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LTE OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE JAKARTA SEPT 10th 2013 Lawrence Williams

9/11/2013 For internal use Document ID / v. 0.1 / Life cycle status / Dept. / Author 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

CONTENTS

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Introduction O&M Architecture/NetAct IOMS BTSSM LTE Configuration and SW management SWAM (Licences) ALARM Handling Process Performance Management Troubleshooting LTE Tools SON
For internal use 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

INTRODUCTION
LTE Should Revolutionise O&M in Mobile Networks Self Organising Networks (SON) Specified in 3GPP REL 8 36.902 In Reality Early SON implementations have proved unPredictable (ANR) or non trivial to manage (eNB Autconfig) SON will become more reliable and understood and More SON Features will be released Step by Step Currently Most LTE O&M operations are using familiar apps from 2/3G Big Changes in O&M apps will occur when Upgrade from OSS 5.4 to NetAct 7
For internal use 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

MAIN DIFFERENCES IN LTE O&M TASKS FROM WCDMA


No Object Browser In APPLAU (Use TLUI Status or SiteBrowser) iOMS located in NetAct Rack . Responsibility of OSS Engineer? Many New Parameters and Counters particular to the technology As no RNC in middle it may be harder to trace Transmission IP issues eTe As relatively New Technology Must be aware more device compliance issues Licence Management ( Use of SWAM) Challenges to O&M to understand SON automated tasks eg auto ANR ,PCI etc Most important to Maintain Voice cabability (CSFB,SRVCC) Greater Mobility Issues to Consider LTE->3G->GSM
For internal use Document ID / v. 0.1 / Life cycle status / Dept. / Author 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

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OAM Architecture
key tool for centralized SON

From the users point of view, managing the Nokia Networks Mobile LTE/EPC network is very similar to that of Nokia WCDMA when NetAct is used. Management system traffic to and from LTE/EPC network elements always goes through NetAct. The interface between the Flexi Multiradio Base Station and NetAct (iOMS) is based on the BTSOM protocol. It carries all the necessary data and commands (for example, alarms, measurements, configuration and new software data) to control the network element behavior remotely.
For internal use

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iOMS in NetAct site

The LTE iOMS is a part of the NetAct concept. Although iOMS is running in its own blade unit, it can be located in the same rack as the NetAct Blade System

For internal use

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iOMS SW management iOMS EMs iOMS SW can be installed either by

Using FEWS Using USB stick


iOMS has only following EMs supported:

Application Launcher (Java): FM GUI Active Sessions Parameter Tool PUTTY Also CLIs provided by FP and OMS are supported.
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For internal use are disabled (e.g. Topology Browser) All other EMs 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

O&M TASKS
STATUS MONITORING B. ALARM MONITORING C. PARAMATER OPTIMISATION D. SW ROLLOUT/ROLLBACK E. CONFIGURATION BACK UP F. LICENCE MANAGEMENT G.PERFORMANCE MONITORING H. TROUBLESHOOTING
A.
8 9/11/2013
For internal use Document ID / v. 0.1 / Life cycle status / Dept. / Author 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

BTS Site Manager Application


The content in the Task view changes according to the selection in the View bar
Properties view Equipment view

Task view

Example: BTS Hardware task view consists of Equipment view


(shows the BTS cabinet with units/modules and cells)

View bar

Alarms from the eNodeB and its transport module

Fault view

For internal use

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and Properties view

BTS Site Manager Fault Monitoring

BTS Site Manager shows the faults coming from the site
Fault view shows the list of faults Faults can be Warning Minor Major Critical Fault descriptions available in online Help
Shows/Hides Fault history of current manager session

All Active Alarms

For internal use

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Opens Block toggling 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved. faults

Additional info about the selected fault Show Fault source in EM equipment view

BTS Site Manager Fault Monitoring

You can show faults for an alarm type or fault history

For internal use

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Introduction
BTS Site Browser
Provides access to multiple predefined BTS sites simultaneously Speed-ups and helps BTS Site management especially
In trials and rollouts There is no NetAct available New BTS Site SW version is not supported by NetAct

Uses standard BTS Site Manager interface towards BTS

Trial and Rollout Activities

BTS O&M SW version not supported by NetAct

NetAct not in place

1st Mile
For internal use

Core

Controller/Gateway Sites

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Deployment

Installed with BTS Site Manager


BTS Site Browser is installed to BTS Site Manager installation folder
Default location Windows: C:\Program Files\Nokia Siemens Networks\Managers\BTS Site\BTS Site Manager\ Linux: opt\Nokia Siemens Networks\Managers\BTS Site\BTS Site Manager\ Can be started with BTSSiteBrowser.bat or BTSSiteBrowser.sh from BTS Site Manager installation root folder

Define properties
You have to create text file where is listed all IP addresses of BTS Sites managed by BTS Site
Browser File -> Properties Define text file where IP addresses are listed Define installation location of BTS Site Manager, so it can be started from BTS Site Browser

You can also give address list as http address for example from OMS For internal use
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https://<OMS IP address>/BtsAddressList.txt

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BTS Site Browser main view

List of predefined BTS sites

Information about selected site

Block/unblock cells. More info

List of faults from successfully scanned BTS sites


For internal use

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For internal use

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FAULT MANAGEMENT

For internal use

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Fault Management Architecture

NWI3 Interface

Active alarms
For internal use

Alarm history eNBs/iOMS alarms

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Fault Management
NetAct Monitor application

All relevant Alarm Monitoring Rule Editor tools within a Rule Explorer Common Object Explorer Managed Object List Desktop. Object Search Properties Possibility to Filter launch Explorer all Filter Editor OSS5.1 Quick Search Network View applications Network View Editor and element Notes managers Trouble Ticket List from Trouble Ticket Details the desktop
Alarm List Alarm History Alarm Details Warning List
For internal use

View Explorer Object Explorer Properties and Notes

Alarm List

Alarm Details

Network View

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2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved. Introduction to NetAct / Nagavishnu Nagaraj

