s<j Pitch and roll stabilizationis providedby a
adjustingits frequencyuntil we haveequality. If the ryro-controlledservomechanism.
differencefrequencyis outsidethe bandwidth of the
a.f.c.circuit, the control signalis madeto sweepuntil Digital Weather Radar - Rho-Theta Display
suchtime asthe a.f.c.loop can operatenormaliy. The radio and intermediatefrequencypart of the
The main receivermixer is balancedto reducel.o. block diagramis much the samefor analogueand
noise. The i.f. amplifierchainis broadband digital systems,so here only the video,timing and
(bandwidth ) 2 X reciprocalof pulsewldtn) with gain control blocks will be considered.The following
is
controlledby the a.g.c./s.t.c. circuitsor the manual basedon the RCA Primus40.
pin control. The videoenvelopeis detectedand after Analoguevideodatafrom the receiveris
further amplificationis usedto intensitymodurare digitizedin an analogueto digital (a/d) converter.
( Z - m o d u l a t i o nt )h e c . r . r . The rangeselectedis dividedinto 128 equalrange
With contour on, the videosignalis sampled,and if cells,for example,with 300 nauticalmilesselected
abovea presetinversionlevelthe videofed to the eachcell is 300/128 = 2.344nauticalmiles,or, in
c.r.t.is effectivelyremoved. termsof time, 3607 ps is dividedinto 128 time-slots
The pre-pulseis fed to the a.g.c.gatewhich thus of 28.96ps. Duringeachtime-slotthe videolevelis
allowsthe videooutput throughto the a.g.c.circuit first integratedthen encodedas a 2-bit word, thus
o n l y f o r t h e d u r a t i o no f t h e p r e - p u l s(es a yl 0 p s ) . I n givingfour discreterepresentations from zeroto
this.waythe gaincontrolline voltagelevelis madea maximumsignal.In the Primus40 a complemented
function of receivernoise. The laggingeclgeof the Gray codeis usedfor the conversionbut is then
pre-pulsetriggersthe s.t.c.circuitwhich reducesi.f. changedto standardbinary.
gainat zero rangeand returnsit to normalafter, The scanneris drivenby a steppermotor suchthat
typically,30 nauticalmiles(about 370 ps). 1024stepsaretakenfor 120" ofscan. The
The laggingedgeof the pre-pulse alsoiniriatesthe transmitterfireson everyother stepso providing512
start of the time-base and gatewaveforms,the azimuthdirtictionsfrom which echoesmay be
durationofwhich dependon the rangeselected.The received.Thuson eachof 512 azimuthanglesdatais
time-base wavefornrl(r)is f-edto a magslip(synchro acquiredin 128 rangeincrements.
resolver)in the scanner; sincethe rotor of the magslip The averaging/smoothing circuitsreducethe
is drivenin synchronism with the scannerazimuth numberof lines(azimuthdirections)by a factor of
m o v e m e ntth e o u t p u t sa r e1 ( r ) s i nd a n d1 ( r ) c o s0 4 to 128(= 51214)and apply a correctionto the
where0.is the azintuthanglenreasurecl with reference gradientof the sigralin rangeand azimuth. The 4 to
t o t h e a i r c r a f th e a d i n g U. s i n gt h e c o s i n eo u t p u t f o r I line reductionis achievedby averaging the sum of
verticaldeflectionand the sineoutput for horizontal four adjacentazimuthtime cellsasshbwnin
deflectionprovidesthe necessary rotatingtime-base. F i g .9 . 1 3 a n dT a b l e9 . 1 . A f t e r a v e r a g i nwge h a v e1 2 8
The start of the time-base run-downmust lineswith 128 rangecellsper line grving
correspondto zerodeflectionof the c.r.t.spot. Since 1 2 8X 1 2 8= l 6 3 8 4 d a t ac e l l s .T h e d a t ai s t h e n
the magslip.beingbasicallya transformer,removes correctedfirst in rangethen in azimuthas follows:
any d,c. levela balancinghalf-cycleis required if in a seriesof threeadjacentcellsthe outer two cells
imrnediatelyafter the time-base flybackto makethe arethe samebut the inneris different,then the inner
average (zero)valueof the compositetime-base is correctedso asall threearethe same;forexample,

151
icccivcr vidco

3 5 7 10 1 1 12 13 1 4 1 5 127 128
Range cells
(NoisGl
1 ,| 0 1 3 2 0 0
Video levol (O thru 3) I 1 z

(,, 0 0 1

--{
Complemented
binarygray I
code 0 1 1
tt

Fig. 9.1I Analcgueto digital conversionin the Primus40


(courtesyRCA Ltd)

256 LINESPERFRAJVIE
FRAMEREFRESH RATE
l S 6 0 . 7H z ( 1 6 . 4 7 5 m S |
1 6 . 4 7 5 m-S2 5 6 = 6 4 3 5 5 , r SL I N ET I M E

128CELLS DlsPtAVCELTS
P€RLrNEX 256LTNES=32.768

,"*\
"',*",j,ffik%
-urr;fll.\
. c4ce{
.

Fig. 9.12 Rho-thetarasterscanformat in the Primus40;


512 transmissions per scan,128 linesin memory,256
displayedlines (courtesy RCA Ltd)

152
Table9.1 Four to one line averaging 'nemory
as it is received.Sincethe signallevel within
eachrangecell is codedas a 2-bit word the memory
Sumof four azimuth Average capacitymust be 2X 128 X 128 = 32'168bits. The
adiacenttime cells memorycomprisessixteen2 X 1024-bitshift
registers,so applicationof clock pulsescausesthe
0-l 0 circulationof dataprovidedthe output is connected
2-5 I to the input which is the casewhen new data are not
6-9 2 beingloaded. New datamust be loadedinto memory
r0-12 3 at the correcttime in the sequence of circulating
data;this timing control is providedby the new data
313 would be correctedto 333 while 012 would line control circuit which synchronizesthe loading
remainthe same(seeFig.9.l4). The aboveprocesses, with scannerposition. Loadingis inhibited when the
togetherwith the integration of the video signal freezebutton is pressed but circulationof data
within eachrangecell prior to digitization, reducethe continues.The datais continuouslyreadout asit
displayednoice to negligibleproportions. circulatesat a rate of about 7'772\inesper second
Eachof the 128 lines of 128 cellsis placedin comparedwith loadingevery fourth main bang,a rate
of 121'414= 30.35linesper second.The different
load and readratesgivethe scanconversionin time,
a-----------l a--.,--=-l leadingto a flicker free bright picture.
Although 128 linesof videoarestored,256 lines
aredisplayed,so it is necessary to doublethe stored
After averaging- lines. The line-doublingcircuit averages two adjacent
storedvideolinesto generatea middleline, so giving
the required256 lineseachof 128 cells(i.e. a total of
32768 displayedcells). In the averaging processthe
rule is to averageup if an integeraverageis not
possible.The following example,consideringpart of

Fig. 9.13 Fout to one line averagingin the RCA Primus 40

Noise

E'l corrected

F8. 9.14 Rargc and azimuth smoothing and correction in


the RCA Primus40

153
Video Averaging
from Rx smoothing
circuits

Tx
trigg6r

CRT
Frame retrace

tI
Freeze

and rho-thetadisplayblock
Fig,9.15 Video processing
diagram

32768 bit Data out


shift register

Clock

Fig. 9.15 Simplifiedmemory

three adjacent stored lines, illustrates the process: mile is represented by 128125= 5'12 cells,so the first
mark is locatedat cell 26 (= 5 X 5'12) with subsequent
storedline...3 3 2 2 1 . . . m a r k sa t c e l l s5 l , 7 1 , 1 0 2 a n d 1 2 8 .
middleline...3 3 2 2 t . . . Azimuth marksareobtainedby raisingall 128
storedline...3 2 2 I 0 . . . cellsof the appropriatelinesby I in a similar way t^o
m i d d l el i n e . . . 2 I I I 0... that describedabove. The sweepis 120",so for l5-
storedline...0 0 0 0 0 . . . azimuthmarkerswe requireI + 120/15 = 9 linesto
Rangemarks are obtainedby raisingthe appropriate be enhancedin intensity. With 256 linesthose
rangecell levelfor eachof the 256 linesby l, i.e. 0 chosenare line 2 and line 256 Nl8 = 32ly' rvhere
-60o markersince
becomes1, I becomes2,2 becomes3 while 3 remains N= 1-8. Line 2 is usedfor the
at 3. Thus rangemarksappearslightly brighter than blankingis applied to the first'trace line, tltus the
azimuth marker is in fact at -59'0625".
targetreturnsexceptfor level3 targets'Identification leftmosi
of the appropriaterangecell in each line is achieved The contour circuit converts a video 3 levelto a
by a counter. For example on the 25 nautical mile video 0 level. If we had a range sequence of cells
rangethere are five rangemarks 5 nautical miles apart. 0 2 3 0 0, say,then the contouredcell of level3
Sincethere are 128 rangecellsper line eachnautical would not be bordered,the sequencebeing

154
0 2 0 0 0. To avoid this, the rangecell adjacentto a The rho-thetarasteris generated by tlte deflection
contouredlevel 3 cell is raisedto level 2 if necessary,
circuitswhich are triggeredby the frame andX-Y
thusin ourexampleO 2 3 O 0 would become retracewaveforms.A linearramp currentrvaveform
0 2 O 2 0 after contouring. Borderingis guaranteed needsto be generated for both_the)/ (vcrtical)
in azimuth as a result of the line-doublingprocess deflectioncoilsand the X (horiz.r,ntal) deflection
since,for example,if we haveadjacentazimuth cells coilswhich form the yoke. The durationol'the ramp
with videolevelsI 3 0 from'memory,then i s 5 3 ' 8 9p s w i t h a 1 0 ' 4 6p s r e t r a c e( f l y b a c k ) g i v r nag
line-doublingwillgive | 2 3 2 0 and after totalline time (time-base period)of 64.35 gs. The
contouring | 2 O 2 0 as required. This bordering amplitudesof the rampwavelbrmsdeterminethe
-featwe is.necossarywhere the video gradientis steep, amountof deflectionin the X and X directionsand
suchaswhen we receivereturnsfrom mountainsor thus the particularline which is tracedon the screen;
distantweathertargets. line I is at -60o, line 256 is at +60o. In.pracrice,
sinceon the completionof one frameat line 256 on
vlotor-EvtLs 0 0 r I 2 3 2 t O the right we start the next frame on the left after
frameretrace,line I is blankedin order to allow the
* ( , o deflectioncircuitsto settledown. The franrerateis
SINAiY CODI
6O'7Hz.
,,1. o The X and )z ramp waveformsare initiated by thc
X-Y relracepulses.The amplitudeof the I/ ramp
must be a mininrumat the beginningand end of the
frameand a maximumhalf-waythroughthe frame;
its polarity is constantthroughout.The anrplitudeof
ANALOGVIDEO
the X ramp must be a maximurnat the beginningand
end of the frame and zerohalf-way through the
frame,when the polarity reverses.To achievethe
amplitudevariationsdescribedthe X and Y ramp
Fig,9.17 Digitalto analogue (uncontoured)
conversion wavefolmsare amplitude-modulated by appropriately
(courtesy RCALtd) shapedwaveformstriggeredby the frame retrace
pulse.
The c.r.t.is intensitymodulatedby one of four It shouldbe evidentthat timing and synchronization
d.c.levelsappliedto its control grid. Sincethe output are all-important. We seefrom the simplifiedblock
from the contourcircuit is digitalwe must employ a diagramthat the timing and controlcircuitsare
digital to analogue(D/A) conversioncircuit. connectedto virtuallyall partsto ensurethe

Frame
retrace
I

ffi,,, Mod

X-Y retrace _ r l l l l l l
'-- Y x -
Ramp Ramp

Fig. 9.18 Ramp generation

t55
necessarysynchronization. All timing signalsare radarwith a rho-thetadisplay requiredscan
derivedfrom d 4'972459 MHz crystal-controlled conversionin time only. This follows sincethe data
oscillator(period0.201 1077 ps). Of particular arecollectedin the sameorderasthey are presented;
significance is the scannerpositionwhen new datais only the ratesare different. With a t.v. display this is
loadedinto the memory. A counterin the scanner not so, thereforewe needscanconversionin both
drivecircuitscountseveryeighthstepin the sweep, position and time. Sincethe basicdifferences
first clockwisethen counterclockwise and so on. betweenthe two types of digital radar are the rasters,
The counterthus givesthe memoryline numberfrom scanconversion,and the organizationof memory we
I to 128 (= 1024/8)which is usedby the new data shallconcentrateon thesetopics. What follows rs
load circuit. lt is possiblethat the scannerstepping basedon the RCA Primus30.
motor may missa few beats,in which casethe count The rasteris similar to a standardt.v. display
referredto abovewill not representthe scanner except that the field and line directionsof
positioncorrectly. In order to preventcumulative displacementare reversedand it is quantitatively
errorsthe count is Jammed'at 64 wheneverthe different. The rasterconsistsof 256 verticallineseach
scannercrosses the deadaheadpositiongoing with 256 cells,thus we have256 X 256 = 65 536
clockwise.The informationrequiredfor Jam centre' displayeddata cells. Eachframeof 256linesis
operationis derivedfrom the X-axisstator output of displayedin two interlacedfieldseachof 128 lines.
a resolver,the rotor of which is drivenby the azimuth The field rate is approximately107'5 per secondso
motor. This output variesin amplitude,and the interlacegivesapproximately53'75 framesper
phase-reverses when tl'rescannerpases through the second(fasterthan conventionalt.v.).which givesa
deadaheadpositi<-rn.. flicker-freepicture.
The aboveis a much-simplified descriptionof the Azimuth drive is similar to the Primus40, the angle
essential featuresof the Prirnus40; many detailshave of scanbeing 120" achievedin 1024steps. An
beenomitted. Other digitalweatherradarswith azimuth counter counts every fourth step so that
rho-thetadisplayssuchas the BendixRDR 1200will when the count has gone from 0 to 255 there is a
differ in detail but will operatein a similar way. phasereversalof the drive signalcausingthe scanner
to reversedirection. When switchingfrom standbyto
Digital WeatherRadar - Television(t.v.) Display a transmitmode(normal,contour,cyclic or mapping)
In the nrevioussectionwe sawthat a disital weather the scanneris driven counterclockwiseto the

t \
)'
\l ',
\
\ \ \
t \i !
\i\
r t

| l
rl \i
FlRsl t lttD RAsltRLltrt. oNt tr 126Llilts wRlTTiN ATRATI0f 10, t Hz'
r l R 5 1F l t l , 0B T A NRKI T R A C t liN t o N t 0 f 1 2 8G t N f R A l tA Dl R A T0i f l 0 / t H 2 '
E t A t i rfKL Y B A CLKl N i r R O nt N D0 t f l R 5 Ir l t L oT 0 B t C I NINN G0 f S t C o l ' lfDl i t o A I R A l t 0 f 1 0 7 . H
5r
----- stcoNDFliLR 0
0 A S T ILRI N € . 1 . 10tf l ? 8 L l N t !
s ! R l I T I N
A l R A r t0 f l o i 5 H z '
-- s f c 0 N Dt l t L D E L A NR KI T R A C L Il N t .o t \ t 0 r I 2 8C t f t t R A T tA0TR A T0I f 1 0 7t H ] '
FLYBACKLINtfR0!,!t!D0tStCOt!0FltLDT0EtClNNlNC0frlRSIfltLDAIRAT[C[1075H.
'llt60 UMs PtR stc

Fig. 9.t9 Simplifiedrasterfor the Primus30 (only eleven


linesshown)(courtesyRCA Ltd)

156
leftmost position, and 'chatters'there until the usedasa lock-up table to give the valuesof cos 0 and
azimuth counter reaches255 when clockwise s i n0 .
rotation is initiated; this ensuressynchronizationof T h e 1 2 8 X 1 2 8= l 6 K R A M c e l l sm u s tb e
counter and position. convertedto 256 X 256 = 64K displaycells;this is
Digitized data is written into a random access achievedby a datasmoothingcircuit. EachRAM cell
memory (RAM) consistingof eight 4096-bit RAM is convertedinto four displaycells,the videolevelin
chipsgivinga total of32K bit storage(lK bit = lO24 eachdisplaycell beingdeterminedby a weightedand
bits). Thus with a cell containinga 2-bit word there is biasedaverage of levelsin the corresponding RAM cell
provisionfor l6K cells(= 128 X 128). Conceptually and someof its neighbours.With the cellsdesignated
the memory is arrangedas a grid with orthogonal asshownin Fig. 9.21we have:
ixes, so the addressat which datais to be storedmust
be in X-Y format. SCanconversionis required to ' Ia = inr. + Is + It + l)lal
IQI6
provide the correct addressgiventhat the data is being Ib = int. +'t7 + IL + l)l4l
l(2ly
receivedin a rho-thetaformat. /c = int. + Is + Ia + l)l4l
IQIy
Id = inr. l(Zty + Ir + In + l)l4l

whereint. [. . . .] meansintegerpart of f . . . .1.

