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()

22 2013 .

II

10

10

10

11

12

III

12

12

10

13

11

13

12

14

IV

14

13

14

14

16

15

16

17

16

17

17

17

18

17

19

18

VI

19

20

19

21

20

22 -

20

23 ..

22

VII

22

24

22

25

23

26

23

VIII ,
24
27

24

28

25

IX

25

29
29.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25
25
26

30

26

31

27

28

32

28

33

29

34

29

XI

30

35

30

36
36.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31
32

37
37.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33
33
34
35

XII

36

38

36

39
39.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
39.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37
37
37

40

37

41

38

XIII

38

42
42.1 , . . . . . . . . .
42.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39
39
39

43
43.1 0 . . . . . . . . . . .
43.2 . . .
43.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39
39
39
40

XIV

40

43.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
43.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

XV

40
41

41

44
44.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
44.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
44.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41
41
42
42

45

42

XVI

45.1 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

XVII

II

XVIII

III

43
45

45
47

XIX

48

XX

50

46

50

47

51

48
48.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
48.2 . . . . . . . .
48.3 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51
51
51
52

XXI

52

49

52

50

53

51

55

XXII

56

52

56

53

57

54

57

55

58

XXIII

58

56

59

57
57.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
57.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60
60
60

58

61

59

63

60

63

61 -

64

62

65


-
= {(, ) | , }

() R ,
:
+

1. R R R
(a) 0, R + 0 = 0 + =
(b) R x : + () = () + = 0
(c) , , R ( + ) + = + ( + )
(d) , R + = +
1a, 1b, 1c , ().
1d, ().

2. R R R
(a) 1, R 1 = 1 = .
(b) R {0} x1 : 1 = 1 = 1.
(c) , , R ( ) = ( )
(d) , R =
2a, 2b, 2c, . 2d,
.
1. + 2. , , R ( + ) = +
3.
R 6
(a) R 6
(b) , R, ( 6 ) ( 6 ), = .
(c) : , , R ( 6 ) ( 6 ) 6
(d) , R ( 6 ) ( 6 ).
3a, 3b, 3c , . 3d, .
1. + 3. , , R, 6 + 6 +
7

2. + 3. , : 0 6 , 0 6 0 6
1, 2, ().
3, .
4. ()
R R : , : 6 R : 6 6 .

, = [0; 2), = ( 2; 2] Q.


,
0 , 1 , 2 , . . . , , . . .

, 0 , 1 2 . . . . . . ( {0, 1, . . . 9}).
, +0, 00 . . . 0, 00 . . . ,
0 , 1 . . . 999 . . . 0 , 1 . . . ( + 1)000 . . . ( = 9)
( ).

, () : , , .. ,
( + ) = () + ()
() = () (),
. 6 () 6 (),
.
I.1. .

, ,
, .. ,

.
.
, 1 , 2 : 1 = 2 (1 ) = (2 )
, : = ()
. .
8

, , ,
. card , ||.
,
. .
, || < | |,
: @ : .
I.2 (). , .
. , , || = |2 |, ..
, .
, , : = { |
/ ()}. , ,
: () = .
, (), ,
/ . ,
/ ,

/ (), . . ,
, 2 . , 2 , (, ),
|2 | > ||.
[:|||||:]
, N, .. card =
card N = 0 (-). ,
, .
I.3.
R , .
I.4 (). R , N.
. (0, 1).
R, .. card(0, 1) = card R. :
0, 11 12 . . . 1 . . .
0, 21 22 . . . 2 . . .
......
0, 1 2 . . . . . .
0, {11 , 0, 9}{22 , 0, 9} . . . { , 0, 9}. 0 1,
, .. 1- ,
2- .. ,
, , .
[:|||||:]
I.5. ,
N.

, (0, 1).
= 1 2 3 . . . .

() = =1 2 . , (0, 1)
2.

II

R (), () R : , 6 ( 6 ).
R , R : , || 6 .
, ( ), (
).
() , , 6
( > ). , () ,
, .
() sup . ()
inf .
= sup , 6 < : >
= inf , > > : <

II.1 ( ). ,
.
. R = { R | , 6 } ( ).
= = .
R : 6 6 .
.

= min = sup .
[:|||||:]
II.2 ( ). , .
. R = { R | , 6 } ( ).
= = .
R : 6 6 .
.

= max = inf .
[:|||||:]
10

, sup .
sup , .
: = (0, 1), sup = 1, inf = 0. , , .

II.3 (). ,
1 , .
1 + 1 + + 1 >

II.4 (). ,
, > , .. R N : > .
. II.3.

[:|||||:]

II.5 ( II.4). , 0 < < ,


, ( 1) 6 < .
.
( 1) 6 <
6 <

16 <

II.4 , , / < . = min{ | > /}.


1 6 /.
[:|||||:]
II.6. ( < ) . , .
. = 0, 1 2 . . . . . . , = 0, 1 2 . . . . . . . ,
. ,
, . , <
( , .. < ). 2 :
1. > +1. = 0, 1 2 . . . ( +1)000 . . . .
, , .
2. = + 1. 2 :
(a) = 0, 1 2 . . . . . . 0 . . . . .
= 0, 1 2 . . . 000 . . . 100 . . . , 1 + 1.
. , 1, = 0, 1 2 . . . 999 . . . ,
= .
(b) = 0, 1 2 . . . 000 . . . . , = 0, 1 2 . . . 999 . . . , .. = . > , < 9.
= 0, 1 2 . . . . . . ( + 1)1000 . . . . ,
- -. +1 = 1, ..
= 0, 1 2 . . . 999 . . . 9999 . . . , = .
[:|||||:]
11

II.7. , :
1. = 1.
2. - =
= + 1.
. . ,
. , :
1. = .
2. , , ( ,
, ).
, > 1, .. = 1 ( 1). , 1 . , 1
, . 2.
[:|||||:]

III

N 1 , 2 , . . . , .
N R .
(), R (
R) : N 6 ( > ). .. { } , R : N | | 6 .
.. { } , { } . .. { }
, R N : | | > .
{ } ,
R () : > | | >
.... , , , .
+ (1)+1
2
0 R : 0 > |0 | < 0 ( ....)
0 = 1 : N 0 > : |2+1 | = 0 < 1 = 0
=

{ } ,
> 0 () : > () | | <

12

10

{ } ....
1. { } .
. , > 0 () : > | | < . ,
> . < 6 max{|1 |, |2 |, . . . , | 1 }. = 1, =
max{|1 |, . . . , | 1 |, 1} N, | | 6 .
[:|||||:]
2. { } , { } .
.
> 0 () : > () | | <

: N 6
{ } : > 0 () : > | | <

[:|||||:]

3. { } .., { } { } .
.

2 () : > 2 | | <
2
2

= max{1 , 2 } > | | 6 | | + | | < + = .
2 2
> 0 1 () : > 1 | | <

:
1
2 () : > 2 | | < 2

1
= max{1 , 2 } > | | = | | | | < 2 = .

> 0 1 () : > 1 | | <

[:|||||:]

11

III.1. { } .. N, = 0,

.
> 0 () : > | | <

1
1
> =
| |

[:|||||:]

13

III.2. { } .. N, = 0,

.
> 0 () : > | | >

1
1
< =
| |

[:|||||:]

12

R ,
U(). U () = ( ; + ) -. U () = ( ; )
0

(; + ) = U = U {} .
, .. { } , ,
lim = U () (U ()) : > U ()

(1)

lim = > 0 () : > | | <

(2)

III.3. .
. 1- . U (), < < + <
< | | < .
2- . | | < , < < + , ..
U ().
[:|||||:]
, ,
{ } .
lim = < , { } . ,

lim lim = , { } .