FM IOMS GUI

For internal use

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2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved. 2011-02-03

NetAct Application (NetAct OSS5.3 CD Set 1)

For internal use

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Monitoring

All relevant Alarm Monitoring tools within a Common Desktop Possibility to launch all OSS5.x applications and element managers from the desktop
For internal use

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Alarm Monitoring

For internal use

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Alarm Monitoring Application

Active Alarm List grouped by Alarm class Alarm Details

Alarm Blinks when not acknowledged

Access to Alarm Manual

For internal use

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Alarm History

For internal use

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Alarm History

For internal use

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Fault Management Features PM FM Interworking in BTS LTE166, [RL20] 2011 - The performance values of specific KPIs in the Flexi Multiradio BTS are supervised.
The set of supervised KPIs is predefined and fixed in Flexi Multiradio BTS. It does include few (around five) important BTS related KPIs The KPI values calculated in Flexi Multiradio BTS will be compared to defined threshold values. Overall constraints will be taken into account as e.g. sufficient traffic ongoing to be able to evaluate the situation. Default threshold values are pre-defined in the Flexi Multiradio BTS, but can be changed by operator They are changeable as parameters in the configuration database.

- If the KPI value does exceed a defined threshold value, an alarm will be raised. - If the value drops under the threshold value the raised alarm will be cleared again
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- If the For value drops under the threshold value the raised alarm will be cleared internal use again. 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT
PARAMETERS

PLANS

BACK UPS
For internal use

UPLOADS

AUDITS

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Configurator: Application for CM Planning Center / 3rd party system The major components of Configurator CM Editor
Display actual parameter values Create, modify and delete plans

Configurator
Northbound interfaces CM Editor CM Operations Manager CM Analyzer

CM Operations Manager
Upload, download from / to the network Import, export via northbound interface

CM Analyzer
Run consistency checks Define user-specific consistency checks
CM*

Southbound interfaces Radio/Core


Siemens GSM & WCDMA Nokia GSM WCDMA WiMAX & I-HSPA & LTE Core Rel4
Multi-vendor
integration

Southbound interfaces Northbound interfaces


For internal use

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Basic Operations
Customers planning system

Export Element Manager

Import

Regional NetAct launched Configurator CM events Upload

CM Provision download activate Network On the field

Local operations
For internal use

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CM Essentials - CM Editor
Description Editing & browsing through actual and planned configuration data Integrated plan management For all network elements (BSC, RNC, MSS, MGW etc.) Parameter mass modification Advanced search Template management Benefits Operator can compare between actual and planned parameters while editing Find objects that match specified criteria with possibility to set new values only to these objects For internal use Templates to complement planning tool 30 data for minimizing user errors

OSS5.1

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Data Management - CM Operations Manager


Description Keep Configurator up-to-date with network
Upload actual configuration

Efficient plan-based management


Plan provisioning to network Import plans from Nokia Siemens Networks or 3rd party planning environment Export actual data and plans Compare actual with planned data

Benefits Scheduling of operations

O&M Operations Manager all operations under control For internal use Comprehensive feedback to all 31 operations

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

CM Analyzer
Description

OSS5.1

Consistency checking for Planned and actual configurations Parameter values Dependencies within a network
element Dependencies between network elements Benefits

Scheduled start of consistency checks Automatic corrections of inconsistencies Automated reporting that can be sent to
e-mail address Detection of planning errors including For internal human errors atuse an early stage 32 Higher quality of network plans

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

For internal use

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Major functional changes between NetAct 5 and NetAct 8


Monitoring as the alternative for license key management

NetAct License Manager

NetAct 8: Nokia Siemens Networks software asset monitoring via SWAM client as an alternative for license key management. Supported use models: Pay as you grow Pay as you configure Pay as you use

NetAct 8
CM, PM database SWAM Client

NSN

Operator

For internal use

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SWAM Technical description


SW feature activation parameters

NetAct
NSN
NetAct CM Database

SWAM Client

Monthly reports

Operator

Radio Network

For internal use

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Operator configures RAN parameters as per internal SW license investment plan NetAct configures the Radio Network as per the input parameters SWAM client runs the report query at predefined intervals and creates reports of configured/used parameters Reports are sent to NSN and operator at predefined interval Data isSolutions archived 2013 Nokia and Networks. All rights reserved.

LTE Basic SW Pre-Paid model Operator configures the number of Connected UE for each eNB (value equal to the purchased license for BSW) The maximum number of Connected UEs per eNB for Flexi Multiradio BTS is controlled by a configuration parameter maxNumActUE Connected UEs exceeding the configured value of the parameter are rejected SWAM client gathers the value of this parameter for each eNB periodically andNetAct CT uses SWAM report to ensure the adherence to the Highest peak value allowed contractual agreement CU Configured value 75 of Connected UEs
Rural

10 15

suburban

20 30 50
Dense Urban

eNB 75

time

At any given time 76th user will be rejected by scheduler

For internal use

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LTE Basic SW Post-Paid model The maximum number of Connected UEs per eNB for Flexi Multiradio BTS is stored by PM counter (ENB_LOAD_ACT_UE_MAX) in NetAct SWAM client gathers the value of this PM counter for each eNB periodically and compares it to previously stored highest value If there is a positive change in the value, the delta value is reported and CT will invoice the customer for this delta value per eNB The past highest value is replaced by the current highest value and stored in the database for the future report comparison
Counter value of Connected UEs during measurement period Rural

NetAct

Counter

Period current 1

Period current

Invoicable value

10 15

Max.Connected Users

suburban

20 30 50
Dense Urban
For internal use

eNB

72

75

75

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Value 75 is stored as new Highest value to be compared Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved. for2013 the next report

