Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 122

. . . . . . . .

-
: : ; ; 2009

, ,
, , , .
,
.

I.
1.
2.
3.
3.1.
3.2.
3.3.
4.
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
5. -
6.
6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.4.
6.5 .

6.6.
6.7.
6.8.
7. .
8.
II.
1.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
2. I-
2.1.
2.2.
3. II-
3.1.
3.2.
4. III-
4.1.
4.2.
5. IVA-
5.1.
5.2.
5.3.
6. VA-a
6.1.
6.2.
7. VIA-
7.1.
7.2.
8. VIIA-a
8.1.
8.2.
8.3.
8.4.
8.5. ,
9. d-
9.1.
9.2.
9.3.
9.4.
9.5.
9.6.
III.
1.
2.
2.1. I
2.2. II
2.3. III
2.4. IV
2.5. V
2.6. VI

3.
3.1. I
3.2. II
3.3. III
4.
4.1. ()
4.2.
4.3.
4.4. .
4.5.
4.6.
IV.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15. . . .
V.
1.
1.1.
1.2.

1.3. .
1.4.
2.
2.1.
3.
3.1.
3.2.
3.3.
3.4. :
4.
5.
5.1. . .
5.2.
6.
6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
7. ()
7.1.
7.2.

7.3. -
7.4.
7.5.

I.
1.
, , .
- . (,
, ),
(, , ).
, .
, .
.
X , Z
.. , A . Z
, . A
. A Z.
, .
(Ar)
1/12 12.
(Mr)
1/12
12.
(..) 1/12 12. 1 ..
= 1,66 10-24 .
, (,
, ), 0,012 12.
, 6,02 1023 (, , ).
n = N/NA , n (), N , a NA
. v.
NA = 6,02 1023 /.
M (/) m ()
n ():
= m/n, : m = n n = m/.
VM (/) V ()
n (). VM = 22,4 /.
: t = 0C, = 273 , = 1 = 760
. . . = 101 325 = 101,325 .
VM = V/n, : V = VM n n = V/VM.
:
n = m/M = V/VM = N/NA.
,
, , - .


: = m/n ( ).

: = /(n m).
-
: = /n(), n() .
1 2
. m1/m2 = 1/2, m1/1 = m2/2, n1 =
n2, m1 m2 , 1 2 , n1 n2
.
:
c1 V1 = c2 V2 , 1, 2, V1 V2
.
: pV = nRT, p (, ), V
(3, ), n (), T (), T () = t (C) + 273, R
, R = 8,314 /( ), = 3 = .

2.
- ,
, .
, : = h/(mV), h
, , m
V. ,
, .
: (mVx) > h/2n Vx x > h/
(2m), m , x , Vx x,
, . ,
( x) (Vx)
.
(, , , )

. .
n 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 7,
() , L, M, N, , Q.
, n.
,
n ( n, )
R ( n, R).
(, ) l
n: l = 0, 1,(n 1). , n = 2, l = 0, 1; n = 3, l
= 0, 1, 2. l ().
, n l.
l: s l = 0, p l
= 1, d l = 2, f l = 3.
n l, : 2s ( = 2, l = 0), 3d (n = 3, l = 2) . .
( l, ): Es< E < <
, : s- , p -
. .
m1

, l,
: l,-1, 0, 1,l, . . (2l + 1) . , l = 2, m1 = -2, -1,
0, 1, 2.
( ) , (
) n, l, m1. 2l+1 . , d
d-. ,
m1, .
ms
s, ,
: + _.
,
.
:
. .
,
, 2(2l + 1) ,
2n2 .
:
(n + l), (n + l)
n.
.

,
: 1s, 2s, 2, 3s, , 4s, 3d, 4, 5s, 4d, 5, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p, 8s,
,
: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d, 4s, 4,
4d, 4f . . ,
: Br(35) 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p5.

. , r Cu:
r(24) 1s22s22p63s23p63d54s1 Cu(29) 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s1 .
(): -
, .
.
, , . , (15) :
) )2)8)5;
) 1s22s22p63s23p3 ;
)

:
V(23) 1s22s22p63s23p63d34s2 ;
V3+(20) 1s22s22p63s23p63d24s0 .

3.
3.1.
,
.

- .

, . ,
,

.

, :

: ,
.
()
, -.
()
. , 2s
2p -. -,
CH4, CF4 . ., s- -
sp3 -:

,
, .

:
sp , - 180;
sp2 , 120;
sp3 , 109;
sp3d1 -, 90 120;
sp2d1 , 90;
sp3d2 , 90.

3.2.
-, .
().

, . ,
. ( ), (
) (, - ), .


1. , .
2. , .
3. , .
( )
:
, ,
, ,
, .
,
.
n, : n = (n n)/2, n n
.
,
, : ( ),
( ) . .
1s-AO ( )
- *-:

, n,
R
:

, 2s-AO, 2-, 2y 2z-,


-MO. , F Ne
2s 2- , 2s-AO
2- , 2s-AO
2-O. O2, F2, Ne2
:

, , N 2s 2- , 2s-AO
2z- . 2, 2
N2 O2, F2 Ne2.
2, 2 N2:

, ,
O2, O2+ O2:
O2+(11)s2s*2z2(x2y2)(x*1y*0)
n = 2 R = 0,121 ;
O2(12)s2s*2z2(x2y2)(x*1y*1)
n = 2,5 R = 0,112 ;
O2(13)s2s*2z2(x2y2)(x*2y*1)

n = 1,5 R = 0,126 .
O2
, n = 2,
O2+ O2 O2, O2,
.

3.3.
.
.
, 1,5
2,0.
. NaCl
Na+ Cl Na+,
.
.


(F, CI, N) .
:
, : t(2O) = 100 , t(H2S)
= -61C. H2S .

4.
4.1.

()
. ()
, , : = V.
, , .
, , .
: , , , , .
: .
, ,
.
(Q) .
(m) () Q
t: Q = m t, t = Q/(c ).
,
.
.
: ,
.
(U) ,
.
(Q = U = U2 U1), ,
. ,
,
U = V.
: = U
+ V, = U + pV.
(V = 0),

U ( = U ). > U ,
, < U , .
: . .
(, ) ,
1 = 101 325 , 298 1 /.
,
1 , ,
. , , (NaCl) = -411 /. , Na()
+ Cl2() = NaCl() 1 NaCl 411 .

, : = () ().
NH3() + HCl() = NH4Cl(), Ho6p(NH3)=-46 /,
Ho6p(HCl) = -92 / Ho6p(NH4Cl) = -315 / :
H = Ho6p(NH4Cl) Ho6p(NH3) Ho6p(HCl) = -315 (-46) (-92) = -177 .
< 0, . > 0,
.
:
.
, . .
( < 0),
, . . ( > 0).
.
S , . S
, S . S > 0,
, AS < 0, .
, S > 0. , , S < 0.
, :
() + 2O() = (OH)2(), S < 0;
CaCO3() = () + CO2(), S > 0.
, . . < 0,
, . . S > 0.
: G = TS G = S. ,
, . . G < 0, . ,
, . . G > 0, . G
= 0 , .
, ,
, TS G = < 0. TS
, , , G = TS, . .
, S > 0, a G < 0.
G, .
AG :
G = () Gop().
Go, So
.

4.2.

(v )
:

v , , t .


(, , . .)
.

, ,
.

1 2 :
v1 = k1 []m []n
v2 = k2 [C]p [D]q
v , k , []
.
,
. , : mA + nB + qD,
(m + n). ,
. .


. ,
mA + nB + qD
v1 = k1 [] [] ( + ).
m n ,
.
.

. ,

.
-. 10
24 . :
v2 = v1 (t2 t1)/10
v1 v2 (t1) (t2) ,
, ,
10.

:
k = A e E/(RT),
k , , , = 2,71828,
, R = 8,314 /( ) ; ().
,
.

4.3.
, .
.

N2 + 3H2 2NH3.
:
( ,
) ,
.

.
= ;
= ;
> 1 ;
< 1 .

G :
G = RT lnK, G = -2,3RT lgK, = 10-0,435G/RT
> 1, lgK > 0 G < 0, . . ,
.
< 1, lgK < 0 G > 0, . . ,
.
:
, ,
, ,
.

5. -
- ,
.
.
.
, , .
, , .
, , :
F2 [. ] + 2 2F [.].
, , :
Na0 [. ] 1 Na+ [.].

- :

0 - ; n
; [. ] [. ]
.
0
: 0, ,
0, .
, F2 + 2 2F0 = 2,87 , Na+ + 1 Na00 = -2,71
( ).
-
, ,
(...) 0: 0 = 0 0 , 0 0

.
... 0 G
:
G = nF 0 = (RT/nF) lnK.
... : = 0 (RT/nF) IgK
= 0 (0,059/n )lgK .
G = 0 = 0, = (0,059/n)lgK = 10nE/0,059.
:
G < 0 >> 1, 0 > 0.
-
0. 0 > 0, . 0 < 0,
.

,
.
,
ZnSO4 CuSO4 .
. :
Zn Zn2+ + 2, : Cu2+ + 2 Cu.
: Zn + CuSO4 = ZnSO4 + Cu.
, . ,
. ,
. ,
.
, Zn + CuSO4 = ZnSO4 + Cu
: (-)Zn | ZnSO4 || CuSO4 | Cu(+).
(...) 0 = 0 0 = 0 (Cu2+/Cu)
0 (Zn2+/Zn) = 0,34 (-0,76) = 1,10 . - , ,
, 0.

, 1 /, 0 0 ,
... .
, NH4Cl ,
MnO2 . : Zn +
2NH4Cl + 2MnO2 = [Zn(NH3)2]Cl + 2MnOOH.
: (-)Zn | NH4Cl | MnO2, C(+). ... 1,5 .
.

, 30%-
PbSO4. :
PbSO4() + 2 b() + SO42PbSO4() + 2H2O bO2() + 4H+ + SO42- + 2
:
() + SO42- PbSO4() + 2
bO2() + 4H+ + SO42- + 2 PbSO4() + 22O
:


, .

6.
6.1.
w

: w = m-/m- w = m-a/(V ), m- = Vp-pa
-.

: = n ()/V () = m/( V( )).
(
)
: = n ( .)/V () = m/( V()).

6.2.

.

() (): = /.
( ~ 1) .
( ~ 1) , ,
: HNO3, HCl, H2SO4, HI, HBr, HClO4 .
( << 1) 2O, NH4OH,
: HF, H2SO3, H2CO3, H2S, CH3COOH .
.
, ,
. :
CaCO3 + 2HCl = CaCl2 + 2O + CO2
CaCO3 + 2H+ + 2Cl = 2+ + 2Cl + 2O + CO2
CaCO3 + 2+ = 2+ + 2O + CO2
,
, . . .

6.3.

, :
CH3COOH CH3CO + +

.
:
, , .
:
3PO4 + + 2PO4


:
3PO4 + + PO43-

: ()
, . . :
:
. ,
CH3COOH
CH3COOH CH3CO + + << 1
, CH3COOH , . . -,
CH3CONa
CH3CONa CH3CO + Na+ = 1
- , CH3COOH
, . . .

6.4.
, .
f : f =
/ = fc.
f = 1, .
, . .
f < 1, . f,
.
I: ,
.
I z :
I = 0,52 z2.
: ,

. f
I z -:

6.5 .
, + OH.
, . . ,

2O + + OH.
, :

[2O], . . 1 ,
[2O] = 1000 / : 18 / = 55,6 /. :
[2O] = (2O) = [+] [OH] = 10-14 (22C).
[+] [OH]
10-14 22C.
.


: = lg[H+]. : pOH = lg[OH].
: + OH = 14.
.
= 7, [+] = [OH] .
< 7, [+] > [OH] .
> 7, [+] < [OH] .

