Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 78

1

1.




. ,
,
,
.


- ,
,

.

80 -
,
(Information Technology in Schools / Linformatique
lcole). , ,
, ..
(Computer Assisted Learning- CAL / Enseignement Avec
Ordinateur EAO),
(Computer Based Training- CBT).

,
, , ,
,
,
.

,
, ,
.


.
CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning),

.
,

.

:
(instruction)
(learning).
, : CAI
(Computer Assisted Instruction), CBI (Computer Based Instruction),
CBT (Computer Based Training/Teaching), CEI (Computer Enriched
Instruction), CDI (Computer Directed Instruction), CMI (Computer
Managed Instruction), CMT (Computer Managed Teaching), ICAI
(Intelligent Computer Assisted Instruction), ITS (Intelligent Tutoring
Systems).

(Instruction, Teaching,
Tutoring, Training),
.
.
, CAI Assisted
/ .
/ .
CEI. , CBT, CDI CMI
/

/.
/,
, .
,
/ ,
,
.
,
: CAL (Computer Assisted Learning), CBL (Computer
Based Learning), CML (Computer Managed Learning) CDL
(Computer Directed Learning).
.

, .
, ,
,
.
, ,

,
.
CALL
.
, / .
, /
.


.
(Computer Literacy)
,
, , .

:

,
(Intelligent Tutoring Systems),
(Powerful Learning
Environments),
,

(Control Technology) ,
,
()

(, 2001).

.

,
, ,
, .,
,
, .

1.1


,
.

, ,
, ,
, , ,
, , , , , , .

Poole (1997) : ) , )
, ) , )
)
. , Lebrun
(1999)
: )
, ,
,
, )
, )
,
,
) ,
, )

( , ), ) ,

, ,
.
(2001)


.
:
)

, , ,
,
,
) , ,
,
.
,
,
) ,
( , , , ,
, ,
)
,
)
(, , ) ,
,
-
,
)
, .


/

.
1.2




.
(, 1991).

Skinner,
Piaget

Gagn.
1.2.1

, Thorndike,
Pavlov,

,
.
Skinner

,

,
,
. (Skinner,
1974).
,
. Skinner (1960),
, , .

, : )


.

.
,
, , .
,
.
,
(Skinner, 1961) : )
, ) , )
, )
,
)

,

. ,

,
, ,
,
.
Skinner
,

Skinner.
(Computer Aided
Instruction Computer Based Instruction)


(
) (Warshauer, 1996).

1.2.2
Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner David Ausubel

,
.

,
. (,
1997)

.


.
,

() .
Piaget (, 1986)
- ,
,
,
.

- ,
.

J. Bruner ,

.
.
, ,
,
.

. Bruner
, .
D. Ausubel
- .

,
(.. )

.

.

.

.
(mindtool,
cognitive tool) Seymour Papert (1980),
Piaget, logo
- . logo
,


,
.

(CD-ROM),
.
(multimedia) (hypermedia)
.
:
.

.
.

/.

1.2.3
.
R. Gagn

(, 1997).

.

.

, .


,

/ . /

, .
/


.
Gagn

,
.
Gagn ( ,

..) ( )
: )
, ) , ) , )
, ) . (, 1999)
, ,
(
),
( Gagn),

. , Skinner

,
. Gagn


: )
, )
, ,
.
Gagn


bits, - ,
)
.

1.3



,
.
, ,

-
,
(, 2001).
:
.
(drill-and-practice):
.

,
.
, ,
.

( -tutorials): : )

, ) , )
, ) ,
) , )
) .
,
, ,

,
, .
(simulations):

. ,
:
)



,
) .
,
,

, , .,
) .

.
,
, , , )
.

.
, , ,
,
.
, ,


,
,
, . (,
1999). :
) :

,
) :
,
,
(search strategy)

,
) (music tools): ,
, ,
hardware


,
,
) :

,
)
) .

1) , . (1991).
.

. .

2) , . (1997).
.

. .