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

For internal use

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3. LTE RL40 measurements LTE RL40 measurements are divided into two subgroups as presented bellow:
RNW Measurements
LTE S1AP (M8000) LTE Cell Load (M8001) LTE Transport Load (M8004) LTE Power and Quality UL (M8005) LTE EPS Bearer (M8006) LTE Radio Bearer (M8007) LTE RRC (M8008) LTE Intra eNB Handover (M8009) LTE Power and Quality DL (M8010) LTE Cell Resource (M8011) LTE Cell Throughput (M8012) LTE UE State (M8013) LTE Inter eNB Handover (M8014) LTE Neighbour cell related Handover (M8015) LTE Inter System Handover (M8016) LTE Inter System Handover to UTRAN per Neighbour Cell (M8017)

RNW Measurements
LTE Inter System Handover to GSM per Neighbour Cell (M8019) LTE Cell Availability (M8020) LTE Handover (M8021) LTE X2AP (M8022) LTE UE and Service Differentiation (M8023)

Transmission Measurements
LTE IP Statistics (M51120) LTE PHB Statistics (M51121) LTE Ethernet Link (M51123) LTE IP Sec (M51125) LTE IP Filtering (M51126) LTE VLAN IP Statistics (M51127) LTE VLAN PHB Statistics (M51128) LTE VLAN Statistics (M51129) LTE ETH_IF Statistics (M51130)

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LTE eNB Load (M8018) For internal use /

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4. Pre-defined reports overview -> System


System Program gives a general overview of network status. With this report the user can achieve in high level how network is performing and understand if problems are occurring. This report should be used to benchmark the network.

Program
These reports include NSN LTE RL30 benchmark KPI's, such as: Cell Availability RRC Connections Radio Bearer E-RAB Data Volumes and Throughputs HOs and mobility analysis RLC Retransmissions and HARQ Active Ues Quality

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For internal use /

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For internal use

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4. Pre-defined

reports overview -> Accessibility and Retainability


These reports include metrics for the following issues: Attach and Setup SR Initial Context Setup S1 interface Paging E-RAB access fails per cause RACH stp SR RRC Access fails per cause ECM idle to ECM Conn transitions RRC releases per cause Data RB releases per cause E-RAB normal releases E-RAB drops per cause RB Retainability

Accessibility and Retainability subset provides detailed analysis and root failure causes for problems when trying to access the network or troubleshooting of drop calls/services. These reports should be used to understand why calls are being rejected or dropped. The subset is divided into four reports: Accessibility and Retainability Network Access - General and S1AP Network Access - Service Access and RRC Service Retainability

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For internal use /

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4. Pre-defined reports overview -> Mobility


Mobility subset provides handover and mobility statistics. Decision rate, These reports include Intra eNB, Inter eNB and Neighbour HO performance are available. metrics for the following These reports should be used in the optimization of neighbors lists. It issues for intra and inter HO: should also be used to analyze the performance of HO analysis for HO Decision Rate UTRAN and Network Assisted Cell Change for GSM per neighbor.

HO SR HO attempts HO preparation SR HO Prep FR per cause HO Drop Ratio per cause HO Preparation, attempts and
fails per Neighbour cell CS Fallback NACC UEs in DRX

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For internal use /

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4. Pre-defined reports overview -> Interface


Interface Analysis subset provides statistics of X2, IP and Ethernet Interfaces. Metrics per VLAN and per QoS Class are also available in these reports. These reports should be used to analyze if throughputs and data volumes are the expected ones in X2, IP and Ethernet.

analysis
Control Plane data (incoming/outgoing throughput and data volume) User Plane data (incoming/outgoing throughput and data volume)

This Subset is divided in six reports: X2-Interface

IP interface traffic
Incoming/Outgoing volume Incoming/Outgoing dropped congestion

IP interface traffic and QoS classes PHB


Incoming/Outgoing data volume and throughput per QoS Class

Ethernet Interface
Inbound/Outbound data volume/throughput Received Ethernet frames SR

VLAN analysis per QoS class


Inbound/Outbound data volume and throughput per VLAN and per QoS class
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For internal use / 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

VLAN total volume analysis


Total IP data volume per VLAN

4. Pre-defined reports overview -> Modulation and Coding Scheme Modulation and coding scheme subset provides This Subset is divided in six reports:
statistics of data volumes, transmissions, share of transmissions and successful transmissions per MCS. This reports should be used to understand the quality of data volumes transmissions and DL Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) algorithm performance to improve system capacity and peak data rate.

Transmissions and Volume per Low/High


MCS
PDSCH and PUSCH transmissions using low/high MCS Percentage of DL/UL traffic volume using Low/High MCS codes

Percentage of transmissions per MCS


PDSCH and PUSCH

PUSCH 1ST transmission per MCS Unsuccessful Transmissions per MCS NACK MCS time division Data Volume per MCS
MAC PDU volume on PDSCH/PUSCH per MSC Share of DL/UL Traffic per MCS
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For internal use / 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

4. Pre-defined reports overview -> Integrity


With Integrity subset is possible to analyze delays, IP Packet integrity congestions and encryption/decryption metrics. These ESP packets encryption SR reports should be used to understand delays in Dropped packets due to ingress rate limiting different protocols levels. Discarded packets due to Filtering violations

This Subset is divided in six reports:

Packet delay
PDCP SDU delay UL/DL (min, max and avg) DL/UL SCH TB Retransmissions and error ratio RLC PDU Retransmissions

BLER per Modulation


QPSK, 16 QAM Gain using HARQ

Congestion per QoS classes for IP PHB


IP PHB Packets to send drop rate and data volume lost due to congestion per QoS class

Congestion per QoS classes per VLAN


IP VLAN PHB Packets to send drop rate and data volume lost due to congestion per QoS class
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For internal use / 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

IPsec packets

ESP bypassed (ingress/egress)

4. Pre-defined reports overview -> Usage


With Usage subset is possible to analyze throughputs, resources utilization, power and number of active users. With these reports, throughputs at different levels should be checked to see if it matches the network configuration. They are also very important to understand the Physical Resource Blocks utilization for issues like network upgrades, power analysis with downgrades/upgrades in scheduler and MIMO performance. They are also very important to understand the throughputs per Quality of Service Indicator to check the distribution of network resources per group of users priority.