6.6.
,
.
.
I. , ,
, . ,
: CH3COOH + CHgCOONa.
= + lg(/).
II. OH, ,
, . ,
NH4OH + NH4Cl.
= 14 lg(/).

6.7.

.
.
I. :
Na2CO3 + H2O NaHCO3 + NaOH
2Na+ + CO32- + H2O 2Na+ + HCO3 + OH
CO32- + H2O HCO3 + OH, pH > 7, .
.
II. :
AlCl3 + H2O (AlOH)Cl2 + HCl
Al3+ + Cl + H2O AlOH2+ + 2Cl + + + Cl
Al3+ + H2O AlOH2+ + +, < 7.
, .
III. :
KNO3 + H2O
+ + NO3 + 2O , 7.
IV. :
CH3COONH4 + H2O CH3COOH + NH4OH
CH3COO + NH4+ + H2O CH3COOH + NH4OH, = 7.
, ,
. :
Al2S3 + 62O = 2Al(OH)3 + 3H2S
:
Al2(SO4)3 + 3Na2CO3 + 3H2O = 2Al(OH)3 + 3Na2SO4 + 3CO2
h
.
, :

[OH] = ch, OH = lg[OH], = 14 OH.


, h (. . ) :
) , K(H2O);
) , : ,
;
) : , .
,

[+] = ch, = lg[H+].


,

6.8.
.
, .

, .
.
.
2CO3 + 2O 3O+ + HCO3
= 4 10-7
[Al(2O)6]3+ + 2O [Al(2O)5OH]2+ + 3O+
= 9 10-6
, .
.
0.
NH3 2O (2O) NH4+ + OH
0= 1,8 10-5
, .
HCO3 + H2O 3O+ + CO32HCO3 .
HCO3 + H2O 2CO3 + OH
HCO3 .
: 2O+ 2O 3O+ + OH
K(H2O) = [3O+][OH] = 10-14 = lg[H3O+].
0 .
+ 2O 3O+ + ,

+ 2O + OH,

7. .

, ,
. .
, .
:

[AgCl] = const,
[AgCl] = Ks(AgCl) = [Ag+] [Cl].
:
m Bn (.) m A+n + n B-m
Ks( Am Bn) = [+n ]m [-m ]n .
Ks ( )

.
s
. s s
< 10-4 /, 10-4 / s 10-2 /
s >10-2 /.
.


AgCl: AgCl Ag+ + Cl
Ks = [Ag+] [CI]:
) : [Ag+] [Cl] = Ks.
) : [Ag+] [Cl] > Ks;
;
) : [Ag+] [Cl]
< Ks;
.

8.
() --
.
K3[Fe(CN)6]:
3+,
[Fe(CN)6]3-,
Fe3+,
6CN, 1,
6.
: Ag+, Cu2+, Hg2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Fe3+, Pt4+ .

: 2O, NH3, CO CN, Cl, OH .


: 4 6, 2, 3 .
. ( ), (
). : NH3 , 2O , CN
, Cl , OH . : 2 , 3 , 4
, 5 , 6 . -:
[Ag(NH3)2]Cl (I);
[Cu(NH3)4]SO4 (II);
K3[Fe(CN)6] (III) .
.
.

.
Fe(CN)64-.
-
Fe2+ 3d64s04p0 .
( ) ( 6
) d2sp3 -:
, , , (
), - (d2sp3 -).
FeF63-.
- .
Fe3+ 3d54s04p0.
( ) ( 6
) sp3d2 -:

, , ,
( 4d-), (sp3d2 -).
.

.
[Ag(NH3)2]NO3 Ag(NH3)2+ + NO3, = 1.
, . . ,
, , .

K 1, 2, 1_2
: ,
, .

II.
1.

1.1.
, -2
.
: Fe2O3 (III), Cl2O (I).

() : CO, SiO, NO, N2O.


:
+1, +2,
+2, +3, +4,
+5, +6, +7
+1 +7.

:
+ O2 = CO2
2 + O2 = 2
() :
CH4 + 2O2 = CO2 + 22O
4FeS2 + 11O2 = 2Fe2O3 + 8SO2
:
CaCO3 t + CO2
2Fe(OH)3 t Fe2O3 + 2O

(Na2O, CaO, CuO, FeO) .
+ 2O = (OH)2 ( IA II-, Be, Mg)
CuO + 2O ( )
+ CO2 = CaCO3
+ 2HCl = CaCl2 + 2O
(CO2, 2O5, rO3, Mn2O7) .
SO2 + 2O = H2SO3 ( , SiO2, )
SO2 + = CaSO3
SO2 + 2NaOH = Na2SO3 + 2O
(ZnO, Al2O3, Cr2O3, , )
.
ZnO + H2O ( )
ZnO + 2HCl = ZnCl2 + 2O
ZnO + 2NaOH t Na2ZnO2 + 2O ( )
ZnO + 2NaOH + H2O = Na2[Zn(OH)4] ( )

1.2.
, -
; ,
.
: Fe(OH)3 (III).
:
() NaOH, KOH;
Fe(OH)2, Mg(OH)2;
Zn(OH)2, Al(OH)3, (OH)2, r(OH)3;
NaOH, KOH;
(OH)2, Zn(OH)2;

Al(OH)3, r(OH)3.

:
2Na + 22O = 2NaOH + 2
Na2O + 2O = 2NaOH
- :
FeSO4 + 2NaOH = Fe(OH)2 + Na2SO4
AlCl3 + 3NaOH = Al(OH)3 + 3NaCl
:
NaOH Na+ + OH ( = 1, )
NaOH + HCl = NaCl + H2O ( )
2NaOH + CO2 = Na2CO3 + H2O
2NaOH + Zn(OH)2 = Na2[Zn(OH)4]
2NaOH + Al2O3 t 2NaAlO2 + H2O
2NaOH + CuSO4 = Cu(OH)2 + Na2SO4
2NaOH + Zn + 2H2O = Na2[Zn(OH)4] + H2
2NaOH + 2Al + 6H2O = 2Na[Al(OH)4] + 3H2
2NaOH + Si + H2O = Na2SiO3 + 2H2
:
Fe(OH)2 FeOH+ + OH ( << 1);
FeOH+ Fe2+ + OH ( << 1)
Fe(OH)2 + H2SO4 = FeSO4 + 2H2O
Fe(OH)2 t FeO + H2O
:
Al3++ OH + 2O Al(OH)3 + 2O [Al(OH)4] + +
Al(OH)3 + HCl = AlCl3 + 2O
Al(OH)3 + NaOH = Na[Al(OH)4]
2Al(OH)3 t Al2O3 + 2O

1.3.
, ;
,
.
:

:
HCl
H2S
3PO4
HNO3

HCl

CO2 + 2O = 2CO3 ( SiO2)
Na2SiO3 + H2SO4 = Na2SO4 + H2SiO3
H2 + Cl2 = 2HCl

HCl H+ + CI ( =1) ( )
CH3COOH CH3COO + H+ ( << 1)
Fe + 2HCl = FeCl2 + H2 ( )
Cu + HCl ( , )
2HCl + CuO = CuCl2 + 2O
2HCl + Cu(OH)2 = CuCl2 + 22O
2HCl + ZnO = ZnCl2 + 2O
3HCl + Al(OH)3 = AlCl3 + 32O
2HCl + Na2CO3 = 2NaCl + H2O + CO2 ( )
HCl + AgNO3 = AgCl + HNO3 ( )

1.4.
, .
,
.

Na2HPO4
(2PO4)2
AlOHSO4
KMgF3
NaCl NaF
NaNH4HPO4
Na2[Zn(OH)4]

MgCl2, Na3PO4
Na2HPO4, Ca(H2PO4)2
MgOHCl, (Al(OH)2)2SO4
NaCl NaF, CaBrCl
KMgF3, KAl(SO4)2
Na2[Zn(OH)4], K3[Cr(OH)6]
CuSO4 5H2O
( CuS04)
Cu + 2H2SO4 = CuSO4 + SO2 + 2H2O
Cu + 2AgNO3 = Cu(NO3)2 + 2Ag
CuO + H2SO4 = CuSO4 + H2O

CuO + SO3 = CuSO4


Cu(OH)2 + H2SO4 = CuSO4 + 2H2O
CuCO3 + H2SO4 = CuSO4 + H2O + CO2
CuCl2 + Ag2SO4 = CuSO4 + 2AgCl

NaHCO3 Na+ + HCO3 ( = 1)
HCO3 H+ + CO32- ( << 1)
MgOHCl MgOH+ + CI ( = 1)
MgOH+ Mg2+ + OH ( << 1)
NaHSO4 Na+ + + + SO4 ( = 1)
CuSO4 + Fe = Cu + FeSO4 (Fe Cu )
Pb + ZnCl2 (Pb Zn )
CuSO4 + 2NaOH = Cu(OH)2 + Na2SO4 ()
CuSO4 + H2S = CuS + H2SO4 ()
CuSO4 + BaCl2 = BaSO4 + CuCl2 ()

Ca(HCO3)2 t CaCO3 + H2O + CO2 ( )
CaCO3 t CaO + CO2 ( )
2NaNO3 t 2NaNO2 + O2 ( Mg )
2Pb(NO3)2 t 2bO + 4NO2 + O2 ( Mg Cu )
2AgNO3 t 2Ag + 2NO2 + O2 ( Cu )
NH4Cl t NH3 + HCl ( )
NH4NO3 t N2O + 22O ( )
NH4NO2 t N2 + 2H2O ( )
(NH4)2Cr2O7 t N2 + Cr2O3 + 42O ( )
4KClO3 400 C KCl + 3KClO4
2KClO3 t, MnO4 2KCl + 3O2
2MnO4 t 2MnO4 + MnO2 + O2


2. I-
Li, Na, , Rb, Cs, Fr.
ns1 .
. .
+1. , ,
, . .
, ,
. .
2, Na2.

2.1.

2NaCl 2Na + Cl2


KCl + Na 800 + NaCl

4Li + O2 t 2Li2O
2Na + O2 t Na2O2
+ O2 t KO2

2Na + Cl2 = 2NaCl
2Na + H2 t 2NaH
2 + S = K2S
6Li + N2 = 2Li3N

2Na + 22O = 2NaOH + H2
2Na + 2HCl = 2NaCl + H2

2.2.
. .
4Li + O2 t 2Li2O
Na2O2 + 2Na t 2Na2O
Na2O + 2O = 2NaOH
Na2O + CO2 = Na2CO3
Na2O() + Al2O3() t 2NaAlO2
Na2O + 2HCl = 2NaCl + H2O
. , .
LiOH CsOH.
NaOH Na+ + OH ( 1)
2NaOH + CO2 = Na2CO3 + 2O
2NaOH + H2SO4 = Na2SO4 + 2H2O
2NaOH + Zn + 2H2O = Na2[Zn(OH)4] + H2
2NaOH + ZnO t Na2ZnO2 + H2O
NaOH + Al(OH)3 = Na[Al(OH)4]
3NaOH + FeCl3 = Fe(OH)3 + 3NaCl
. .
NaH + 2O = NaOH + 2
NaH + HCl = NaCl + H2
NaH + Cl2 t NaCl + HCl
. .
Na2O2 + 22O = 2NaOH + H2O2
Na2O2 + 2HCl = 2NaCl + H2O2
2Na2O2 + 2CO2 = 2Na2CO3 + O2
Na2O2 + 2KI + 2H2SO4 = Na2SO4 + I2 + K2SO4 + 2H2O
Na2O2 + CO t Na2CO3
2KO2 + 2H2O = 2KOH + H2O2 + O2
2KO2 + CO t K2CO3 + O2
. .
- , , -
. ,
.