: { } . R 0 > 0 : N 0 > : | | > 0

IV


13

1. . .. .
. . lim = 1 < 2 = lim . :

2 1
U (1 ) 1 : > 1 U (1 )
2
U (2 ) 2 : > 2 U (2 )
= max{2 ; 2 } > U (1 ) U (2 )
=

: U (1 ) U (2 ).
14

[:|||||:]

2. - .. .
. { } -.
> 0 () : > | | < < < +
> 0 : N | | 6 = max{|1 |, . . . , | 1 |, | + |, | |}

, , < .

[:|||||:]

3. lim = , lim = , lim ( ) = , lim ( ) = ,

lim = , = 0.

.
lim = , lim = = + , = + , { }, { } ..

= ( + ) ( + ) = ( ) + ( )

..

= ( + )( + ) = + ( + + )

..

{ } , .
:
IV.1. lim = = 0. > 0, N : > | | > > 0

.
> 0 () : > | | < < < +

3
= < < <
2
2
2
[:|||||:]
.
+
+
1

= ( )
=
=

( + )

IV.1 | 1 | < 1 { 1 } . ..
. , , ..
[:|||||:]

15

14

IV.2. lim = , lim = . < , : > < .

.
< : < <
1 > 0 1 : > 1 | | < 1
2 > 0 2 : > 2 | | < 2
> 1 | | < > 2 | | <
> max{1 ; 2 } < + = = + <
[:|||||:]
IV.3.

lim = , lim = . :

: >
: >
: >
: >

> , >
> , >
> , >
> , >

. 4 . , < .
IV.2 : > < ( -) < ( ).
.
[:|||||:]
IV.4 ( ).

lim = , : >

[, ], [, ].
. IV.3: > , > . ,
6 6 .
[:|||||:]

15

IV.5.
: > 6 6 . lim = = lim . lim =

.
> 0 1 : > 1 | | < < < +
> 0 2 : > 2 | | < < < +
< 6 6 < + lim =

[:|||||:]

16


16

N > +1 ( 6 +1 ), .. ()
{ } (). .
N > +1 ( < +1 ), .. ()
{ } (). .

17

V.1. .. ...., .
. - - 2. .
{ } , { } . sup{ } =
> 0 : <
{ } > >
< 6 6 < + lim = = sup .

[:|||||:]
V.2. .. - ...., .
. - - 2. .
{ } , { } . inf{ } =
> 0 : + >
{ } > 6
+ > > > > lim = = inf .

[:|||||:]

18

)
(
)+1
(
. lim = lim .
V.3. = 1 + 1 , = 1 + 1

17

. .
(
)
)
(
1

1+
(
)
1
1
2
1

)
= (
=

)+1 = (
2

+1
1
+1
+1
1
1+

(
)+1
1
1+

(1 + ) > 1 + :
(
) (
)
2
1
1
+1

= 1+ 2
>1+ =
>1+ 2
2
1
1
1

(
)
2

+1

>

=1

2
1
+1

+1
.. N 1 > { }
(
) (
)
(
)
(
)
1
1
1
+1
= 1+
1+
>2 1+
=2
> 2 .. { } .

, { } -.

{ } ( ).
)
) (
(
3
1
1
1 + 1 < lim ( ) = 0 lim = lim
0 < = 1 +

[:|||||:]
, , .
e, :
)
1
lim 1 +
= (

(
(
)
1
1+
< < 1 +

19

)
1

)+1

{[ , ]}
=1 (),
:
1. , .. 1 6 2 6 . . . 6 6 . . . 6 6
. . . 6 1 .
2. lim ( ) = 0

V.4 (-). ,
,
, .. !
=1 [ ; ].
. . .
: >

=1

[; ]

[ ; ] > > 0 N

=1

18

. 1.
.
{ } , 6 1 { }
{ } , > 1 { }
- 2 0 lim = lim =

6 6 N ( inf{ } sup{ })

[ ; ]

=1

[:|||||:]
V.4 . ,
)
(

1
0;
=0

=1

VI


20

1 < 2 < . . . . { } { }. , {1, 3, 5, . . . } / - N, {3, 1, 5, . . . }


/ N, .. 1 > 2 .
VI.1. { } , , .
.
lim = > 0 () : > () | | <

> > | | < lim =

[:|||||:]
VI.2. / .. .
.
() : > | | >
> > | | > { } ..
[:|||||:]

19

21

( ) { }, :
1. { }
2. / { } .. { }, .
VI.3. .
.
12

- { }.
- ,
1, 1 , 2 , . . . , 1 , . . . . 1 c 1 , 2 2 , 2 > 1 ....
, .. - { }. 1 , 2 , . . . , , . . . , -
, .. | | < 1 .
21

, { } ,
. -
(, ).
, { }.
[:|||||:]
VI.4. - .. ,
..
. .. , 2 . VI.1.
[:|||||:]

22

VI.5. .. /.
. { } . [; ] : N 6 6 . [; ] 2
. ( [1 ; 1 ]) { }.
[1 ; 1 ] { }. 1 . [1 ; 1 ]
2 . { }.
[2 ; 2 ]. 2 [2 ; 2 ]. .
, - , .. [ ; ].
{[ ; ]} ..., V.4 !

[ ; ]

=1

lim = lim = lim = ( )

[:|||||:]
20

() { } () .
lim = max{ | }

lim = min{ | }

VI.6. .. .
. ( - ).
. , : N 6 6 .
{} = { | .. { }}. ,
- {} , > . , - {}
( , 6 ). , inf{}. ,
= inf{} { }.
1. , .
> 0 . = inf{} : <
/ {}. ,
{ }.
= inf{} > 0 : 6 < +
{} , { }.
,
{ }, (
, ) ( (
, + ))
{ }, .. .
2. , > { }.
= ( )/2, (
, + ) ( , + ) = . -

+ . , > 0 +
{ }. , -
, { }, ,
{ }.
[:|||||:]
VI.7. .. { } lim = , lim = . > 0

( , + ) { }.
. , + 2 2
{ }. , + 2 { }
- VI.6. - . [:|||||:]
{ } - +()(), > 0 ( ) : >
> ( < )(| | > ).
VI.8. .. - /, /, - .
. .
{ } . : > . < +1 , = > >
{ } .
[:|||||:]
21

23

..

VI.9. .. - ...., .
.

{ } / - , .. lim = lim .

lim = lim = . > 0 ( , + )

... , { } , .. { } -.
[:|||||:]
VI.10. .. - ...., - /.
. { } { }. { },
.
{ }.
{ }. { }
{ }. , ,
,
[:|||||:]
{ }.

VII


24

{ } ,
> 0 () : > , N |+ | <
VII.1. { } , , ( , + ) .
.
> 0 : > , N | + | <
| + | <
< + < +
.. + , ..
.
[:|||||:]
VII.2. .
22

.
> 0 () : > , N |+ | <
N < + < +
{ } ., > 0 : N | | 6
= max{| |, | + |, |1 |, . . . , | |}
[:|||||:]

25

VII.3. { } ...., .
.