This Subset is divided in seven reports: Throughput at PDCP level and per QoS class

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For internal use /

PDCP UL/DL thp (min, max and avg) PDCP SDU THP and data volumes QCI Physical Resource Block utilization PRB utilization UL/DL DL/UL PRB Analysis per TTI, per UE DL/UL PRB utilization level per TTI RLC, SDU, RRC, analysis RLC SDU data volume per channel MAC SDU volume per channel RRC UL/DL Traffic volume Power UE Power HeadRoom for PUSCH per level UE Power analysis (scheduler upgrades/downgrades) UE Delta Tx PUSCH/PUCCH per level MIMO Open Loop Diversity/Spatial Multiplexing Mode Usage and Switches 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved. Active users per eNB and per cell

TROUBLESHOOTING

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For internal use /

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PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN LIVE NETWORK LAST 1.5 YEARS RL20+ RP3 ALARMS AUTO CONFIGURATION ANR CREATE TOO MANY ADJ PCI MANUAL PLANNING MISTAKES NETWORK OUTAGE CAUSED BY MME PARAMETER CHANGE NETWORK OUTAGE CAUSED BY SIG LOAD ON S1 DUE eNB MASS SW Ug SLEEPING CELLS (Related to RP3 Delay) CONFIGURATION CHANGE AFTER SW Upgrade UE SW Bugs THROUGHPUT ISSUES ,FRAGMENTATION FTIB LOST VOICE CAPABILITY (CSFB Issues) RACH STORMS (eNB SW Bug)
For internal use

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Troubleshooting guidelines Problem type according to KPI classification Problem type according to main KPI categories: - Accessibility problems: Service accessibility, e.g. Attach, or EPS Bearer Setup Request success rates - Reliability problems: Once established, the reliability of the service, e.g Voip call, or EPS bearer drop rates - Integrity/Error rates problems: Promised to deliver the service with a certain quality. E.g. Cell throughput, or user data rates, packet delay. - Availability problems: Relationship between service up and down times, e.g. cell, or LTE Network availability - Mobility problems: Different mobility related metrics, e.g. hand-over success or drop rates, For internal use 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved. 50 latencies.

Troubleshooting guidelines - The above-mentioned cases it is essential to try to get at least following logs : eNB snapshot Interface traces S1-C by wireshark - The eNB is connected to the EPC (S1 interface) by IP switches. The precondition for capturing traces on these interfaces is the availability of a mirror port on one of the switches. The tracing on these interfaces can done either using wireshark (usually for lab tests) or using commercial protocol trace equipment (e.g. NetHawk M5, JDSU SART). If the IP traffic on these interfaces is encrypted (e.g. if IPSec is used) it is necessary to use the deciphering functionality of the protocol tracers. Emil logs
- BTS message remote tracing: BTS message remote tracing can be configured, started and stopped. Depending is tracing covering only Control Plane or also User Plane messages, estimated 70-500 3 sector LTE BTS can be traced at the same time with one PC.
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internal use UEFor trace ( e.g. by using Nemo tool) 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved. LTE RA RD eNB I&V UDP log file by NWS BTSLog tool Remote TTI trace for Integrity/Error rates problems

Fault sources

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SW

eNB SW bugs

SCF parameters Suboptimal parameters, missing neighbour relations, etc. UE SW bugs UE is behaving against specifications or against NSN expected behaviour EPC SW bugs MME/S-GW is behaving against specifications or against NSN expected behaviour Backhaul SW bugs Backhaul is dropping packets or sending with too high latency/bursts HW Commissioning
Faulty eNB units Faulty/instable UEs Wrong antenna tilting, loose cables, wrong commissioning parameters, wrong/missing synch sources Too large cells, gaps in geographical coverage, high interference sources, blocking buildings, high mobility Tracing Areas, etc. Too heavy tracing or logging causes problems
For internal use 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

SW not working according to specifications Specifications are ambiguous or lead to faulty behaviour

Network planning Diagnostics

eNB SW bugs
Symptoms No eNB L3 reply for visible UE/EPC signalling No eNB L3 messages sent when expected Rlc Ack visible in call drop after RRC Connection Release RLF or Errors visible in good signal conditions Call drops without any RLF/Errors Huge amount of Ghost Calls Sudden drop of multiple calls at the same time Sudden drop in KPI without parameter changes Sudden drop of KPI after new feature activation Sleeping cells HO rejections RRC connections are reject KPI drop correlation with snapshot fetching, SiteManager connectivity or other normal maintenance actions DSP crashes First step troubleshooting actions Analyze Emil/UE Traces Set triggers and analyze from snapshot TTI Trace and SysLog for unusual behaviour and signal conditions For internal use
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SCF parameters

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Symptoms - No UE reply for RRC signalling for multiple UE types - RACH preambles are missed in HOs - Poor signal quality and RLF failures or Errors indicated in certain call phases - Errors distributed evenly in the network - PDCCH blocking visible in counters - Timers expire - High interference visible - Sudden drop of KPI after parameter changes - Call drops correlate to active UE amount - HARQ/RLC/Preamble Retransmissions reach maximum value - Measurement reports dont initiate HO preparation - HO are started in too poor source cell signal conditions First step troubleshooting actions - Analyze KPI, PM counter and SCF parameter content and For internal use interrelations 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Call drops UE SW bugs

Symptoms - No UE reply for RRC signalling for one specific UE type - A lot of RLF or Error visible for one specific UE type - KPI drops after new UE type is launched in the network - KPI drops after new UE SW version is launched in the network - UE does not reply in good signal conditions and low loaded cells - No recovery method for dongle disconnect (No Detach messages visible) First step troubleshooting actions - Collect UE logs if possible - Check are the UE types tested in NSN FiVe, IOT or Innovation labs
For internal use 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