Na2CO3 + H2O NaHCO3 + NaOH


2Na+ + CO32- + H2O CO3 + OH + 2Na+
CO32- + H2O CO3 + OH

3. II-
II- ns2 . ,
, , .
+2 II. : , Sr, Ba,
Ra. II- : , ,
, . II-
, , .

3.1.
II- , .
.
, Sr, Ba, Ra . Mg Be
:
CaCl2 + Cl2
2 + O2 t 2
2Mg + O2 t 2MgO
+ Cl2 = CaCl2
+ 2 t 2
+ 2 t 2
+ 22O = (OH)2 + H2
Mg + 22O(.)
Mg + 22O(.) t Mg(OH)2 + H2
Mg + 2HCl = MgCl2 + H2
4Mg + 10HNO3(p.) = 4Mg(NO3)2 + NH4NO3 + 3H2O

3.2.

. .
.
CaCO3 t + CO2
2 + O2 t 2
+ 2O
+ 2HCl = eCl2 + 2O
+ 2NaOH t Na2BeO2 + 2O
MgO + 2O
MgO + 2HCl = MgCl2 + 2O
MgO + NaOH
+ 2O = (OH)2
+ CO2 = CaCO3
+ 2HCl = CaCl2 + 2O

.
. .
(OH)2 + 2HCl = eCl2 + 22O

(OH)2 + 2NaOH = Na2[Be(OH)4]


(OH)2 t + 2O
Mg(OH)2+ 2HCl = MgCl2 + 22O
Mg(OH)2 + NaOH
Mg(OH)2 t MgO + H2O
Ba(OH)2 + 2HCl = BaCl2 + 2H2O
Ba(OH)2 + CO2 = BaCO3 + H2O
Ba(OH)2 + H2SO4 = BaSO4 + 2H2O

.
2 + 22O = (OH)2 + 22
2 + 2HCl = CaCl2 + 22

aO2 + 22O = (OH)2 + 2O2


aO2 + 2HCl = aCl2 + 2O2
2aO2 + 2CO2 = 2aCO3 + O2

2+ Mg2+ : ,
Mg, , Mg.
CaCl2 + Na2CO3 = CaCO3 + 2NaCl
(HCO3)2 + (OH)2 = 2CaCO3 + 22O
(HCO3)2 t CaCO3 + 2O + CO2
CaCO3 + H2O + CO2 = (HCO3)2
CaCO3 + 2HCl = CaCl2 + 2O + CO2

4. III-
III- ns2np1.

, .
+3 III.
, .
.

l3+
l+.

4.1.
4 + 3O2 t 22O3
2O3 + 2O = 23O3
3O3 t HBO2 t 24O7 t 2O3
43O3 + 2NaOH = Na2B4O7 + 7H2O
Na2B4O7 + H2SO4 + 5H2O = Na2SO4 + 43O3
B(OH)3 + 3C2H5OH H2SO4(.) B(OC2H5)3 + 3H2O

4.2.
2Al2O3 4Al + 3O2
4Al + 3O2 = 2Al2O3 ( )
2Al + 62O = 2Al(OH)3 + 2 ( )
2Al + 6HCl = 2AlCl3 + 2
2Al + 2NaOH + 62O = 2Na[Al(OH)4] + 2
8Al + 3Fe3O4 t 9Fe + 4Al2O3

Al2O3 + 2O
Al2O3 + 6HCl = 2AlCl3 + 2O
Al2O3 + 2NaOH t 2NaAlO2 + 2O
.
AlCl3 + 3NH4OH = Al(OH)3 + 3NH4Cl
AlCl3 + 3NaOH = Al(OH)3 + 3NaCl
Al(OH)3 + NaOH = Na[Al(OH)4]
Al(OH)3 + 3HCl = AlCl3 + 3H2O
2Al(OH)3 t Al2O3 + 3H2O
. (Al2S3, Al2(CO3)3)
.
Al2S3 + 62O = 2Al(OH)3 + 3H2S
Al2(CO3)3 + 2O = 2Al(OH)3+ 3CO2

5. IVA-
IVA- ns2np2.
, , , .
+4, +2, 0, -4 IV.
ns1nps, sp3 -.

5.1.
,
, .


2 + O2() t 2CO
+ O2() t CO2
+ CO2 t 2CO
+ CuO t Cu + CO
4 + Fe3O4 t 3Fe + 4CO
+ t 2 + CO
2 + t 2
+ 4Al t Al43
+ 4NO3(.) t CO2 + 4NO2 + 22O
(II)
2CO + O2 t 2CO2
CO + Fe2O3 t 2Fe + CO2
CO + CuO t Cu + CO2
CO + H2O t, CO2 + 2
CO + NaOH t, p HCOONa
(IV)
CaCO3 + 2HCl = CaCl2 + 2O + CO2
CaCO3 t + CO2
CO2 + 2O 2CO3 H+ + HCO3 2+ + CO32CO2 + (OH)2 = CaCO3 + 2O
CO2 + 2O + CaCO3 = (HCO3)2
CO2 + 2Mg t + 2MgO

NaOH + CO2 = NaHCO3
2NaOH + CO2 = Na2CO3 + H2O
(HCO3)2 100 C CaCO3 + 2O + CO2
CaCO3 1000 C + CO2
2NaHCO3 t Na2CO3+ 2O + CO2
NaHCO3+ CH3COOH = CH3COONa + 2O + CO2
CaCO3 + 2O + CO2 = (HCO3)2
(HCO3)2 + (OH)2 = CaCO3 + 22O
Na2CO3 + H2O NaHCO3 + NaOH
NaHCO3 + (2O) NaOH + (2O) + CO2

2 + 22O = (OH)2 + 22
Al43 + 12HCl = 4AlCl3 + CH4

5.2.

SiO2 + 2Mg t Si + 2MgO
Si + O2 t SiO2
Si + 2F2 = SiF4

Si + 2Mg t Mg2Si
Si + 2KOH + 2H2O = K2SiO3 + 2H2
SiH4
Mg2Si + 4HCl = 2MgCl2 + SiH4
SiH4 + 2O2 = SiO2 + 22O ( )
(IV)
SiO2 + H2O
SiO2 + 2NaOH t, Na2SiO3 + 2O
SiO2 + 6HF = H2[SiF6] + 2H2O
.
xSiO2 yH2O. H2SiO3 , .
Na2SiO3 + 2HCl = H2SiO3 + 2NaCl
Na2SiO3 + 22O + 2CO2 = 2NaHCO3 + H2SiO3
H2SiO3 t SiO2 + H 2O

5.3.
- .
+2 ,
+4 . Sn2+ ,
4+ :
SnCl2 + 2NaOH = Sn(OH)2 + 2NaCl
Sn(OH)2 + 2HCl = SnCl2 + 2H2O
Sn(OH)2 + 2NaOH = Na2[Sn(OH)4]
SnCl4 + 4NH4OH = H2SnO3 + 4NH4Cl + H2O
H2SnO3 + 2NaOH + H2O = Na2[Sn(OH)6]
H2SnO3 + 4HCl = SnCl4 + 3H2O
SnCl2 + 2FeCl3 = 2FeCl2 + SnCl4
PbO2 + 4HCl = PbCl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O

6. VA-a
VA- ns2nps. ,
, .
: +5, +3, 0, -3. 2O5 ,
2O3: N , As Sb, Bi.

6.1.
, ,
.


NH4NO2 t N2 + 2H2O

N2 + 6Li = 2Li3N
N2 + 3Ca t Ca3N2
N2 + O2 t 2NO
(-3)
N2 + 2 t, p, 2NH3
Ca3N2 + 6H2O = (OH)2 + 2NH3
2NH4Cl + (OH)2 t CaCl2 + 2NH3 + 22O
NH3 + 2O NH3 2O NH4+ + OH
NH3 + HCl = NH4Cl
4NH3 + CuSO4 = [Cu(NH3)4]SO4
2NH3 H2O + AgCl = [Ag(NH3)2]Cl + 2H2O
4NH3 H2O + Ag2O = 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH + 3H2O
4NH3 + 3O2 = 2N2 + 6H2O
4NH3 + 5O2 Pt, t 4NO + 6H2O
2NH3 + 3CuO t 3Cu + N2 + 3H2O
NH4Cl + NaOH = NaCl + NH3 + H2O
NH4Cl t NH3 + HCl
NH4NO2 t N2 + 2H2O
(NH4)2CO3 t 2NH3 + H2O + CO2
NH4NO3 t N2O + 2H2O
NH4NO2 t N2 + 2H2O
(NH4)2Cr2O7 t N2 + Cr2O3 + 4H2O

2N2O t 2N2 + O2
2HNO2 = NO2 + NO + H2O
2NO2 + 2O(.) = HNO2 + HNO3
2NO2 + 2NaOH = NaNO3 + NaNO2 + H2O
3NO2 + H2O(rop.) = 2HNO3 + NO
4NO2 + O2 + 2H2O = 4HNO3
N2O3 = NO + NO2
2N2O5 = 2NO2 + O2
N2O5 + H2O = 2HNO3
N2O5 + 2NaOH = 2NaNO3 + H2O
(+3)
Ba(NO2)2 + H2SO4(.) = BaSO4 + 2HNO2 ( )
NO2 + NO + H2O = 2HNO2 ( )
2HNO2 = NO2 + NO + H2O
2HNO2 + 2HI = I2 + 2NO + 2H2O
5NaNO2 + 3H2SO4 + 2KMnO4 = 2MnSO4 + 5NaNO3 + K2SO4 + 3H2O
2NaNO2 + 2H2SO4 + 2KI = I2 + 2NO + K2SO4 + Na2SO4 + 2H2O
(+5)
N2 + 3H2 t, p, 2NH3
4NH3 + 5O2 Pt, t 4NO + 6H2O
2NO + O2 = 2NO2
4NO2 + O2 + 2H2O = 4HNO3
NaNO3 + H2SO4(.) = HNO3 + NaHSO4
4HNO3 hv 4NO2 + O2 + 2H2O
Cu + 4HNO3(.) = Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO2 + 2H2O
3Cu + 8HNO3(.) = 3Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO + 4H2O
4Ca + 10HNO3(.) = 4Ca(NO3)2 + N2O + 5H2O
4 + 10HNO3(.) = 4Ca(NO3)2 + NH4NO3 + 3H2O
HNO3(.) Al, Fe, Cr.

Fe + 6HNO3 (.) t Fe(NO3)3 + 3NO2 + 3H2O


Fe + 4HNO3 (.) = Fe(NO3)3 + NO + 2H2O
+ 5HNO3(.) + 22O = 3H3PO4 + 5NO
S + 6HNO3 (.) = H2SO4 + 6NO2 + 3H2O
2KNO3 t 2KNO2 + O2 ( Mg )
2Cu(NO3)2 t 2CuO + 4NO2 + O2 ( Mg Cu)
2AgNO3 t 2Ag + 2NO2 + O2 ( Cu )
4Fe(NO3)2 t 2Fe2O3 + 8NO2 + O2

6.2.
(4 , )
23(PO4)2 + 10C + 6SiO2 t 4 + 6CaSiO3 + 10CO
4 + 5O2 t 410
4 + 6 t 232
3
Zn3P2 + 6HCl = 2PH3 + 3ZnCl2
32 + 62O = 2PH3 + 3Ca(OH)2
23 + 2O2 = 3PO4
3 + HI= PH4I ( )
3PO3 (2HO3 )
4O6 + 62O = 43PO3
3PO3 + NaOH = NaH2PO3 + H2O (NaHPHO3 )
3PO3 + 2NaOH = Na2HPO3 + H2O (Na2PHO3 )
: PO3 (n (PO3)n , n = 3, 4),
42O7, 3PO4.
4 + 5O2 = 410
410 2O, 0 C PO3 2O, 20 C 42O7 2O, 10 C 3PO4
3PO4 t 42O7 t PO3
3PO4 + NH3 = NH4H2PO4
3PO4 + NaOH = NaH2PO4 + H2O
3PO4 + 2NaOH = Na2HPO4 + 2H2O
3PO4 + 3NaOH = Na3PO4 + 3H2O
Ca3(PO4)2 + 3H2SO4 = 3CaSO4 + 2H3PO4
3(PO4)2 + 2H2SO4 = (2PO4)2 + 2CaSO4
23(PO4)2 + 10C + 6SiO2 t 4 + 6CaSiO3 + 10CO

7. VIA-
VIA- : , , , ,
, . VIA-
ns2np4. -2, 0, +4, +6.
2d -, . d
- ,
.

7.1.
.
, , . ,

,
.