{ } : > 0 () : > () | | <


2

N |+ | <
2
| + | = | + + | 6 | | + |+ | 6 { }
{ } . { } .. VI.7 > 0 (;
) (
; + ), , 0 6 < 2. > = 0 (
, - ) = .

[:|||||:]

26

VII.4. 1 > 2 > 3 > . . . > 0. = 1 +2 + +


...., = 1 + 22 + 44 + + 2 2 .
.

=0

2 2 = 1 + 2 + 2 + 4 + 4 + 4 + + 2 + 2+1 + 2+1 + + 2+1 + . . . 6

61 +1

62 +2 +3 +3

62 +2 +2 +1 +2 +1 ++2+1 1

6 1 + 1 + 2 + 2 + 3 + 3 + + + + = 2

=1

, 6 +1 , .. { } . , V.1 .

23

=1

= 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + + 2 + 2 +1 + + 2+1 1 + . . . 6

62 +2

64 +4 +4 +4

6 1 + 22 + 44 + + 2 2 + =

62 +2 ++2

2 2

=0

, 6 +1 , .. { } . , V.1 .
[:|||||:]

VIII

,

27

, = {} ,
. .
, ,
.
, : .
, , , ..
, , .
VIII.1 (-). [; ] .
. : [; ]
.
1 = [; ]. 1 .
(.. +=).
2 . : , 3 . { },
. .. +1
, { } (1 2 3 . . . ).
1
= 21
0 { }
(...).
V.4 ... !
=1 . .. [; ], [; ].
, .
(; ). = min{ ; }. { } 0,
, .
, , , , ,
, , , (; ). , , ,
.
[:|||||:]
24

28

, .
. , = (; ), = [; ]
( ,
. , ( ; + )
).
VIII.2 (-).
.
. . .. , [; ] : [; ].
[; ] U(),
. ? ,
, :
/ [; ]. < ,
(; )
.
[; ] U(), .

[;
]
(..

[;
]
:

/
U(),

U() + (), ). , [; ] ( VIII.1).


( ), , , , ,
.
[:|||||:]
,
, .. U() = . ,
, , , .

IX


29

E R R E (
E). : E R. (
R) .

29.1

lim () = > 0 () > 0 : E, 0 < | | < | () | <

V () U () : (U () E) V ()

25

:
. ,
- .
, , .
:
lim () = > 0 0 : E, || > 0 | () | <

29.2

lim () = { } : N = E, lim = { ( )}

:
, () .
,
, , . ,
.
, ? : N R. ..
E = N.
E. ,
= 0.3 () E. ,
,
N ( = , N,
).
.
, ,
= 1 (,
lim (). , lim

), = 0 .

30

IX.1. .
.
.

V () U () : (U () E) V () U () E () V ()
.
{ } : = .

> 0 () N > 0 < | | < .


> 0. > 0 ,
> 0, U () | ( )| < ,
.. { ( )} , .

26

: lim () = , = lim () .

:
() U () U () : | () | >
: 0 ,
, | ( ) | > 0 . .. ,
{ } = { 1 }. , , 0 < | | < 1 , | ( ) | > 0 .
, .. 0 < | | < = 1 , (

). ,
( ) 9 , , .. .
[:|||||:]
: ? , :
, ( , -), ,
,
. :
IX.2. lim () .

. , .. .
[:|||||:]
() E, > 0 E : | ()| 6 .
IX.3. , , , .. lim () = <

U () : () U ()

. > 0 > 0 : U () | () | < .


, U (), , < () < + , ..
().
[:|||||:]

31

, > 0 ( ; ) (; + )
E.
() , :
> 0 : () > 0 : E, < < ( < < + ) | () | <
() , :
{ } : N, < ( > ) E lim = { ( )}

: lim () = = ( 0) lim () = = ( + 0).


0

+0

, ,
27

, , .
. , ,
. :
lim () = ( 0) = ( + 0) =

(.. E : < < E : < < + E 0 < | | < )


: E, ,
(). ,

1, < 0
() = sgn = 0,
= 0

1,
> 0
> 0 = 1 : : 1 < < 0 sgn = 1 | sgn (1)| = 0 <
: 0 < < 1 sgn = 1 | sgn 1| = 0 < . lim () = 1, lim () = 1.
00

0+0

.. 1 = 1, @ lim ().
0

32

, .
:
X.1.

lim () = , lim () = . :

1. lim ( () ()) =

2. lim ( () ()) =

()
()

3. lim

= , = 0 U () : () = 0

. - ( ). , { } : N = : lim =

{ ( )} , {( )} . , .., ,

{ ( ) ( )} lim ( () ()) = .

[:|||||:]

,
, X.1:

( , ),
.
28

33

() : X R, () : Y R, X : () Y ( (X) Y). X
: () ( ()).
X.2. () : X R, () : Y R, (X) Y. lim () = 0 , lim ().
0

lim ( ()) = lim ().


0

. lim () = 0 . U(0 )
0

V (0 ) : Y V (0 ) () U(0 ). V (0 ) W (0 ) : W (0 ) ()
Y V (0 ). , :
U(0 ) W (0 ) : W (0 ) X () Y V (0 ) ( ()) U(0 )
, .

[:|||||:]

, ,
, . , ,
0 -
0 .
, . , ,
, , ,
)2
(
. , (
. , lim

) , :
() =
() = 2 . X.2 () ()

().

34


lim () = , lim () = < . :

1. U () : U () : () < ()
.
: < < .
| () | < 1 = U2 () |() | < 2 = .
:
U () =
: U () | () | < |() | <
< () < < () < () < = + < ()

U1 (), U2 ()

U1 ()
U1 () U2 ()

[:|||||:]
2. . , , : E R E () 6 () 6
() lim () = lim () = . lim () = .

29

.
> 0 U1 () : U1 () | () | < U2 () : U2 () |() | <
< () < + < () < +
U1 () U2 ()
< () 6 () 6 () < + |() | < lim () = .

[:|||||:]
,
.
, :
[, ), U ().
lim () = , lim () = . , U(), :

X.3.

1. () < () 6
2. () 6 () 6
3. () < 6
4. () 6 6

XI

35

, () , :
> 0 > 0 : , E : 0 < | | < 0 < | | < | ( ) ( )| <
: E,
.
XI.1. lim () () .

.
lim () = > 0 () > 0 , E U () | ( ) | < 2 , | ( ) | < 2 .

| ( ) ( )| 6 | ( ) | + | ( )| < .

, , .
(), { }, ( ), = .
30

, { ( )} .
{ }. ..
() N : > 0 < | | < . .
> 0 < |+ | < .
, > : 0 < |+ | < 0 < | | < ,
| (+ ) ( )| < { ( )} . { ( )} . ,

{ }, , { ( )} .
, .
: { }, , { ( )} . { } = 1 , 1 , 2 , 2 , 3 , 3 . . . . ,
(, , :
{ } { }, > max{, } : | | <
| | < | | < ). { ( )}
. , .
.
[:|||||:]

36

, : E R, : E R, : E R. > 0, U () : U () E
| ()| 6 |()|. ,
= O(), . = O().

( )
1. () = 1 = O 12 , 0, .. 1 6 12 , || < 1.

( )
2. 12 = O 1 , , .. 12 6 1 , || > 1.
, = O(), ,
.
, :
() = O(()), 0 () = ()(), () 0 .
= O(), = O( ), , ,
. , .
(
)
3. () = , () = 2 + sin 1 . = 0, | | 6 || || 6 | |, = 0
||

6 1 | | 6 ||

|| 2 + sin

()
1


() = 2 + sin 6 3 || 6 3| |

()

() =

, .