(x+AX,Y+AY) An exampleoi the processfor one RAM cell is given


in the figure.
Four concentricarcs,with centreat the middleof
the bottom edgeof the display,serveas rangemarks.
The addresses of the displaycellsto be illuminated
(o'O) frrr rangemark purposesarestoredin a ROM. The
I l[-+ 8K bit ROM is time-shared with the scanconverter
AX--ri e
which utilizesit asa sin/coslook-uptable,asstated
Fig.9,20 Rho-theta to X/I scanconversion previously.
The rho-thetasectorof targetreturnsoccupies
only part of the X-Y display. The unusedareaof the
Assumed word hasbeencorrectlystoredat
address (X,Y) the next word, assuminga unit range screen is usedfor alphanumerics identifyingthe
operatingmode and the rangemarks. A ROM, used
step,must be storedat (X + LX, Y + A)z) where
only lbr alphanumerics, containsthe positioncode
AX = sin 0 and AY = cos0, 0beingthe scanner
for the bottom ofeach characteron any givenline of
azimuth anglegivenby the azimuth counter (see
F i g . 9 . 2 0 ) . T h e r a t eo f g e n e r a t i o n the raster.
ofnew addresses
is determinedby the rate of generationof new data Eachof the circuits providingthe functionsof
raster generation, azimuthdrive,digitization,RAM
cells,of which there are 128 for eachazimuth count.
ROM addressing
The first datacell in eachgroup of 128 corresponds and and transmissionmust be
to the address (0, 0). A readonly memory(ROM) is synchronized in time. All timing signals are derived
from a 10.08MHz crystaloscillator.Suitable
sub-multiplesof the basicfrequencyare fed
lr throughout the systemas triggersand clockswhich
lb td keep everythingin step.
lr lM lR
la lc
l8
Scanner Stabilazatioh

2 The needfor scannerstabilizationhasalreadybeen


2 3 stated;herewe shallreviewthe implementation.
1 3 3 i-
I 2 3
There are basicallytwo types of stabilization:
platform and line-of-sight.With the former the
3
movingpart ofthe scannercanbe considered asbeing
mounted cin a platform controlled,independentlyin
Fig. 9.21 A RAM cell to display cell conversion in the RCA pitch and roll, by a vertical referencegyro (VRG).
Primus 30 With the latter, pitch and roll signalsare combined,

157
Timing
and
control

Control
panel
(rangel

tsig.9.22 XIY displayblockdiagram

taking into accountthe azimuth angleof the scanner, The aboveparagraph is the basisfor line-ot-sight
the compositesignalbeingusedto control the beam stabilization. Pitch and roll signalsfronr the VRG are
tilt angle. Sincethe platform systemrequires combinedin an azirnuthresolver, the rotor of which
rotatingwaveguide joints for azimuth,pitch and roll is drivenby the azimuthmotor. Tl.restatorsof the
movenrentplus pitch and roll motors,the line-of-sight resolverareconnectedto the pitch (P) and roll (R)
systemis preferredin most modernweatherradars. outputsof the VRG, in sucha way that the rotor
Only the line-of-sight systemwill be explainedbelow. output is P cos0 + R sin d, where0 is the azimuth
'
Whilethe scanneris pointingdeadahead,aircraft angle.
movementin roll will haveno effect on the beam The compositedernandsigrralis fed to a servo
direction sincethe axis about which the aircraft is amplifierwhich alsohaspositionand velocity
rotatingis in line with the bearnaxis. With the feedbackinputs. If the sunrof the inputsis non-zero,
scannerpointing90" port or starboardpitch an error signalfrom the servoamplitierwill drivethe
movementwill havea negligibleeft'ectsincethe axis motor so as to reducethe error to zero. The position
aboutwhich the aircraftis rotatingis paralleland close feedbackfrom the tilt synchrois modifiedby the tilt
to the beamaxis. Conversely with the scannerdead control so that the angleof the beanraboveor below
ahead,aircraftpitch must be correctedin full while the horizontalmay be setby the pilot. Velocity
the scannerat t 90" aircraftroll rnustbe correctedin feedbackis providedby a tachogenerator to prevent
full by pitchingor tilting the scanner. excessive oversltoot.'

158
Antenna
Elevation Azimuth
rotary joint rotary

q) 6h
I
F

Azimuthmotor
controllogic
from indicator
L--- Pitch/roll
I amplifiers
I

I Cable and I
Oear reductionl
I

(T)
I
Pcos0
+
R . s i n0

le and
reduction Summing-
pre-amplifier

Position
feedback

Indicator

Fig.9.23 RDR 1200scannerblock diagram(courtesyBendix


AvionicsDivision)

The componentsusedin the stabilizatidnsystem restrictedto say145o, ason variousgeneralaviation


canvary. The positionfeedbacktransducerand tilt systems.
control may be two- or three-wiresynchrosor indeed Unlessan azimuth steppermotor is usedthe
potentiometers.Someequipmentsusea d.c. rather azimuthangularvelocityof the scanneris not constant.
than a.c.motor althougha.c.is normalfor demand Reversal of directionat the extremitiesmeansthat
and feedbacksignals.On somesystemsno roll the scanneraccelerates towardsthe deadahead
correctionis employedif the scannerazimuthangleis position and slowsdown going away from deadahead.

159
It follows that lesstime is availableto make Grid vanes
stabilization correctionsat the deadaheadposition. Weather Mapping
If the servoloop response is fastenoughto copewith
the nrostrapidrRovement in azimuthit will be too /---=--\
thstat the extremities.In order to vary response time

I,
z'.-\"'
the velocityfeedbackmay be modifiedso that it is
greatestin amplitudewhen the azimuth angleis a
maxlmum.
With a flat plateaerialthe beamis tilted by
pitchingthe plate,thus a pitch-rotatingwaveguide
joint is needed.Thereis a choicewhen the system
Horizontally
usesa parabolicreflector,eitherthe reflectorand polarized feed
feedmovein pitch or the reflectoronly. In the latter
caseno pitcli-rotating joint is usedbut the beamshape Fig.9.24 Weather-mapping facility using a parabolic
deterioratessincethe feed point is displacedtiom the reflector
focuswith tilt applied.
reflector is rotated through 90" (asin Fig. 9.24) or
the directionof polarizationis rotatedby usinga
Other Applications for Weather Radar waveguide rotatingjoint or a ferritepolarization
twister.
AJthoughthe primary function of a weatherradaris The cosec2beamis difficult to achievewith a flat
to detectconditionslikely to giveriseto turbulence, plate array designecl specificallyfor a pencil beam.
variousother usesfor the systemor part of the system However,a fan-shaped beamcanbe obtainedby
havebeen;and continueto be, found. Thesewill be reversingthe phaseof the r.f. energyfed to the slots
briefly described. in the top half of the plate.
Whenselectedto nrapping,rivers,lakesand
Mapping coastlines areclearlyidentified,so allowing
Virtually all weatherradarsoffer a mappingfacility. confirmationof position. Built-upareasand
At its most crude,selectionof mappingmerely mountainswill givestrongreturns.An interesting
removes s.t.c., whereupon the pilot can tilt the beam phenomenonmay be noticedoverthe plainsof the
down to view a limited regionof the ground. At its United States:sincefences,buildingsand powerlines
bestthe beamis changedto a fan-shaped beam, tend to be laid out with a north-southor east-west
wherebyreceivedechoenergyis constantfrom all orientation,returnsfrom the cardinalpoints are
partsof the illuminatedgroundregion. In the strongest,thus givingnoticeablebright lines on the
Appendixit is shownthat the receivedpoweris radarcorresponding to north, south,eastor west.
inverselyproportionalto the squareof the rangefor a
beam-fillingtarget(A9.9). alsoif the beamis Drift Indication
depressed at an angle@to the horizontal the range With downwardtilt the retumedecho is subjectto a
R = ft cosec@wf "e /r is the aircraft height. So for Doppler shift due to the relativevelocity of the
equalreturnsfrom ground targetsat different aircraft alongthe beam. The spectrumof Doppler
depressionangles(hencerange)the transmittedpower shift frequenciesis narrowestwhen the beam is
needsto be distributedon a cosectd basis.sincewe alignedwith the aircraft track. The Doppler signal
will thenhave(Pr)o(PtlR2i". lcosec2Qlh2 cosec261= canbe displayedon a suitableindicator(A-type
Q l h ' ) , i . e . P , i s i n d e p e n d e notf r a n g e . display)where,due to the spectrum,it appearsas
With a parabolicreflectoran approximatecosec2 noiseelevatedonto the top of the returnpulse.With
beamcanbe obtainedby useoi a polarization- manualcontrol of the azimuth position of the scanner
'noise'
sensitivegrid aheadof the reflectorsurface. In the the pilot can adjustuntil the Doppler
weathermodethe grid is transparent to the beam (spectrum)is at a minimum, when the drift anglecan
sincethe E field is perpendicular to the conducting be readoff the control. This option is rarely found.
vanesof the grid while in the mappingmode the grid a
reflectspart of the beamenergydownwardsincethe Beacon Interrogation
E field is parallelto the vanesand thereforedoesnot The transmittedpulsefrom the weatherradarcan be
satisfythe boundaryconditions.To achieveremote usedto triggera suitably tuned beacon(transponder)
switchingbetweenweatherand mapping.eitherthe on the ground. The beaconreplieson 93 l0 MHz,

160
so a weatherradar with a local oscillatorfree.rencyof short-rangecapability;for example,the Primus50
9375 MHz and a transmit frequencyof 934i MHz will offers 2 nautical mile rangeusinga 0.6 ps pulse,thus
producea differencefrequencyof 30 MHz for normal givinggood rangeresolution.
returnsand a differencefrequencyof 65 MHz for the
beaconreply. Two differently tuned i.f. amplifiers Multifunction Display
can be usedto separatethe signals.As an alternative The weatherradarindicator is increasinglyusedfor
two local oscillatorsmay be used. purposesother than the displayofweather or
On somesystetnsthe selectionof beaconeliminates mappinginformation. X-I rastersin particularmake
the normal returns from the display;on others it is the displayof alphanumericdata straightforward,
possibleto show weatherand the beaconresponse. henceall the major manufacturersnow offer a
The easewith which this facility can be uied to 'page-printer'
option with one or more of the radars
find offshore oil rigs makesradarsoffering beacon in their range. Similarlydisplayof navigationdatais
operationan attractiveproposition for helicopters availableasan option with the latestcolour weather
supplyingthe rigs. Such radarsusually havea radars.

nrotr

xon*
rftoffi

Fig. 9.25 Primus 30 with page-printeroption (courtesy


RCA Ltd)

161
A page-printeroption is normally used to display 300 nauticalmiles for s.s.t.is usually demandedby
checklists.The alphanumericdata is arrangedand customers.
storedin pageson EPROMs,either in the indicator or Rangemarks at 25 nautical mile intervalsup to 100
in an external auxiliary unit. EachBagemay be nauticalmiles are suggested, as are the availablerange
calledup in turn usinga page-advance button. Pages selectionsof30/80/lS0 or 30/100/300or 30/80/180/
containingthe normal checklistindex and 360. The advantages of a continuouslyvariable
emergencychecklistindex are particularlyimportant, displayed range from 30 nautical miles to maximum
and usually havededicatedbuttons usedto call them arestated.
up for display. Havingdisplayeda pageof one of the
indexesa line-checkbutton may be usedto advancea Displayed Sector
cursor(line highlightedby displaying,say,black alpha- nt ieast + 90" but not more than t 120". Displayed
numericson greenbackgroundrather than greenon rangeat + 90" to be not lessthan 60 per cent of
black asfor the other lines).With the cursorset,the maximum range. The scanmay be reciprocatingor
chosenchecklistcanbe displayedusinga list button. circular. (Note in the caseof the latter, sincethe
Apart from checklistsother alphanumeric scannerrotatesthrough 360' RAM (radar absorbent
information which may be listed includeswaypoints, material)screeningis neededon the nosebulkheadto
or indeedany pilot+ntered dataif pagesare allocated prevent excessivelystrong receivedsigrrals.)
to this facility. One method of allowingthe pilot to
enter data is to usea calculatorkeyboard; Radio FrequencY
Hewlett-Packardand TexasInstrumentsmake C-Band 5400 MHz x2OMHz (nominal)
calculatorswhich can be modified to interfacewith X-Band 9375MHzt 20 MHz (nominal), or
the page-printersystem. 9345 MHz L 2O MHz (nominal)
Display ofnavigation data from externalsensors
suchasVORTAC, Omega,INS or Loran is achieved Bandwidth
through an interface unit. Typically the pilot is able Minimum bandwidth = l'216 where the pulsewidth 6
to displaywaypointsjoined by track lines,together must be lessthan l0 Ps'
with the weatherdata. As an examplethe RCA Data
Nav. trI systemallowsthe displayof current VORTAC Dispby AccumcY ^
frequency,rangeand bearingto current waypoint and Azimuth angle:t 2-.
up to three correctly positionedwaypoint symbols Range:the greaterof t 5 per cent or I nauticalmile.
from twenty which can be stored. An additional
featureof the Data Nav. I I is a designatorsymbol Sensitivity Time Control
which may be set to any desiredlocation on the Range2law from 3 nautical miles to the point where
screen:this location can then be enteredas a new a 3 nauticalmile target ceasesto be beam filling.
waypoint to replacethe current one, so providingan Two-wirelogic from scannerto set s.t.c.maximum
alternativeroute if stormsareobservedon original rangein accordancewith antennagain (and hence
intendedcourse. bearnwidth).
Progressin this areais rapid' ln 1979,with the
appropriateinterface,the weatherradar could display Scanner Stab and Tilt
projectionsof aircraft position on straightor curved Two-wire pitch and roll sigrralseach(E/2300) V
paths,ETA at waypointsand warningsof sensordata + 2 per cent per degreewhereE is nominal I 15 V
failure in addition to the data referredto above. 400 Hz referencephase(50 mV per degreebut
expressed in terms of supply). The phaseof signalsis
WeatherRadarCharacteristics specified. Dummy load of 20 kQ where signalnot
used.
ARINC Characteristic564-7 allows the designermore Pilch and roll rate capability 20o per second.
freedomthan do most other suchdocuments; Line-of-sight(two-ais system):combinedroll, pitch
howeverit is quite clearwhat performanceand and tilt freedomt 35" with accuracy+ lo, manual
facilities are to be made available. The following is a tilt i 14".
summaryof someof the more significantand/or Split axis (three-axissystem):roll t 40', pitch
interestingitems. t 20o,manualtilt I 14",combinedpitch and tilt
!25",accuacy t 0'5".
Range Droop nosesignal(tr/575) V per degree,samephase
At least 180 nautical miles for subsonicaircraft and asnosedown. (Two-wire signal,20 mV per degree

162
EnrouteNavigation.
fry

1 ) T h e i n t e n d e dt r a c k l i n e o r i g i n a t i n gf r o m l h e a i r c r a f t o f t s e tc o n t r o ls h o w i n gt h e D e s i g n a t o sr y m b o la t 3 5 " r i g h t ,
s y m b o ld i s p l a y sl h e p r o g r a m m e dr o u t e o f f l i g h t .W a y p o i n t s 46 nm.
a n d t h e i r n u m b e r sc a n b e d i s p l a y e do n t h e t r a c k l i n e .W h e n
D a t a N a vi s u t i t i z e dw i t h R N A V ,t h e a s s o c i a r e dV O R T A C 2 ) W h e n t h e D e s i g n a t o ri s a t t h e d e s i r e dp o s i t i o n ,t h e n e w
s y m b o l i s d i s p l a y e da l o n g w i t h i t s f r e q u e n c ya s i l l u s t r a t e d W a y p o i n tc a n b e e n t e r e di n t o t h e N a v i g a t i o nS y s t e mb y
W h e n u s e d w i t h a V L F / O M E G Ao r I N S s v s l e m .t h e D a t a N a v m e a n so f t h e " E N T R " b u t t o no n t h e D a t a N a vc o n t r o lp a n e , .
w i l l d i s p l a ys i m i l a ri n f o r m a t t o nW
. h e n w e a t h e ri s e n c o u n _ T h e c u r r e n tW a y p o i n tw i l l b e m o v e dt o t h e n e w l o c a t i o na n d
tered lhe current Waypoint may be ottsel by using RCA'S a n e w t r a c k l i n e e s t a b l i s h e dT. h e R a n g ea n d B e a r i n go f t h e
e x c l u s i v eD e s i g n a t o rf e a t u r e T h e D e s i g n a t o rc a n b e m o v e o a i r c r a f lt o t h e V O R T A Cs t a t i o nw i l l a l w a y sb e d i s p l a y e di n
to any location on the screen by means of the Waypoint t h e l o w e r r i g h t h a n d c o r n e ro f t h e d i s p l a y .

3) The aircraft has now completed the turn and intercepted 4) Waypoinl Listing Mode can be sebcted by means of-the
t h e n e w l r a c k l i n e w h i c h w i l l s a f e l yc i r c u m n a v i g a l et h e "MODE"
b u t t o no n t h e D a l a N a vc o n t r o lp a n e l .I n f o r m a t i o n
d a n g e r o u sw e a t h e r .l f d e s i r e d ,y o u c a n r e l u r nt o t h e o r i g i n a l f o r 3 W a y p o i n t sc a n b e d i s p l a y e do n t h e s c r e e n .T h e c u r -
Waypointand track line by pressing lhe cancel button on r e n l W a y p o i n lw i l l b e d i s p l a y e di n y e l l o ww i t h a l l o t h e rd a l a
t h e D a t a N a vc o n l r o l o a n e l . i n g r e e n .A l l t h e W a y p o i n t sc a n b e d i s p l a y e di n g r o u p so f
"Waypoint
lhree by moving the Offsel Control" left or right.