3) , . (1999). !

" #

"

: .
4) , . (1986). $" %

&

Piaget. :

.
5) , ., , . (2001).

;


, . (.) .
/"

# ,

2 , , , 14-15 ,
47-70.
6) , . (1999). $
0

0 " # . 4

"

. : .

7) , . (2001).

%#0

0 " # .

: .
1) Lancien,

T.(1998):

Le

multimdia. Paris :

Cl

International,

Collection : Didactique des Langues Etrangres.


2) Lebrun,

M.

(1999).

Des

technologies

pour

enseigner

et

apprendre. Bruxelles : De Boeck & Larcier.


3) Papert, S. (1980). Mindstorms, children, computers and powerful ides.
New York: Basic Books.

4) Perriault, J. (2002). Education et nouvelles technologies. Thorie et


pratiques. Paris : Nathan Universit.
5) Poole, B.J. (1997, 2nd ed. /1995, 1st ed.). Education for an
information age. Teaching in the computerized classroom. USA: Mc
Grow-Hill.
6) Skinner, B.F. (1960). The science of Learning and the Art of
Teaching. .. Lumsdaine, R. Glaser (.) Teaching Machines
and Programmed Learning. USA: National Education Association of
the United States, 99-113.
7) Skinner, B.F.(1961). Teaching Machines. Scientific American
Frontiers of Psychological Research. London: W.H. Freeman and
Company, 267-277.
8) Skinner, B.F (1974). About Behaviorism. London: Jonathan Cape
9) Warschaur, M.. (1996). Computer-assisted language learning: An
introduction. In S. Fotos (ed.), Multimedia language teaching.Tokyo:
Logos International, 3-20.

2. INTERNET

Internet ()

.
(
), (LAN- Local Area Network).

, (MAN- Metropolitan Area
Network).
, (WAN- Wide Area
Network).
Internet

. Internet
.
Internet,
.
Internet.
Internet
, ,
, ,
(WWW, World Wide Web),
(e-mail), (USENET),
(IRC), (voice chat), (televideo) .
(www) Internet.
www - Internet ..
.
(clients) (web servers).

Internet. (
)
Internet,
Internet
, ,
, , .
-
. -
-,

, ,
(web
sites). -

(web pages) .


( - server) .
2.1

Internet, (web browser).



Microsoft Windows 98, millennium, 2000, XP ( Internet
Explorer) (..
Netscape Navigator).
ISDN
,


(username) (password)

.
,

http (HyperText
Transport Protocol:

).

http://www.ypepth.gr (http)
.


. (www)
. (ypepth)
(internet server)
.
(
, )
. com
, edu , gov ,
mil , net , org
,
fr , uk
, de , .

,
.

, , ,
: (hyperlinks)

(

).
,
(home page)
-
-
URL address (Uniforme Resource Locator address).
.

DNS (Domain Name System).

(domains)
(domain name).
.
2.2

! Internet

, , , .
, ,

,

. (Perriault, 2002)

,
..
Saussure

.
, ,
,

.
(,
, ).
( , ).
.

( , , ).
( )

)
( )
edutainment,
.
( , )
(Tandem)
, , ,

. ,

, , ,
, .

web enhanced Language Learning,

.
. ,

(.. ,
)
,
. ,
.


.

.
.
, ,

.
,
(
). ,

,
.

,
: )
Internet , , ,
,

) , ,

, , ) ,
, )
,

,
/

, .

2.3

()

*+

. : 0)

1(


(links) Internet,

,
.


.

.




.


, , ,
.

. Yahoo! e
.


,

. ,

.


, ,
,

. , Altavista
Looksmart, Infoseek GONetwork,
Excite Lycos
Netscape Open Directory.
,
,
.


.

Yahoo! Internet Public Library.

.
Yahoo!
.

.