31

() () ( ) , :
U () : U () E () = () (), lim () = 1

: .

4.
() =

6
6
1
6
6

,
..
=
4
4
1 + 0
1+
1 + 4

6
6
4
2
() =
2
, ..
=
4
4
4

1+
1+
1+
() , , .

36.1

1. . , .

.
= =
(.. 1,

[:|||||:]

1).

2. . , , .

.
U1 () : U1 () E () = () ()
U2 () : U2 () E () = () ()
U () = U1 () U2 () ( , ..
- ) () = () ()
() , .. lim (() ()) = lim () lim () = 1.
[:|||||:]

()
()

3. U () : () = 0, () = 0 U () E, lim

()
,
()

lim

= 1. ,

() = 0, () = 0 (.

).
, () () ,
U () : U () E () = () (), , lim () = 0

() = o(()), ( ) () = o(()), .
:
( )
1
1
=
o

,
2 = o(), 0
2

1
1 1
=
2 =
2


32

, 3, () = 0 U (), = o()
()
lim ()
= 0.

() () = o(), ()
.
O o .
,
, .

37

37.1


sin
=1
0
lim

. lim sin lim sin , ,


0+0
00
1.

A C
x

(0; 2 ). . :
1
= 2 sin
2
1
() = 2
2
1
= 2 tg
2
,
0 < sin < < tg

1
<
0<1<
sin
cos
sin
cos <
<1

, lim

0+0

33

sin

= 1.

sin()
sin
sin
=
lim
=
= lim
=1
= lim
0+0
00
0+0

0 + 0
00
[:|||||:]

37.2

lim (1 + ) =

. , .

{ } 0 + 0 ( 0, > 0) < 1.

: 6 1 < + 1 1+1 < 6 1 . 0 + 0 + ( ,


), (
, 1):
(
(
)
) +1
1
1
1

1+
< (1 + ) 6 1 +
+ 1

(
) (
) +1 (
)1
1
1
1
1+
= 1+
1+

+ 1
+ 1
+ 1
) +1 (
) (
)
(
1
1
1
= 1+
1+

1+

lim (1 + ) = .
0+0

(1 + )

{ } 0 0, < 0, > 1, = { } 0 + 0

1
1
(
)
(
)
=

=
= (1 ) =
= 1+
= 1
1
1
0 + 0

= (1 + )

= (1 + )

(1 + )

lim (1 + ) =
00

, lim (1 + ) = .

[:|||||:]

34

37.3

0
= 0
sin
sin = + o()
2
2
1 cos 2
cos = 1 2 + o(2 )
tg
tg = + o()
arcsin
arcsin = + o()
arctg
arctg = + o()
1
= 1 + + o()
ln(1 + )
ln(1 + ) = + o()
(1 + ) 1
(1 + ) = 1 + + o()
:
1.

sin
=1
0

sin lim
.
2.
2

(1 cos )

(1 cos ) 2
lim
= lim
0
0
2
2

3.

2 2 sin2
2

4 sin2
2 = lim
2 =1
( )
2
0

4
2

tg
sin
1
= lim

=1
0
0
cos

tg lim
4.

arcsin

= [ = arcsin ] = lim
=1
0
0 sin

arcsin lim
5.

arctg

= [ = arctg ] = lim
=1
0
0 tg

arctg lim
6.

= [ = 1] = lim
= 1, ..:
0
0 ln(1 + )

1
1
ln(1 + )
lim
= lim ln(1 + ) = ln lim(1 + ) = ln = 1
0
0
0

1 lim

( ) , .. , .
7.
ln(1+) 1
(1 + ) 1
ln(1+) 1 ln(1 + )
= lim
= lim

=1
0
0 ln(1 + )
0 ln(1 + )

ln(1 + )

(1+) 1 lim

35

XII


38

: E R. E,
V( ()) U() : U() E () V( ()), .. (U() E) V( ())
:
> 0 () > 0 : E, | | < | () ()| <
, , , . , , .
:
{
, [0; 1]
() =
3, = 2
, [ ] = [0; 1] {2}. ,
= 2 E.

U()
: U()
E = {}, (U()
E) = () V( ()) V( ()). ,
= 2. , ,
- E.
,
lim () = () lim () = (lim )

, .
: () C().
X, .
() = R, .. R | () ()| = | | < = .

cos +
| 6 2| sin
|6
() = sin R, .. R | sin sin | = |2 sin
2
2
2

2| 2 | = | | < = .
(
() (), lim ()
+0

)
lim ()

= (). -

, () [; ], [; ]
(.. (; )) .

36

39

39.1

XII.1. () () , , , ( = 0)
.
. ( () + ()).
. lim () = () lim () = (). ,

, , lim ( () + ()) = () + (), ,

( () + ()) .

39.2

[:|||||:]

XII.2. : X Y, : Y R, () Y. () C(0 ), () C(0 =


(0 )), ( ()) C(0 ).
. lim () = (0 ) lim () = (0 ). , 0

, , lim ( ()) = lim () = (0 ) =


0

( (0 )), , ( ()) C(0 ).

[:|||||:]

, () , ,
.:
V( ()) : U() (U() E) : ()
/ V( ()) -
0 > 0 : > 0 , | | < , | () ()| > 0
() = sgn = 0. lim = 1 = (0) = 0 = lim = 1.
00

0+0

() = | sgn | = 0, .. lim () = lim () = 1 = (0) = 0.


00

0+0

() = sin 1 = 0, .. @ lim (), @ lim (), @ lim ().


00

0+0

, , .

40

1. lim (), () ,

, . ,
,
. ,
{
| sgn |, = 0
() = | sgn | () =
, = 0.
1,
= 0
2. lim () = , lim () = , = , I . ,
0

+0

= 0 () = sgn .
3. lim (), lim (),
0

II .
37

+0

, () - [; ], () ,
1 , 2 , . . . , , ()
, lim (), lim ().
+0

41

() 1 , 2 E : 1 < 2 (1 ) < (2 ).
() 1 , 2 E : 1 < 2 (1 ) 6 (2 ).
() 1 , 2 E : 1 < 2 (1 ) > (2 ).
() 1 , 2 E : 1 < 2 (1 ) > (2 ).

XII.3. () [; ], (; ) .
. , () [; ].
[; ).
{ ()} () (; ]. ,
.. () { ()}. , { ()} , .. () > ()
(; ] inf{ ()} = . , = lim (). = inf{ ()}, > 0
+0

(0; ) : ( + ) < + . .. () , (; + ) ()
+ . , < 6 () < + | () | < lim () = .
+0

{ ()} () [; ).
, .. () { ()}. , { ()} , .. () 6
() [; ) sup{ ()} = . , = lim (). = sup{ ()},
0

> 0 (0; ) : ( ) > . .. () , ( ; ) ()


. , < () 6 < + | () | <
lim () = .
[:|||||:]
0

XII.4. () .
I .
. , () .
() (; ), < () 6 () ( 0) 6 (). -
=, - , <, I .
[:|||||:]

XIII



, . , .

38

42
42.1

XIII.1.

: E R lim () < . > 0 : ()

U () E.
.

lim () = > 0 () > 0 : U () E | () | < <

() < +.
/ E, (), .. . E,
= min{ ; ()}, = max{ + ; ()} U () E 6 () 6 . [:|||||:]
XIII.2. () C(), > 0 : () U ().