FiE 9.26 En-route navigation with the (colour) Primus 200


(courtesy RCA Ltd)

for SSTaircraft where scannermount is droppedwith Ilaveguide


nose.) C-Bandtype ARA I 36 or WR I 37. X-Bandtype
Scalerequiredon scannerwherebytilt anglemay be RG-67U. Ridgedwaveguide rejected;v.s.w.r.
read. m a x i m u ml . l : l .

163
Magnetron Magnctic Field width. It is normal to calculatethe m.p.e.l. assuming
No more than lo compassdeviationwith sensorl5 ft a stationaryscannerand a point source'in which case
from the t.r. The t.r. shouldbe mounted at least2 ft an averagepower of 6 X F X Pt is spreadover an area
from the indicators,other t.r. units and other devices of n X D2 X 1Jin2(e l2)i thus the distanceD in rnetres
sensitiveto magneticfields. for an exposurelevel of l0 mW/cm2is givenby:
'l
I 6FPt o't-
^ |- *
D=m6 hffil
Maintenanceand Testing L ' J
where: 6 is pulsewidth in seconds;
F is pulse repetition frequency in pulses
Safety Precautions
per second;
There are two hazardswhen operating weather radar,
P1 is peak Powerin milliWatts;
namely damageto human tissueand ignition of
0 is beamwidth.
combustiblematerial.
The greaterthe averagepower density the greater Thus consideran older airline standardweatherradar
the health hazard. A figure of l0 mW cm' is a (Bendix RDR IE/ED) usingmanufacturers'nominal
generally acceptedmaximum permissibleexposure figuresfor the longestrangeoption, i.e.6 = 5 ps;
level(m.p.e.l.). Among the most vulnerableparts of F = 2 O O ; P t = 7 5 k W ; 0 = 3 " ; w e h a v eD = l 8 ' 6 6 m
the body are the eyesand testes. (ev60 ft), while for a modern generalaviation radar
The greaterthe peak power the greaterthe fire (RCA Primus20) where6 = 2'25 ps, F = 107'5,
hazard. Any conductingmaterialcloseto the scanner = =
& = 8 k w , 0 8 6 w e h a v eD l ' 1 2 m ( e , : * f t ) '
may acf as a receivingaerial and have r.f. currents To ensuresafety precautionsare observedconsult
induced. There is obviouslya risk, particularly when manufacturers'data for safedistancesthen, if
aircraft are being refuelledor defuelled. operatingthe radar for maintenancepurposes,place
An additionalhazard.which doesnot affect safety radiationhazardwarning noticesthe appropriate
but will affect the serviceabilityof the radar,is the distancefrom the nose. Whenworking by the scanner
possibilityof very strongreturnsif the radaris with the radar on standby a notice should be placed
operatedcloseto reflectingobjects. The result of 'do not touch', or better still
by the controlsstating
these'returrlsis to burn out the receivercrystals the transmittershouldbe disabledor the waveguide
which are of the point contacttyp€' run broken and a dummy load fitted. If the radaris
The following rulesshouldbe observedwhen switched on prior to taxiing, the transmitter should
operatingthe weatherradaron the ground: not be switchedon until clearof the apron'
X-ray emissionis a possiblehazard when operating
l. ensurethat no personnelare closerto a the transmitter with the caseremoved, such as might
transmittingradarscannprthan the m'p.e.l. be done in a workshop. The likelihood of dangeris
boundary, aslaid down bY the sYstem small but the manufacturers' data should be
manufacturer; consulted.
2. nevertransmit from a stationaryscanner;
3. do not operatethe radarwhen the aircraft is
being refuelledor defuelled,or when another Check for Condition and AssemblY
aircraft within the sectorscannedis being Obviouslythe weatherradar systemas a whole is
subjectto the samerequirementsas all other airborne
'4. refuelledor defuelled;
do not transmitwhen containersof inflammable equlptn.nt in respectof securityof attachmentand
or explosivematerialare closeto the aircraft condition; however,certainpoints need to be
within the sectorscanned; highlighted.
-Thi
5. do not operatewith an open waveguideunless waveguiderun should be the subject of fairly
r.f. power is off; neverlook down an open frequentinspectionsand shouldbe suspectedifpoor
waveguide;fit a dummy load if part of the performanceis reported. Wheninspectingthe
waveguiderun is disconnected; waveguide,corrosionand physicaldamagesuchas
6. do not operatecloseto largereflectingobjects cracksand dents are obviousthingsto look for'
or in a hangarunlessr.f. energyabsorbing Flexible waveguidecoveringsare subject to perishing,
materialis placedover the radome(RAM cap)' crackingand a detachedmechanicalbond at the
flanges.lnternal damagein flexible waveguidecanbe
The safedistancesfor radarsvary widely, founa Uy gently flexing while listening and feeling for
dependingon averagepower transmitted and beam clicks. There shouldbe no more than minor bendsin

164
the H plane of flexible waveguideand the radiusof l. Checkwarm-uptime for magnetron.
bendsin the E planeshouklbe greaterthan about Zlrn.2. Checkfan motor (a light pieceof papershould
'stick' to the filter).
If it is thoughtnecessary to dismantlethe
waveguide,un1o curryoui an internalinspection, 3. Checkinternalpowersupplyvoltagesand currents
or if i pieceof waveguide needsto be replaced, care with built-inmeter,if fitted. or testmeterconnected
must be takenwhen re-installing. Choke joint flanges to testsocket,if supplied.
must mate to plain flanges.Seaiingor O-iingsmusi NB'. when disconnectinga test lrleter from the
be fitted to achieveu pr.rrut. seal. The E planesof test socketit is vital that the shortingplug
adjoiningwaveguide piecesshouldbe paraliel.Undue shouldbe replaced, otherwisecrystalearth
forceshouldnot be usedin aligningwaveguide, either returns, broken for current measurement,
within the run or at the endsof the run. All will not be made'
waveguide supportsshouldbe secureand undamaged. 4. Checktest facility: patternshouldbe asspecitied
If an internalinspectionusinga probelight reveals by manufacturer.In particularcheckthe pattern
dirt or moistureit may be possibleto cleanby pulling is centredand neitheroverfillingor underlilling
througha cleansoft cloth andior blowingout with an screen,and that the rangemarksareequallyspaced
air pressure line. Caremustbe takennot to scratch (lineardeflection,rho-tlieta).symmetricalarcs
the insidesurfaceof the waveguide sincethiswould (lineardeflection,X-Y)andcorrectin number
renderit scrap,aswouldsignsof corrosionor deposits (time-base duration,rho-theta)'A rho-thetaraster
which cannotbe removedis suggested above. may showa smallopencentre(about{ in'; but no
Any drain trap in the waveguide run shouldbe tail.
checkedfor blockage,and accumulated moisture 5. Observegroundreturnson all ranges.Operateail
shouldbe removed.Filtersand desiccators in the controlsand ensurethe desiredeffcct is achieved.
pressurization feed,if fitted, shouldbe inspectedfbr
cleanliness (filter) and colour(if desiccator is pink it Notes
is unserviceable). The aboveis only a brief outlineof the checksto be
The scannershouldbe checkedfor freedom of carriedout. OneshtlLrld alwaysusethe manltfacturers'
movementaswell asgeneralconditionand securityof recornmended procedures when tcsting.When
attachment.In carrying()ut scannerinspcctions the carryingout itenr(5) above.experience is necessary if
dishor plateshouldnot be turneddirectlyby hand o n e i s t o s t a t e w
, i t h a n y c e r t a i n t yt,h e c o n d i t i t l o
n f
but throughthe gearing.Backlashin the gearscanbe the systenr.The pictureobtainedwill dependon the
checkedby gentiyapplyingforwardand backward headingof the aircrali;asan extremeexantplean
movementto the edgeof the dishor platein both aircraf'tpointingout to seawill givevery diflerent
azimuthand pitch directions:in a 30 in. diameter g r o u n dr e t u r n so t t i t s r a d a rw l t e nc o m p a r e w d ith an
imtenna,movementof ; T at the edgein<licates a aircraftpointingin the directionof a rangeof hills.
total backlashof nearly 1". No chafingof cables The technicirnshouldbe awareof the f orm of thc
shouldoccur due to scannermovernent. t a r g e t / n o i spei c t u r ee x p e c t e d a t a p a r t i c u l aar i r l l e l d
Whenreplacingthe scanner, ensureshirnsor o n a p a r t i c u l ahr e a d i n g .
washersareusedfor the replacentent, in the same The testfacility variesfrom systemto system. At
positionsasthey wereusedlbr the item rentoved, its sirnplesta ramp or tri{ngularvoltageis generaled
this ensuresthe azimuthscanaxisis nrutually which variesfrom siSnallevelzeroto a maxitnuntof
perpendicular to the roll and pitch axis o1'the aircraft. signallevelthree. If suclra waveformis appliedto the
Somescanners may be mountedwith input waveguide t l i g i l i z e trh e na l l t l r r e cl e v e l so f i l l u m i n a t i o nl n d
flangeup or down, but polarizedconnecliorts will be c o n t o u ro p c r a t i o nc a r rb 6 c h e c k e d A . d t l l t i o n atl e s t s
correctfor only one orielttaticln: tailureto checkthis w h i c hl r a v cb e e np r o v i d d dn r c l u d ea g a t e dn o i s es o u r c t '
point may resultin an incorrectsenseol rotationin for checkings.t.c.and contparing with nornral
and pitch. ' r c c e i v enr o i s e r. e f l e c t e tpfo w e rt t t t r l t i t o ra, . l. c .
azimuth
The t.r. is likely to havean internalcoolingtan, in r n o n i t o ra n d a . g . ct.n o n i t o r .
which casethe filter shouldbe secureand l'reet'rom
o b s t r u c t i o n I. t m a y b e p o s s i b l teo c l e a ra b l o c k e d Radar SystemsTester
l i i t c r b y a i r b l a s ti n t l t eo p p o s i t ed i r e c t i o nt o n o r n t a l Because of the possiblentisinterpretation of the
a i r i l o r vw. h i c l rs h o u l db e i n t o t h e u n i t . systenrcclnditionwhen.iudged olt returnsI'rtltn
groundtargctsa systctnstesteris stlnletimes usedto
Functional Ramp Check Radar - give nrore control ttvefr tlre fcalures ofthe target.
Ohsr'rr.. S:rlety l)reclut ions A p i c k u ph o r n i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e r a d o r n ea t d c : l d

165
NAHOOTIEACKGROTIND
rSISE PIAKS
(uGr{Tt{olsE}
r/tFfs
TrsTsAt{ffi

coHroun
TE'T BAND
il TESrilfffE B*lw
{ ilff{*s $iltctr}
-lT{o EFFscr
{ *fffiIcrD sAlH}

F t g . 9 . 2 7 R D R I E / F t e s t p a t t e r n ( c o u r t e s yB e n d i x A v i o n t c s
Division)

scannerand radomeaswell as the t.r. If both


attenuatorsreadlessthan normal then the fault must
be in the commonr.f. components; if only the input
attenuatorreadslow then transmitterpower output is
down;while a low output attenuatorsettingindicates
ivity.
poor receiversensit

Functional Test - ScannerStabilization


ObserveSafetyPrecautions
1. Removeradome. Switchto standbywith
stabilizationon and tilt zero. Check,usinga spirit
level, that the flat plate or the plane acrossthe
Fig 9.2E Simplifiedradarsystems tester rim of the reflectordishis verticalwith the
scannerdeadaheadand at the extremitiesof the
centreposition. A co-axialcableconnectsthe horn to sectorscan.
the testerwhich is insidethe cockpit. The tester 2. RemoveVRG from its mounting and fit on a tilt
servesasa beaconand returnsa signalwhich should tableadjust.ed so that its surfaceis horizontal
appearat zerodegreeson the p.p.i. displayat a range alongboth axes.
determinedby the testerdelay. An input attenuator . 3 . I n c h s c a n n etro t h e d e a d - a h e apdo s i t i o n .W i t h . - \
can be adjustedso if the testerjust fails to be stabilizationon, adjusttilt controluntil scanner )
triggered,the attenuator will give a measure of the is vertical.
radiatedpower. An output attenuatorcan be 4. Simulatea suitablepitch angle@noseup. Using
'echo' just visible(radar a protractorspirit levelensurescannerelevation
adjustedso that the is on
presetgainwith standardized brilliancesetting),thus changes by @degrees down. Repeatfor nose
the attenuatorwill givea measure of system down.
sensitivity.The output attenuatormay alsobe used 5. Sinrulateaircraliroll, ensureno changein .
to checkthe contourinversionlevelsetting. s c a n n eer l e v a t i o n .
Note the testerwill checkthe wavesuiderun. 6 . I n c hs c a n n etro p o r t e x t r e n t i t ya, z - i m u tahn g l e0 .

166
Simulatea suitableroll anglea port wing down a measureof waveguidelossescan be obtainedfrom
and ensurescannerelevationchangesby o sin 0 the differencesin forward power at either end.
up. Repeatfor starboardwing down. Practicaldifficulties occur in fitting the directional
7-Simulateaircraft pitch angle@and ensurescanner couplerin a rigid waveguiderun. In some
elevationchangeis @cos0 in oppositesense. installationsa couplermay be permanentlyfitted at
Repeat(6) and (7) but with scannerat starboard
8. one end, usuallyat or closeto the t.r.
extremity noting senseof roll correctionis In order to measurethe v.s.w.r.of the waveguide
reversed. the scannershouldbe disconnectedand a dummy
9.Inch scannerto deadahead. Simulatesuitable load fitted in its place. ARINC 564-7 specifiesa
pitch angle. Switch stabilizationfrom on to off maximumv.s.w.r.of I .l : I for a new installation.
and back to on, and ensurescannermovesin Whenmeasuring the v.s.w.r.of the scannerthe
elevationwithout excessive overshooting. radomeshouldbe removedand the scannertilted up
10. Switch stabilizationoffreplace gyro in aircraft to maximum to avoid returns. Figuresobtained
mounting. shouldbe checkedagainstmanufacturers'data. On
I l.
Carry out final checkof tilt controlbefore fitting the radomethe v.s.w.r.at the antennawill
switchingoff and replacingradome. deteriorate,measurementat variousazimuth and tilt
angleswill givean indication of the radome
Notes: performance.
The aboveappliesto a typical line-of-sightsystem. The most likely causeof lossof radomeefficiency
For any particularequipmentthe manufacturers' as a transparentmaterialto r.f. is ingressof moisture
procedureshould be followed, observingstated through small pinholesand crackswhich may appear
tolerances. on the outsidesurfaceof the radorne. Such pinholes
A platform systemcheckoutvariesfrom the above and cracksmay be seenby shininga light on the
in that changesin elevationare independentof outsidesurfaceand viewingfrom the inside. A
azimuth angle. moisture detectorcan be usedto measurethe
In items (6), (i) and (8) an azimuth angleof 90" resistance betweentwo adjacentpoints on the
strouldbe chosenif possible,sincethis will make radome. The detectorhastwo probeswhich are
cos 0 = I and sin 0 = 0, so simplifying checking. pressedfirmly againstthe insidesurfaceof the
Pitch and roll correctionpotentiometers areoften radome. Wherethe resistancemeasuredis lower than
accessible in which casepitch correctionshould be normal it may be due to an ingressof moisture.
carriedout with the scannerdeadaheadand rol-
correctioncarriedout to balanceany errorsat the Bench Testing
extremities. There is not spacehereto considerbenchtesting'in
A gyro simulatormay be usedfor a checkoutof depth,but mentionshouldbe madeof a special
the completesystemlessthe VRG. The VRG is
disconnected and the simulatorconnectedin its
place. The procedureis then similar to that above,
with the appropriatepitch and roll anglesbeing
selectedon the simulator. Sincethe VRG is not
testedthis is not a full functional test but is useful for
fault-finding. The signalsfrom the simulatorshould
correspondto the VRG output signalstandards
.c.frd
(e.g.ARINC).

radartestset(courtesy
Fig.9.29 RD-300weather IFR.
Check of v.s.w.r. Electronics
Inc)
If the waveguiderun or scanneris suspect,v.s.w.r.
checkscan be carriedout to find the faulty itcnr. To
carryout sucha checka directionalcouplermust be weatherradartest set,the IFR RD-300which,
fitted in the run, and power in the forward and togetherwith an oscilloscope,can be usedto perform
reversedirectionsmeasured using,for example,a all the commonradartestswithout the proliferation
thernristorbridgepowermeter. The checkshouldbe of signalgeneratorsand other instrumentsnormally
carriedout at both endsof the wavesuide run so that found on a radartest bench.

