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EXPERIMENT : NO

13
TO STUDY AND CALIBRATE A PITOT STATIC TUBE

TITLE

DATE OF EXPERIMENT

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CONTENTS
P"#e 1\$ CONCEPT %%%%%%\$\$%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%\$ 1\$1 1\$& 1\$3 PURPOSE %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% T'EORY %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%\$ OB(ECTI)E \$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%\$\$ 3 3 3 * * * -

&\$ RE+UIRED E+UIPMENT %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%\$%\$\$ 3\$ EXPERIMENT PROCEDURE %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%\$ ,\$ OBSER)ATIONS AND READINGS %%%%%%%%%%%\$%\$\$ .\$ CONCLUSIONS AND RESULTS %%%%%%%%%%%%%\$%

FIGURES
P"#e FIGURE 1 S/0em" i/ 12 " Pi 1 S " i/ 34e %%\$\$%\$%%%%\$%% 3

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## 1\$ CONCEPT 1\$1\$ PURPOSE

The purpose of this experiment is to study and calibrate a pitot static tube. A Pitot tube is an integral component of a Pitot Static System (PSS) used for measuring the airspeed of an aircraft. Properly calibrating it determines the resultant accuracy of the airspeed.

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T'EORY

igure 1 Pitot Static System ( igure !ourtesy http"##\$\$\$.grc.nasa.go%) ig.1 sho\$s a schematic dra\$ing of a pitot&static tube. Pitot&Static tubes' \$hich are also called Prandtl tubes' are used on aircraft as speedometers. The actual tube on the aircraft is around 1( inches (2) centimeters) long \$ith a 1#2 inch (1 centimeter) diameter. Se%eral small holes are drilled around the outside of the ________________________________________________________________________ Experimen ! 13 Page * of 7
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_________________________________________________________________________ tube and a center hole is drilled do\$n the axis of the tube. The outside holes are connected to one side of a de%ice called a pressure transducer. The center hole in the tube is +ept separate from the outside holes and is connected to the other side of the transducer. The transducer measures the difference in pressure in the t\$o groups of tubes by measuring the strain in a thin element using an electronic strain gauge. The pitot&static tube is mounted on the aircraft' or in a \$ind tunnel ' so that the center tube is al\$ays pointed in the direction of the flo\$ and the outside holes are perpendicular to the center tube. ,n some airplanes the pitot&static tube is put on a longer boom stic+ing out of the nose of the plane or the \$ing. -ifference in Static and Total Pressure Since the outside holes are perpendicular to the direction of flo\$' these tubes are pressuri.ed by the local random component of the air %elocity. The pressure in these tubes is the static pressure ( PS ) discussed in /ernoulli0s e1uation. The center tube' ho\$e%er' is pointed in the direction of tra%el and is pressuri.ed by both the random and the ordered air %elocity. The pressure in this tube is the total pressure ( PT ) discussed in /ernoulli0s e1uation. The pressure transducer measures the difference in total and static pressure \$hich is the dynamic pressure 1. Measurement = q = PT PS S156e 21r )e51/i 7 2ith the difference in pressures measured and +no\$ing the local %alue of air density from pressure and temperature measurements' \$e can use /ernoulli0s e1uation to gi%e us the %elocity. /ernoulli0s e1uation states that the static pressure plus one half the density times the %elocity 3 s1uared is e1ual to the total pressure. ________________________________________________________________________ Experimen ! 13 Page 4 of 7
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_________________________________________________________________________ V= 2( PT PS ) or

V 2 PT PS = 2
Limi " i1n8 5f the %elocity is lo\$' the difference in pressures is %ery small and hard to accurately measure \$ith the transducer. 6rrors in the instrument could be greater than the measurement7 So pitot&static tubes don0t \$or+ %ery \$ell for %ery lo\$ %elocities. 5f the %elocity is %ery high (supersonic)' \$e0%e %iolated the assumptions of /ernoulli0s e1uation and the measurement is \$rong again. At the front of the tube' a shoc+ \$a%e appears that \$ill change the total pressure. There are corrections for the shoc+ \$a%e that can be applied to allo\$ us to use pitot&static tubes for high speed aircraft. 5f the tubes become clogged or pinched' the resulting pressures at the transducer are not the total and static pressures of the external flo\$. The transducer output is then used to calculate a %elocity that is not the actual %elocity of the flo\$. Se%eral years ago' there \$ere reports of icing problems occuring on airliner pitot&static probes. ,utput from the probes \$as used as part of the auto&pilot and flight control system. The solution to the icing problem \$as to install heaters on the probes to insure that the probe \$as not clogged by ice build&up.

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1\$3\$

OB(ECTI)E
I\$ To calibrate a pitot tube

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RE+UIRED E+UIPMENT
2ind Tunnel 8anometer Pitot Tube

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EXPERIMENT PROCEDURE
I\$ T1 /"5i4r" e " Pi 1 T34e Properly mount the pitot tube in the \$ind tunnel !onnect the t\$o tubes of the pitot tube to the manometer Start the \$ind tunnel Slo\$ly increase the speed of the \$ind tunnel from ( m#s to 19 m#s :ecord the %alues of differential pressure on the manometer against \$ind speed Plot the graph of differential pressure against \$ind speed in 8AT;A/ Perform regression analysis on 8AT;A/ and obtain a mathematical relationship bet\$een the independent and dependent %ariables. 5deally' you should get a second order polynomial relationship. ( PT PS = Plot the ideal relationship assuming air density to be 1.22) +g#m* Plot the experimentally obtained relationships onto the ideal relationship graph. Also plot the error plot i.e. the difference bet\$een the ideal and empirical results. 2hat are the possible reasons for the error<

V 2 ) 2

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