42.2

XIII.3. : E R, C(), E () > 0 ( () < 0). > 0 : () >


0 ( () < 0) U () E.
. () C(), > 0 () > 0 : U () E | () ()| <
, () > 0 () > 0 () + < 0
() < () < () + . = | ()|
2
() < 0, .. , U () E
.
[:|||||:]
, , [; + ) - , ( ; ]
-. , ,
().
() -.

43
43.1

XIII.4. () C[; ] (.. [; ]) () () < 0.


(; ) : () = 0.
. , () < 0, () > 0.
[; ] : () < 0. , = (.. ) , ..
< . sup = . , (; ), .. () < 0, () > 0
XIII.3 1 - : [; + 1 ) () < 0
2 - : ( 2 ; ] () > 0. , () = 0.
, XIII.3 - ,
, , .. sup
( ; ] () < 0 (; + ) () > 0.
.
[:|||||:]

43.2

XIII.5. C[; ], () = , () = . [min{; }; max{; }].


[; ] : () = .
39

. = , = , = = , . = . , < < .
() = () . () C[; ] (..
() = () = < 0, () = () = > 0). : () = 0, ..
() = 0 () = .
[:|||||:]

43.3

XIII.6. () [; ] ....,
.

XIV


43.4

XIV.1. () C[; ], .
. . () . N
[; ] : ( ) > (.. )
{ ( )} . .. { } [; ], { } . ,
- / { } : lim = .

[; ]. .. () C[; ] { ( )} ().

, / { ( )}, , . .
[:|||||:]
, . , () = 1 (0; 1), .
, () () () E, :
1. E () 6 ( () > ).
2. > 0 E : ( ) > ( ( ) < + ).
, , () () E,
() . : = sup (), = inf ().
E

,
. :
{
2 , (0; 1)
() = 1
,
{0, 1}
2
sup () = 1 .. @ [0; 1] : () = 1. .

40

43.5

XIV.2. () C[; ],
(.. 1 , 2 [; ] : (1 ) = sup (), (2 ) = inf ()).
E

. () [; ],
.
, .
. , .. [; ] () < .
() = 1 () . [; ] () > 0 ( ()) C[; ]. , () [; ]. , : [; ] () 6 . () > 0 () 6 1 ,
, .
[:|||||:]

XV



44

44.1

(), (; ). (; ) .
: + (; ). , . =
(+) () , .
,
:
() C() = ( + ) () 0
0


( + ) ()

= lim
0
0

() = lim

, , (0 ) = lim

(0 ) ()
.
0

1. () = = .

= 0.
0

() = lim
2. () = .

+
= 1.
0

() = lim
3. () = sin .

sin( + ) sin
() = lim
= lim
0
0

(
)

2 sin
cos +
2
2

41

= lim cos +
0
2

)
= cos .

4. () = cos .
(

2 sin +
sin
2
2

cos( + ) cos
= lim
0
0

(
)

= lim sin +
= sin .
0
2

() = lim

44.2

() () ( )
0 0. : () ( 0) + () ( + 0) .
:

1. (), (), + (), () = () = + ().


2. (), + () () = + (), () = () = + ().
3. () = + (), @ ().
, () = ||. (0) =
||
0+0

lim

44.3

lim ||
00

= 1, + (0) =

= 1 = 1 @ (0).

()
= arctg (+)
. 0 = lim .

(
)
()
, 0 . 0 = arctg lim (+)
=

, tg =

(+) ()

arctg () tg 0 = ().

45

() , ( + ) () = =
+ o(), , o() = (), lim () = 0.
0

42

XV.1 ( ). ()
, (), = ().
.

() . = + o()

= = ().
lim

= +

o()

= + o(1).

= (). () =
0

() = o(1) = () + o().

() lim
() = o(1)

(). lim () = 0, ..
0

[:|||||:]
XV.2 ( ). () . ,
() C().
. = () + o() 0 0

[:|||||:]

, . , () = || 0, .
() . . = () + o(). , ()
.
= (). :
, = .
= (), = ().

XVI


I
XVI.1 ( ). = () . 0 ,
= () . 0 = (0 ), (()) . 0 ,
(0 ) = () () = ( (())) ().
. = () + o() = () + ().
= ()
+ ()
(**).

= () , , ().
, lim = lim ( + ) () = 0. 0 () 0.
0

(**) :

= lim ()
= () () = (()) ()
0
0

lim

[:|||||:]
43

XVI.2 ( ). : X Y 1 : Y X
. () C(0 ), 1 () C(0 = (0 )). ()
1
.
. 0 (0 ) = 0, 1 () . 0 , ( 1 ) (0 ) = (
0)
. 0 X 0 Y. , 1 (0 ) = 0 , 1 (0 + ) =
0 + , .. = 1 (0 + ) 1 (0 ).
1 (0 + ) 1 (0 )
0 + 0
= lim
=
0
0 (0 + ) (0 )

1
1
= lim
=
0 (0 + ) (0 )
(0 )

( 1 ) (0 ) = lim

[:|||||:]
XVI.3 ( ).
() () . , , , ( = 0) . ,
( )

.
( ) = , ( ) = + , =
2
. , (),
(), ().
1. () = () ().
= ( + ) () = ( ( + ) ( + )) ( () ()) =
= ( ( + ) ()) (( + ) ()) =
,


0 , () (),

() = () ().
2. () = () ().
= ( + ) () = ( + )( + ) ()() =
= ( ( + )( + ) ( + )()) + ( ( + )() ()())

= ( + )(( + ) ()) + ()( ( + ) ()) = ( + ) + ()
,

= ( + )
+ ()

0. () (..
. ) lim ( + ) = (). ,
0

() = () () + () ().
44

()
. () = 0, ( + ) = 0
3. () = ()
.

( + ) ()
( + )() ( + ) ()

=
=
( + )
()
()( + )
( ( + )() ()()) (( + ) () ()())
=
=
()( + )
()( ( + ) ()) ()(( + ) ())
() ()
=
=
()( + )
()( + )

= ( + ) () =

()
()

()( + )
, ,
() =

() () () ()
.
2 ()
[:|||||:]

45.1

{
= ()
, ..
= ()
T, , = () , .

XVI.4 ( , ).
. T, 0 , , ..
()
= 1 (). () = ()
.
. , = () = (1 ()). : = (), = ().
()

= ()
.
[:|||||:]
= (),

XVII


II
, = () () , U() : U() <
() < () ( () > ()), > () > () ( () < ()). = ()
() , U () : U () () < () ( () >
()).
, ( ),
/ .
= () , .
45

XVII.1 ( / ). = ()
. () > 0 ( () < 0), () () .
. () > 0. .

() ()

() ()

() = lim
> 0 () > 0 : , 0 < | | <
() <

() ()
() ()
() < () 0 <
< 2 ().
= ()

, .. 0 <
.

() ()
,


[:|||||:]

, XVII.1 () () . , () = 3 . () = 32 (0) = 0,
(), , 0.
XVII.2 ( ). () . ()
. () = 0.
. () ,
. XVII.1 () > 0 () < 0.
, () = 0.
[:|||||:]
, , . - () = 3
= 0.
, () ,
.
XVII.3 ( ). :
1. () C[, ].
2. () . (, ).
3. () = ().
(, ) : () = 0.
. .. () C[, ], [, ]
.
= , () = () = 0 (, ).
> , (, )
. () = 0.