167
RyanStormscope measurement possibleand reasonably accurate'For
rangemeasurement the received signalsarecompared
'standard'to giveso-called pseudorange.The
Beinga relativelynew developmentthe Stormscope with a
is, asyet, not to be found in servicein anythinglike methoduscdto deterntirte ratlgelrteansthat particularly
asmany aircraft asis weatherradar' Sincespaceis at strongsignalsappearto be closerthan they actually
a premium the coverageof the Stormscopein this are.which is not reallya disadvantage sincethe source
book has been limited to allow a more detailed of such signals is a region of severe electrical activity
coverageof radar. The numberof pagesallocatedhere andhenceturbulence.
reflectsthe importanceof eachof the systemsto Eachdischarge appearsasa bright greendot on the
maintenance staff and aircrewtoday. The situation circulaldisplayscreenat a positionrepresentative of
may well be reversed in the future or, more likely, the source position relative to thc aircraf't. An
equalized. aircraftsymbolis locatedat the centreol-tlredisplay
As statedin the introduction to this chapter,the w i t h r a d i a l i n e sm a r k e da t 3 0 " i t l t c r v a last t dt w t t
Ryan Stormscope dependsfor its success on detecting equallyspacedrangerings. The rangeol'tlre outer
electrical activity which is associated with turbulence. ring is asselected on the panel-mounted receiver'
Sincethe radiatingsourceis naturalonly a receiveris 40, 100 or 200 nauticalmiles. Sincetlre outer ring is
required;an immediateadvantage overweatherradar. not at the peripheryof the displaythe rnaximuttl
To obtaindirectionalinformation,useis madeof an rangeavailable is of the orderof 260 nauticalrniles.
ADF loop and senseantenna,both eitherdedicatedto Eachdischarge is only a momentaryeventso
the Stormscope installationor time'shared with ADF. storagein memoryis required.The trlemorycan
The restof the installationcomprises a displayunit storethe positionof 128 dots,thesebeingdisplayed
and a computer/processor unit. to form a mapJikepicture. Whenthe 129thdischarge
Caremust be taken in installation planning since occurs the oldestdot in memoryis replaced;in this
Stormscope is proneto interference lrom generators, way the imageis continuouslyupdated. lf the
motors,strobelights,etc. Interference from aircraftheadingchanges or a new rangeis selected
communication transceivers is avoided by inhibiting the dot positions are incorrect until all I 28 havebeen
the Stormscopewhenevera transceiveris keyed' updated,a process which cantake up to 25 s on a

displayunit andcomputer/
Fig.9.30 RyanStormscope
(courtesy
processor RyanStromscope)

Operation stormyday (only 5-10s with tomadoactivitywithin


Signalsfrom the two orthogonalloops and the sense range).On quiet daysa dot may remaina long time
antennaareutilized to giverangeand bearingof the erased.A'clear'
but after 5 min it is automatically
sourceof electricalactivity received.The propertie:. button allowsthe pilot to erasethe displaystarting
of the loop and senseantennamakebearing with the oldestdataand progressing to the newestin

lSe
a total erasetime of I s. Another button allows the Appendix
display of that activity which is forward of the
aircraft with, of course,the full memory dedicatedto
thesesignals. FactorsAffecting WeatherRadarPerformance
The 128 dots appearin clusterson the display,
indicatingwhere bad weathercan be expected. As the TheRadarEquation
weatherbecomesmore severethere is a spreading If powerP1 is radiatedfrom an omnidirectional
inward towardsthe centre due to the pseudorange antennathen the power density(power per unit area)
reducingas a result of the strongersignals.Witll decreaseswith range. At a rangeR a sphereof
increasingstorm intensity the display becomesvery surfacearea4nR2is illuminatedby the e.m. wave,
animated. thus:
A test facility is built in whereby when the
appropriatebutton is presseda dot cluster appears Powerdensityfrom omni antenna=# (A9.1)
nearto a positionof 45o; 100 nauticalmiles. In
addition, a test set is availablewhich can simulate Sincea directionalantennais usedwith gain G (over
sigrralsat variousrangesand azimuth anglesfor an isotropic antenna,i.e. perfectly omnidirectional)
systemcheckoutand calibration. we have:
Powerdensity from = PrG-
(Ae.2)
Comparison of Stormscope and Radar directionalantenna 4rRz
It would appearthat, purely from a functional point
The targetwill interceptpart of the radarbeam,the
of view, i.e. ability to avoid turbulence,there is little
sizeof the part dependingon the radarcross-section
to choosebetweenthe two systems.Someadvantages
ofthe target o. Sincethe reflectedpower is subject
ofStormscopeover radar are:
to the samespreadingout in spaceasthe incident
l. no moving parts and no transmitter,hence powerwe have:
meantime betweenfailures(m.t.b.f.) should be
higher; Power density of _ P,GO
(4rR2)z
(Ae.3)
2. simplerantennainstallationwhich keepsdown echo at aircraft
installationcosts;
The radar antennainterceptspart of the echo signal,
3 . only the cheapestradarscomparein capital cost; the sizeofthe part dependingon the effectivecapture
4. fully operationalon the ground with 360" field areaA, so receivedecho powerPr is givenby
of view.
Pr= (Ae.4)
of Stormscopecomparedwith
Somedisadvantages
radarare:
The relationshipbetweenantennagainand effective
capture areacan be shown to be
l. sensitiveto interference;
2. limited rate and accuracyof data acquisition 4nA
although it would appearfrom operational G =f (Ae.s)
evidencethat this doesnot preventthe
Stormscopefrom being used for efficient and
of thee.m.wave.So
where), is thewavelength
safeweather avoidance; equation(A9.4)becomes:
3. lacking in any other applications such as - o
P,G2).3
mapping, navigation data display or page & =1ffi . (Ae.6)
printer option.
ReplacingP, by the minimum detectablesigtal pow.er
Two things should be pointed out here; firstly the rn and rearranging,we have the well-known radar
extras with weather radar have to be paid for; rangeequation:
secondlythe Stormscopeis a relatively new
developmentby a company small in comparison to =ffi
R*"*t (Ae.7)
the giantsofweather radar. It should not be beyond
the ingenuity of the designersto develop the system
so as to eliminate some, if not all, of the The Radar Equation for Meteorological Targets
disadvantages. With meteorological targetswe have a large number of

169
independent scatterers of radarcross-section
o; so; lS0l,t'6P,G02 c6 n3
providingthe targetfills thebeam,we may represent P, = - '7ff;n- (Ae.l3)
thetotal radarcross-section bv:
as the echo power receivedfrom a beam-filling rain
o = V42oi (Ae.8) cloud. (Note that 180 x2OO lkl2).
where: Xoi is the averagetotal backscatter
cross-section of the particlesper unit
Minimum Detectable Signal
volume; E q u a t i o n( A 9 . 1 l ) g i v e st h e m a x i m u mr a n g eo f a
V^ is the volume occupied by the radiated weatherradar in terms of the minimum detectable
pulsewhich can be approximatedby signalfrom a non-beam-fillingtarget. A threshold
( n l 4 ) R 20 2c 6 l 2 ; levelmust be chosenwhich is greaterthan the r.m.s.
0 is the beamwidth(equalin horizontal valueof the noise occupyingthe samepart of the
and verticalplanesfor a pencil beam); frequencyspectrumas the signal. If the signal
c is the velocity of propagation: exceedsthe thresholdit is detected:if not it is missed.
6 is the pulseduration. Too low a thresholdwill give rise to falsealarms.
Substituting for o in (A9.6) we have: In choosingthe thresholdlevel the interpretation
of the operator is significant,particularly in
P t G 2 ^ , 20 2 c 6 2 o i
'rD _- -SIZFF- (Ae.e) conventional(analogue)weatherradars. In digital
weather.radars the choiceof thresholdis taken out of
the hands, or eyes, of the operators. Noise spikes
Equation(A9.9) is applicablewhere the targetis
which do not occur in the sametime-slotafter
beam-filling,for examplea sphericalcloud of 3
severalsuccessive transmissions are not displayed;
nauticalmiles diameterwill fill a 4" beam up to about
they are said to be averagedout. As a result in a
43 nauticalmiles. For a ta-rgetoutsidethe beam-filling
digitalweatherradara lower threshold,or minimum
rangethe proportion oi'beam filled can be shown to
signalto noiseratio (s.n.r.),can.betoleratedwith
be (Dl0R)2 whereD is the targetdiameter.So
consequent improvementin maximum range. I
equation(A9.9) would become,for sucha target:
In introducingthe factorsrelatingto noiseinto the
P , G 2 ) yc26 D 2 2 o ; equationit is convenientto usethe noisefigure
r, = *-:;.IFFF- (Ae.r0) radar
F grvenby
an equationin which the fourth power of R occursas p
in the basicradarequation(A9.6) and contrasting ' = *l*
S"IN"
(Ae.l4)
with equation(A9.9) wherewe havethe squareof R.
where: S;/N; is the input s.n.r.;
Againwe can producea rangeequationassuming
Sofly'ois the output s.n.r.
non-beam-fillingtargets:
The input noisecan be taken askTB
R*a*o = P r G 2 ) t 2c 6 D 2 2 o i (A9.1l) constant,= l'38 X 10-23
where:k is Boltzrrrann's
5l2r2m
joules/degree:
If the wavelengthis long comparedwith the ?nistemperature in degreesKelvin;
diameterd of a scatteringparticlethen it can be .Bis the noisebandwidth(differentfrom
shownthat: 3 dB bandwidthbut often approximated
bYit).
ns lklz>d;6
zoj = --Ia= (Ae.t2) So rearranging equation(A9.14) and substitutingfor
ly'; we have:
where lkl2 is relatedto the dielectricconstantand
Si = kTBF SslNe (A9.15)
hasa valueof about 0'9 for water and 0'2 for ice.
It is helpful to replace2d16 by an expression Substitutingfor m in equation(A9. I I ) gives:
involvingrainfall rate, suchan expressionis provided o n2).3c62o;
by 2di6 - 200rr'6wherer is the rainfall rate in R."*' = n#ftngl;i;; (Ae.r6)
mm/h. lt shouldbe noted that this is an empirical
relationship,the constantsbeingsubjectto variability Equation(A9.16) resultsfrom considering a single
from one experimentalobservationto another. pulse;ho.vevermany pulsesarenormallyreceived
Replacing2 o; in equation(A9.9) and usingthe from a targetduring one sweepof the aerial. The
relationshipbetween,dir we have numberof pulsesreturnedfrom a point targetis

170
0 X p.r.f. 564 togetherwith an empirical fornrula
n = +
(n
(Ae.r7)Characteristic
relatingPI and maximum range. The primary purpose
of the PI is to enablea comparisonto be made
wherec^.r is the scanningrate in degreesper second;
betweendifferent radarsratherthan effect the
p.r.f. is the pulserepetition frequency.
accuratecalculationof maximumrange.
We can utilize someor all of the n pulsesto improve
detectionin a processknown as integration. Use of a Atmospheric Effects
c.r.t.,togetherwith the propertiesof the eye and Therearethree effects.namelyattenuation,refraction
brain, constitutesan integrationprocess.Digital and lobing,which can degradeor evenenhancethe
techniques,whereby the signaloccuning in successive performance of a radaroperatingin the earth's
correspondingtime-slotsis averaged,is also a form of atmosphere.
integrationin this sense.We can define the integration Attenuationdue to absorptionby gases, primarily
efficiencyas follows: oxyBen and water vapour, will reduce the maximum
rangeattainable.Precipitation particlesalsoabsorb
- = (s/.^/),
L" the e.rn.energyand caus.'scattering.The scattering
reET,. is csscntiallirr the opelutionof weatherradarbut
=
where(S0/)r s.n.r.of a singlepulsetbr a $ven absorption will decrelsethe rangeand reducethe
probability of detection; a b i l i t yo l ' t l r er a d a rt o p e n e t r a tcel o u d si n o r d e rt o
'see'what is bc.r"ond.Ernpiricalresultsareavailable
(S/ffh = s.n.r.per pulsefor the same
ri probability of detection when n but we nraysirnplystatethat degradation increases
pulsesare.integrated. with frequency. I.rencc the descriptions of C-band
equipmentasweather-penetration radarand X-band
The integrationimprovementfactor nEn canbe asweather-avoidance radar.
includedin the rangeequation. Sincethe densityof the atmosphere is not
The averagepower P of the radaris relatedto the uniform, refractionor bendingof the radarwaves
peakpowerP; by: may take place. Watervapouris the main contributor
P = PtX6 Xp.r.f. ( A e . l 8 ) to this effect. The radar.waves will normally be bent
aroundthe earth sincethe atmosphericdensity
Substitutingfor Ps in equation(A9.16) and usuallyincreases with decreasing altitude, thus leading
incorporatingthe integrationimprovementfactor we to an increasein radarrange.
have: Lobing is the arrivalat the targetof two radar
PG2l,2o3c EnDo; waves,one via the direct path and one by way of
R*"*o (Ae.le) reflectionfrom the earth'ssurface. Depend'ingon the
5t2r2 VTBF Q (S/l/),
relativephasesrangemay be enhancedor degraded.
ln an effort to simplify the rangeequation In an airborneweatherradarwith smallside lobesthis
EUROCAEand RTCA havederiveda Performance doesnot createthe sameproblemaswith
lndex, PI, from the basicradarequation. Detailsof ground-based radars.
the calculationsinvolvedare givenin ARINC

ltl
10 Dopplernavigation

Introduction 300 knots. Thus after I rnin the systemgivesa


readoutof position asbeing 2995 nautical milesfrom
A Doppler navigatoris a self containeddead.-reckoningB on trackt after I h 2700 nautical miles from B; after
systemgivingcontinuousreadoutof aircraft position l0 h the indicatedpositionis B.
usuallyrelatedto waypoints. Military aircraft have
madeuseof suchequipmentsincethe mid- 1950s
while bivil usefor transoceanicnavigationcommenced
3OOOn.m.
in th6 early 1960s. In recentyearsihr ut. of Doppler
navigatorsin long-rangecommercialaircraft has
largelybeen superseded by inertial navigators,triple
systemsbeing fitted to airlinerssuchas the 747 and l"
J
-'
Concorde. Military developmentsinclude composite
Doppler and inertial systemsand we may expect to
seesuchsystems'gocivilian' in the future.
There are still many civil aircraft carryingDoppler
lo

,l
navigatorsbut theseare older, long-rangeairlinersand
assuchthey are fitted with equipmentwhich,
althoughnot in any way primitive, doesnot employ
Fig.l0.l Effectofheadingerror
the very latest techniques.A classof civil aircraft for
which there is a continuingneedfor Doppler
navigatorsis surveyaircraft which, by the very nature With a + | per cent error in computedspeed,the
of their work, operatein areas not covered by tolerance on the position readoutafter 1 min, I h and
ground-based navigationaids(exceptOmega)and l0 h will be I 0'05. + 3 and t 30 nauticalmiles
requireaccuratepositionalinformation. Use of respectively.With a + 1" error in the heading
Doppler navigatorsin helicoptersis not unusual;there information we have the situation givenin Fig. 10.r .
is equipment specificallydesigned for such aircraft. We can seethat d = 2 X 300/ X sin 0'5, thus after
The advantageof Doppler navigationlies in the I min, I h and l0 h the aircraftmay be up to 0'087,
fact that it is a self-containedsystemwhich doesnot 5.24 and 52'4 nauticalmilesaway from the indicated
rely on ground-based aids and can operatein any part position. In both casesthe absoluteerror increases
of the world. This advantageis sharedby inertial with distanceflown. In practiceit is the heading
navigationwhich alsosharesthe disadvantage of information which usuallylimits the accuracyof the
degradationof positionalinformation as distance wslem.
flown is increased. The degradation of information
arisesfrom the fact that startingfrom a known
position subsequentpositionsare computedby
sensingthe aircraft velocity and integratingwith
respectto time. Errors,oncethey are introduced,
can only be eliminatedby a position fix.
A simplisticexamplewill illustratethe build-up of
error. An aircraft takesoff from A to fly to B, 3000
nauticalmiles awayin a direction due west from A.
Usingheadinginformation from a directionalsensor
suchasa gyromagrleticcompassthe Doppler
navigatorsensesthat the iircraft is flying due west at Fig. 10.2 Doppler effect - transmission