.
2MnO4 t 2MnO4 + MnO2 + O2
2KClO3 t 2KCl + 3O2
(NaOH) + 22O 22 + O2
O2 + 2F2 = OF2
2 + O2 = 2
S + O2 = SO2
222 + 5O2 = 4CO2 + 22O
4FeS2 + 11O2 t 2Fe2O3 + 8SO2
4NH3 + 3O2 = 62O + 2N2
4NH3 + 5O2 p, t, Pt 4NO + 62O
O3
3O2 hv 2O3
O3 = O2 +
KI + 2O + O3 = I2 + 2KOH + O2

aO2 + H2SO4 = BaSO4 + 2O2 ( )
22O2 MnO2 22O + O2
2KMnO4 + 3H2SO4 + 52O2 = 5O2 + 2MnSO4 + K2SO4 + 8H2O
2KI + H2SO4 + H2O2 = I2 + K2SO4 + 22O
2O2 + O3 = 2O2 + 2O

7.2.
, ,
.

.
: , ().

,
S8. S8, S6,
S6, S4, S2.

FeS2 t FeS + S
SO2 + 2H2S = 3S + 2H2O
S + O2 t SO2
Fe + S t FeS
Hg + S = HgS
S + 6HNO3(.) = H2SO4 + 6NO2 + 2H2O
(-2)
FeS + 2HCl = FeCl2 + H2S
H2S H+ + HS 2H+ + S22H2S + O2 () = 2S + 2H2O
2H2S + 3O2 () t 2SO2 + 2H2O
2H2S + SO2 = 3S + 2H2O
H2S + I2 = S+ 2HI
5H2S + 3H2SO4 + 2KMnO4 = 5S + 2MnSO4 + K2SO4 + 8H2O
3H2S + 4H2SO4 + K2Cr2O7 = 3S + Cr2(SO4)3 + K2SO4 + 7H2O
2NaOH + H2S = Na2S + 2H2O
Na2S + 2H2O NaHS + NaOH
Al2S3 + 6H2O = 2Al(OH)3 + 3H2S
3Na2S + Cr2(SO4)3 + 6H2O = 2Cr(OH)3 + 3H2S+ 3Na2SO4
(+4)
S + 2 t SO2
4FeS2 + 11O2 t 2Fe2O3 + 8SO2
SO2 + 2O H2SO3 + + HSO3 2+ + SO32Na2SO3 + 2HCl = 2NaCl + H2O + SO2
SO2 + NaOH = NaHSO3
SO2 + 2NaOH = Na2SO3 + H2O
H2SO3 + 2H2S = 3S + 3H2O
2SO2 + O2 p, t, Pt 2SO3
H2SO3 + Cl2 + H2O = H2SO4 + 2HCl
5SO2 + 2H2O + 2KMnO4 = 2H2SO4 + 2MnSO4 + K2SO4
(+6)
4FeS2 + 11O2 t 2Fe2O3 + 8SO2
2SO2 + O2 p, t, V2O5 2SO3
H2O + SO3 = H2SO4
H2SO4 + SO3 = H2SO4 SO3 = H2S2O7 ()
H2S2O7 + H2O = 2H2SO4
Fe + H2SO4 (.) = FeSO4 + H2
Cu + H2SO4 (.)
H2SO4(.) + H2O = H2SO4 H2O + Q
Al, Fe, Cr.
2Fe + 6H2SO4 (.) t Fe2(SO4)3 + 3SO2 + 62O
Cu + 2H2SO4 (.) t CuSO4 + SO2 + 22O
3Zn + 4H2SO4 (.) = 3ZnSO4 + S + 4H2O
4Ca + 5H2SO4 (.) = 4CaSO4 + H2S + 4H2O
2H2SO4 (.) + S t 3SO2 + H2O
2H2SO4 (.) + t 2SO2 + CO2 + 2H2O

8. VIIA-a
, VIIA-,
ns2np5. , .
F > Cl > Br > I > At.
: -1, 0, +1, +3, +5, +7. , ,
-1 0. F2 Cl2 , Br2 , I2 .
,
. (
) .
HF, HCl, HBr, HI (HF , HCl, HBr
HI ). HF . HCl HBr HI
,
.
1s1.
1s2.
VIIA-.

8.1.
.
, . ,
, .

CH4 + 22O t, 42 + CO2


Zn + 2HCl = ZnCl2 + 2
(NaOH) + 22O 22 + O2
2 + 2Na t 2NaH
2 + t 2
22 + O2 = 22O
2 + Cl2 hv 2HCl
2 + N2 t, p, 2NH3
NaH + 2O = NaOH + 2
2 + 2HCl = CaCl2 + 22

8.2.
: n H2O = (2O)n ,
H2S, H2Se 2.
sp3 -,
,
104,5, .
.
2Na + 22O = 2NaOH + 2
Fe + 42O t Fe3O4 + 42
Ag + 2O
2O + = (OH)2

2O + Al2O3
N2O3 + 2O = 2HNO2
2CuSO4 + 22O (CuOH)2SO4 + H2SO4
H2SO4(.) + H2O = H2SO4 H2O
CuSO4 + 5H2O = CuSO4 5H2O

8.3.
, .
F2 + 2 = 2HF
2F2 + 22O = 4HF + O2
F2 + 2NaCl = 2NaF + Cl2
4HF + SiO2 = SiF4 + 22O

8.4.
- , .
2NaCl + 22O 2 + Cl2 + 2NaOH
2KMnO4 + 16HCl = 2KCl + 2MnCl2 + 5Cl2 + 82O
MnO2 + 4HCl = Cl2 + MnCl2 + 22O
Cl2 + 2 hv 2HCl
CH4 + Cl2 hv CH3Cl + HCl
24 + Cl2 = 24Cl2
Cl2 + 2KBr = 2KCl + Br2
Cl2 + 2O = HCl + HClO ( )
HClO = HCl + ( )
Cl2 + 2KOH = KCl + KClO +2O
2Cl2 + 2(OH)2 = CaCl2 + (ClO)2 + 22O
CaCl2 (ClO)2 , , .
Cl2 + 6KOH 100 C 5KCl + KClO3 + 2O
KClO3 , .
4KClO3 400 C KCl + KClO4
2KClO3 v 2KCl + 3O2
:
HClO HClO2 HClO3 HClO4.
2HCl + Fe = FeCl2 + H2
2HCl + CuO = CuCl2 + H2O
3HCl + Al(OH)3 = AlCl3 + 3H2O
HCl + AgNO3 = AgCl + HNO3
HCl + NH3 = NH4Cl

8.5. ,
- ,
.
,
.
2NaBr + Cl2 = 2NaCl + Br2
2NaI + Cl2 = 2NaCl + I2
2Al + Br2 = 2AlBr3
2Al + 3I2 = 2AlI3

Br2 + 2 2HBr
I2 + 2^ 2
AgNO3 + NaBr = AgBr + NaNO3
AgNO3 + NaI = AgI+ NaNO3
I2 + 2Na2S2O3 = 2NaI + Na2S4O6
10KI + 8H2SO4 + 2KMnO4 = 5I2 + 2MnSO4 + 6K2SO4 + 8H2O

9. d-
d- ( ) d--
. d - , , s.
. , , ,
.
, ,
. .
, , ,
, .

9.1.
- .
1s22s22p63s23p63d54s1.
, ,
.


FeO Cr2O3 + 4CO t Fe + 2Cr + 4CO2 (Fe + 2Cr)
r2O3 + 2Al t 2r + Al2O3
.
r + 2HCl = rCl2 + 2
rCl2 + 2NaOH = Cr(OH)2 + 2NaCl
(+2) (+3)
(II) .
4r(OH)2 + O2 + 22O = 4r(OH)3
rCl3 + 3NaOH = Cr(OH)3 + 3NaCl
Cr(OH)3 + 3Na(OH) = Na3[Cr(OH)6]
Cr2O3 + 2NaOH t 2NaCrO2 + H2O
Cr(OH)3 + 3HCl = CrCl3 + 3H2O
2Cr(OH)3 t Cr2O3 + 3H2O
2CrCl3 + 3Cl2 + 16KOH = 2K2CrO4 + 12KCl + 8H2O

2Na3Cr(OH)6 + 3Br2 + 4NaOH = 2Na2CrO4 + 6NaBr + 8H2O


(+6)
CrO3 + 2O = H2CrO4
2CrO3 + H2O = H2Cr2O7
,
.
2r2O7 + 2KOH = 22rO4 + 2O
2K2CrO4 + H2SO4 = K2SO4 + K2Cr2O7 + 2O
(NH4)2Cr2O7 t Cr2O3 + N2 + 42O
.
2r2O7 + 4H2SO4 + 3Na2SO3 = Cr2(SO4)3 + 3Na2SO4 + K2SO4 + 4H2O
K2Cr2O7 + 4H2SO4 + 3NaNO2 = Cr2(SO4)3 + 3NaNO3 + K2SO4 + 4H2O
K2Cr2O7 + 7H2SO4 + 6KI = Cr2(SO4)3 + 3I2 + 4K2SO4 + 7H2O
K2Cr2O7 + 7H2SO4 + 6FeSO4 = Cr2(SO4)3 + 3Fe2(SO4)3 + K2SO4 + 7H2O

9.2.
- .
, ,
.


FeO Mn2O3 + 4CO t Fe + 2Mn + 4CO2 (Fe + 2Mn)
Mn2O3 + 2Al t 2Mn + Al2O3
Mn + 2HCl = MnCl2 + 2
Mn + 2H2SO4 (.) = MnSO4 + SO2 + 22O
Mn + 8HNO3 (.) = 3Mn(NO3)2 + 2NO + 42O
(+2)
MnSO4 + 2NaOH = Mn(OH)2 + Na2SO4
Mn(OH)2 + 2NaOH
Mn(OH)2 + H2SO4 = MnSO4 + 2H2O
2Mn(OH)2 + O2 = MnO2 + 2H2O
Mn(OH)2 + 2NaOH + Br2 = MnO2 + 2NaBr + 2H2O
Mn(OH)2 t MnO + H2O
2Mn(NO3)2 + 16HNO3 + 5NaBiO3 = 2HMnO4 + 5Bi(NO3)3 + 5NaNO3 + 7H2O
3MnCl2 + 2KClO3 + 12NaOH 3Na2MnO4 + 2KCl + 6NaCl + 6H2O
(+4)
MnO2 , .
MnO2 + 4HCl = MnCl2 + Cl2 + 22O
3MnO2 + KClO3 + 6KOH 3K2MnO4 + KCl + 3H2O
(+6)

.
2MnO4 + 8HCl = MnCl2 + 2Cl2 + 2KCl + 42O
(+7)
.
2KMnO4 + 3H2SO4 + 5Na2SO3 = 2MnSO4 + 5Na2SO4 + K2SO4 + 3H2O
2KMnO4 + H2O + 3Na2SO3 = 2MnO2 + 3Na2SO4 + 2KOH
2KMnO4 + 2KOH + Na2SO3 = 2K2MnO4 + Na2SO4 + H2O
2KMnO4 + 8H2SO4 + 10FeSO4 = 2MnSO4 + 5Fe2(SO4)3 + K2SO4 + 8H2O
2KMnO4 + 8H2SO4 + 10KI = 2MnSO4 + 5I2 + 6K2SO4 + 8H2O
2KMnO4 + 3H2SO4 + 5NaNO2 = 2MnSO4 + 5NaNO3 + K2SO4 + 3H2O
2KMnO4 t K2MnO4 + MnO2 + O2

9.3.
.
, ,
.