Internet Public Library ( Argus

Clearinghouse)



.
, ,

.
2.3.1

() 2 ), 3 )!45

) , 0)

. 6

The Internet Public Library

Yahoo!

http://www2.ipl.org

http://www.yahoo.com

Access to Internet and Subject Resources

LookSmart

http://www2.lib,udel.edu/subj/

http://www.looksmart.com/

The best Information on the Net

Go.com

http://www.sau.edu./databases/databases.htm http://www.go.com

BUBL LINK

Open Directory Project

(Catalogue of Selected Internet Resources)

http://dmoz.org

http://bubl.ac.uk/link/
www Virtual Library

NBCi

http://www.vlib.org/Home.html

http://nbci.msnbc.com/nbci.asp

InfoSurf

Starting Point

(Resources by Subject)

http://www.stpt.com/

http://www.library.ucsb.edu/subj/
Librarians Index to the Internet
http://lii.org/search/

2.4

Internet,
( wanderer, crawler,
robot, worm, spider, ).
, ,
, URL, , .
. (Barlow,
2002)

,
:

Spider:

web


.
:

spider.
:

,

.
: )
:
spider
, ) :

.
spiders
.
( ),

.


:
) :


.

) :

, :

().

.

.

.

.

. (Pearson, 2002)
1)
web.
password,
server
.
spiders

Internet

spiders,
web .
2)

.
,



.
(proximity operators)

.
3)
.
,
and
, , .
,
Find web browser
.
4)
,
,

.

.
:
, URL,
.
.
.
.

5)
,
, , , domain, , .

,
. :
Teoma
.
Google
,
.
MetaFind ,
domain.
H Nothern Light
, /
.
6) web.

,
web .
,

. , ,

.

2.4.1

() 2 ), 3 )!45

),9

) .

*+

1 2

AltaVista

Ask Jeeves

http://www.altavista.com

http://www.ask.com

Fast search

Teoma

http://www.alltheweb.com
HotBot
http://www.hotbot.com
Infoseek
http://inoseek.go.com

http://www.directhit.com
Google
http://www.google.com
Northern Light
http://www.nlsearch.com

Lycos
http://www.lycos.com

MetaCrawler

MetaFind

(meta engine)

(meta engine)

http://www.metacrawler.com

http://www.metaFind.com

WebCrawler
(meta engine)
http://www.webcrawler.com
2.4.2 ((
2, : 2,
*+
,
4)
1(

.

( ).

. ,
, ..
,
. ,

, .
,
.
, .
,
,

, .
2.4.2.1
.
1) Hack.gr (Meta Search Engine: http://www.hack.gr/mse/)

: AltaVista, InFoseek, Greek Indexer,
Robby, iBoom, Toxo. .

.
2) PathFinder (http://www.trinity.gr)

sites. , .
.
3) Phantis (http://www.phantis.com)

.
(sites) .
.
4) Robby (http://www.robby.gr)


.
,
.
5) Directory (http://www.directory.gr)
6) (http://www.evresi.gr)
7) In.gr (http://www.in.gr)
8) Go Greece (http://www.gogreece.net)
9) Findlink (http://www.Findlink.gr

2.4.3 ; )! ) : +
logic)
Internet

,(

+, 7

)()

. (Boolean

Bool,

,
, ,

(, , 2002)


:
OR AND NOT NEAR
A AND B: sites
. : +A+B
A OR B: sites
.
A AND NOT B: sites
.
: +A- B.
A NEAR B: sites
,
.
WILDCARDS:
wildcards
.
(*),
,

. , *
sites , , ,

, . wildcards,
, ,
.
Stop Words:
, ,
, , , , ,
.
stop words.
:

site, sites
.
.
Domain: domain (.. Domain: gr):
domain.
URL: URL (.. URL:www.trinity.gr): sites
URLs www.trinity.gr.
Link: URL (.. Link:www.trinity.gr):
sites linked .
Title: text (.. Title:trinity):
trinity.
Description:

text

(..

Description:trinity):

(tagdescription) trinity.
Image: Filename (.. Image:Sunset):
.
,
,

..