172
Doppler Effect l. ct ,l
ln 1842 the AustrianscientistChristianDoppler l l r l
predictedthe Dopplereffect in connectionwith
r r l l
soundwaves. It was subsequentlyfound that the
effect is also applicableto e.m. waves.The Dpppler
effect can be describedas the changein observed t
Aircraft
l
Ground
frequencywhen the source(transmitter)and observer
(receiver)arein motion relativeto one another. The Fig. 10.3 Doppler cffect - reception
noiseof moving trains and road traffic is a
demonstrationof the effect commonly observed.
The applicabilityto e.m. wavesis illustratedby the fr=(c+v)l\. (10.2)
useof police radarspeedtraps,to the cost of Again we seey = 0 leadsto c = )\,f and the aircraft
offenders. moving away from the ground targetgives
In an airbome Doppler radarwe havea transmitter f r = ( c - y ) / I .
which, by meansof a directionalantenna,radiates We must now considerboth effectssimultaneously.
energytowardsthe ground. A receiverreceives the The wavelength tr in equation(10.2)is the
echo of the transmittedenergy. Thus we havethe wavelengthof the echowhich must be ).' in equation
situation whereboth transmitterand receiverare (10.1). .Thussubstituting).' for X we have:
movingrelativeto the ground;consequently the
^ k+v\ ^
original frequencytransmittedis changedtwice. The
Ir = (-fi I.
differencebetweentransmittedand received
frequenciesis known as the Doppler shift and is very We are interestedin the Dopplershift,
/2r, which is
nearly proportionalto the relativemotion between the differencebetweentransmittedand received
the aircraft and the ground alongthe direction of the sigralsthus:
radarbeam.
- _((c+v) .) 2v
Considerthe transmissionof e.m. energytowards f o = f , - -f = ' f( {( c- _
- vl l} = = . f .c - v "
the ground. Let the relativevelocity of the aircraft in t
the direction of the beambe r, the frequencyof the Now c = 186000 milesper secondso I is obviously
radiation/ and the speedof the electromagnetic very small comparedwith c, so with negligibleerror
wavesc (= 3 X tO8ms-l ). Referringto Fig. 10.2we we may write:
seethat in t secondsthe wavewill havemoveda
distancect to b while the aircraft will havemoveda fo = 2vflc. (10.3)
distancevt to a. The wavesemitted in time r will be This equationis the basisof a Doppler radar.
bunchedup in the distancebetweena andb which is Observing,as above,the conventionthat y is positive
ct - vt. The numberof wavesemitted will be /r for movementtowards,and negativefor movement
cycles. Thus the wavelengthobservedat the target, away,the groundtargetgivesan increasedreceived
).', is givenby: frequencyon a forward beamand a decreased
t r ' - ( c r- v } l f t = ( c - v ) l f ( 1 0 . 1 ) receivedfrequencyon a rearwardor aft beam.
From Figs 10.4and 10.5we seethat the relative
We can seethat if the transmitteris stationarywith velocity of the aircraft in the direction of the beam
respectto the groundthen y = 0 and equation(10.1) centroidis v = V cosI cosc where Iz is the masnitude.
'
reducesto the familiar relationships =/tr. If the of the aircraft velocity with respectto the grou-nd.
transmitteris movingaway from the ground target, So equation(10.3)becomes:'
that is the beamis directedtowardsthe rear,then
r in equation(10.1)becomes-y andwe have fp = (2Vf cos0 cosc)/C. (10.4)
\'=(c+v)lf. It is at this stagethat the studentis often convinced
Now considerthe receivedsigtal. In a time / the that a Doppler radarcould not possiblywork due to
aircraft would receiveall the wavesoccupyingspace the smooth earth paradoxand the mountalnparadox,
cf in Fig. 10.3. Howeverin this time the aircraft which arehopefully dispensed with below. i
movesa distancer/ and hencewill receivethe number It is falselyarguedthat if an aircraft is moving
of wavesoccupyingct + vt in f secondsor (c + r)/tr parallelto flat ground then thereis no changein range
wavesin I second.Thus the receivedfrequency,fr, betweenthe aircraft and the groundand thereforeno
is given by: Doppler shift. That this is falsecan be seenby

173
Vi the verticalvelocity component
asshown in Fig. 10.6. Thesevelocitiesare in antenna
co-ordinateswhich, with an antennafixed rigidly to
the aircraft, are airframeco-ordinates.As the aircraft
pitchesand rolls the antennamoveswith it and hence
Vil, Vn' and Vf will not be the velocitiesin earth
co-ordinatesrequiredfor navigation.

vir

vi

Fig. 10.4 Airborne Doppler single-beamgeometry in thc Fig. 10.6 The resolved velocity vectot
vertical Dlane

geometryin the
Fig. 10,5 AirborneDopplersingle-beam
horizontalplane

consideringthe actualtargetswhich produce Fig. 10.7 Drift angleandgroundspeed


backscattering of the energy. Thesetargetsare
irregularlyshapedscatteringobjectssuchas pebbles One conceptuallysimple solution is to stabilize
and there is. of course.relativemotion betweenthe the antennain pitch and roll, in which casethe earth
aircraft and individualtargets- hencea Doppler co-ordinate-related velocitiesVg, V1 and VV are
shift. If the illuminatedareawere perfectly smooth equal to Vi, Va' and Vpi respectively.If the lateral
no reflectedenergywould be receivedat the aircraft. velocity V4 is non-zeroit meansthat the movement
The othdr falseargumentconcernsslopingterrain. of the aircraft is not in the direction of the heading
If the aircraft is flying horizontally abovea slope then and a non-zerodrift angle,6, existsasin Fig. 10.7.
its rangeto the ground along the beam is changing The resultantof Vg and Va is the velocity vector
and thereforethe Doppler shift will be affected. with magnitudeequalto groundspeeds, and
Again this falsehoodis exposedby the fact that the direction that of the aircraft'strack. It is convenient
'slope' for navigationpurposesto presentthe pilot with
actualtargetsare individualobjectswhose with
respectto the aircraft is randomand henceis not ground speedand drift angleinforrnation rather than
related to the slope of the ground. Vs urd V1.
With movingantennasystems,the antennais
stabilizedin pitch and roll and alsoalignedin
azimuth with the track of the aircraft,that is to say
AntennaMechanization
track-stabilized.The drift angleis givenby the angle
The aircraft velocity has three orthogonal betweenthe antennaand aircraft longitudinalaxes
measuredin the horizontal plane. SomeDopplersuse
@mponents:
pitch but not roll stabilizationsinceerror due to roll
Vfi the headingvelocity component; is small for smalldrift anglesand furthermoretends
V) the lateral velocity component; and to averageout over the flight.

171
Fixed antennasystemsmust compute the Wilh A? typically 0.07 radians(4") and I typically
velocitiesVry,Vn and Vv eachbeinga function of 70- we haveAfp lfp rypically 0.2.
yi, V;, Vf R andp, whereR and
, F are roll and Sincebackscatteringfrom the illuminatedtarget
pitch anglesappearingin the expressions
as areais not constantover the whole areathere is a
trigonometricfunctions. The relationshipsarederived random fluctuation of the instantaneousmean
in the Appendix. frequencyfp. To determinethe aircraft'svelocrty
accuratelythe time constantof the
velocity-measuring circuitsmust be sufficientlv lone
Doppler Spectrum to smooththis fluctuation,but not so long asio be-
unableto follow the normal accelerations-of the
The beamsare of finite width, henceenergywill aircraft.
strike the ground alongdirectionsof different relative
velocities.As a consequence a spectrumof Doppler
shift frequenciesis receivedasshownin Fis. l0.g BeamGeometry
wherethe effectsof sidelobesareisnored.
Sincethere are three unknowns Vi, Va' and Vf , a
minimum of threebeamsarerequiredto measure
them. ln practicethree or four beamsare usedin a
configurationinvolvingfore and aft beams;assuchit
is known asa Janusconfigurationafter the Roman
god who could seeboth behind and in front.
The beamsradiatedcan be either pencil.asin
Fig. 10.10or narrowin elevation(nO) Uut wide in
%power azimuth(Ac) asin Fig. 10.9. The hyperboliclines
-3 dbs
fo, h , f*, f-u are linesof constantDoppler shifts
calledisodopsand are drawn assuminga flat earth.
Whenwide azimuth beamsare useda fixed antenna
systemwould leadto the beamcrossing a wide
rangeof isodopsunderconditionsof drift, resultingin
an excessivelywide Doppler spectrum. Consequently
suchbeamsvirtuallydictatea track-stabilized anrenna.
fd Dopplershift
A wide azimuthbeamhasadvantages in that smaller
Fig.10.8 TheDopplerspectrum antennaareasare requiredand roll performanceis
improvedin the casewhereno roll stabilizationis
Sucha phenomenonis undesirable but providing employed.
the spectrumis reasonably'peaky'the meanDoppler Figure 10.9 showsthat for a fully stabilizedsystem
shift is easilymeasured.If Z is the anglebetweenthe the Doppler shift on all four beamsis the same.
beamcentroidand the aircraftvelocityvectorthen Without roll stabilizationsmallerrorsareintroduced
e q u a t i o n( 1 0 . 3 )b e c o m e s : which tend to average out. Stabilizationcan be
achievedby servoloops which drive the antennaso as
- 2Vf
lo =; "otr. ( 1 0 . s ) to equalizethe Doppler shifts. Alternativelypitch
information (and possiblyroll) can be fed to the
Differentiation with respectto 7 givesa first Doppler from a verticalreferencesuchasa gyro or
approximationto the half-powerbandwidth of the evena mercury switch leavlngazimuthstabilizationto
spectrum: be achievedby equalizationof Doppler shifts.
Typically in suchradarsground speedand drift angle
2A gy.rinT
Lfo = ( r 0 . 6 ) are the only outputs wheregroundspeedis givenby
equation(10.4) and drift angleby the amountof
whereA7 is the half-powerbeamwidth. The ratio of azimuthrotationof the antenna.Headine
Lfp to fp is thusgivenby dividingequation( 10.6) information is usuallyaddedto the drift ingle to give
by ( l0.s). aircraft track.
Figure 10.10showsthat for a fixed aerialsystem
Lfp =
-f; the Doppler shifts on all four beamsare,in general,
a7.tan7. (10.7)
not equal. It is shownin the Appendix to this

175
Fig. t0.9 Moving aerialsystem- typical beamgeometry

chapter that the velocitiesin airframe coordinates, TransmitterFrequency


Vri, VA' and Vf , dependon (f2 - f l),(f2 -/3) and
(.f | + f3) respectively,where/l ,f2 andf3 are the The choiceof r.f. is, asever,a compromise.The
Dopplershifts on beamsI ,2 and 3. Relationshipsfor advantageof using a high frequency is that the
thesevelocitiescan alsobe derivedusing/4 and two sensitivityof the radarin Hertz per knot is high, as
other Doppler shifts. With this redundancywe have can be seenfrom equation(10.3); furthermore,for a
the possibilityof self-checking or continuedoperation givenantennasize,the higherthe frequencythe
after one beam failure. narrowerthe Dopplerspectrum. If, however,the
Computationof groundspeedand drift anglein a radiated frequency is too high atmosphericand
fixed antennasystemcan be dividedinto three parts: precipitationabsorptionand scatteringbecomemore
firstly computationof Vi , V; and Vl, usingthe of a problem. Another considerationis the
Dopplershifts from three of the four beams;secondly availabilityof componentsfor the variousfrequency
computationof Vg, V4 and Zy usingpitch and roll bandswhich might be considered.Most Doppler
information and the previouslycomputedairframe radarsoperatein a band centredon 8'8 GHz or
co-ordinatevelocities;and lastly, drift angle= 13'325 GHz, the former, to date,beingperhapsthe
uctan (ValVn) and ground speed= (Vn'+ Vnzlo's most common for civil aircraft use.
(seeFigure 10.7).

176
Heading

Fig. 10.10 Fixed aerial system - typical beam geometry

Modulation frequencymodulated(f.m.c.w.) radarshavebeen


used. The earliestDopplerswere pulsedso that
At first sight it would appearthat no modulation is echoesfrom nearby objectswere receivedduring the
necessary, indeed c.w. Doppler radarshavebeen built recoverytime of the diplexer and hencewere not
and operated,a great attraction being simplicity. processed.In the so-calledincoherentpulsesystemsa
Difficulties,however,arisein transmitter receiver Doppler signalis obtainedby mixing receivedsignals
isolationand discriminationagainstreflectionsfrom from fore and aft beams;thishas two undesirable
nearbyobjectsin particular the dielectric panel consequences.Firstly the returnson the fore and aft
(radome)coveringthe airframeopeningfor the beamsmust overlapin time if mixing is to take place,
antenna. At other than low altitudes unwanted this meansstabilizationand/or wide beamsmust be
reflectionsare comparablein amplitude to ground used. Secondly,the Doppler shift on the individual
returns. Noiselike variationsin vibrating radome beamsis not available,hencethe senseof direction of
echoeswill more than likely be in the same frequency the velocity vector (forward or backward)and the
band as the gxpectedDoppler shifts, and thus verticalvelocity cannot be computed.
indistinguishableexcept where the s.n.r. is sufficiently With modern radarsf.m.c.w. is the most common
high at low altitudes. type of transmission.The spectrumof the transmitted
To overcome the above problems both pulsed and sigrd consistsof a largenumber of sidebandsas well

177
asthe carrier. Theoreticalanalysisof f.m.c.w. reveals aircraft relativeto the surfacebelow them. When
an infinite number of sidebandsspacedby the flying over water that surfaceitself may be moving
modulation frequency f,n amplitudeof individual due to seacurrentsor wind-blownwater particles.
sidebandsbeing determinedby Besselfunctions of the Randomseacurrentsare of speedsusually a good
first kind of order n and argumentrn where n is the bit lessthan half a knot, and this small el'fect
sidebandconcerned(first, second,third, etc.) and rn averages out sincethe currentsare in random
is the modulationindex,i.e. ratio of deviationto directions.Major seacurrentsdo not exceed,say,
f.. By usingthe Doppler shift of a particular 3 knots and sincedirection and approximatespeed
sideband,and choosingan appropriatevalueof m to areknown they can be compensatedfor.
give sufficient amplitudeof the sidebandconcerned, Wind-blowndropletswould give an error lessthan
suppressionof noisedue to returnsfrom the radome the wind speed,about 3 knots error for l0 knots
and other nearby objectsis achieved. wind with the error varying as the third root of the
A problemcommonto both pulsedand f.m.c.w. wind. On long flights such an error will be reduced
Doppler radarsis that of altitude holes. In a pulsed by averaging.
systemifthe echo arrivesback at the receiverwhen .
a subsequent pulseis beingtransmittedthen it is o
gatedout by the diplexer and no Doppler shift can i
k___ Overwater
be detected.Similarlywith f.m.c.w.,if the o- : caltoralon
I shrfterror
round-trip travel time is nearly equal to the
modulationperioda deadbeatwill occurwhen
mixing transmittedand receivedsignals,and again
no Dopplershift will be detected.
If a low modulatingfrequencyis use'dthe first
altitude hole may appearabovethe operating
ceiling. Howeverlow p.r.f. in pulsesystemleadsto
low efficiency and the possibilityof interferenceif Frequency
the p.r.f. is in the rangeof Dopplerfrequencies Fig.10.12 Over-water
calibtatiory
shift
expected(eudio). For f.m.c.w.givena choiceof
sidebandused,typically third or fourth, and Whenflying overland the beamsilluminatean
modulationindex,typically2l or 3, suchasto areacontainingmany scatteringparticles.Generally
avoidradomenoise,the modulatingfrequencymust the backscatteringcoefficientsover the whole
be fairly high to allow a reasonabledeviation. A illuminated areawill be of the sameorder givingrise
fairly high modulatingfrequencyis usually varied to the Dopplerspectrumshownin Fig. 10.8. Over
eithercontinuously(wobble)or in discretestepsto smooth seathe situation is different; a larger
avoid altitude holesat fixed heishts. fraction of the incident enerS/ will be returnedon
the steepestpart of the beam sincethe surface
Over-WaterErrors backscatteringcoefficient will dependon the angle
of incidence.The net resultis to shift the Doppler
Doppler navigatorsmeasurethe velocity of the spectrumasshownin Fig. 10.12,so that the mean
Doppler shift is lessthan it should be for the
aircraft velocity.
The error introduced,which could be up to 5 per
cent,is known as over-watercalibrationshift error.
The narrowerthe beam widih the lesssignificantthe
error,so someDopplersaredesignedto produce
beamsnarrow enoughto keep the error within
acceptablelimits. Other Dopplershavea manual
land-seaor seabias switch which, when in the seaor
on position respectively,causesa calibrationshift in
the oppositesenseby weightingthe response.of the
Doppler shift frequencyprocessingin favour of the
higherfrequencies.For a carefully chosen
Fig lO.l I Frequencymodulatedcontinuouswave compensationshift the error can be reducedby a
transmittedsignaland receivedgroundechospectrum f-actorof about ten.

