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..

..

--

2014

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373.167.1:53
22.372
444
85
..

85

/ .. , .. . / : , 2014. 96 . : . ( ).

ISBN 978-5-222-22489-2
, ,
. ,
.
, , , ,
.
ISBN 978-5-222-22489-2

373.167.1:53
22.372

: .., .., 2013


: , 2014

26.10.13. 27.11.13.
84108 1/32. . 2.
. 3000 .

344082, . --, . , 80
./: (863) 261-89-50, 261-89-76
: www.phoenixrostov.ru
-: www.phoenixbooks.ru

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1.
1.1.

.


; = const; a = 0.
: S = x x0, x0, x .
  
: r = x x 0 .

S = r = x x 0
.
0 0

 

: x = x 0 + 0t.


r

, r ; t : =
t
, .


r.
S
, S ; t =
t
, .
0

x =x=x
x0 -V
+ t
t
0

S = t
S = t
= const

x0

.
.
.

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: = 1 + 2 ,

;
 1 ; 2
.

a = const.
 
 
 0
a =
, 2 , 0 ; t
t

, .


at 2
 
.
: x = x 0 + 0t +
 

2

+
at
.
:
0



a = const; const; a > 0.
:
at 2
S = 0t +
.
2

:
at 2
x = x 0 + 0t +
.
2
:
= 0 + at.

 
: 0 > 0, a > 0, . . 0 , a
.


= 0 + at

x=
x0 + t+at
0t +/2at2/2 x
x=x+v
2

ax

X0
0

ax = const > 0

S
t




a = const; const; a < 0.


:
at 2
S = 0t
.
2

:
at 2
x = x 0 + 0t
.
2

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1.
:
= 0 at.


 : 0 > 0, a < 0, . . 0
, a .

ax

x = x0 + 0t at2/2

= 0 at

x0

0
S

t
ax = const < 0


.
g < 0 ;
g > 0 .

: g = 9, 81 2 .



gt 2
 
.
: y = y 0 + 0t +
2
,
0 0

y = y 0 + 0t +

(S = h)

h = 0t +

0 = 0
gt
2

gt 2
2

y = y0 +

gt 2
2

= 0 + gt

gt 2
2
= gt

2 20 = 2gh

2 = 2gh

h=

,

gt 2
y = y 0 + 0t
2

(S = h)
gt 2
h = 0t
2
5

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0 0

0 = 0

= 0 gt

t max =

0
g

2 20 = 2gh

h max =

20
2g

,
0


(0x = 0).
Y (0y = 0) W.

X
x

h
y

tg =
y

y
x


 

= x +y


x = 0


y = gt


gt 2
x = x 0 + 0t; y = y 0 +
2

x = 0 ; y = gt


gt 2
S = 0t; h =
2

= 02 + g 2 t 2

,
Y

0y

0 y
x

0x

0y

h
S

hm

0x

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2.

2.1. -


,
.
.


:
1
m 0C = 1, 66 10 27 .
12
,
, ,
, 1

( m 0C = 1, 995 10 26 ) .
12
,
.
m0
,
() : M r =
1
m 0C
12
m0 ( ) ; m0 ; Mr ;
.. .

Mr,
, ( ). , Mr
2: 12 + 32 = 44.
,
, m :
N
m
=
=
[ ], N ()
NA
M
; NA 1 .
.
d 110 10 . ... =

22

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2.
1 ,
,
0,012 .
, 1
: N A = 6, 02 10 23 1 ;
NA

0, 012
1

.
=
=
= 6, 02 10 23

m 0C 1, 955 10 26


( 1 ): M = m 0 N A ,
,

m0 ; NA 1
( ).
r
3
: M = M r10 .
m = m 0 N , [ ] , m0 ;
N .
n =

N 1
,
V 3

, N

; V .
- :
1
1
2
p = m 0 n < 2 >, . . = m 0 n, p = < 2 >; p = n < E K >;
3
3
3
p = nkT , P ; m0
; ; ; = t
+273; <2> ;
m < 2 >

< EK > = 0
2
; n .

12 + 22 + ... + 2n 3kT 3RT
=
=
, R = kNA N
m0
M
.

R = 1, 38 10 23
.
6, 08 10 23
= 8, 31


<EK> :
3
< E K > = kT .
2
< 2 > =

23

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1. .............................................................................................3
1.1. ...........................................................................................3
1.2. ...............................................................8
1.3. .................................................................................11
1.4. ............................................................................15
1.5. .............................................................17
2. ...........................22
2.1. - .....................22
2.2. ....................................................................25
2.3. .............................................29
3. .....................................................31
3.1. ..................................................................................31
3.2. ........................................................36
3.3. ..................................................................................44
3.4. .............................................................48
4. ......................................................................50
4.1. ..................................................................50
4.2. . ................................................................53
4.3. .
...............................................................................54
4.4. .................................................................57
5. .................................................................................................60
5.1. .....................................................................60
5.2. ................................................................................63
5.3. ...............................................68
6. .........................................................................71
6.1. - ...................................................71
6.2. . ...........................................................71
6.3. .....................................................................................72
7. ................................................................76
7.1. . . ........................76
7.2. . .......................77
7.3. ......................................................................78
7.4. ........................................................80
7.5. . .......................80
7.6. ...............................................................................82
7.7. . . ......................83
7.8. .
.........................................................................85
.........................................................................................87
...................................................................................95

96

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