(+8) .

3Fe2O3 + CO t 2Fe3O4 + CO2
Fe3O4 + CO t 3FeO + CO2
FeO + CO t Fe + CO2
3Fe3O4 + 8Al t 9Fe + 4Al2O3
Fe + I2 t FeI2
2Fe + Cl2 t 2FeCl3
4Fe + 3O2 + 22O = 4FeO(OH) ( )
Fe + 2HCl = FeCl2 + 2
Fe + H2SO4 (.) = FeSO4 + H2
Fe + 4HNO3 (.) = Fe(NO3)3 + NO + 2H2O
.
.
2Fe + 6H2SO4(.) t Fe2(SO4)3 + 3SO2 + 62O
Fe + 6NO3(.) t Fe(NO3)3 + 3NO2 + 3H2O
(+2)
FeO + 2O
FeO + H2SO4 = FeSO4 + H2O
FeSO4 + 2NaOH = Fe(OH)2 + Na2SO4
(II) .
4Fe(OH)2 + 22O + O2 = 4Fe(OH)3
Fe(OH)2 + H2SO4 = FeSO4 + 22O
Fe(OH)2 + 2NaOH *
FeSO4 + 6KCN = K4[Fe(CN)6] + K2SO4
FeSO4 + K3[Fe(CN)6] = KFe[Fe(CN)6] + K2SO4

(+3 )
FeCl3 + 3NaOH = Fe(OH)3 + 3NaCl
Fe(OH)3 + 3HCl = FeCl3 + 3H2O
Fe(OH)3 + NaOH
Fe(OH)3 + NaOH NaFeO2 + 2H2O
FeCl3 + 2HI = 2FeCl2 + I2 + 2HCl
FeCl3 + 6KCN = K3[Fe(CN)6] + 3KCl
FeCl3 + K4[Fe(CN)6] = KFe[Fe(CN)6] + 3KCl
FeCl3 + 3KCNS = Fe(SCN)3 + 3KCl
(+6)
.
Fe2O3 + 3KNO3 + 4KOH 2K2FeO4 + 3KNO2 + 2H2O
4K2FeO4 + 10H2SO4(.) = 2Fe2(SO4)3 + 3O2 + 4K2SO4 + 10H2O

9.4.
, .

2CuS + 3O2 t 2CuO + 2SO2
CuO + CO t Cu + CO2
Cu + 2HCl + 2O2 = CuCl2 + 22O
Cu + 2H2SO4(.) = CuSO4 + SO2 + 22O
Cu + 4)3(.) = Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO2 + 2H2O
3Cu + 8HNO3(.) = 3Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO + 4H2O
4Cu + O2() 200 C 2Cu2O
2Cu + O2() 500 C 2CuO
2Cu + H2O + CO2 + O2 = (CuOH)2CO3 ()
(I)
2Cu2O + O2 500 C 4CuO
Cu2O + CO t 2Cu + CO2
Cu2O + 4(NH3 2O) (.) = 2[Cu(NH3)2]OH + 3H2O
(II)
CuO + 2HCl = CuCl2 + 2O
CuSO4 + 2NaOH = Cu(OH)2 + Na2SO4
Cu(OH)2 t CuO + 2O
Cu(OH)2 + H2SO4 = CuSO4 + 2H2O
Cu(OH)2 + NaOH
Cu(OH)2 + 2NaOH (.) t Na2[Cu(OH)4]
CuSO4 + 4(NH3 H2O) = [Cu(NH3)4]SO4 + 42O
[Cu(NH3)4]SO4 + Na2S = CuS + Na2SO4 + 4NH3
2CuSO4 + 2H2O (CuOH)2SO4 + H2SO4
2CuSO4 + 4KI = 2CuI + I2 + 2K2SO4
2Cu(NO3)2 t 2CuO + 4NO2 + O2

9.5.
3Ag + 4HNO3 (.) = 3AgNO3 + NO + 2H2O
2AgNO3 + 2NaOH = Ag2O + H2O + 2NaNO3
AgNO3 + HCl = AgCl + HNO3
AgCl + 2(NH3 H2O) = [Ag(NH3)2]Cl + 2H2O
[Ag(NH3)2]Cl + 2HNO3 = AgCl + 2NH4NO3
Ag2O + 4(NH3 2O) (.) = 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH + 3H2O

2[Ag(NH3)2]OH + CH3CHO + 2H2O = 2Ag + CH3COONH4 + 3(NH3 H2O)

9.6.

2ZnS + 3O2 t 2SO2 + 2ZnO
ZnO + CO t Zn + CO2
Zn + 2HCl = ZnCl2 + H2
Zn + H2SO4 (.) = ZnSO4 + H2
4Zn + 5H2SO4 (.) = 4ZnSO4 + H2S + 4H2O
Zn + 4HNO3(.) = Zn(NO3)2 + 2NO2 + 2H2O
4Zn + 10HNO3(. .) = 4Zn(NO3)2 + NH4NO3 + 3H2O
Zn + 2NaOH + 2H2O = Na2[Zn(OH)4] + H2

ZnSO4 + 2NaOH = Zn(OH)2 + Na2SO4
Zn(OH)2 + H2SO4 = ZnSO4 + 2H2O
Zn(OH)2 + 2NaOH = Na2[Zn(OH)4]
Na2[Zn(OH)4] + 2HCl = Zn(OH)2 + 2NaCl + 2H2O
Na2[Zn(OH)4] + 4HCl = ZnCl2 + 2NaCl + 4H2O
Zn(OH)2 + 6NH4OH = [Zn(NH3)6](OH)2 + 6H2O
2ZnSO4 + 2H2O (ZnOH)2SO4 + H2SO4

III.
1.
. ,
, (m) ,
. (1 = 10 6 ).
(clim) ,
.
/.
(Vlim) ,
1 . /.

(Vmin)
() , .
m = Clim Vmin 106,

: = lga (H+) = lg (c (H+) / f (+))


: = 14 + lga (OH) = 14 + lg (c (OH) f (OH))
: = (K lgc ) = K lgc
: = 14 K + lgc
, : = 7 + pK
+ lgc
, : = 7 K
lgc
, : = 7 + pK
+ pK
:

.

, 1
, .

:
.
:
Ktm Ann mKtn + + n Anm [Ktn +] = m s ; [Anm -] = n s
-

Ks ( ) :
Ks = a (Ktn +)m a (Anm -)n = (f (Ktn +) x [Ktn +])m (f (Anm- )[Anm -])n = (ms)m(ns)n
f (Ktn +)m f (Ann -)n = nnmmsm+n f (Ktn +)m f (Anm -)n , Ks = nn mm sm+n

. (s), /,
:

Ktm Ann ,
/ :
= s M(Ktm Ann )
:
m (Ktm Ann ) = s(Ktm Ann ) M(Ktm Ann ) x V-
. ,

.
[Ktn +]m [Anm -]n < Ks (Ktm Ann )
,
.
[Ktn +]m [Anm -]n > Ks (Ktm Ann ).
- .

-
O + n Red
Eox/red - Eox/red
:

R , 8,314 / ,
, , T , 96485 /, ()
, a (Red) .
,
, = 298
25C:

- ,
:

-
,

.

-
OxLm , (OxLm ),
- :

- .
-
1 + bRed1 2 + bRed2 , 0 = 0
Ox1/Red2 0 Ox2/Red1 > 0, , 0 < 0.
, . .
, .
- - :

2.
-
I : Li+, NH4+, Na+, K+
.
: , .
II : Ag+, Hg22+, Pb2+
HCl ( (HCl) = 2 /).
: .

III : 2+, 2+, Sr2+, Pb2+


H2SO4 (c (H2SO4) = 2 /).
: .
IV : Al3+, Cr3+, Zn2+, As(III), As(IV), Sn2+
NaOH (c (NaOH) = 2 /), .
: NaOH.
V : Bi3+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Mn2+
NH3 (.).
: NaOH NH3.
VI : Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Ni2+
NH4OH (.).
: NaOH,
NH3.

2.1. I
: Li+
1. , : Na2HPO4, . NH3.
:
3LiCl + Na2HPO4 = Li3PO4 + 2NaCl +HCl
: .
2. , : Na2CO3, 7
: 2LiCl + Na2CO3 = Li2CO3 + 2NaCl
: .
: NH4+
1. , : NaOH, .
:
NH4Cl + NaOH = NaCl + 2O + NH3
: , .
2. , : ( K2[HgI4] KOH)
:
NH3 + 2K2[HgI4] + KOH = [OHg2NH2]I + 7KI + 22O
: - .
: Na+
1. , : K[Sb(OH)6], , , 7, NH4+,
Li+
:
NaCl + K[Sb(OH)6] = Na[Sb(OH)6] + KCl
: .
2. , : Zn(UO2)3(CH3COO)8, , CH3COOH, Li+
:
NaCl + Zn(UO2)3(CH3COO)8 + CH3COOK + 92O = NaZn(UO2)3(CH3COO)9 92O +
KCl
: - .
: +

1. , : Na3[Co(NO2)6], - , NH4+, Li+.


:
2KCl + Na3[Co(NO2)6] = K2Na[Co(NO2)6] + 2NaCl
: .
2. , : NaHC4H4O6, 7, NH4+.
: 2KCl + NaHC4H4O6 = K2C4H4O6 + NaCl + HCl
: .

2.2. II
: Ag+
1. , : HCl, NH3 2O
:
AgNO3 + HCl = AgCl + HNO3
AgCl + 2NH3 H2O = [Ag(NH3)2]Cl + 2H2O
[Ag(NH3)2]Cl + 2HNO3 = AgCl + 2NH4NO3
: ,
( . !).
2. , : 2rO4, = 6,57,5.
:
2AgNO3 + K2CrO4 = Ag2CrO4 + 2KNO3 : - .
: Hg2+
1. , : HCl, NH3 2O
:
Hg2(NO3)2 + 2HCl = Hg2Cl2 + 2HNO3
Hg2Cl2 + 2NH3 H2O = [HgNH2]Cl + Hgi + NH4Cl + 2H2O
: , ( .
!).
2. , : Cu (.)
:
Hg2(NO3)2 + Cu = Hg + Cu(NO3)2
: .
: 2+
1. , : HCl
:
Pb(NO3)2 + 2HCl = Cl2 + 2HNO3
: , .
2. , : KI
:
Cl2 + 2KI = Cl2 + 2KCl
: - .

2.3. III

: 2+
1. , : H2SO4
:
aCl2 + H2SO4 = BaSO4 + 2HCl
: , HNO3.
2. , : 2rO4 2r2O7
:
aCl2 + 2rO4 = rO4 + 2KCl
: , CH3COOH, HNO3.
: 2+
1. , : H2SO4 25OH
:
CaCl2 + H2SO4 + 22O = CaSO4 2H2O + 2HCl
: .
2. , : (NH4)2C2O4
:
CaCl2 + (NH4)2C2O4 = 2O4 + 2NH4Cl
: , CH3COOH, HNO3.
: Sr2+
1. , :
:
SrCl2 + CaSO4 t SrSO4 + CaCl2
: .