174
Antenna axis N(ml
Ground track

Lobc
o
]
o I
switched

t '
.L
beams

Frequency

Fig. 10.13 Lobe switching

Lobe switching is a more successfulmethod of


reducingcalibrationshift error. The beam angleof
incidenceto the ground is switchedby a small
amount periodically. The illuminated areasfor the
two switchedanglesoverlap,as do the Doppler
spectra.The Doppler shift frequencyused for
velocity measurementis where the spectracross. Fig. 10.14 Navigationcalculations
This crossoverpoint correspondsto the retum from
the samegroup of scatterersat the sameangleof
incidenceand is thus not affectedby over-water
flight. Figure 10.13 illusrratesthe technique,which
porks far better when track-stabilizedantennassince To arriveat along distanceto go (X) and across
then the lobe switchingis at right anglesto the distance(y) the true track (?') and track error angle
isodops. (E) areneeded. We have,assumingdrift to starboard
aspositive:
T =H+6 (r0.8)
Navigation CalculationS :
E = T-Td (10.e)
The ground speedand drift angleinformation is x = D -JjScosf,'dr (10.10)
normally presentedto the pilot but in addition is
used,togetherwith headinginformation,to givethe Y = tssinEdt / ( 1 0 . l1)
aircraft position relativeto a destinationor where I is the time of flight, and the senseof the
forthcomingwaypoint. To achievethis the pilot
acrossdistanceis positiveto the right.
must set desiredtrack and distanceto fly before
take off. In Fig. l0. | 4 the pilot wishesto fly from
A to B, a distanceof 50 nauticalnriles,with desired
track 090. Thc aircraft has flown for 6 min at a Block DiagramOperation
speedof 500 knots on a headingof 100 with a drift
o[ 27" starboard,thus the total distanceis 50 Moving Antenna System
nauticalnrilesand the aircraftis at point C. The Figure 10.15 illustratesa block diagrambasedon the
MarconiAD 560, a systemintroducedin the
trackerror is 37-, tlre alongdistanceto go is
mid-I960s and usedon a'varietyof civil aircraft. It is
X = l0 nauticalmiles:the acrossdistanceis
still to be found in service.
Y = 30 nauticalnriles.
The sensoris an f.m.c.w. type employing
In order to seehow the Doppler navigatorarrives
wobbulation of the modulatingfrequencyf^ to
at the alongand acrossdistances indicatedto the pilot
avoid altitude holesand usingthe Nth sideband
we must considerthe informationavailable:
(tr/ = 3 in the AD 560) to avoid unwantedinterference
' Groundspeed(s) and due to radomevibrations. For the choice.ofthe third
dril't angle(6) - Doppler radar sidebanda suitablemodulationindex is 2.5. obtained
Heading(I/) - gyromagneticcompass by usinga deviationof t I MHz on the 8800 MHz
Desiredtrack (Til)and carrierand a modulatingfrequencyof 400 kHz.
Distance(D) - pilot Two mixer stagesgive the Doppler shift frequency

179
I

Transmitter/receivcr Aerial unit

p-- Heading

F----+ Drifi

Set tiack

Autopilot

Steering
ind.
Ground
speed
Set
zero
Set
distance
=T-
Trackcr + i Computer I Displayunit
Memory To diStance ! :

Fig. 10.15 Moving aerial Doppler block diagram based on


the Marconi AD 550

fo. The first mixes the receivedsignalwith a sample important where pitch and azimuth drive of the aerial
of the transmittedsignal,the requiredsideband is concerned;the AD 560 sequenceis port forward,
(1200 kHz in the AD 560) beingselectedby the starboardaft, starboardforward, port aft, a complete
intermediatefrequencyamplifiers. The secondmixes cycle taking I second.
.fy'times f^ with the selectedsidebandto extract fi.; The Doppler spectrumis fed to two loops: one
by meansof a low passfilter with a cut-off frequency coarseand one fine. The searchloop providesfor
' ofabout 20kHz. coarseadjustmenlof a ground-speedmeasuringshaft
There are two transmit and two receivelinear which determinesthe frequency of a voltagecontrolled
slotted arrays. Anti-phaseand in-phasearraysare oscillator(v.c.o.) in the tracking loop through a
usedfor transmit and receive,an arrangementwhich feedbackpotentiometer. With the searchloop nulled
can be shown to compensatefor changesin the v.c.o. frequency is approximatelyequal to the
wavelength.The arraysareconnectedto appropriate meanDoppler shift frequency,a discriminatorwithin
inlets/outletsby an r.f. switch(varacterdiodesin the the tracking loop is then able to apply an error signal
AD 560). Fore and aft beamsareobtainedby to the speeddrive so as to position the ground-speed
providingfor connectionto eitherend of eacharray, shaft accurately. The Doppler can then be saidto be
while port and starboarddeflectionis achievedby use locked on, and any changein ground speedwill be
of sidereflectors.The beam-switching sequence is trackedby the fine trackingloop.

180
Pf SA drift angle(azimuth drive) and so give track to
another differential synchroin the displayunit. The
Sterboard
drift rotor of the seconddifferentialsynchrois set by the
operatorat the desiredtrack angle,hencethe output
is the differencebetweentrack and desiredtrack,
Timo i.e. track angleerror6.
Noseup The resolverin the computerunit resolvesground
speedS into its alongand acrossspeedcomponents
S cos.EandS sin^Erespectively.In the AD 560 a ball
1 second resolveris used,thus givingmechanicalanalogue
a tracking
Fig 10.16 Change in Dopplershiftwith aerialmisalignment computing. The ball is drivenby
oscillator-fedsteppermotor, hencethe rate of
rotation is proportional to ground speed. The axis of
If the antennaaxis is not aligred with the track of rotation dependson the angleof the drive wheel
the aircraft, either in pitch or in azimuth, the Doppler which is set by a servoposition control systemto be
strift will changewith beam-switching.With equal to the track error angle. Two pick-offwheels
misalignmentin azimuth the change in Doppler occurs mounted with their axesat right anglesrotate at a
at a rate of I Hz, while if the misalignmentis in pitch rate dependingon the alongand acrossspeeds.These
the rate is 2Hz. This follows from the beam-switching rotations are repeatedin the displayunit by meansof
sequence and rate (seeFig. 10.16). Reference servodrivesand causethe counlersto rotate. The
waveformsof 2 and I Hz arefed to the pitch and alongdistancecounter is arrangedto count down from
azimuth drive circuits respectively; any misalignment the initial distanceto the waypoint until it reaches
of the antennawill be detectedby the drive circuits, zero when the aircraft will be on a line perpendicular
resultingin the antennarotating so asto align itself to the desiredtrack and passingthroughthe waypoint.
with the aircraft track. At this stagethe Doppler shift If both alongand acrossdistancesreadzero
is the same on all four beams and accurately simultaneouslythe aircraft is over the waypoint.
representsground speed,alsothe anglebetweenthe
aircraft and antennalongitudinalaxesis equal to the Fixed Antenna System
drift angle. Figure10.17may be usedto explainthe principlesof
The s.n.r.is measured in both the search and a fixed antennasystemto block diagramlevel. The
tracking loops. If the searchloop checkis not antennaconsistsof planararraysof slotted waveguide
satisfactoryfor three out of the four beamsthe three or printed circuit, separatearraysbeingusedfor
servodrivecircuits are disabled.The sigrralto noise transmissionand reception. Beam'switchingis
checkin the tracking loop causes the system to.go to achievedusingvaractordiode or ferrite switchesto
memory if it is not satisfactory. In memory the couple the transmitterand receiverto the
antennaand ground-speed shaft are fixed and a appropriateport.
memory flag appearsin a ground'speed and drift The receivedsignalis mixed with a sampleof the
angleindicator. The sensor continues to give the f.m.c.w. transmittedsignaland the wanted sideband
last-measured ground'speedand drift anglefor as filtered out and amplified. If only ground speedand
long as the poor s.n.r.continues. drift angleare requiredfurther mixing may take place
Ground-speedoutput from the sensoris in two to extract the Doppler frequenciesasin the moving
forms.- A synchrorotor is mechanically coupled to antennacase;howeverthe senseof the shift (positive
the ground-speed shaft giving a three'wire feed' The or negative)is lost. If the three velocity vectorsin the
trackingv.c.o. frequency,which is proportional to direction of the aircraft cq'ordinatesare required,an
ground speed,is fed to a sine'cosineresolverin the intermediatefrequency,feis retainedwhich will be
dependingon
computer and alsoto a frequencydividerwhich scales reducedor increasedby an amount
and shapesthe sigral so that one pulse per nautical which beam is being radiated.
mile is fed to a distance flown indicator (integrating The time-multiplexed Doppler shifted ,fq siSnals
counter). are separatedby a demultiplexerdriven by the
A synchrotransmitterin the antennaunit gives a beam-switching control and feedingfour tracking
drift angleoutput sincethe body is bolted to the loops. Voltage-controlled oscillatorsbecomelocked
fixed part ofthe antenna and the rotor is driven by to the incoming frequencies fO ! fo by sweeping
the azimuth motor. A differentialsynchro through their range until they lock on. The four
transmitteris usedto add heading(from compass)to tracker outputs are then summed and differenced,as

181
Heading Attitude

x
o
x ]
o
z
=
E -
E

Air speed Variation


initial position
and waypoints

Fig 10.17 FixedaerialDopplerblockdiagram

appropriate,in a combiningnetwork to provide ground-speedand drift-angleoutputs and, with a


signals/r, fy and/2 proportional to aircraft compassinput, will providenavigationdata to a CDU
co-ordinatevelocities(seeAppendix, Al 0.3). givinga two-unit Doppler navigationsystem. Digital
Within the computer/display unit (CDU) the outputsareprovidedin accordance with ARINC 429
aircraft referencedvelocity componentsare (DITS) and ARINC 582, thereis alsoan optional
transformedinto track-orientatedearth-referenced synchrooutput for drift angle.This unit, introduced
componentsusingattitude signals(pitch and roll) n 1979,may heralda comebackfor Dopplerin
from a verticalreferencegyro (seeAppendix, A10.4). airline servicesinceit has beenorderedby Boeingfor
With a headinginput and waypoints,in terms of installationin their 727s and,737s.
to be usedin
desiredtrack and distance,set in by the pilot the conjunction with Lear Siegler'sperformanceand
computercan integratethe alongand across navigationcomputer system(PNCS).
velocitiesto givedistanceto go and across-track
error (distance)respectively.
The CDU may offer latitude and longitude
rcadoutof position by transformingthe aircraft
velocitiesinto north-orientatedhorizontal components.
True north, as opposedto magneticnorth, may be
usedas the referenceif the pilot is ableto enter the
variation. With attitude, headingand true air speed
inputs the output from an airspeedtransformation
circuit or routine may be comparedwith the velocity
transformationto give wind speedand direction.

Installation

TheDopplernavigator
system
illustrated
in
Fig. 10.I 5 requiresfive units asindicated;i.e. antenna,
transmitter-receiver, tracker,computer and display
unit. The Marconi AD 560 comprisesthe five units
mentionedplus a junction box, ground-speed and
drift-angleindicator, distance-flownindicator and a
control unit (or simply a panel-mountedswitch).
The weight of the AD 560 is about 30 kg which
shouldbe comparedwith Marconi'slatest Doppler
the AD 660 which weighs5 kg (sensoronly).
The AD 660 is a single-unitDoppler sensorgiving Fig. 10.18 AD 550 (courtesyMarconiAvionicsLtd)

'182
:1 I

i
t .
{:,-:"*
.
l::
ril,:.:
tri l
i ,
i f

Fig. 10.19 Doppler7l antenna/electronics


unit (courtesy
the DeccaNavigatorCo. Ltd)

Figure10.18showsthe AD 660 with cards


removed.Note the useof large-sca1e integrated
circuitscommonin all modernsystemsaswe
approachthe 1980s.The antennais a printed circuit
microstripproducingfour beamstransmitted
sequentially.The transmitteris a f.m. Gunn diode
oscillatorgeneratingover 200 mW at a carrier
frequencyof 13.325GHz. Computationand control
is achievedthrougha microprocessor.
The DeccaDoppler7l and 72 aredesisnedfor
v./s.t.o.l.(vertical/shorttake-offand landing)aircraft
operatingbelow 300 knots and fixed-wins aircraft
operatiggup to 1000knots respectively. these
Efstemshavehad civilian saleslimited to aircraft with
specialneedssuchas certainhelicopteroperationsand
surveying.Figures10.19-10.22 showunits of a
typicalDeccaDoppler7l installation.Interconnections
aresimple;all three indicatorsbeingdriven directly
from the antenna/electronics unit. A headinginput is
requiredfor the PBDI which, togetherwith the
antenna/electronics unit, forms a basictwo-unit
system,the two metersbeingoptional. Another
optional unit is an automatic chart display driven by lq._19.?0 Doppter7l position,bearinganddrift indicaror
(PBDI)(courtesy
theDeccaNavigator Co.I_tay
the PBDI or a more sophisticatedreplacement,a
TANS computer.

183
Across-track error areusually
error and track-angle
availableasoutputsfrom a CDU fbr useby an
autopilot. Obviouslywarningsignalsmust alsobe
providedto indicatethe integrityof the steering
signalsto the userequipment.

Controlsand Operation

We shallconsiderthe Doppler71 as an example,


althoughobviouslyconsiderablevariationsexist.

P.B.D.I.
Indicator,controllerand generalpurposeprocessor
w i t h p r o g r a m m cea p a c i t yo f 1 5 0 0 1 6 - b i tw o r d s .
Battery-protected memory.

Switches
l. DOP TEST: groundcheckingof sensor;
ST BY: inputsinhibited,displaytlashes;
LAND/SEA: allowscorrectionfor overwater
Fig. 10.21 Doppler7l ground-speed
and drift meter
(courtesythe DeccaNavigator
Co. Ltd) calibrationshift error to be switcltedin.
2. LMP TEST: checkof displayand lamps;
HDG/VAR: displayof headinginput and insertion
of m agneticvariations;
FIX: positiondisplayedis fixed; Doppler
incrementaldistances arestored;warninglamp
flashes:slewswitchesoperable:
POS:aircraftlatitudeor longitudedisplayed;
GS/DFT: groundspeedand drift angledisplayed:
BRG DIST: bearingand distanceto next waypoint
displayed;
WP: selected waypointlatitudeor longitude.
3 . W A Y P O I N TI t o l 0 : a l l o w s f o r w a y p o i n t
selection.Waypointscan be insertedor changed
at any time.
4. LAT LONG: three-posttion latitude,longitudeor
both (alternately)displayed.
5. SLEW:two switchesusedfor insertingvariation.
presentposition,waypointco-ordinates and
resettingthe numericdisplaysas required.

\Displays
l. Numeric:twb groupsof threeseven-segment
(courtesy
Fig.10.22 Doppler7l hovermeter theDecca filamentsshow data selectedby seven-position
Co.Ltd)
Navigator switch.
2. Sectordisplay:indicateslatitude no*fh (N) or
The Doppler 70 seriessystemsare c.w., three-beam south(S), longitudeeast(E) or west(W).
(not switched)K-bandradars.Adequatedecoupling 3. Trackerror: analogue displayshowingtrack error,
betweentransmitterand receiveris inherentin the in degrees,to the selectedwaypoint.
desigr,so allowingthe useof c.w. A localoscillator 4. Warningindicators:incorporatedin analogue
signalis usedfor mixing, so providingan intermediate displayto givewarningof Doppler failure
frequencyt the Dopplershift. Furtherdetailsof the (or memory),computerfailureor test mode
systemareincludedbelow. selected.

184
Ground-Speedand Drift Meter Drift anglerange:i 39.9o.
Displayofground speedup to 300 knots and drift Altitude: 45 000 ft abovesround level.
angle+ 30o (expandedscale). Supply2 : 8 V d . c . , 2A .
Powerfailure and memory warning flags.
Manualsettingof drift and ground speedprovided for.
Testing
Hovcr Meter
Displays: ModernDopplershavea considerable amountof
along-heading velocity- range-10 to +20 knots: built-in test equipmentwith which to carry out
across-heading velocity- ranget l5 knots; checks.Syntheticsignalsmay be generated by
verticalvelocity - ranget 500 ft min-r. switchingantennasat a much higherrate than normal,
thus leadingto the memory flag clearingand a given
readingpossiblyappearingon the ground-speedand
Characteristics drift-angleindicator. This might be the effect of
pressingthe test switch on the ground under memory
ARINC Characteristic540, airborneDoppler radar, conditions.If airborneand in memorya similar
wasissuedin 1958 and lastprinted in January1960; checkcould be carriedout, but ifin the signal
it is no longermaintainedcurrent. For this reason condition,i.e. Dopplershift presentand s.n.r.
detailsof a currently availablesystem,the Decca satisfactory, then a goodand easycheckis to operate
Doppler7l arelisted. Sincethis is primarily a the slewingswitchesto offset ground-speedand
helicoptersystema'very brief data summary for the drift-anglereadings;on releasethe readingsshould
MarconiAD 660 systemaimed at the airliner market return to their original positions. This check will
hasalsobeenincluded. causea small error in the computedposition but this

DeccaDoppler 7l
Power: 100 mW
Frequency:13'325and 13.314GHz. End
Intermediatefrequency:10.7MHz.
Beamwidth: 5o in depressionplane, I lo in broadside
plane. Simulated
flight path
Depressionangle'.67".
151
Modulation:none,c.w.
Number of beams:three continuous. Sta$ 2
Along-headingvelocity rangeto computer: -50 to
+300knots. 065
Across-heading velocity rangeto computer: ! 100
knots.
Supply: I l5 V, 400 Hz, single-phase.
Altitude range:0-20 000 ft over land or over water
WPT 2
when surfacewind ) 5 knots.
Accuracyof sensor- lessthan O'3Voor 0.25 knots
(whicheveris the greater(overland)).
Acquisitiontime: within 20 s. Stage 1
Indicatedaccuracy,ground speedand drift meter:
3'5 at 100 knots; 5 at 300 knots, drift t 0'5o.
Indicatedaccuracy,hover meter: along and across
velocitiesI I knot, verticalvelocity t 40 ft min-I.