LANGUAGE

FRENCH

LANGUAGE LEARNING . ,
2-4

.
,
. :
English/French language Resources EFL Lesson Plans- EFL/ESL
Websites- CALL Resources- Internet + Language Learning- English for
academic

purposes-

Business

English-

CALL

Journals-

CALL

Organisations-Authentic Language Learning-Computer Assisted Language


Learning-Educational Simulations.
.
2.5 6
2

+
, (.

(
,.

)( F7

FF

,
.

.

,
.

: (Alexander, Marsha, 1999),
(Pouts-Lajus, Magnier 1998)

1) :


.
,
.

.


,
(, ).


. ,
,

. ,
,
.
2) .
.
,
webmaster.
. , ac,
edu , org, com
.
webmaster,
.
, .

3) . .

.
, ,
, , ,

, .

. ,

, .
.

(.. ) . ,

.
,
.
4) .
, ,
,
. ,

, ,
.
5) .

.

.
, ,
/ .
6) .
,
.
,
.
,
, .
7) .
.
,
. -

.
, .
,
Grammar
.
8) .
,
.
.
9) .
, . , .

. ,

.
( ).
10) .
. ,
,
,
.

2.5.1 6
2 7

),
(7

)( F7

FF

. ,
, , ,
.
.
.
.

.
. ,
, , .

.
, ,
, ,
.
2.6
: +
FF
(

! ()
7 2 7

5 H :!F
(7 .

) !

(e-mail)
Internet
. ,

, , e-cards ( ),
., .
,

. ,

, . ,
, . ,
. email @ .
,
,
e-mail.



-

.
(Henriette Toussaint, 2000)

: e-mail

.

3 : (, 2003) )
:


.
,

. (Sprenger, 2002) )


: 1. ,

2.
, ,


,




.
2.7 J((), !

) ),

!3 F

5 !

1) Usenet Newsgroups: newsgroups ,



.

newsgroup


.
, newsgroups
.
newsgroup, ,
,
,
. newsgroups
1979, DUKE

newsgroups.
Usenet

.
Usenet
Forum.
2) FTP (File Transfer Protocol = ): FTP

Internet. FTP

. FTP
Internet.
3) Instant Messaging: To Instant Messaging
e-mail.



online .
clients MSN Messenger, ICQ, Yahoo
Messenger, AOL Messenger.
4) IRC (Internet Relay Chat): IRC multi-user
,

.

1)

, ., . ( 2002).
Internet, PC Magazine, 13.

2)

(1997).

: . .

ST $UT$ -

! #

"

3)

, . (2003).
,
/

/"

0 " #2
, 9-

11 2003.
4)

Hahn, H., Stout, R. (1995).

# " W W"

ST $UT$ , .

. . : .

1) Alexander, J.& T., Marsha A. (1999). Evaluating web Resources,


Wolfgram Memorial Library, Widener University. Available on line:
http://www2.widener.edu/Wolfgram-Memorial-Library/webeval.htm
2) Alexander, J.& T., Marsha A. (1999). Checklist for an Informational
Web Page, Wolfgram Memorial Library, Widener University.
Available on line:
http://www2.widener.edu/Wolfgram-Memorial-Library/inform.htm
3) Barlow, L. (2002). How to use web Search Engines. Available on line:
http://www.monash.com/spidap3.html
4) Barker, J (1996). Recommended Search Strategy: Search with
Peripheral Vision, Library, University of California, Berkeley.
Available on line:
http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/Internet/Strategies.h
tml
5) Crinon, J., Gautellier, C (2001). Apprendre avec le multimdia et
internet. Paris : Retz.
6) Henriette-Toussaint, F. (2000). Quelle didactique pour le ml ?
Available on line :
http://www.users.skynet.be/ameurant/francifo/mel/index.html