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EPC SW bugs

Symptoms - No reply to S1AP messages - Sudden S1AP Failure indications to multiple eNB - S1 Error indications/Alarms to multiple eNB - Missing S1 HO command forwarding to target eNB - Delayed reply/forwarding to S1AP messages - UEContextReleaseCommand without strange cause values - Duplicate/Strange MME UE S1AP ID allocations - KPI drops after new EPC SW upgrade - KPI drops after EPC parameter upgrade First step troubleshooting actions - FTM mirror port Wireshark trace - FTM logs - EPC logs if possible - In case NSN EPC, contact NSN R&D - InFor case other vendor EPC, contact customer internal use
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

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Backhaul SW bugs

Symptoms - KPI drops after new Backhaul element type/ SW version/feature is launched or activated in the network - KPI drops after Backhaul parameters/routing version is launched in the network - Link breaks for a cluster of eNB (e.g. behind a specific router) - S1 Error indications/Alarms for a cluster of eNB - Increased latencies in TCP level - Increased TCP re-transmissions - Congestion alarms/indications - Connectivity problems to certain IP addresses/TCP ports - Throughput can not exceed certain (low) limit First step troubleshooting actions - FTM mirror port Wireshark trace - FTM logs - Backhaul elements logs or Wireshark traces, if possible For internal use
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

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Faulty eNB units

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Symptoms - Raw or Customer Alarms indicating faulty/missing units - Known problematic HW versions are installed in the field - KPI drops after new HW installations - KPI drops after storms, floods, earth quakes, etc. natural disasters - Call drops located under certain cell away from cell edge - Long periods/Frequent cell unavailability - Frequent site resets First step troubleshooting actions - Check eNB status with SiteManager - Arrange HW swap - Check that there is no systematic SW/Comissioning/HW version fault For internal use 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved. burning HW components

Faulty UE

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Symptoms - On UE type or user in same location is causing frequent call drops - Call drops follow similar pattern in same cell location and during time of day - High interference peaks in same cell location and during time of day - Bursts of call drops in one cell for short time period, without the cell being sleeping/disabled First step troubleshooting actions - Try to find out problematic UE type - Try to find out problematic subscription IMSI - In case thousands of call drops, contact customer and ask them to For internal use 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved. contact owner of problematic UE owner

Commissioning

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Symptoms - HO fail in target cell for specific eNBs -> frequency sync faulty or missing - Line code violation (and high amount of ghost calls) -> problems in RP3-01 optical fibres - Antenna line alarms - > Loose feeder cables - No S1 connection -> Wrong IP settings - Start-up problems or alarms-> Invalid commissioning parameters or unsupported configuration - Call drops inside certain cell area out side cell edge -> antenna tilting - High DL interference -> Wrong cell power settings or antenna tilting First step troubleshooting actions - Check status with Site Manager - In case problems with cabling arrange site visit For internal use
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Call drops Network planning Symptoms There are clear holes in network coverage, when analyzed with NetAct Optimizer (or other application, which displays cell locations) There are clear non-line of sight locations for dense populated places Cell under Train, boat or bus traffic are configured with basic HO parameters eNB indicates lack of resources Scheduled UEs per TTI is near maximum continuously during busy hours Timing Advance values indicate too far distances for used carrier frequency and fading environment (e.g. urban city with tall buildings) Call drops in cell edge and no meas report sent Signal levels are low in large cell areas Frequent call drops in same location with multiple UE types High DL interference is certain cell locations First step troubleshooting actions Check status with NetAct Optimizer or site plan For internal use Contact customer for poor coverage
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

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Call drops Diagnostics

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Symptoms - Contention resolution timer expires and some kind of tracing is active - CPU loads are high (> 80 %) despite of moderate Traffic mix - Heavy amount of prints in SysLog or short Snapshot SysLog duration - Emil trace activated during heavy CP traffic - Strange R&D flags visible in swconfig.txt or in Start-up syslog prints - UP data traced/uploaded loaded continuously - Backhaul Traffic >> Air Interface traffic First step troubleshooting actions - Turn of tracing and additional logging - Switch of R&D flags For internal use 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved. - Contact tool developers and R&D

TOOLS

For internal use

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2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Data Collected from eNodeB for Analysis BTS Technical Report/BTS Snapshot - The eNB snapshot contains the following information: Active alarms and alarm history for this eNB Installed SW versions eNB configuration (commissioning parameters) Internal log files for different eNB components (including MAC TTI traces (10 MB)) PM counter data for this eNB (starting from the last eNB reset, but max for 24 hours) - Logs are frozen by eNB when fetch command is received - Saved in .zip file when loaded - Collection of technical log is triggered by via the BTS Site Manager protocol. When technical log is collected from the Site Manager, the term snapshot is used as a synonym. For internal use
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Measurement Tools (NSN R&D Internal tools)


The following measurement tools have been developed by NSN for R&D that you can also use BTSLog
BTSlog is a testing tool including functionality of:
System log recording & real-time monitoring tool Message trace and recording R&D parameters handling BTSlog is used for BTS testing and works with Windows

LTE Browser
LTE Browser is used to get the real time data about the CPU load, & real time UL PHY measurement data (SNR, BLER etc) memory dump information's from DSPs and static Cell specific configuration information

Emil
EMIL is an offline message tracing analyzer tool. EMIL parses all the internal messages between different software components, EMIL has the capability to show all ASN.1 messages (RRC, S1 AP, X2 AP messages) Emil L3 decoding works even if IPsec is used for S1/X2

TTI Trace Analyzer


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Traces Cell and User specific TTI information For internal use Helps to analyze the behavior of the DL/UL Packet . Networks. All rights reserved. 2013 Scheduler Nokia Solutions and Is implemented as ring buffer which is filled up with information all the time

For internal use

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Analysing BTS message logs with Emil

After Sack and profile configuration trace file can be opened with EMIL.