Marconi AD 660
Power:200 mW.
Frequency: 13'325 GHz.
Start
Modulation:f.m.c.w.
Number of beams:four, sequential. Fig, 10.23 Test conditionsfor simulatedflight to check
Velocity range: l0-800 knots. computer(seetext)

185
can be eliminatedby sleivingin the oppositedirection Appendix
by the sameamount to producea cancellingerror.
To check the computer/displaypart of a Doppler Aircraft and Earth
RelationshipsBetrrveen
navigatora coursemust be simulatedby setting
Co-Ordinates
compassheading(d.g., directionalgyro, selected),
drift angleiground speedand waypoint courseand
A s i n F i g .A l 0 . l l e t i ' , i ' , k ' b e o r t h o g o n aul n i t
distanceusingappropriateslewingcontrols. Having
vectorsdefining a right-handedco-ordinatesystem
set everythingup the computeris switchedon for a
with the positivedirection of the axis spannedby i'
timed run, at the end of which the displayedreadings
beingforward along the aircraft'slongitudinal axis
d-rouldbe asindependentlycalculated. Usually a
figuresfor and ihe positivedirection of the axis spannedby i'
written procedurewill give the necessary
beingstarboardalong the aircraft'slateral axis.
sucha checkbut in any casethey are reasonablyeasy
to work out. As an example,startingwith the
following:
Waypoint I track 335" distance15 nauticd
miles
Waypoint 2 track 065" distance15 nautical
milqs
Heading OlO"
Drift l0o starboard
Ground speed 600 knots

at the end of the simulatcd two-hg flight the across FE. At0.l Aircraft co-ordinates
distanceshouldbe zeto, the distancefTown42
nauticalmiles and the time taken 4 min l4'5 s, all to As in Fig. A 10.2let i, i , k be orthogonalunit
within the tolerancelaid down for the system. vectorsdefining a right-handedco-ordinatesystem
Ramp test setshavebeenproducedfor Doppler with the positivedirection of the axis spannedby f
systems,usually purpose-builtby the manufacturerof beingforward alongthe aircraft'slongitudinalaxis
the radar and not general-purpose as are, for example, projectedon to a plane parallelto the ground and the
VOR, DME, ILS, etc. test sets. Sometimes one will
positivedirection of the axis spannedby 7 being
find meterswith associated switcheswhich can be
starboardalong the aircraft'slateral axis projectedon
usedto monitor variousinternal voltagesandior to a planeparallelto the ground.
currentsbut this is more likely on older multi'unit
equipment.
It is important for accuracyto ensurethe antenna
is alignedwith the aircraft'slongitudinalaxis. The
Doppler will interpret any slight misalignmentasa
drift-angleerror. lnitial alignmentof all antennasis
importantbut with a fixed antennasystemoncethe
hole is cut in the airframe,correctly aligned,the only k
causefor concernafterwardsis that the antennais
fitted the ccrrectway round. With moving-antenia Fig.A10.2 Earthco-ordinates
systemsan alignmentprocedurefor the antenna
mounting is carriedout initially by usingsightingrods Further le! positivepitch be nose'upand positive
on the mountingand the aircraft' Viewingthe rods roll be starboardwing-down,then from Figs.A10.3
from a distanceto ensurethey arein line, and then and A10.4 we have:
tiglrteningthe securingbolts throughthe slotted i'= icosP-ksinP
holesin the mountingplate,will ensurethat the k'= isinP+kcosP
antennacan be subsequently changedwithout a need.
for an alignmentcheck.- althoughone shouldbe i'= TcosR+/rsinR
carried out on rnajor inspections. k'= -i sinR+kcosR

r86
sinceZ is thevectorsumof Vd,VA' and l/y'. Thus:
vn = hvi+av{+vvl
whereft, a andv arethe magnitudesof the projeition
ofz on to eachaxisof the co'ordinatesystem
i . e . u= h i + a i + v k
FromFigsA10.5,A10.6andA10.7we seethat for:
b e a mI h= -H a= A v = V
beam2 h= H a= A v = V
b e a m3 h= H a= -A v = V
beam4 h=-H a=-A v = V
whereI/ = cos0 cosa;.4 = cos0 sina; Z = sind.

k'

F8. A10.4 Aircraftroll

Thus the matrix of transition from l, i, k to i', i',


/c' is givenby:

F:: '[i
:-il lrrhn] Fig. A10.5 Velocities in longitudinal/lateral plane

vi{
f cosf sin P sinR sin P cosRl
=10 cosR -sinR l=U
l-sin P cosP sinR cosP cosRJ
If the aircraftvelocityvectorl/ hasco-ordinatesl!1,
Vt, Vv with respectto i, i, k andVfi , Va', Vf with V(/
respect lo i',i',k'we have: Fig. A10.6 Velocitiesin planenormalto longitudinal/lateral
plane

w=Mxv,,\
i.e. Vy = Vrt cosP + Vj sinPsin R + Vi sinPcosR
- Vl sin R
(Al0.l)

V.e= Va' cosR


Vv = -Vi sin P + Va' cosP sin R + Izf cosP cosR

The Doppler Shifts for a Four-Beam Janus


Configuration Fig. A10.7 Aircraft velocity vector

Themagnitude of the relativevelocityvector24, in Now the Dopplershiftsaregivenby/2 =2Vnf lc'


thedirectionof anybeamis the innerproductof the. therefore:
aircraftvelocityvectorV andthe unit vectoralong
fi = 2f (-H Vl +,a Va'+ Y Vl)lc
thebeamcentroid, a. Thus: Vx'+ V Vf)lc
fr=2f(HVil+A (Ar 0.2)
VR= V'u f s = 2 f ( H V r i - A vA'+ v vi)lc
=(Vi+V71'+Vv).u fc = 2f(-H vi 'l v; + v vi)lc
187
The Aircraft Velocity in Earth Co-Ordinates
Expressedin Termsof DopplerShifts
- From equations(A10.2) we have: W=MxWir;:itil
Kp = 47cof .", "
(Ar0.4)

v1i= c(fz;fr\=+*-fr
where

c
v; =c(20p.=-rrr
c(h - fe) (A10.3)
i,4 = AEos;1il-;

__:_
a
"! Y
v l = c ( fi +ft) - __4TT
c(fz + fq) 4f sin 0 are known constants.
rl4 is obtained from pitch and roll signalsandf1,f2,fg
are the Doppler shifts measuredon beamsl, 2 and 3.
Substituting (A10.3) Note beam4 is redundantbut could be usedfor
for Vfi, Vt' , Yi from equations
into equations(Al0.l) we have: checking purposes.

188
11 Radioaltimeter

Introduction necessary in orderto 'mark' tlie time of transmission.


both f.m. and pulsedtransmissions areused. The
The meaningof the terms aircraft altitude or height is methodof time measurement dependson the type of
complicatedby the variousreferencesused from modulationusedand the complexityof the airborne
which the height can be measured.A barometric equipmentwhich is acceptable.Threebasictypesof
altimeter sensesthe static pressureat aircraft leveland altimeterare marketed:pulse,conventionalf.m.c.w.
givesa readingdependenton the differencebetween (frequencymodulatedcontinuouswave)and constant
{his pressureand the pressureat somereferencelevel. diflerencefrequencyf.m.c.w.
For aircraft flying aboveabout 3000 ft, the reference The bgsicprinciple of a pulsedsystemis simple,
of paramountimportanceis that levelcorresponding sincethe transmittedand receivedpulsesclearly
to a pressureof 1013.25mbar(29-92in.Hg),the representeventsbetweenwhich the time can be
so-calledmean sealevel. The other barometric measured.With f.m.c.w.thereis no singleevent
referencesusedare local sealevel and airfield level. duringone cycleof the modulatingfrequency;however
The pilot is able to set the referencelevel pressureat specifictimesduringone-halfcyclecanbe identified
l0l3'25 mbar,QNH (localsealevel- regional)or QFE by the instantaneous frequencybeingtransmitted.
(airfield level),the Q codesbeingusedin
Sincethe transmitterfrequencyis continuously
communicationwith air traffic control(ATC). changing,the receivedsignal,which hasbeen subject
Converselythe radio altimeter measuresthe height to delaydue to the round-triptraveltime, will be
of the aircraft abovethe ground. lf an aircraft is in different in frequencyto the transmittedsignalat
levelflight the barometricaltimeter readingwill be any instant in time. The differencefrequency,fi,
steadywhile the radioaltimeterreadingwill be can be shown to be proportional to the height as
varying unlessthe aircraft is ffying over seaor plain. follows.
It follows that radio altimetersare most usefulwhen Assumea triangularmodulatingwaveformof
closeto the ground, say below 2000 ft, and frequencyfm and amplitudesuchthat the carrier,'/",
particularly so when landingproviding the final is modulatedovera rangeA/. This situationis
approachis over a flat surface. As a consequence, illustratedin Fig. I I .l . Th€ two-waytraveltime is
radio altimetersdesignedfor usein civil aircraft are 2Hlc where11is the heightand c the speedof light.
low-levelsystems,typical maximum rangesavailable The magnitudeof the rateof changeof transmitted
being 5000, 2500 or even500 ft in the caseof usein frequencyis 2 . A/. f^ (= 0.5 Lf lO10.25fil. The
automaticlandingsystems.Military aircraft can productof the elapsedtime and the rateof changeof
utilize high-levelradio altimeters. frequencywill givethe diflerencein frequency
betweentransmittedand receivedfrequencythus:

BasicPrinciples f n = 2 . L f. f ^ . 7 ,
= 4 . A f. f ^ . H l c ( rl . r )
Radioheightis measuredusingthe basicideaof radio Tltus the measurement of the beatliequencv
ranging,i.e. measuringthe elapsedtime between determinesthe heightsince4 .Lf . f^jc is a known
transmission of an e.m.waveand its receptionafter constantfrrr any particularsystem.
reflectionfrom the ground. The heightis givenby The beatfrequencyis constant,for triangular
hAlf the productof the elapsedtime and the speedof modulation,exccptat thc turn-aroundregiontwice
light: & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & &p&e&
r c&y&c &
l e&. & & &S&i&
n&c e&t&
u&r n&- &
a r&o&u&
n&d t&a&k &
e s&p=l 4a 9c 2
e ti n
( r?b.egisnwget h e e l a p s e d t i m e i n
microseconds). havethat the average beatfrequencyfor 2Zps is
Energyis radiatedat a frequencyh the band fnl2 l'orthe restof the moclulatingcycle;thebeat
42OO'44O0MHz. Modulation of the carrieris frequencyis constantat fi . If the averagebeat

189
Transmittcd Thfi will result in'a vertical dhplacetnent of thc graph
of the receivedsigral in Fig. I l.l. The effect for a
descendingaircraft (positiveshift) is shown in
Fig. I1.2. As canbe seenthe beatfrequencyis
fn - fa andfi, + f6 for equalperiods. If we take the
averageover half a ntodulationperiod we get
Un +fa +fn - fil2 =fh asrequired.Thisassumes
fn ) fa which will be the casewith a radio altimeter.

Received

o
C
o
t
ct
o
E
o
.9
!
o
G
Fig.I l.l A FMCWradioaltimeter- frequency/time
relationship

frequencyover one modulatingcycle is detectedwe


will havea measuredfrequencyfi givenby: C'

= (((tlf; -2r)fn + rfnl2)fm


fn '= o

fm(r - 3Tfmlz) (l1.2) o Q'


6
With the aircraft at about 2000 ft andf^ = 2OOHz
we have:
Fig.I 1.2 Theeffectof Dopplershifton beatfrequency
fn = fn (l _ 0.0012)
i.e. an error of about 2.4 ft at 2000 ft. On the ground
therewill still be an elapsedtime, due to built-in tlsingequation(l l.l) we seethat for a systemwith
delay,ofabout 0.12 ps corresponding to a residual A.f = 100 MHz (42504350 MHz) andf ^ = 200 Hz
altitude(seelater)of 57 ft, say. Whenwe use the beat frequencyfi = (4 X 100X 106X 2OOH)/
0'12 ps andf^ = 2OOHzin equation(l 1.2)we
Illlll= (984 X 106)= 8011sothe rangeol fp lor a
find that the erroron the grounddue to the averaging 0-2500ft altimeterwith a residualaltitudeof 57 ft
of the non-constant beatfrequencyis about 0.002 ft would be 4'56-?.04'56 kHz. Thiswide bandrvidthcan
which is insignificant. be reducedby' maintaininga constantdifference
In practicea perfecttriangularmodulating frequencythusimprovingsensitivity.Sincefi
frequencyis difficult to achieve,someroundingat dependson both Lf andf * we canvary eitherin
the turn-aroundtakingplace. In fact with any inverseproportionto the heig.htso keepingfi
reasonably shape-modulation waveform,it canbe constant.
shownthat the average beatfrequencywhen usedin The necessary servoloop nrustmonitor the
equation( I I .l ) will yield a heightreadingwhich is diff'erencefrequencyand control the modulatorso as
c o r r e cw
t ithinacceptable i m i t s . A p p e n d i xI L I to changeLl'or frt accortlingly.The control signal
provesthis for sinusoidalfrequencymodulation,whichrepresents the heightof the aircraft, Sincethe
is easierto obtainsincethe rateof changeof carrier controlledvariableis madeinverselyproportionalto
frequencyis boundedin magnitudeby unity. heightit becomesdifficult to employthe technique
lf thereis relativemotion betweenthe aircraftand at lower heights.particularlywhenA/ is varied. This
the groundimrnediatelybelow the receivedfrequency latterproblenrcanbe overcorne b1'the contpromise of
will experience a Dopplershift,/a (seeChapterl0). operating c o n v e n t i o n a l al yt l o w a l t i t u d e sa n d r v i t h

190
constantj[ otherwise,or by modifying feedbackin phaseof the modulation frequencywill alsohavethe
the loop such that fp varieswith any changein desiredeffect providingthe wobbulation rate, say
altitudebut not oversucha greatrangeas it would l0 Hz, canbe filteredout.
with no feedback.The Frenchlnanufacturer TRT lf a frequencydiscriminatoris usedto measure
producealtimeterswith constantfi at all heights, frequencythe steperror is not presentsince
control beingachievedbyvarytngf^; the tolerance measurement is continuousratherthan discrete.With
+ I ft or I per centis met. conventionalf.m.c,w.altimeters. however.the ranse
of frequenciesto be measuredis largeand
discrirninatorcircuitssufficiently stableand linear are
FactorsAffecting Performance difficult to achieve.With a constantdifference
frequencyf.m.c.w.altimetera discriminatorcan
Ihe accuracyof a radioaltimeterdepends easilybe usedto detect the smallchangeswhich
fundamentallyon the precisionwith which the time occur in l7r.
of transmission is marked. For precisetiming a wide The receivedsignalstrengthvarieswith the height
transmittedspectrumis requiredsincethis would lead ofthe aircraft. From the radarrangeequationthis
to a steepleadingedgein a pulsedsystemor, in the variation is as the fourth power of the range;however
caseof f.m.c.w.,a largefrequencydeviationwhich with an altimeterthe greaterthe range(height) the
effectively givesan expandedscale. Ofcourse a finite greaterthe areaof the target(ground)is illuminated.
spectrumis transmittedand in fact is limited to a total For radio altimeterstherefore.the variationis as the
spreadof between4200 and 4400 MHz by squareof the range.The gainfrequencycharacteristic
internationallegislation (the band 1600-1660MHz of the differencefrequencyamplifier(f.m.c.w.)
hasalsobeenallocatedfor useby radioaltimetersbut should be suchthat the higher frequenciesare
is no longerused). amplifiedmore than the lower. Sucha characteristic
In an f.m.c.w.systema countermay be usedwhich helpsby reducingthe dynamicrangeof the
measures the numberof cyclesor half-cyclesin one frequency-measuring circuitand alsoreduceslow
periodof the modulation.Sincethe counteris unable frequencynoise.
to measurefractionsof a cycle,other than possiblya Part of the two-waytraveltime is accountedfor by
half, the count is a discretenumber. The process the aircraftinstallationdelay(AID). Since,ideally,
resultsin a quantizationerror calledstepor fixed the radio altimetershouldreadzero feet cln
error. We may rewriteequation( I I .l ) as: touchdown,the residualaltitudewhich accountsfor
the AID is madeup of cablelength,multipliedby a
H=&,=# (l r.3) factor (typically l'5) to allow for propagationspeed,
and the sum of the antennaheights.It is important
that the systemis calibratedso asto allow for AlD.
where,rV= fnlfn is the number of beat frequency One method which hasbeenr.rsed for an altimeter
cycles(to nearestintegerbelow)in the modulation utilizedfor blind landingis to measurethe difference
cycle. Sincely' is an integerthe height measuredwill frequencyon touchdownon a numberof flight trials
be subjectto a quantizationerror calledsteperror of a particulartype ofaircraft. The frequencyarrived
equalto cl4Al'which with A/= 100 MHz is2.46 ft. at empiricallycanbe injectedinto the difference
In practicein any one rnodulationperiodthe frequencyamplifieron the benchand the setcan then
actualcount will dependon the nurnberof be adjustedto givea zero feetoutput. A mole
positive-going zerocrossings of the beat frequency, commonmethodis to calibrateby cuttingthe
this could be N or N + I dependingon phasing.So if antennafeedersto an appropriatelength;this will be
the phasingvariesthc count will jurnp betweeny'y'and describedunderthe heading'lnstallation'.
Iy'+ | and backso avertgingout the steperror Transmitter-receiver leakagecan be viewedasnoise
p r o v i d i n gt h e t i r r r cc o n s t l n t< l ft h e i n d i c a t i n g c i r c u i ti s which limits the receiversensitivityand alsomay
l a r g ec o r n p u r ew ' t li t h t l t 0 t i r r r eb e t w e e nc o u n t causean erroneousreading.Useof separate transmit
f l u c t u a l i o n s l. t c l n b e s h o w t rl h a t t h ec o u n tw i l l and receiveantennas will givespaceattenuation,a
changelirr a charrgc- in lrcightol'u quarterof a figurein the regicnof about75 dB shouldbe aimed
w a v e l c n g tohl t l r c r . l ' . A t t l r el ' r c q u e n cuys e df o r f o r i n a n i n s t a l l a t i ow
n here,tha e l t i m e t eor u t p u t i s
r a d i oa l l i r r r c t c ri .st( l u i t r t cor l ' a w a v e l c n g tilsr l e s st h a n usedin critlcalsystemssuchasautomaticIandingand
I i n . l n d l r c n c cr r r r l c sl lsy i r r go v e ' vr c r ys n t o o t h g r o u n dp r o x i m i t yw a r n i n g( g . p . w . s . ) .
s u r l a c etsh c l l L r c t t r l t i r r g l d i o l r c i g hw
t ill cause Signalsoccurringat nearzerorangearecausedby
a v e r a g i nogr r l o l ' t h c e r r o r . l ) e . l i b e r a t ewl yo b b l i n gt h e reflectionsfrorn landinggearand other appendages,