7) Karsenty, T. (2001). Optimiser l utilisation du courrier lectronique


comme outil pdagogique et didactique. Available on line :
http://www.apop.qc.ca/colloque2001/actes
8) Lawrence, S., Giles, L. (1998). Searching the World Wide Web,
Science, volume 280, number 5360, pp. 98-100, NEC Research
Institute of Princeton. Available on line:
http://www.neci.nec.com/~laurence/science98.html
9) Lawrence, S., Giles, L. (1998). How big is the Web? How much of the
Web do the search engines index? How up to date are the search
engines? Available on line:
http://www.neci.nec.com/~laurence/websize.html
10) Leita, C. (2003). Search engines Quick Guide. Available on line:
http://www.infopeople.org/search/guide.html
11) Liu, J. (1999). Guide to Meta-search engines, Reference Department,
Indiana University Libraries. Available on line:
http://www.indiana.edu/~librcsd/search/meta.html
12) Pearson, C. (2002). Search Engine strategies. Available on line:
http://www.infopeople.org/training/past/2002/lib_toolkit_kids/handout
_search%20engines.pdf
13) Perriault, J. (2002). Education et nouvelles technologies. Paris :
Nathan.
14) Pouts-Lajus S., Riche-Magnier M. (1998). L cole l heure de l
internet. Les enjeux du multimdia dans l ducation. Paris : Nathan
Pdagogie.
15) Sprenger, R. (2002). Internet et les classes de langues. Paris : Ophrys.
16) Sullivan, D. (2001). Search engine sizes. Available on line:
http://www.searchenginewatch.com/reports/article.php/2156481

3.
(distance education)
, .


.
,
,
, .

,

. . (1998)
,

.
, Holmberg (1977),
,
,

,
,
.
, (distance study),
(distance learning),
,

, ,
.
,
,
,
(distance teaching).

.
,

.
(interactive computerbased technologies),
. ,

. , , email, , .
,
multimedia
.
.


. 1980 .

. 1980

(interactive media) (digital
media).


.
(multiple media
education),
.

:

,
,
, ,
,

.
3.1 H

1((

F)!

2 )

-2 )


:
.

.


.
(
).
-.


( internet intranet).
,
(audio) chat.
.
.
.

.
3.2
F

) F )!);

. )

F)!


:
) (multimedia):
(, ,
.)

.

() .
.
) (interactive multimedia):

.


.


.
)

(Hypermedia):


.

.



.
,

.


,



,
.

10

3.3 L + ) , 7 )-

F)!

(newsgroups, chatting, )
(Bulletin Board systems)
,

(Application & Document


Sharing)
, . (File Transfer)
Web-based Internet
intranets.

-
,
(broadcasting, multicasting)
3.4 M

-2, )

, (Communication Mode)



(interaction) .
.

)
,
.
)

.
:
(video and audio conferencing),
(on line chat).

.
(video on demand):


.



.
(Live Broadcast Video):

.
(videoconferencing):

(interactive)

.
,


.
)

, (emailing lists), (on line
bulletin boards) .
)


.
,
.

(hyperlinks),
(annotations).
3.5 M

-2,

!)

F)!

5 !(


.
,
, -
.

. ,

. (, 1999)

3.5.1 F

F)!

5 !(

,
.
,
.
(worksheets) .
, , , .
,
.
.
- () .
( , , cd).
.
.
.
.
.
(computer
based training, CBT).
(interactive
video packages).
(CD based multimedia
packages).

, , , .,
.


,
. ,
,
.

, .


.
,
.

11

3.5.1.1


,
- .
.
.
()
.
() ,
, -.
,
.
(
, , ).

.
.
.
(-,
-).

.
.
,
(.. , , .).

3.5.2 :)F
!( 5

!)

F)!


.
, ,

. .


.
(, ,
, )
. (, 1998)


.
,
.

, , ,
,
.

( ).

,
, ,
( ,
,

,
)
, .
3.5.2.1

.


, ,

,

.

.

(
) ,
, -,
, , .
3.5.2.2


.

,

.
- .


.


: 1) , ,

, 2)

, 3)

.

-, ,
.
.

12

Оценить