2.4. IV
: Al3+
1. , : 146O2(OH)2, NH3 2O (NH4Cl)
:
AlCl3 + 3NH3 H2O = Al(OH)3 + 3NH4Cl

: .
2. , : , CH3COOH
: Al(OH)3
:

: .
: r3+
, : NaOH, H2O2, , , H2SO4
:
2rCl3 + 10NaOH + 2O2 = 22rO4 + 6NaCl + 82O
: , , H2SO4
.
: Zn2+
, : 65NHN=C(SH)N=NC6H5 (),
CHCl3, = 2,5-10, Pb2+, Cd2+, Sn2+
:

: , (CHCl3).
: AsO33, : AgNO3
:
Na3AsO3 + 3AgNO3 = Ag3AsO3 + 3NaNO3
: ,
( . !).
: AsO431. , : (MgCl2 + NH4Cl + NH3), PO43 :
NH4Cl + MgCl2 + Na3AsO4 = NH4MgAsO4 + 3NaCl
: ( . !).
2. , : AgNO3
:
Na3AsO4 + 3AgNO3 = Ag3AsO4 + 3NaNO3
: ( . !).
3. , : (NH4)2S H2S, . HCl
:
5H2S + 2Na3AsO4 + 6HCl = As2S5 + 82O + 6NaCl
: ( . !).
: Sn2+

1. , : Bi(NO3)3, pH > 7
:
SnCl2 + NaOH = Sn(OH)2 + 2NaCl
Sn(OH)2 + 2NaOH(.) = Na2[Sn(OH)4] + 2NaCl
3Na2[Sn(OH)4] + 2Bi(NO3)3 + 6NaOH = 2Bi + 3Na2[Sn(OH)6] + 6NaNO3
: .
2. , : HgCl2, . HCl
:
SnCl2 + 2HCl = H2[SnCl4]
H2[SnCl4] + 2HgCl2 = H2[SnCl6] + Hg2Cl2
: ,
.

2.5. V
: Bi3+
1. , : Na2[Sn(OH)4], pH >7
:
2Bi(NO3)3 + 3Na2[Sn(OH)4] + 6NaOH = 2Bi + 3Na2[Sn(OH)6] + 6NaNO3
: .
2. , : KI, < 7
:
Bi(NO3)3 + 3KI = Bil3 + 3KNO3
: , KI
K[BiI4]. BiI3,
iOI.
: Fe2+
1. , : K3[Fe(CN)6]
:
FeSO4 + K3[Fe(CN)6] = KFe[Fe(CN)6] + K2SO4
: - - .
: Fe3+
1. , : K4[Fe(CN)6]
:
FeCl3 + K4[Fe(CN)6] = KFe[Fe(CN)6] + KCl
: - .
2. , : NH4CNS, NO2
:
FeCl3 + 3NH4CNS = Fe(CNS)3 + 3NH4Cl
: - .
: Mn2+
1. , : NaBiO3(.), HNO3
:

2Mn(NO3)2 + 14HNO3 + 5NaBiO3 = 2HMnO4 + 5Bi(NO3)3 + 5NaNO3 + 7H2O


: - .

2.6. VI
: Cd2+
1. , : NH4OH
:
Cd(NO3)2 + 2NH4OH = Cd(OH)2 + 2NH4NO3
Cd(OH)2 + 4NH4OH = [Cd(NH3)4](OH)2 + 2H2O
: , .
2. , : (NH4)2S, pH > 0,5
:
Cd(NO3)2 + (NH4)2S = CdS + 2NH4NO3
: - .
: 2+
, : NH4CNS, ( ),
Fe3+. Fe3+ NH4F.
:
Cl2 + 4NH4CNS = (NH4)2[Co(SCN)4] + 2NH4CNS
: .
: Cu2+
, : NH3 2O,
:
CuSO4 + 4NH3 H2O = [Cu(NH3)4]SO4 + 42O
: - .
: Ni 2+
, : C4H8N2O2 ( ), KOH, 9-10
:
2C4H8N2O2 + Ni2+ = Ni(C4H6N2O2)2 + 2H+
: .

3.
-
I : SO42-, CO32-, PO43-, SiO32 Ba(NO3)2
II : CI, S2 AgNO3
III : NO3, MoO42-, WO42-, VO3, CH3COO

3.1. I

: SO421. , : Ba(NO3)2
:
SO42- + Ba(NO3)2 = BaSO4 + 2NO3
: , HNO3.
: CO321. , : Ba(NO3)2
:
CO32- + Ba(NO3)2 = aCO3 + 2NO3
aCO3 + 2+ = 2+ + CO2 + 2O
: , ,
(IV) CO2.
2. , : (HCl, HNO3, H2SO4),
((OH)2).
:
CO32- + 2H+ = CO2 + 2O
(OH)2 + CO2 = CaCO3 + 2O
: , .
: PO431. , : Ba(NO3)2
:
Na3PO4 + Ba(NO3)2 = Ba3(PO4)2 + 2NaNO3
: , .
2. , : , (NH4)2MoO4
, NH4NO3
:
PO43- + 3NH4+ + 12O42- + 24+ = (NH4)3[P(Mo3O10)4] + 122O
: .
: SiO321. , : .
:
SiO32- + 2H+ = H2SiO3
: .
2. , : (NH4Cl, (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3).
:
SiO32- + 2NH4+ + (22O) = H2SiO3 + 2NH3 + (22O)
: .

3.2. II
: Cl

, : AgNO3, NH4OH, HNO3.


:
Ag+ + CI = AgCl
AgCl + 2NH4OH = [Ag(NH3)2]Cl + 2H2O
[Ag(NH3)2]Cl + 2HNO3 = AgCl + 2NH4NO3
: , NH4OH, HNO3.
: S21. , : , ,
2(CH3CO)2.
:
S2- + 2+ = H2S
H2S + Pb2+ + 2CH3CO = PbS + 2CH3COOH
: , ,
.
2. , : (III), Sb2S3
:
3S2- + 2Sb3+ = Sb2S3
: .
3. , : (II), Cd(NO3)2
: S2- + Cd2+ = CdS
: .

3.3. III
: NO3
, : (C6H5)2NH H2SO4 (.)
: - .
: oO42-, WO42-, VO3
, : (C6H5)2NH H2SO4 (.)
: - .
: VO3
1. , : 2O2, . :
VO3 + 2O2 = VO4 + 2O
: .
2. , : ( )
: , , VO3
, - .
: CH3CO
, : H2SO4 (.)
:
CH3CO + + = CH3COOH
: .

4.
4.1. ()
= n/V, n , ; V
, ; /.
(n) n = m/M = c V, m , ;
M , /, V , .
: n() = n()

, 1 .


1 .

, ,
()
( ) ().

,
() (1),
. (1)
(2) .

. ,
() (),
(1),
(). ,
() (1). A A1 ,
n()
n():

4.2.
: + + OH 2O 3O+ + OH 22O.
( ): (HCl H2SO4)
(NaOH KOH).
( ): Na2B4O7
10 2O, Na2CO3, 22O4 22O,
244O4.
: - (. ).
.

-

HCl + NaOH NaCl + 2O
+ + OH 2O
,
. ( = 7).
.

CH3COOH + NaOH CH3COONa + 2O
CH3COOH + OH > CHgCOO + 2O

:

CH3COO + HOH CH3COOH + OH


,
, < 7, .

NH4OH + HCl NH4Cl + 2O
NH4OH + + NH4+ + 2O
:
NH4+ + HOH NH4OH + +
,
, < 7, .

4.3.
- ,

, .
().

(22).
III:

[Na2H2TA]
,
().

.
: 2+ + 22- []2- + 2+
( ): , MgSO4, CaCl2
( ): MgSO4, CaCl2
: ,
= 7-11 (HInd2-) .
(2+, Mg2+, Zn2+ .)
( = 8-10) - :

:
K ([CaInd]) = 3,9 10-6
K ([]2-) = 2,7 10-11

K ([MgInd]) = 1,0 1 0-7


K ([MgTA]2-) = 2,0 10-9

4.4. .
()

: (HCO3)2 Mg(HCO3)2.
,
:
(HCO3)2 = CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O
Mg(HCO3)2 = MgCO3 + CO2 + H2O
2Mg(HCO3)2 = (MgOH)2CO3 + 3CO2 + H2O

.
:
. = . + .
:
;
.

,
.
(HCO3)2 + 2HCl CaCl2 + 22CO3
Mg(HCO3)2 + 2HCl MgCl2 + 2H2CO3
7
.
, :
2CO3 HCO3 + +
(2O) = () 1000 (/).
( )
.

(2O) = () 1000 (/).

4.5.
, , :
1) . MnO4.
;
2) . I2
Na2S2O3. .


, .
()
() .

, (II)
:
2KMnO4 + 10FeSO4 + 8H2SO4 = 2MnSO4 + 5Fe2(SO4)3 + K2SO4 + 8H2O
1 | MnO4 + 8+ + 5 Mn2+ + 4H2O
5 | Fe2+ Fe3+
MnO4 , Fe2+
.
.

M3(Fe2+) = M(Fe2+) = 55,85 /.


:
2KMnO4 + 3Na2SO3 + 2O 2MnO2 + 3Na2SO4 + 2KOH
2 | MnO4 + 22O + MnO2 + 4OH
3 | SO32- + 2OH + 2 SO42- + 2O
MnO4 , SO32-
, :


, .

4.6.
,
:
() 380750 ; (v) 2,5 104 1,5 104 -1; () 110 .

-:

, ; ,
. . , ,
, I/I0; ( /); l

();
[/( )].
:
= /( ).

IV.
1.

( , )
n H2n+2.
.
(CH4),
(26), (38), (410).
( ) - : (512), (614),
(716) . .
sp3 - . sp3 , 10928 .
:

= 351 /, 0,154 .
.
.
, , ( ),
,
,
.


1. nH2n+2 400700 C pH2p+2 + mH2m,
n = m + p.
( ).
( , , ).

( )

3. nCO + (2n + 1)2 nH2n+2 + nH2O ( - (CO + 2))


4. ( )

5. ( ) CH3COONa + NaOH t CH4 + Na2CO3


6. ( )


, . .
, , ,
, .
1. ( : F2 > Cl2 > Br2 > (I2 ),
R3C > R2CH > RCH2 > RCH3)

2. ( )

3. CnH2n+2 + SO2 + O2 h CnH2n+1SO3H


(, : )
4. CH4 1000 C + 22; 2CH4 t>1500 C 22 + 2 (
)
5. CH4 + 22O Ni, 1300 C CO2 + 42 ( )
6. 2nH2n+2 + (n+1)O2 2nCO2 + (2n+2)2O ( )
7. 2- 410 + 5O2 4CH3COOH + 22O ( ;
)
8. - 410 - 410 (, AlCl3)

2.
(, , , )
() . n H2n.
, , sp3 -
.

36, .

,
.
(, , , . .).

(
1 2), ( 5 6)
( 3 4).


1.

2.


,
. ( ), ,
. ,
. (5 )
, , . .
.
1.

2.

, , .
3.

4.

3.

( , , )
, .
n2n.

( )
: (CH3CH3) (CH2=CH2) . . ,
.

.
sp2 -,
-. sp2 -
120, 2 -,
90 .
:

= 0,134 , = = = 611 /, -
= 260 /.
: ) ; ) ; ) Z, (cis,
trans ) , .