[:|||||:]

46

.. , 1
. ,
. :
{
, 0 6 < 1
() =
0, = 1
2 3, , , , () = 0.
, = 1.
, (, ),
.

XVIII


III
XVIII.1 ( ). :
1. () C[, ].
2. () . (, ).
(, ), () () = ()( ).
()
( ). . () = () ()

( ) ( ). , () = () 0 = () () = () () + () = (),
.. () = (). , .
()
() () = ()( ).
[:|||||:]
(, ) : () = 0 = () ()

, (, ),
, (; ()) (; ()).
XVIII.2. (, ) () > 0 ( () < 0), ()
( ) (, ).
. [1 , 2 ] (, ). (1 )
= ().
, (22)
1

.. 2 > 1 () > 0, (2 ) > (1 ). , () < 0,


(2 ) < (1 ).
[:|||||:]

XVIII.3 ( ). ,
() = [, ] , () = 0 [; ].

47

. . . [1 , 2 ] [, ].
,
(2 ) (1 )
= () = 0 (2 ) = (1 ) (.. 2 = 1 ) () =
2 1
[:|||||:]
XVIII.4 ( ). () ()
:
1. (), () C[, ].
2. (), () . (, ).
:
1. (, ) : ( )(() ()) = ( )(() ()).
2. () = 0 [, ],

()()
()()

( )
.
( )

.
1. () = ()(() ()) ()(() ()).
- 1 2. ,
() = ()() ()() ()() + ()() = ()() ()()
() = ()() ()() ()() + ()() = ()() + ()()
.. () = (), (, ) : ( ) = 0. ( ) = ( )(()
()) ( )(() ()), .. ( )(() ()) = ( )(() ()).
2. ( ) = 0, () = (), .. .
1 .
[:|||||:]
, , .
() = , . :
( )
() ()
() ()
=

= ( ) () () = ( )( )
() ()
( )

() = (), .
() () = ( )( ) = 0 ( ) = 0

XIX


, () E,
> 0 () > 0 : , E, | | < | ( ) ( )| <
48

0 :
> 0 (, 0 ) > 0 : E, | 0 | < | () (0 )| <
, , . ,
, , . 0 ,
.
XIX.1. () E, () E.
. = 0 , = , 0 , 0 E.
[:|||||:]
XIX.2. () E, ()
E E.
. .

[:|||||:]

XIX.3. () E, , , E.
. -. () = 2 E = (1, +). :
0 > 0 : > 0 , (1, +), | | < | ( ) ( )| > 0
, 1 = , 2 = . | ( ) ( )| = |21 22 | = |1 2 ||1 + 2 |.
, |1 2 | = 2 . , |1 + 2 | . ,
1 , 2 (1, +) : |1 + 2 | > 3 . , |1 2 ||1 + 2 | > 23 = 0 .
[:|||||:]
. .
, -
0 0 . ( 0 ) ,

. () = 2 , .
,
.
, ,
.
XIX.4 ( ). () C[, ], ()
[, ].

49

. . 0 > 0 : > 0 , [, ], | | <


| ( ) ( )| > 0 . = 1 , N. N , [, ] : |
| < 1 | ( ) ( )| > 0 . .. , [, ], { } { }
, { } { } { }
{ }, lim = , lim = .

.. N | | < 1 , = . [, ], () .
, lim ( ) = (), lim ( ) = ( ) = (). .. lim ( ) = lim ( ).

, | ( ) ( )| > 0 .

[:|||||:]

XX


46

(), - E. .. (). ()
. E, ( ()) = (). , () . E, () = (3) ().
- () () = ( (1) ()) , (0) () = (). , -
.
,
E C() (E).
:
() = sin .

() = cos = sin

+
2
() = sin = sin ( + )
(
)
3

() = cos = sin
+
2
(4) () = sin
(
)
, () () = sin
+

. = 1 .
2
, = + 1.
(
)
( + 1)
(+1)

() = sin
+
2
(
)
( (
))
(
)
( + 1)
(+1)
()

() = ( ()) = sin
+
= cos
+ = sin
+
2
2
2
() = . () () = .
() = . , () () = ( 1) . . . ( + 1) .
() = ln . () = 1 = 1 . () (1 ) = (1)(2) . . . ()1 = (1) ! 1 .
, () () = (1) (1 ) = (1)1 ( 1)! .

50

47

XX.1. () () E.

( )() =
() () .
=0

. . = 1, ( ) = + =

1 () () .

=0

, = + 1.
( )(+1) :
( )

(+1)

()

()

=0

(+1)

()

=0

(+1) () +

=0

+1

=0

1 (+1) () = 0 (+1) +

=1

(+1)

(+1)

() (+1) =

)
+ 1 (+1) () +

=1

+1

(+1)

()

(+1)

=1

+1

+1
(+1) ()

=0

:
+ 1 =

!
( + 1)! + !
( + 1)!
!

+
=
=
= +1
!( )! ( 1)!( + 1)!
!( + 1)!
!( + 1)!
[:|||||:]

48
48.1

= () . , . , ,
= (). = () = (). , = (()) ,
, = (()) () = () = (). ,
, .
.

48.2

= () , , .
2 = (). 2 , ()2 . 2
2 = () = ( ).
:
. ,
. : ( ) =
( ) = = 2 .

51

= () = (), () . 2 = () =
( ()) = ( (()) ()). .
, ,
. , ,
:

( (()) ()) = ( (()) () () + (()) ()) =


= () () () + (()) ()2
( ())2 = ()2 = 2 . , 2 = ( ()) =
()2 ( ). ,
2 = ()2 + () 2

(3)

1. , (, , ) .
. () = 2 , () = 2 . , . :
() = 4 = 43 2 = 122 2
= 2 2 = 22
() = 2 = 2 = 22 2 = 43
() = 2 2 = 22 = 2 42 2 = 82 2 = 122 2
, ( 1 ),
. , = () 3:
2

2 = 22 +2 2 = 82 2 + 42 2 = 122 2

48.3

{
()
= ()
. , () = ()
. 2

= ()
, :
(
)
()

()
(
())
(
())

() () () ()
() =
=
=
=

()
()
( ())3

XXI


49

XXI.1. U () ()
() :
52

1. .
2. lim () = lim () = 0.

3. () = 0.
()

()

4. lim

= R (R = R {+} {}).

:
()
()
= lim
=
()
()

lim

. { } , lim = N = . () () , ,

() = () = 0. (), () C(U ()). U () , , () = () = 0


2.
{ } , N : >
U (). , > = [min{, }, max{, }].
= {} { } (.. ). (), () C().
, () () () = 0. ,
:
:

( )
( ) ()
=
( ) ()
( )
( )
( )
=
( )
( )

. { }
{ } .
()
lim ()

()
lim ()

( )
( )

( )
( )

= . , lim

= lim

()
.

()

= lim

()
()

{ } , lim
()
lim ()
.

50

( )
lim
=
( )

( )
( )

= lim

[:|||||:]

XXI.2. U () ()
() :
1. .
2. lim () = lim () = .

3. () = 0.
()

()

4. lim

= R.

53

:
()
()
= lim
=
()
()

lim

()

()

. , lim

= < .