For internal use

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LTE BROWSER
Definition: noise rise NR = (I+N)/N, I = interference, N = thermal noise SNR0=S/N (only noise, no interference) SNR1 = S/(I+N), (noise + interference using eg external rf generator) NR = SNR0/SNR1 = (I+N)/N, assuming average signal power S is the same Example: SNR0=13dB, SNR1=8dB NR= 5dB Real-time online measurement from eNB LTE Browser

SNR0 Noise rise SNR1 Interference source is off (only thermal noise) For internal use
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LTE Test Tools / 2010 May / Jaakko Krn

Interference source is on
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

TTI Trace Analyzer

For internal use

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ToC

UL HARQ Support in TTI Trace


[3GPP-36.312 chapter 8] specifies the relationship of the timing between eNB and UE with the following wording: For FDD and normal HARQ operation, the UE shall upon detection of a PDCCH with DCI format 0 and/or a PHICH transmission in subframe n intended for the UE, adjust the corresponding PUSCH transmission in subframe n+4 according to the PDCCH and PHICH information.

8 HARQ processes per UE

Predefined RV sequence for successive packet transmissions

Non-Adaptive HARQ retransmissions use the same MCS, the same rate matching and the same PRBs

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Unlike DL , HARQ process id not sent in UL because the UE is expected to retransmit For in exactly 8 TTI. internal useACK/NACK is sent by eNB in exactly 4 TTIs.

Retransmission is sent for Nack or DTX exactly after 8TTIs. This is synchronous HARQ procedure. 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

RRM in TTI traces & related System Performance - Shomik Pathak - Nov 2011

WIRESHARK

For internal use

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Traffica for eNodeB, what and how?


Traffica for eNodeB provides
Real-time monitoring solution for subscribers radio interface experience

Direct interface to NSN Network element Subscribers radio interface experience Includes detailed internal and external error causes for root cause analysis

How Traffica for eNodeB works Traffica receives data reports based on actions Users Equipment in the network.
User Equipment specific report is sent in real time immediately to Traffica when the triggering event happens.

RRC/eRAB activities by User Equipment will trigger a data report to sent to Traffica.

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For internal use

RRC or eRAB establishment/release and related failures.


2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Handover and Handover attempts will trigger a data report to be sent to Traffica.

Traffica for eNodeB, use cases


Real-time view to Radio events
Detect Radio failures as they occur Visibility to events, locations, failure
causes

Drive Test Minimizing


Cell-ID and UE distance from eNodeB
included in the Traffica report, UE location can be specified quite well.

Locations with most events or failures Monitor Number of call setups / cell

At handover, UE measurements from


each neighbour cell (field strength) is available

Visibility Handovers
Monitor Handover events Visibility to Handover failures and
causes

Traffica can count normal and


abnormal call setups and releases according to each location

Handover locations and field strength

Location based analysis


events and failures per location

Fast root cause analysis via detailed internal error cause descriptions

For internal use

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Data Collected from eNodeB for Analysis LTE1053 Traffica for LTE
- Traffica receives event based reports from Trace Data Collector in real time. - Traffica analyses the data and creates KPIs based on the data and visualize in Traffica real-time graphs.
General (graph set):
RRC overview (setup failure, active failure, setup attempts, normal releases, setup failure distribution, etc) RRC service failure Details(RRC setup events, RRC setup events / establishment cause, RRC setup failure distribution /cause) RAB overview (setup failure, active failure, setup attempts, normal releases, setup failure distribution, etc) RAB service failure Details(RAB setup events, RAB setup events / establishment cause, RAB setup failure distribution /cause) Incoming HO types (Incoming HO per cell, Incoming HO types, UE distance measurements, source cell RSRP, Target cell RSRP) Outgoing HO types (outgoing HO per cell, outgoing HO types, UE distance measurements, source cell RSRP, Target cell RSRP) Handover failures (outgoing HO failures / cell, HO failure causes, HO failure phases/cell) RRC setup failures(RRC setup failures per cell, RRC setup failure sources /cell) RAB setup failures (RRC setup failures per cell, RRC setup failure sources /cell, UE distance at RAB setup failure) RAB active failure(RAB active failure per cell, RAB active failure sources per cell, UE distance at active failure) Handover failures (outgoing HO failures / cell, HO failure causes, HO failure phases/cell) RRC or RAB establishment / release and failures related to those Intra-system oruse Intersystem handover, successful or failure includes failure cause information. For internal The interface between the Trace Data Collector and Traffica is event reportsand based (TCP/IP). 2013 Nokia Solutions Networks. All rights reserved.

Handover Analysis (graph set)


Troubleshooting (graph set)


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Triggers for receiving these reports are


NetAct Tracing for LTE

Introduction - NetAct Trace Viewer provides the tracing functionality for LTE - The same application can be used for LTE tracing as for 2G and 3G tracing. - LTE tracing allows to monitor calls of subscribers in LTE network - Functionality aligned with Call Trace Analyzer

eNB MME eNB


For internal use

NetAct
Trace Viewer

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2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

NetAct Tracing for LTE

Use Cases - Network Rollout and new installation


Monitor calls of field engineers on-line Guide drive testing team at the problem spot on a field instead of testing just pre- planed route Get fast reply after software and hardware upgrade about network coverage by monitoring on-line field engineers Act promptly to corporate customer network coverage related problems Find out right problem related to case Reduce time used to network coverage related cases

- Detailed investigation of subscriber complaints - Solving problem cases related to network coverage - Features and trace content for

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Site & Cluster acceptance Change acceptance Saving test results In depth analysis
For internal use 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Measurement Tools Terminals (Drive Testing) The following drive testing tools using a terminal are recommended:
Agilent/JDSU E6474A (Currently most cost efficient solution and supports samsung)
Currently support LG Data card and partial Samsung support Support soon also Qualcom Chip set Supports up to eight frequency bands NEMO Outdoor from Anite (No samsung support) LG LTE L-1000 and L-2000 chipset support LG G7, G13 and G17 UE support PCTEL EX LTE Scanner and R&S TSMW LTE scanner supports Support soon also Nokia Modem RD-3 and QUALCOMM LTE chipsets (MDM9200 / MDM 9600)

Rhode and Schwarz (ROMES)


R&SROMES4 is a test platform for mobile measurements in all modern radio networks. In combination with scanners and test mobile phones, it forms a complete system for coverage and quality-of-service (QoS) measurements.