1. CH3CH3 Ni, t CH2=CH2 + H2 ( )
2. 25OH H,SO4, 170 C CH2=CH2 + 2O ( )
3. ( )

4. CH2ClCH2Cl
+
Zn
ZnCl2
+
CH2=CH2
)
5. HCCH + 2 Ni, t CH2=CH2 ( )


,
.
1. CH2=CH2 + Br2 CH2BrCH2Br
( , )
2. ( )

3. CH2=CH2 + 2 Ni, t CH3CH3 ()


4. CH2=CH2 + 2O H+ CH3CH2OH ()
5. CH2=CH2 + 2MnO4 + 42O CH2OHCH2OH + 2MnO2 + 2KOH (
, )
6. CH2=CHCH2CH3 + MnO4 H+ CO2 + 25COOH ( )
7. CH2=CHCH2CH3 + O3 2=O + CH3CH2CH=O +
()
8. 24 + 3O2 2CO2 + 22O ( )
9. ()

10. CH3CH=CH2 + HBr CH3CH2CH2Br ( )


11. ( -)

4.
( ) ,
. n2n2. CHCH .

( )
- : (CH3CH3) (CHCH) . .
, .
.
sp -
. sp- ,
180, p -, 90
sp - .
:

: 1) ; 2)
; 3) .

1. + t 2 + CO;
2 + 22O (OH)2 + CHCH ( )
2. 2CH4 t>1500 C HC = CH + 2 ( )
3. CH3CHCl2 + 2KOH HCCH + 2KCl + 2O (-)
CH2ClCH2Cl + 2KOH HCCH + 2KCl + 2O

, . , , .
1. ()

2. HCCH + Br2 CHBr=CHBr;


CHBr=CHBr + Br2 CHBr2CHBr2 ( ,
)
3. CH3CH + HBr CH3CBr=CH2;
CH3CBr=CH2 + HBr CH3CBr2CHg (
)
4. ( , )

5.( )

6.( )

7. CHCH + 2Ag2O NH3 AgCCAg + H2O ( ,


)
8. CHCH + [] MnO4 HOOCCOOH HCOOH + CO2 ()
9. CHCH + CHCH CH2=CHCH ( CuCl NH4Cl, )
10. 3HCCH C, 600 C 66 () (, )

5.
() ,
. n2n_2.
.

1. ( . )

2. ()

3. ()


.
( C1 2, 3 4),
(1 4) 2 3.

6.
, , ,

, ,
.
, 0,140 . ,
(
, 1865 . . ), (
).


,
(R): 65R, R64R.
n2n_6(n
> 6).
(, ,
. .).
() (): 65CH3 (), 6525
(). ,
, . - R64R
,
: (o
-) (1,2-); ( -)
(1,3-); ( -)
(1,4-).

(): 1) -, (, -, - -); 2)
, 3 ; 3) (R), R=25.

1. 612 Pt, 300 C 66 + 2 ( )
2. - 614 Cr2O3, 300 C 66 + 42 ( )
3. 22 , 600 C 66 ( , )


. ,
, , .
(, ), - -
, .
1. C6H6 + Cl2 AlCl3 C6H5Cl + HCl ()
2. C6H6 + HNO3 H2SO4 C6H5NO2 + H2O ()

3. 66 H2SO4 65SO3H + H2O ()


4. 66 + RCl AlCl3 65R + HCl ()
5. ()

6. 66 + 2 t, Ni 612 ( )
7. (1,2,3,4,5,6-, )

8. 65CH3 + [] 65COOH MnO4 (


)

7.
,
.

1. CH2=CH2 + HBr CH3CH2Br (
)
CHCH + HCl CH2=CHCl
2. CH3CH2OH + Cl5 CH3CH2Cl + POCl3 + HCl ( )
CH3CH2OH + HCl CH3CH2Cl + 2O ( ZnCl2, tC )
3. ) CH4+ Cl2 hv CH3Cl + HCl ( )
)

-

.
1. CH3CH2Br + NaOH (. -) CH3CH2OH + NaBr ( )
2. CH3CH2Br + NaCN CH3CH2CN + NaBr ( )
3. CH3CH2Br + NH3 [CH3CH2NH3]+Br HBr CH3CH2NH2 (
)
4. CH3CH2Br + NaNO2 CH3CH2 NO2 + NaBr ( )
5. CH3Br + 2Na + CH3Br CH3CH3 + 2NaBr ( )
6. CH3Br + Mg CH3MgBr ( ,
)
7. ()

8.
,
(OH),
. OH (, )
.
- , .
OH- .
(
OH), ( OH). : CH3OH,
25OH; : - (-1,2) HOCH2CH2OH;
: (-1,2,3) HOCH2CH(OH)CH2OH.
, (, )
, RCH2OH, R2CH
OH, R3COH.
, ,
, (CH3CH2OH), , (CH2=CHCH2
OH), (65CH2OH).
( ): 1) OH- (

3); 2) ( 4); 3)
(, CH3CH2OH CH3CH3).

.

1. CH2=CH2 + 2O/+ CH3CH2OH ( )
2. CH3CHO + 2 t, Ni 25OH ( )
3. C2H5Br + NaOH (.) 25OH + NaBr ( )
ClCH2CH2Cl + 2NaOH (.) HOCH2CH2OH + 2NaCl
4. CO + 22 ZnO, CuO, 250 C, 7 CH3OH ( ,
)
5. 612O6 225OH + 2CO2 ( )
6. 3CH2=CH2 + 2KMnO4 + 42O 3CH2OHCH2OH - + 2KOH +
2MnO2 ( )
7. ) CH2=CHCH3 + O2 CH2=CHCHO + 2O
) CH2=CHCHO + 2 CH2=CHCH2OH
) CH2=CHCH2OH + 2O2 HOCH2CH(OH)CH2OH ( )

OH.
: .
1. 225OH + 2Na 2 + 2C2H5ONa ( Na, , Mg,
Al)
2. ) 25OH + NaOH ( )
) CH2OHCH2OH + 2NaOH NaOCH2CH2ONa + 22O
) ( -
)

3. ) ( )

) 25OH + H2SO4 25SO3H + 2O ( )


)

4. ) 25OH + HBr 25Br + 2O


) 25OH + Cl5 25Cl + POCl3 + HCl
) 25OH + SOCl2 25Cl + SO2 + HCl (
)
5. 25OH + HOC2H5 H2SO4, <140 C C2H5OC2H5 + H2O
( )
6. 25OH H2SO4, 170 C CH2=CH2 + H2O ( )
7. ) (, )

) (, )

9.
,
.
(
) . .
.


1. 65Cl + NaOH(p, 340C)
)
2. ( )

65OH

NaCl

3. C6H5SO3Na + NaOH (300350C) 65OH + Na2SO3 (


)

,

( - ). , .
.
,
.

,
- (+- OH-).
(III).
- ,
.
1. 265OH + 2Na 2C6H5ONa + 2 ( , )
2. 65OH + NaOH C6H5ONa + H2O ( )
C6H5ONa + 2O + CO2 65OH + NaHCO3 ( ,
)
3.

.
(, ).
4. 65OH + CH3CH2OH NaOH 65OCH2CH3 + NaBr (-)
5.

( , )
6.( . HNO3, . HNO3 2,4,6)

7. n C6H5OH + n CH2O n H2O + (C6H3OHCH2)n


)

(,

10.
,

,
.

. ,
: 2=O ( ,
); CH3CH=O ( ).

.
; ,
. : CH3COCH3 (, ).
. : )
, 4; ) . : )
( 5); ) ( 5); )
.
sp2. =O . =O
,
,
.

1. ) (, )

) (, )

2. ) CH3CH2CHCl2 + 2NaOH CH3CH2CHO + 2NaCl + H2O (


)
) CH3Cl2CH3 + 2NaOH CH3COCH3 + 2NaCl + H2O
3. ( , )

4. ( )

( )
CH4 + O2 400600 C, NO H2C=O + H2O
-
: )
; ) ; ) ; )
.
1. ( , )

2. ( )

3. ()

4. ( )

5. ( , )

6. ( )

7. (- OH)

8. ( )

9. RCH=O + Ag2O NH3 RCOOH + 2Ag (,


)
RCH=O + 2Cu(OH)2 RCOOH + Cu2O, + 2H2O ( , )
10. ( , )

11. n CH2=O (CH2O)n n = 812 ()

11.
,
COOH, .
: ()
CH3COOH (), (, . .).
: (, CH3CH2CH2COOH);
(CH2=CH(COOH); (65COOH).

: HCOOH ()
, CH3COOH () .
: ) ( 4); )
, 2. --
. -
.
,
,
,
.

:
RCOOH RCO + +

.

1. CH3Cl3 + 3NaOH CH3COOH + 3NaCl + 2O (
)
2. RCHO + [] RCOOH ( )
3. CH3CH=CH2 + CO + 2O/+ Ni, , t CH3CH2CH2COOH ()
4. CH3CN + 22O/ + CH3COOH + NH4 ( )
5. CO + NaOH HCOONa; 2HCOONa + H2SO4 2HCOOH + Na2SO4 (
HCOOH)


, ,
: , , ,
, , -.
1. ) 2CH3COOH + Fe (CH3COO)2Fe + 2 ( )
) 2CH3COOH + MgO (CH3COO)2Mg + 2O
) CH3COOH + KOH CH3CO + 2O
) CH3COOH + NaHCO3 CH3COONa + CO2 + 2O
CH3COONa + H2O CH3COOH + NaOH ( )
2. ( )

( )

3. ( )

4. ( )

5. CH3COOH + Cl2 hv ClCH2COOH + HCl ( )


6. HOCH=O + Ag2O NH3 2Ag + 2CO3 (2O + CO2) ( HCOOH)
HCOOH t CO + 2O

12.
.
.
( 1531COOH, 1735COOH)
( 1733COOH, 1731COOH).
.
(, ) .
.

.
.
. ,
. .

13.
, ,
.
RNH2, R2NH, R3N
.
(), ( ).
.
, CH3NH 2 ; CH3CH2NH2 .
, : CH3CH2NHCH3 .
,
. N ,
.
.
. .
.

1. RNO2 + 6[] RNH2 + 2H2O ( )
2. NH3 + CH3I [CH3N+H3]I NH3 CH3NH 2 + NH 4I ( )
3. ) 65NO2 + 3(NH4)2S 65NH2 + 3S + 6NH3 + 2H2O ( )
) 65NO2 + 3Fe + 6HCl 65NH2 + 3FeCl2 + 22O (
)
) 65NO2 + 2 , t C6H5NH 2 + 22O
4. RCN + 4[H] RCH2NH2 ( )
5. ROH + NH3 Al2O3,350 C RNH2 + 2H2O ( 2
4)


.
, .
.
. ,
. , ,
-
, -.

:
, ,

.
( ) : < <
.
. (F, Cl, NO2 . .)
,
( R, OCH3, N(CH3)2 .), , .
1. CH3NH 2 + 2O [CH3NH3]OH ( )
2. (CH 3)2NH + HCl [(CH3)2NH2]Cl (
)
[(CH 3)2NH 2]Cl + NaOH (CH 3)2NH + NaCl + H2O (
)
3.

(, )
4. RNH2 + CH3I [CH3N+H2R]I NH3 CH3NHR + NH4I ()
5. :
.
, .
) RNH2 + HNO2 ROH + N2 + H2O ( )
) 65NH2 + NaNO2 + HCl [65NN]+Cl (
)
) R2NH + N=O R2NN=O (N-) + 2O (
)
) R3N + N=O (
)
)

( )
. ,
.
,

.
C6H5NH2 + HCl [C6H5NH3]Cl = C6H5NH2 HCl
C6H5NH2 HCl + NaOH C6H5NH2 + NaCl + H2O
C6H5NH2 + CH3I t [C6H5NH2CH3]+I

14.
- ,
.
-, -, . .
, NH2 -,
, ,
.