{ } , lim = N

> , N < . -, , U (),


6 . [ , ] ,
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
=

=
( , ) :
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
1
( )
1

,
( )
( )
( )
( )
=

( )
( )
( )
1
( )
1

(4)

> 0. { } , ,
(
)
( , ), 2 , > (
= + ,
)
| | <

( )

( )

( lim

( )

( )

= , lim

= ,

( )
( )

).
) ( )
, ( ), ( ) (
,
0.
( ) ( )

( )
( )
=1
lim

( )
1
( )
1

0 > , > 0 :
( )
( )
= 1 +
( )
1
( )
1

.. .
/2
| | < ||+/2
.
4 :
( )
= ( + )(1 + ) = + ( + ) +
( )
,

( )

6 | + || | + | | 6 (|| + | |)| | + | |

( )

54

:
(
/2

+ =
(|| + | |)| | + | | < || +
2
|| + /2 2

( )

, > 0 0 > : > 0 (

< ,
)
.
()

lim ()
= . lim ()
= 0 lim ()
= 0. , ..
()
()

, () =
()
0 . , lim ()
= , () = 0

()
()

lim () = lim () = . , , lim

51

= .

[:|||||:]

, , 0.
-
() . :
)
(
)
(
ln

lim ( > 0) = exp lim ln = exp lim =


0+0
0+0
0+0

1
(
)

= exp lim
= exp lim
= exp(0) = 1
0+0
0+0 1
, , .
00

, 1 :
(
)
(
)
ln( ())
()
lim () = 1, lim () = lim ( ())
= exp lim () ln( ()) = exp lim

1/()
.. 00 . :

1
1

() ()
lim () = lim () = lim ( () ()) = lim

= lim

1
1 1
1

() ()
() ()
.. 00 .
:
sin
1 cos
= lim
+ + sin
+ 1 + cos
lim

, :
= 2 ( ) 0

= + ( ) 1

2
55

, , :
sin
sin
=1
lim
= lim
+ + sin
+
sin
1+

XXII


52

, (),
0 . , lim () ( ,
0

0 ) . , (),
() ( 0 ), .
0
.
, 0 = 0. () = 0 + 1 + 2 2 + + . (0) = 0 ,
() = 1 + 22 + + 1 , , 1 = (0). ,
()

()

2 = 2(0) , . . . , = !(0) . .. , () = (0) + 1!(0) + 2!(0) 2 + + !(0) .


() (0 ), :
() = (0 ) +

(0 )
(0 )
() (0 )
( 0 ) +
( 0 )2 + +
( 0 ) + (, )
1!
2!
!

:
() =

() (0 )
=0

( 0 ) +

(, )

, .
XXII.1. () (0 ) () U(0 ). ( (, )) = 1 ( , ).
.
(, ) = ()

() (0 )
=0

( (, )) = ()

=1

( 0 )

1 (+1)

() (0 )

(0 )
1

( 0 )
= ()
( 0 ) = 1 ( , )
( 1)!
!
=0

.. (+1) (0 ) = ( )() (0 ). , (, ) , ( 0 ) . [:|||||:]

56

53

XXII.2 ( ( )). () (0 )
(1) () U(0 ). ,
(, ) = o(( 0 ) ), 0 .
. . = 1, () =
(0 ) + (0 )( 0 ) + o( 0 ), , .. () . 0 . ,
= 1, = .
, (, 0 ) = 0 ( ). (, ) =
(, ) (, 0 ) = ( (, )) ( 0 ), (min{, 0 }, max{, 0 }) .
XXII.1 , ( (, )) ( 0 ) = 1 ( , )( 0 ).
, - 0 1- 0 ,
, .. 1 () 1-
0 2- 0 . 1 ( , )( 0 ) = o(( 0 )1 ))( 0 ) =
[| 0 | < |0 | o(( 0 )1 ) = o((0 )1 )] = o((0 )1 )(0 ) = o((0 ) ). [:|||||:]
, 0 ,
.
XXII.3 ( ). N {0} () (), () () C[0 , ].
, (+1) () (0 , ). , (, ) =
(+1) ()
( 0 )+1 , (0 , ).
(+1)!
. . = 0, () =
(0 )+ ()(0 ) . ,
()
, 1 (, ) = !() ( 0 ) . = :
(, )
(, ) (, 0 )
( (, ))
=

=
= XXII.1
( 0 )+1
( 0 )+1 (0 0 )+1
( + 1)( 0 )
1 ( , )
( ())()
(+1) ()
(+1) ()
=
=
=

(,
)
=
( 0 )+1

( + 1)( 0 )
( + 1)!
( + 1)!
( + 1)!
[:|||||:]
, 0 + ( 0 ), (0, 1). , 0 6 . ,
0 > .

54

XXII.4. U(0 ) : () = 0 + 1 + +
+ o( ) () = 0 + 1 + + + o( ). 0 = 0 , 1 = 1 , . . . , = .
. (0 0 ) + (1 1 ) + + ( ) = o( ).
0, 0 = 0 0 = o(0) = 0. ,
(1 1 ) + + ( ) = o(1 ). , 1 = 1 1 = 0.
, , 0 = 1 = 2 = = = 0.
[:|||||:]
57

55

0 = 0
. 5 :
1. () = . () (0) = 1:
= 1 + +

2
+ +
+ o( )
2!
!

2. () = sin . ,
(

() () = sin +

)
2

() (0) = sin

( )
2

{
0,
=
(1) ,

= 2
= 2 + 1

:
sin =

21
3 5
+
+ (1)1
+ o(2 )
3!
5!
(2 1)!

3. () = cos . ,
( )
)
() (0) = cos
=
() () = cos +
2
2
(

:
cos = 1

{
0,
(1) ,

= 2 + 1
= 2

2 4
2
+
+ (1)
+ o(2+1 )
2
4!
(2)!

4. () = ln( + 1).
() () = (1)1

( 1)!
() (0) = (1)1 ( 1)!

(1 + )

, (0) = 0:
ln( + 1) =

2 3

+
+ (1)1 + o( )
2
3

5. () = (1 + ) , R.
() () = ( 1) . . . ( + 1)(1 + ) () (0) = ( 1) . . . ( + 1)

(1 + ) = 1 + +

( 1) 2
( 1) . . . ( + 1)
+ +
+ o( )
2!
!

XXIII


, ( ), , , ,
( ).
58

56

12 + 22 + + 2 =

(+1)(2+1)
.
6
+1

1 + + 2 + + = 1
= 1.
1
)2
(
(+1)
3
3
3
.
1 + 2 + + =
2

( )2 ( )2
( )2 ( )

2
+
+ +
=
.
0
1

( )
( ) ( ) ( )


= 0.

+
+ (1)

0
1
2
2! 4! . . . (2)! > (( + 1)!) > 1.
(0, 2)

1
+ cos + cos 2 + + cos =
2

)
1
sin +

2 sin
2

. > 0, > 1 , .

(1 + 1 ) (1 + 2 ) . . . (1 + ) > 1 + 1 + + .
> 0 1 2 . . . = 1. 1 + 2 + + > .
. > 0 .

1 + 2 + +
> 1 2 . . . >
.

1
1
1
+ + +
1 2

> 1 N, > 1. (1 + ) > 1 + .


R > 1, > 0 .

1 + 2 + + 6 (1 + 2 + + ) .
, N > > 0
( ) () ( )
6
6
6
.