Accuver XCAL
XCAL is the drive testing solution from Accuver Supports LG and Samsung UE For internal use
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2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

https://twiki.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/bin/view/LTETechSup/WebHome LINK FOR LTE TOOLS

For internal use

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SON FOR LTE


Self-Configuration Self-Optimization Self-Healing

Flexibility in logistics (eNB not site specific) Reduced site / parameter planning Simplified installation - less prone to errors No / min. drive-tests Faster roll-out
For internal use

Increased network quality and perform. Parameter optimization Reduced maintenance, site visits

Error Self-detection and mitigation Speed up maintenance Reduce outage time

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Self-Configuration for LTE

Centralized SON

SON Plug and Play


Flexi BTS auto-configuration Automated Physical Cell ID assignment

Automated Neighbor Relations (ANR) Management


Automated neighbor list configurations of LTE, inter-frequency LTE, inter-system WCDMA and GSM neighbor cells Automated update of neighbor list configuration in case of GSM and WCDMA neighbor cells removals / additions

Distributed SON

PRACH Management SON Plug and Play of PRACH parameters by Optimizer Automatic Flexi BTS assignment auto-connection
Flexi BTS auto-configuration LTE Certification Authority and Registration Authority Management

For internal use

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Automated Neighbor Relations (ANR) Fully UE based LTE, inter-system neighbor list configuration due to UE 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
found/measured neighbor relations

Self-Optimization for LTE

Centralized SON

Automated Neighbor Relations Management


Optimization of found neighbor relations by blacklisting inefficient ones

Energy Saving
Centralized management for Flexi BTS shutdown and energy saving features

Mobility Robustness Optimization


Optimizing Intra-frequency radio network HO-configuration in order to reduce too early, too late, ping pong HOs or HO to wrong cells

Distributed SON

Service Quality Optimization of Drive Management Tests Minimization Automated Neighbor Energy Saving
Intelligent Flexi BTS shutdown Enhanced power saving BTS power saving mode

analysis ofof location specific performance based on call Geographical Support for optimization neighbor relations level statistics

Load Balancing
For internal use

Physical HO optimization Real-time load balancing


2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved. Minimization of Drive Tests

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Support for call level statistics

Self-Healing for LTE

Centralized SON

Cell Outage Detection


Cell outage detection by KPI and alarm supervision

Cell Outage Triggered Reset


Cell outage detection triggered reset of cells

Cell Outage Compensation


Coverage hole compensation by antenna adjustments

Distributed SON

Automatic Interface Alarm Correlation Alarm correlation in case problems Reset of a central interface (X2, Cell Outage Detection andof Triggered
S1) and or entity KPI alarm support

Cell Outage Reset


Automated cell lock & unlock with escalation to reset

Cell Outage Compensation


Emergency configurations to compensate neighbor cell outage
For internal use

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2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Optimizer for LTE Effortless self-configuration and optimization on Network Layer to maximize the network performance Optimizer in the core of the Self Organizing Network solution in NetAct for centralized SON
Self-Optimisation: Auto-tuning of neighbour cell lists and other key parameters based on UE and eNB measurements on network management level Cell outage compensation Able to cope with a single vendor domain as well as with multi-vendor access networks
Optimizer NetAct Network Management Optimizer
Domain Manager
CM PM

BACK RL40

CM PM

Nokia Siemens Networks

Vendor X

For internal use

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2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Physical-layer Cell ID (PCI) Management - PCI management done in similar way than UTRAN PSC - PCIs are not unique - initial allocation of PCI values confusion-free: all neighboring cells need to have different PCI values collision-free: no two cells must be received with same PCI - minimum reuse distance algorithm - optional: neighbors neighbor have different PCIs Support for synchronized LTE networks - three additional rules to allocate PCIs cells under one eNB shall have PCIs from the same PCI group(s) neighbor cells shall avoid same PCI modulo 30 neighbor cells shall use odd and even PCI groups evenly (approximation of a modulo 6 rule)
PCI group, N(1)ID 0 1 2 165 166 167 0 0 3 6 495 498 501 PCI offset, N(2)ID 1 1 4 7 496 499 502 2 2 5 8 497 500 503

For internal use

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Achim

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

PCI vs. eUTRAN Cell Global ID (ECGI)


eUTRAN Cell Global ID
Part of System Information Block 1 in BCCH Unique Cell Identity in the with PLMN and eNB Identities Long repetition cycle of 80 ms UE does not decode this if not advised to do !!!

Physical-layer Cell ID
Part of the Synchronization Sequence/Reference Symbol Limited to 504 values, not unique Short repetition cycle of 1 ms fast, no DRX needed careful assignment needed because a UE shall never receive the same value from 2 different cells -> no collisions, no confusions
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved. Achim

For internal use

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Physical-layer Cell ID (PCI) Management - Need to have clear identity codes to ensure reliable neighbour cell dependencies - Similar structure/management to UTRAN Primary Scrambling Codes - PCI allocation algorithms:
confusion/collision free allocation minimum reuse distance in allocation criteria user can control the algorithm
- option to allow neighbors neighbor have different PCIs - minimum reuse distance can be defined

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support for synchronized LTE networks


- cells under a eNB shall have PCIs from the same PCI group(s) - 504 PCIs have been grouped into 168 groups, 3 codes in each - neighbor cells shall use odd and even PCI groups evenly
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Presentation / Author / Date For internal use - Optimizer 3.0 assigns initial PCI values2013 in Nokia autoSolutions and Networks. All rights reserved. configuration process

LTE PCI Management Enhancements - If LTE eNodeBs are deployed and managed with various processes it can happen that PCI collisions or confusions occur
When LTE Auto-configuration process is used for eNodeB roll-out PCI conflicts never happen

PCI conflict/confusion analysis can be activated in Optimizer


Collision analysis for selected set of cells Collisions and confusions checked against the user defined criteria Analysis against violations of additional constraints is run too
Forbidden PCIs (in Optimizer 3.0 CD2)