191
(al (cl
Tx

r.caraf \ Multipath
t
\
\
Time (pulsed).
Freq.(f.m.c.w.)

performance
Fig,I1.3 Somefactorsaffecting

aswell as the leakagesignalreferredto above. In pulsedsystemsand lowest frequencytracking


both constant-difference frequencyand pulse (spectrumfiltering)in f.m.c.w.systemsis usedto
altimetersa trackingloop is employedto follow the retain accuracy.
changesin altitude. Initially, the altitude will be The altimeter can be designedwith a responsetime
unknownso a searchmode is enteredwhich,while in the orderof a few milliseconds; howeverone does
seekingthe correct altitude, will vary receivergain. not normally wish to follow the snrallestvariationsof
As previouslydiscussed, at low altitudesthe gainwill the groundbelow. The output is usuallyfilteredwith
be low, thus while searcfuing in the frequency a time constantof saya few tenthsof a second.
(f.m.c.w.)or time (pulsed)regionof the unwanted
signalsthe largegain reductionensuresthey are weak.
The groundreturnis relativelystrongensuringlock-on Block Diagram Operation
to the correctsignaland henceindicationof the
actualradioaltitude. As alreadymentionedtherearethreemain approaches
Multipath signalsarisesincethe first-time-around to radio altimeters.Most altimetersareof the f.m.c.w,
echowill be reflectedfrom the airframeback down type, the majority of thesebeingconventionalfor the
to the groundand returnasa second-time-around sakeof simplicity. Althoughtrackingf.m.c.w.and
echo. Whilethis multipathsignalwill be considerably pulsedsystemsare more complex they do have
weakerthan the requiredsignalthe height-controlled advantages overconventionalf.m.c.w.aswill be
gainwill in part nullify this favourable situation. In appreciated from the previousparagraphs.Simplified
trackingaltimetersthe initial or subsequent search block diagramsfor the threetypeswill be considered.
canbe in the directionof increasing altitudeso
lockingon to the correctsignalfirst, a similar Conventionalf.m.c.w. Altimeters
approachto outboundsearchin DME. The transmitterin a modernequipmentcomprisesa
Aircraft pitch and roll will meanthat the beam solid-stateoscillatorfrequencymodulatedat typically
centreis no longervertical;howeverif the beamis 100-150Hz rate. Whilemost of the power
fairly broad,at leastpart of the transmittedenergy (0'5-l W) is radiatedfrom a broadlydirectional
will take the shortestroute to the ground. Provided antennaa smallportion is fed to the mixer to beat
receiversensitivityis adequatetherewill be sufllcient with the receivedsignal.
energyreceivedfrom the nearestpoint for accurate The echois mixedwith the transmittersamplein a
measurement. strip-linebalancedmixer to producethe beat
A consequence of broad beamsis that in flying frequency.Useo{ a balancedmixer helpsin reduction
overroughterrain,reflectionswill be receivedfrom of transmitternoisein the receiver.The gainof the
anglesother than the vertical.Sincethe non-vertical wide bandbeat frequencyamplifierincreases with
pathshavea longertwo-waytraveltime the spectrum frequencyto compensate for the low signallevelof
of the differencefrequencywill be spread(ground the high frequencies (highaltitude). Signallimiting
diffusion). The spectrumshapewili be steepat the removesunwantedamplitudevariationsand givesa
low frequencyend corresponding to the correci suitablesignalform for the counter.
altitudemuch the sameasthe pulseshapein a pulsed A cycle-counting frequency-measuring circuit
systemwill havea steepleadingedge,(see Fig. I l.3b providesa d.c. signalto the indicator. Basically
and c). This spectrumwideningis increasedby suitableswitchingcircuitscontrol the chargingol'a
aircraftroll and pitch. Leadingedgetrackingin capacitorso that a fixed amountof chargeis

192
Fig. I1.4 ConventionalFMCW altimeterblock diagram

Ft. | 1.5 Constant difference frequency FMCW altimeter


block diagram

pnerated for each cycle (or half-cycle) of the consequentloop action to bring/6 back to the
rmknownbeat frequenry. With the simplesttype of requiredrate;in doing so the indicator feedwill
indicatorthe total chargeper second(current) is change.lf f6 andf, are far removed,searchaction is
hdicated on a milliammeter calibratedin feet. instigatedwhereby the modulator frequency(or A/)
is made to sweepthrough its rangefrom low to high
Condant Differencc Frequency f.m.c.w. Altimeten until lock on is achieved.
This approachis similar to a conventionalf.m.c.w.
dtimeter at the r.f. end. The beat frequency hrlsed Altimeters
anplifier is a narrow band with gain controlled by A simplifiedblock diagrarfiof a typical pulsed
&e loop so that it increaseswith altitude. A tracking altimeteris shownin Fig. I 1.6. Suchaltimetersare
discriminatorcomparesthe beat frequency,/6, with manufacturedby, amongothers,Honeywell;the
ainternal reference,fr;if the two are not the same, figuresmentionedin the descriptionof operation
tr crror signalis fed to the loop control. which follow arefor the Honeywell7500Be series.
The outputs of the loop control circuit are usedto A p.r.f. generatoroperatingat 8 kHz keysthe
-t the modulator frequency,f^ (or amplitude if transmitterwhich feedsthe antennawith pulseof r.f.
&viation, Al is controlled), to set the gain of the of 60 ns duration and frequency4300 MHz. The
anplifier and to drive the indicator. The changein radiatedpeakpower is about 100W. A time reference
f- (or A/) is such as to make/6 = /' . Obviouslyany signal,/6, is fed from the transmitterto initiate a
dage in height will lead to a changein/6 and precisionramp generator.

19:t
reliablesignal(tive or six pulses)is receivedwhen the
Tx -JI||l-- track loop becomesoperational.
During track the overlapofthe track gatepulse
and videopulsedeterminesthe magnitudeof a current
to which is comparedwith a reference(offset) current.
Wherethe two currentsareequal,the output of the
rate circuit (integrator) is zero, otherwisea positiveor
negativevoltageis fed to the rangecircuit. The range
circuit (integrator) adjustsits output voltage,Vp, if
Ramp
its input is non-zero. Since I/p determinesthe timing
r l \ of the track gatepulse any changein /p will cause
1r6ck gate I I the previouslymentionedoverlapto alter until such
pulse | | time as the loop is nulled,i.e. overlapcurrent=
I N reference current. Any changein height will
Video rcturn
thereforeresult in a changein Zp to bring the loop
back to the null condition.
Automaticgaincontrol (..g.c.)and sensitivitytime
Fig.I 1.6 Pulsealtimeter
blockdiagram control(s.t.c.)are fed to the receiverwherethey
control the gain of the i.f. arnps. During searchthe
The ramp voltageis comparedwith the range a.g.c.circuitsmonitor the noiseoutput of the receiver
voltage,/4, which is proportionalto the indicated and adjustits gainso asto keepnoiseoutput constant.
height. When the ramp voltagereachesVp atrack The s.t.c.reducesthe gainof the receiverfor a short
gatepulseis generatedand fed to gateB and an time, equivalentto say50 ft after transmission, and
elongatedgatepulseis fed to gateA. The detected then its controldecreases linearlyuntil a time
video pulseis also fed to gatesA and B. A further equivalentto say200 ft. This actionprevents
gatepulseis fed to the a.g.c.circuits. ircquisition of unwantedsignals, suchasleakage,
Unlessa reliablesignalis detectedwithin the duringthe searchmode.
elongatedgatepulsethe trackisearch circuitwill During track the a.g.c.maintainsthe video signalin
sigralthe commencement of a searchcycleand break the a.g.c.gateat a constantlevel. This is importantto
the track loop by removingits reference currentfeed.. ensureprecisetracking of the receivedsignalsinceany
During searchthe searchgeneratordrive to the range variationin amplitudewould causethe areaof overlap
circuitensuresthat I/p, startingfrom a voltage to track gateand videosignalsto change.At low
representing zerofeet,runsout to a voltage heightson track the a.g.c.reducesthe receivergain,
representing 2500 ft. The searchcyclerepeatsuntil a so helpingto avoidthe effectsof leakage.Whenthe

194
heightincreasesthe leakagesignalis, of course,gated height readingof the radio altimeter it is likely that
out. givingtime discrimination. therewill be a signalfailure detected. Sincethis is
due to attenuationbecause ofexcessiverange,and
not a failure or degradationof the altimeter,it is
Monitoring and Self-Test desirablethat no warningof failure is given and that
the pointer on the indicator is parked out of view.
The integrity of the radio altimeter output is vital, A cruise-monitoring circuitmay be incorporated
particularlyin automatic landingapplications. Circuit which, usinga delayedand attenuatedfeed between
redundancyand comparisonis an effectiveway of transmitterand receiver, checkscontinuing
dealingwith the problem. For exampletwo separate satisfactoryoperationin the absenceof a detectable
dtitude-measuringcircuits may accepta feed from receivedsignal.Any warningto the autopilotmust
the mixer and independentlyarrive at the aircraft's not be affectedby cruisemonitoring;it shouldbe
height. Should the two heightsbe different by more activewheneverthere is a lossof r.f. or when any
than an acceptableamount, a warning signalis sent to other failureis detected.Contraryto the above,
the indicator and any other systemsto which the many radioaltimetersreactto a lossof signalby
height inlormation is fed. A disadvantage of using parkingthe pointer and displayingthe flag.
redundancyand comparisononly is that no attempt ii The antennaand feeder,if not properlymatched
madeto eliminatethe causeof failure, so information to the transmitter,will give rise to a reflectionwhich
is lost. may causeproblemssinceit will be delayedwith
Self-calibrationis an approachwhich is able to respectto the transmittedsignal.A directional
compensatefor small errors. If a part of the couplingcircuit may be usedto monitor the reflected
transmitteroutput is passedthrough a precisiondelay signal and so givea warningof excessive v.s.w.r.
line the resultingsignalcan be usedto provide a The monitoring and self-calibration circuits vary
'check
height'. For examplein a conventionalf.m.c.w. greatlyin detail and in how comprehensive a checkis
systemthe delayedtransmittersamplemay be mixed carriedout. All, however,on detectinga failurewill
with an undelayedtransmittersampleto give a beat providea warning signalto operatea flag in the
frequencywhich may be comparedwith a suitable indicatorand a similar,but usuallyseparate, warning
reference frequency. lf the two frequenciesare signal to other systems, dependent on radio altitude
different the modulatingsignalis adjustedto bring information. In particularif a tie-inwith autopilot
them in line; for example,if the beat frequencyis too hasbeenestablished, the warningsignalwill control
low, equation( I I . I ) tellsus that increasing
A/ by an interlock circuit within the autopilot systemwhich
increasing the modulating signalamplitude will, in prevents erroneous information dictatingthe flight
turn, increasethe beat frequencyas required. Similar path. Somemanufacturers providelatchedindicator
ideasmay be appliedto constant-differencefrequency lightson the front panelof the transmitter-receiver
f.m.c.w.and pulsedaltimeterswheresuitable which give an indicatioq of the areaof failure.
parametersare adjustedasnecessary. A self-testfacilityis usuallyprovidedwherebya
A self-calibrationloop suchas describedabove delayline, ideallybetweenantennas, is switchedin,
may operatecontinuouslyusingwhat is essentially thusgivinga predetermined readingon the indicator.
redundantcircuitry. Howeverin equipmentwhere A disadvantage of sucha facility is that it introduces
the altitude is measuredby meansof a loop, suchas a electromechanical devicessuchasco-axialcablerelays
servoedslope(controlledf^) f.m.c.w.system.we which are,of course,somethingelseto go wrong. It
may havesequentialself-calibration wherethe may be arguedthat checkingthat the readingon the
measuringloop is switched,perhapsthree times per groundbefore take-off is somespecifiedIigure near
second.into self-calibrate mode. zerois adequate, but nevertheless, someform of
Checkingreceivedsignalquality is a featureof in-flighttest facilityis usuallyrequired.
most altimeters. In a pulsedsystemthe presenceof On pushingthe self-testbutton, providingthe
detectedreceivedpulsesin a gatepulseis feasible;in a equipmentis operatingcorrectly.the failurewarning
constant-difference frequencyaltimeter the presence output shouldbe activeso causingthe warningt'lagto
of a spectrumcentredon the requiredbeat is checked. appearon the indicatorand,moie important.
With a conventionalf.m.s.w.altimeterone cannot preventingthe autopilotutilizingradioaltimeter
checka particularpart of the time or frequency information. As an extra safeguard. an interlock
domainbut signalplus noiseto noiseratio may be shouldbe providedso asto preventself-testoncethe
monitored. autopilotor any other systemhasbegunto makeuse
Whenthe aircraft is flying abovethe maximum of the radioaltimeterheightoutput.

195
Indicator usedparticularly laterally to avoid roll error in which
caseleadingedgetracking(pulsed)or spectium-filtering
As mentionedpreviously,a milliammetermay be used (servoedslopef.m.c.w.)must perform adequately.
to indicateheightbut an altemativeis a servo-driven The antennasmust be mountedsufficientlyfar apart
pointer. A decisionheight(DFI)facility is also to avoidexcessive leakagebut not so far apartasto
provided.The pilot setstlle DH bug to the required producea largeparallaxerror at touchdown,a spacing
heightreadingand in doingso determinesthe voltage between20 in. and 8 ft may be required.
V1, fed to a comparator.The other comparatorinput lf the spacingbetweenantennas,mounted
is a d.c. analoguealtitudesignalwhich if lessthan Iz4 longitudinally,is 8 ft and the midpoint of the line
w i l l c a u s et h e D H l a m p t o l i g h t ,s o w a r n i n gt h e p i l o t joining the antennasis, say,7 ft abovethe groundon
that the aircraliis flying below the DH setting. A touchdown,then half the shortestdistancebetween
b l o c kd i a g r a mo f a n i n d i c a t o irs s h o w ni n F i g . I 1 . 7 . the antennasvia the groundwill be (42 + 72)o'sx g 11
whereisolationamplifiershavebeenomitted for givinga parallaxerror of I ft on landing. This may be
simplicitv. takeninto accountwhen calculatinethe residual

t :
l E
a-L-$oH set
\ E
Comparator
DH bug
or index
Differential amp

Fig. I 1.7 Simplified servodriven indicator

Indicator
Installation --T-
lFla( Self
FigureI 1.8 illustratesa singleradio altimeter test I
installationshowinginterfaceand selectionlinks.
Co-axialfeederspassr.f. energyto and from the Supply
separate transmitand receiveantennasby way of Transmitterreceiver To other
ato
switches.Whenself-testis activatedthe transmitted L r n K sfl M systems:
OD
energyis fed to the delayunit whereit is attenuated autopilot,
GPWS,
anddelayedbeforebeingfed back to the receiver.
flight
For a particularinstallationfeederlengthand delayis director
known so the correctreadingon self-testmay be
calculated and enteredin the pilot checklist and
functionaltest procedure.
The antennasarebroadlydirectional,flush-mounted
hornsoften beingemployedgivinga beamwidth
betweenabout 20o and 40o. Broaderbeamsmay be Fig.I1.8 R a d i o a l t i m e t e r i n s t a l l a t i o n

196
Fig. I1.9 ALA-5lA (courtesyBendixAviohicsDivision)

DH ind.

lrt Lamp\
Alt display
tape
DH Select
-_''Buq DH ref. Flag
symbol
AlC ret.
Mast(_ DH tao symbol

DH adjust
and self
test button
./
oH select/'
Test Knob Fig. ll.ll Typical moving vertical scale indicator

FiE I l.l0 KI 250indicatorfor usewith KRA l0 radio reachof the antennarsincethe feederlength is
altimeter (courtesy
KingRadioCorp.) critical. Sincethe transmiiteris relativelylow power,
coolingis not a severeproblembut forced-aircooling
ableto copewith up to 50 W of dissipated energy
altitude. Good performance in respectof leading
may be required.The powersupplywill be I l5 V a'c'
edgetrackingor spectrumfiltering will make parallax
in antenna 4OOHz if the equipmentis to ARINC specifications
error worse. A further consideration
but 28 V d.c.equipmentswill be found.
positioningis avoidingexcessivereflectionsfrom
protuberances suchasthe undercarriage; in this
respectsidelobe energymust be kept low (say 40 dB Aircraft Installation DelaY-
down).
The transmitterreceivermust be mountedwithin Aircraft installationdelay(AID) is the elapsedtime

197
betweentransmit and receivewhen the aircraft is at interchangeability of transmitter-receivers between
touchdown,and is due to the delay in the feedersand