> 1

1
2 + 1 2 < < + 1 1 < 2 2 1.

cos
3
3

3
6 cos 6
6

cos

6 cos 6 sin .
2
2
6

3
1
3
59

57
57.1

sin( ) = sin cos sin cos .

tg2 =

cos( ) = cos cos sin sin .

ctg2 =

tg( ) =

sin sin = 2 sin


cos
.
2
2

tg tg
.
1tg tg

ctg( ) =

ctg ctg 1
.
ctg ctg

cos cos = 2 sin +


sin
.
2
2

cos 2 = cos2 sin2 .

tg tg =

2 tg
.
1tg2

ctg 2 =

1+cos 2
.
1cos 2

cos + cos = 2 cos +


cos
.
2
2

sin 2 = 2 sin cos .

tg 2 =

1cos 2
.
1+cos 2

sin()
.
cos cos

ctg ctg =

ctg2

1
.
2 ctg

sin()
.
sin sin

sin sin =

cos()cos(+)
.
2

sin + cos = 2 + 2 sin(+),


sin = 2+ 2 , cos = 2+ 2 .

sin cos =

sin()+sin(+)
.
2

arcsin + arccos = 2 .

cos cos =

cos()+cos(+)
.
2

arctg + arcctg = 2 .

tg tg =

tg ctg =

sin()+sin(+)
.
sin(+)sin()

sin2 =

1cos 2
.
2

cos =

1+cos 2
.
2

57.2

arccos = 2 arctg

cos()+cos(+)
.
cos()cos(+)

ctg ctg =

arcsin = arctg 1
2.

cos()cos(+)
.
cos()+cos(+)

1
.
1+

arctg = arcsin 1+
2.

arcctg =

{
1
arcsin 1+
2,
arcsin

1
,
1+2

sh =


.
2

th 2 =

ch =

+
.
2

cth 2 = 21 (th + cth ).

ch2 sh2 = 1.
sh( ) = sh ch sh ch .
ch( ) = ch ch sh sh .
th( ) =

th th
.
1th th

cth( ) =

1cth cth
.
cth cth

2 th
.
1+th2

sh sh =

ch(+)ch()
.
2

sh ch =

sh(+)+sh()
.
2

ch ch =

ch(+)+ch()
.
2

th th =

ch(+)ch()
.
ch(+)+ch()

sh 2 = 2 sh ch .

sh sh = 2 sh
ch
.
2
2

ch 2 = ch2 + sh2 .

ch + ch = 2 ch +
ch
.
2
2

60

>0
<0

sh
.
ch ch = 2 sh +
2
2
th th =

58

sh()
.
ch ch

sh2 =

ch 21
.
2

ch2 =

ch 2+1
.
2

. - 0 < < 1.
)
(
)+1
(
1

1
1

1
= lim 1 +
= lim
= 2 + + +
+
.
= lim 1 +

2!
! !
!
. ln ! = ln + O(ln ),

!
( ) = 1.

lim

XXIII.1 ( ). , + : > +1 > . ,


1
lim
1

= , R {+} {} (, = ).

1
= lim
.

1
lim

1+
, lim

ln +. :

1
1
+ +
2
. = ln , ,

ln

1+
lim

1
1
1
+ +
2
= lim

= lim
ln ln( 1)

ln

1
(
ln

) = lim

) = 1.
1
ln 1 +
1
(

{ }, { } .

lim + lim 6 lim ( + ) 6 lim + lim

lim + lim 6 lim ( + ) 6 lim + lim .

XXIII.2 ( ).
:
1. > 0 , N.
2. 1 + 2 + + = 1 N.
61

3. lim = 0 N.

< .

lim

, =
:

= .

=1

1
1
1
+ + +
1 2

, > 0. =

1
1
1
+ + +
1 2

1. > 0.
2. 1 + 2 + +

1
+

= 1
1
+
1

1
+ +
2
1
+ +
2

= 1.
1

3.

lim =

1
1
1
+ + +
1 2

= lim

0
1
1
1
1
+ +

1
1
1

. ,

= 0.

=1

= . , lim = lim .

1
1
+ +
1

3 :
lim

1 +2 ++

lim

lim

= lim .

1 2 . . . = lim .

+1
.

= lim

XXIII.3 ( ).
, . (), N R +,
. ..
lim () = lim =
+

62


2
1 + sin
. :
lim

2
1 sin

2
2
2

2 sin
2 sin
1 + sin

= lim

= lim 1 +
lim
1+

+
+
+

2
2
2
1 sin
1 sin
1 sin

1
2
2 sin
2
1sin

2 sin 22

1sin

,
2
2
sin
2
= lim 2 sin = lim 4
= 4.
lim
+
+
2
2 +
1 sin

2 sin

2
(
)
1 4

, =
, lim (1 + )
= 4 .
0+
2
1 sin

2 sin

59

lim () = 1, lim () = , lim ()( () 1) = . lim ()() = .


0

, 0.
ln(1 + ) .

sin .
1 cos

2
.
2

(1 + ) 1 .

tg .

1 ln .

arcsin .

log (1 + )

arctg .

sh .

1 .

ch 1

60

.
ln

2
.
2

() = 0.

( ) =

.
2

= 1.

( ) =

( ) = 1 , R.
( )
1 = 12 .

(sin ) = cos .

)
1

1 .

(cos ) = sin
(tg ) =

= +1
.

63

1
.
cos2

(ctg ) = sin12 .
(sh ) = ch .
(ch ) = sh .
(th ) =

1
.
ch2

1
.
2 +1

(arch ) =

1
.
2 1

(arth ) =

1
12

(arcth ) =

(cth ) = sh12 .
(arcsin ) =

(arsh ) =

1
12

|| < 1.
|| > 1.

( ) = .

1
.
12

1
(arccos ) = 1
2.

( ) = ln .

(arctg ) =

(ln ) = 1 .

1
.
1+2

1
(arcctg ) = 1+
2.

(log ) =

1
.
ln

(
)
)
( () ln () )
(
() ()
() ln ()

()
=
() ln +
=
=
()
()
(
)
() ()
()

= ()
() ln +
.
()

61

( )() = ( 1)( 2) . . . ( + 1) .
(( + ) )() = ( 1) . . . ( + 1)( + ) .
( )() = .
( )() = ln .

(
)
(sin )() = sin +
.
2
(
)
(cos )() = cos +
.
2
(ln )() =

(1)1 (1)!
.

(log )() =

(1)1 (1)!
.
ln

( () + ())() = () () + () ().
.
()

( () ())

( )

()
=

() () ().

=0

64

62

= 1 + +

2
+ +
+ o( ).
2!
!

sin =

3
21
+ + (1)1
+ o(2 ).
3!
(2 1)!

cos = 1

2
2
+ + (1)
+ o(2+1 ).
2!
(2)!

ln(1 + ) =

2
+ + (1)1 + o( ).
2

1
= 1 + + 2 + + + o( ).
1

(1 + ) = 1 + +

( 1) 2
( 1) . . . ( + 1)
+ +
+ o( ), N {0}.
2!
!

arcsin = +

3 35
(2)!
+
+ +
2+1 + o(2+2 ), || < 1.
6
40
4 (!)2 (2 + 1)

arctg =

(1)1 21
3 5
+
+

+ o(2 ), || < 1.
3
5
2 1

sh = +

3 5
1
+
+ +
21 + o(2 ).
3!
5!
(2 1)!

ch = 1 +

2 4
1 2
+
+ +
+ o(2+1 ).
2!
4!
(2)!

arsh =

3 35
(1) (2)!
+
+
2+1 + o(2+2 ), || < 1.
6
40
4 (!)2 (2 + 1)

3 5
1
arth = +
+
+ +
21 + o(2 ), || < 1.
3
5
2 1

65

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