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Analysis results are presented in table views and on geographical map PCI reallocation can be activated in Optimizer Resolution can be activated for the selected area Optimizer finds the collision/confusion and violation
free allocation for PCIs by minimising the amount of changes
Cells with most serious PCI problems are changed first
For internal use 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

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Presentation / Author / Date

Automated Neighbor Relations (ANR) in LTE

The handset mobility relies on information given by neighbor cells and the quality of it The ANR function automates and optimizes that handover process with real-time information exchange between the parent cell (source) and receiving cell (target) The automated neighbor relations remove manual planning, maintenance and subsequently errors from the process The steps of ANR process
Neighbor cell discovery Neighbor Sites X2 transport configuration discovery X2 Connection Set-up with neighbor cell configuration update For internal use
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/ 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Key Benefits of ANR


The automated detection and configuration of unknown
cells and respective sites supports the self configuration of the neighbor cell information without operator involvement Automation of adjacency planning & maintenance leads to O&M cost reductions The error free ANR process simplifies and speeds up the network rollouts and expansions for faster time to market
Expected amount of LTE neighbor sites is 6-32

For internal use

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ANR support for LTE with OAM extension (LTE492)


ANR support for LTE with OAM extension (LTE492)
new mechanism allowing for identification of unknown UE-reported neighbour cells each newly activated Flexi Multiradio BTS is provided with table that maps Physical Cell Id & DL EARFCN of adjacent cells to C-plane IP address of their parent eNBs PCI/RF/IP@ mapping tables are generated by NetAct based on the neighbour site relations analysis and downloaded to BTS during autoconfiguration procedure based on PCI/RF/IP@ mapping table, eNB is able to determine adjacent eNB hosting unknown cells and to retrieve from it necessary (in the context of neighbour relations) configuration information neighbour site and neighbour cell configuration information is derived via X2 For internal use 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved. connection

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ANR support for LTE with OAM extension (LTE492)


ANR support for LTE with OAM extension (LTE492)
X2 connection setup procedure is triggered by UE measurement reports containing PCI that is not known to eNB as a neighbour cell but is listed in PCI/RF/IP@ mapping table
X2 connection establishment is not based on info from MOC ADIPNO only as it was with LTE724

target eNB accepts incoming X2 connection setup requests from a source eNB even if no IP-address of the source eNB is configured on the target site
no need for configuration of IP@s at both ends of the X2 connection as it was with LTE724

Feature benefits
automated detection and derivation of configuration information of unknown neighbour sites and cells no need for manual pre-planning of eNB adjacencies for X2 connection setup self-configuration of the neighbour cell information without operator For internal use involvement - reduced planning efforts 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

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LTE 771 Optimization of neighbor relations

Evaluating of handover behaviour blacklisting proposed ?


NetAct Optimizer supervises all registered Optimizer cell relations between neighboring LTE cells if they are still valid and reliable candidates to Configurator be a handover destination When the outcome results in an inefficient neighbor relation, the according cell relation is blacklisted for handover Blacklisting can be done manually by the operator as well White listing (excluding optimization) can be No HO permanently done manually by the operator The changes, proposed by optimization algorithms, can be taken over automatically internal use (without For any operator intervention) or after 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved. 92 confirmation by the operator
CM PM

RL30

ANR InterRAT UTRAN / GERAN

Automated configuration: NO manual work for neighbor cell relation information


NetAct

Optimizer CM

Central neighbour relation


establishment with NetAct Optimizer Based on geo-location: no ANR InterRat supporting UEs needed
Configurator

N-itf
LTE GERAN UTRAN UTRAN/GERAN Domain Managers

CM

UTRAN

GERAN

For internal use

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Feature ID(s): LTE 783 / 784

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

Technical Details
ANR Inter-RAT in details 1/8

Table of Contents

Main Menu

LTE783 ANR Inter-RAT UTRAN / LTE784 ANR InterRAT GERAN


LTE site/cell (source of NBR) and RAT site/cell (target of NBR) must be under management of NetAct For both (source and target), planning information must exist in NetAct Configurator database, i.e.: geo-location and antenna direction data NetAct Optimizer uses this planning data to calculate: Distance between LTE cell and RAT cell
Is estimated based on geo-location of LTE cells antenna (source) and geolocation of RAT cells antenna (target)

NetAct

Optimize r
CM CM

Configurator
LTE Domain Managers

CM

UTRAN/GERAN Domain Managers

CM

Relative main lobe directions


Is determined based on antennas directions of source and target cell

LTE source UTRAN target GERAN target

Based on them (distance part and relative main lobe directions part), priority for each adjacency is calculated. Priority gives information about usefulness of each NBR. Also following inputs must be defined:

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Search distance between LTE cell and RAT candidates for excluding far away cells Minimum/maximum number of NBRs from each considered LTE cell For internal use Otherwise default values are considered 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.

This information must be available as precondition before starting of NBR planning by LTE783/784

Main Menu

For internal use

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MBB CS Network Engineering / Bartlomiej Bednarz

Mobility Robustness Optimization Input/Output


Input Parameters

PM counters HO Attempt/Success Rate RLF rate Dedicated new counters (based on 3GPP Rel9 Radio Link failure indication and handover report messages on X2-interface) Too early HO of type 1 counts attempted failed handovers with subsequent reestablishment Too early happening HO of type 2 counts several kinds of problems in handover target cell quickly after a completed handover Too late HO counts missed handover attempts ending up in radio link failure
Output parameters:

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Modified values for For internal use Offset (CIO) (per NR pair) Cell Individual 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved. Time-to-trigger (A3 time to trigger) (per cell for all NR)

Recommendation to use SON

1. Consider SON expert from the beginning of roll-out procedure plan to check the advantage of SON. 2. Set-up the correct communication line between global and local. Involvement of SON expert and product line is strongly recommended to select the SON solution proper and optimized for customer network environment. 3. Need the engineers who get end-to-end training about SON(not only eNB SON and NetAct optimizer) because SON issues should be investigated end to end.

For internal use

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Thank you

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For internal use /

2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.