2- (-, -)

3- (-, -)

6- (-)
()
.
, .

.

1. ( )

2. CH2=CHCOOH + NH3 H2NCH2CH2COOH ( ,


- )
3.

( HCN NH3 )
4. , .
5. .


, . . .
, ,
- , - H3N+CH2
COO.
1. H2NCH2COOH + HCl [H3N+CH2COOH]Cl (
)
2. H2NCH2COOH + NaOH H2NCH2COONa+ + H2O ( )
3.

( )
4.

()
5. +NH3CH2COO

()
6.

3CH3I HI

(CH3)3N+CH2COO

( )
7. n H2N(CH2)5COOH (HN(CH2)5CO)n + n H2O ( )

15. . . .
() , ,
(2O)y, , 3.
:

. -
.
: ( ) 612O6, (,
) 122211, [6105]n.

1. mCO2 + n2O hv, Cm(H2O)n ()+ mO2 (
)
: 612O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 62O + 2920
(:
)
2. 6nCO2 + 5n2O hv, (6105)n + 6nO2 (
)

.

( -). ,
(-) .


(,
() ).
1. 511O5CHO
()
+
Ag2O NH3
CH2OH(CHOH)4COOH
( ) + 2Ag ()
2. 511O5CHO
()
+
[] CH2OH(CHOH)4CH2OH()
()
3. )

()
)

()
4.

5. , . .
.
, ,
.
:
) 612O6 225OH + 2CO2 ( );
) 612O6 2CH3CH(OH)COOH ( );
) 612O6 37COOH + 2CO2 + 22O ( );
) 612O6 + O2 HOOCCH2(OH)(COOH)CH2COOH + 22O
( );
) 2612O6 49OH + CH3COCH3 + 5CO2 + 42 (-
).
. ,

,
( ).
() .
:
.

,
, . :

,
:


( ). -D -D-,
() .
,
, -.
, . . .
:

. (+)
D(+) D(-).
[] ,
, D(+) D(-) .

(). ,
. :
, D-.
: (6105)n,
. .
-D-, -D-.
, , ,
, , ,
. , -D.
, D- 1-4.
, 6 D-.
1525 %.


, D- 1-4
1-6. 7585 %.

1. ( ).
2. :
, .
3. : -D-.
.
, -D, 1-4. , ,
9099 %, 4050 %.
,
.

1. (): -D-.
2.
a)

.
)

, .
, ,
, .

V.
1.
, ,
.
, ,
().

, ,
.
,
,
.
,
, .
, ,
.
,
, .
, -
.

( ).
,
, - .
,
, .
:
1) : Fex Fin 0;
2) |W | = max;
3) ,
t .
,
, ,
.
.
,
,
.
;
. .
, ,
, .
U
, .

. [U ] = .
Q ,
, . .
( ). Q > 0,
. [Q ] = .
W

( ) - . W > 0,
. [W] = .
( )
( ): W = pdV + W.

= 1.
,
1 .
, ,
( 0).

1.1.
;
.

- .
Q,
W U .

.
U = const dU = 0

,
, / , .
U =Q +W dU = Q + W

,
, / , ,
.
U =Q +W + Um dU = Q + W + i Ui dni
; ,
U 1 2
U2 U1 :
U =U2 U1
:
U = (viUi)npo (viUi)

1.2.

(V = const; V = 0)

.
dU = Q + W = Q pdV
dU = Qv = CVdT = nCVdT
, , .

, . . ,
. [V ] = /.
V , /( ).
:
V = 2/3R ;
V = 5/2R .
( = const)
dU = Q + W = Q pdV
Qp = dU + pdV = d(U + pV) = dH
H = U + pV .
= (iUi) (iUi)
Qp = dU + pdV =dH = CpdT
.

. [ ] = /.
, /( ).
: = V + R; , V = [/( )].
() ,
.
Qv = UV
Qp = Up
.

.
:


:
= (iCp,i) (iCp,i) CV = (iCV,i) (iCV,i)
:

2 = 1 + (2 T1 ) UT2 = UTi + V(2 T1 )

1.3. .
1)
.
2) ,
.
3) , ,

:

S , /,

.


( , ),
, .
, .
S = k lnW .

.


:
S = (iSi) (iSi)

1.4.
, .
,
; ,
.
F = U TS -
()
, - .
dF = dU TdS F = U TS
G = H TS = U + pV TS -

()
, - .
dG = dH TdS G = TS
G = (iGi) (iGi)
G0 = (iG0) (iG0)

- ( = const, = const):
G < 0, dG < 0
- (V = const, = const):
F < 0, dF < 0

,
, -
.

- ( = const, = const):
G = 0, dG = 0, d 2G > 0
- (V = const, = const):
F = 0, dF = 0, d 2F > 0
:
v1A1 + v2A2 + = v1B1 + v2B2 +

Ci,pi , ,
.

-
, ,
, ,
.

: < 0 (U < 0).


, . . .
: > 0 (U > 0).
( ).

2.
,
.
.
,

.
. :

,
: = + n.
,
, : = + 2.

;
, ,
.
,
.
. (. .
)
.

2.1.
= 1. : (
), ( ), ( OC).
, ,
= 0;
(
= 6,1 = 273,16 ).

(, OC, OC) ; = 2
( ).
, , ,
: = 1 2 + 2 = 1, . .
.
-
:

V 2, V1 .

, , . .
, , . . (AV
< 0).
( ). (. .
) V > 0 , -,
.

3.

3.1.
, ,

.


.
: ,
:

j ; D .
-:

; R .

:
:
= pi pi = xi
-:
: Ci = kpi, Ci ; k
, .
, ( < 0),
.
:
X =0-k
X 0
.

3.2.
()
, .

, , .
0

.
.
,
:

pi = pi0 xi
, :

:

, , .

( ) ,
. , . ()
:
p = pA0x A + pB0x B = pA0(1 x B) + pB0x B = pA0 x B(pA0 pB0)

,
,
, ( ,
> 0). ,
,
( , H < 0).

.

: T= 0 = m, 0
; ;
, / ,

02 ; ,
.

,
.
= 0

: = m,
, / ,




.
, ,
,
, ().
-:
, , ,
, ,
: = CRT.
(1 =
2).
, ,
(1 > 2).
, ,
(1 < 2).

3.3.

N:

n,

i -
.
N n,
,

i = 1.
1 < i .

3.4. :


1. .
2. .
3. (. .
).

; .
:
( 0,7), (0,3 < < 0,7) ( 0,3).
.
,
:
b x- + by+

, (1 ) = 1 2.

:
.

,
, ( ) ,
f ,
:

= fC; + = f ++; _ = f_C_.


:
;

.
- : lg f = -0,51z 2I , z
, ;
I I = 0,5(iri2).

4.
I ,
.
II

.
.
, ,
R,
, ,
l
S;



, 1 1 2:

W,
,
.

() I
1 1 2 1 3 (1 3)
( II ) 1 (1 )
1 2 (1 2).

)
,
1 ,
1 .

,
(. . V = 1/C),
0 (),
.

1 -1:
= F(u + + ),
F ; +, (2-1-1)
,
1 1 .
+ = Fu+; = Fu,
+, , 2 -1 ( 2 -1).
= (+ + )
1 = + +
(V , + +, , 1)
, = + :

+ , .
+ OH ,
.
3O+ , OH
:
3O+ + 2O 2O + 3O+
2O + OH OH + 2O

5.
5.1. . .
(
1 ( I ) 2 ( I ), ( I )
( II ), 1 ( II )
2 ( II ) . .)
().

.
,
( I ) ( II ) .
: (Me) Me
:
n+ | Me
(/) , , ,
, .
> 0, n+ + n 0,
< 0, 0 n+ + n.
n+/ ,
I / II
.

, n , ;
n+ ; n+/ .
,
I .
,
II / II .
(. .) ,
..
,
.
,
, , , ,
.
,

1. . . ,
.
2.
, ,
, ( )
( ) .
, ( ),
( ).
3. I II
.
4. II .
5. II
.
6. .
7. ,
(), (Red).
- ,
ZnSO4 CuSO4,
KCl:
, .
(-) Zn | Zn 2+:: Cu 2+| Cu (+)
:
Zn0 Zn2+ + 2e
Cu2+ + 2 Cu0
- :
Cu2+ + Zn0 Cu0 + Zn2+
(, , ),
,
.

,
, () .
E Zn/Cu = Cu2+/Cu + Zn2+/Zn+ + .
: E Zn/Cu= Cu2+/Cu + Zn2+/Zn= Cu2+/Cu+ Zn2+/Zn
, ,
1 > 2.
, . .
.


.

,
.

5.2.
. ,
. , ,
.

.
, .
.



.

,
, , .
.
Pt, 2 / +

:
2+ + 2 2.
( + 1 /
101,3 ) .
:

, KCl,
Hg2Cl2:
Hg / Hg2Cl2, KCl

:
Ag / AgCl, KCl

KCl , EAgCl = 0,2224 0,00065(t 25), .


. , ,
.
,
,
64O2 64(OH)2 64O2
64(OH)2, , :
64O2 + 2H+ + 2 64(OH)2

,
.
, (
).
.
.
, .
: -
+.

0 ,
;

.
-
, 1- ,
, ,
- -.
: n+ + n Red.
Me ,
Me (Red)
() .

6.
6.1.
,
()
.
Gs = s,
Gs
, ;
, , /2; s
, 2.

, ,
. ,

.

, ,
,


g:


1. - ()
(- < 0) g > 0 (
).
2. - ()

(- > 0) g < 0 ( ,
, , , - ).
3. - ()
(- = 0) g = 0 (
).
-:
CH2 3
3,5 :

( ):

b , b ,
33,5 .
-
. ,

.
:


, -,
().

6.2.

--
,
, . . (
1080 /).
()

, ;
,
. .
. ,
40-120 /, .
(
):
= = ,

,
; , .

1. , .
2. .
3. .
4. .
:

0 , ,
, /2; b ,
.
( ): = n, .
, , ; n
, (n = 0,10,6).
:

0 -; ;
V ; m .
S0, ,
:

2/.
:

; .
: ;
.

:

6.3.
,
- ( )

.
, . .
; .
--:
,
,
, .

7. ()
() ,
,
. ,
, 10-9-10-5 ,
, .
.

, ,
, d (-1):


S :

7.1.

, ,
, , .
:
1) , 10-9_10-7 ( );
2) , 10-7_10-5 ( );
3) , > 10-5 ( ).

:

; ;
. ,
,

(- ).
():

.

: 1) , ,
,
;
, ,
; 2) ;
;
, .
: ,
; ,
,
.

7.2.
:
( ,
(r << );
( );
( );
,
(r >> ).
;
,
, (r 0,1 );
()
.
:

I, I0 ; V ;
( ); ; n1, n0
.

() .
, (
).

7.3. -


.
,
.

.
:


.
:

m ; m ; V
; NA ; ; ; k
.
:

m ;
; r .

7.4.
,
,
.
,
()
.
.
, .

: ()
.

, ,

, .
() ,

.
, , , .
.

.

,

(),
, ,
.


.
, ,
. ,
, . .
, - (-).

7.5.


.
: .

. .
: , . .
, :
6rU = 4/3r3( 0)g,
, 0 , g
, .


.

.
, . .
.
:
> ;
> ;
> ;
> ;
> ;
> .
.


. ,
< . ,
--, . .
:

,
, ()
, . :
m[AgI]nAg+nNO30.


. ,
() () ,
. . ,
,

- .

, ,
.

1. , ,
. ,
, :

-; V
; V ( 10 ) .
2. ,
(
). -.
3. , :

:
1 : 2 : 3 = 1/16 : 1/26 : 1/36 = 729 : 11 : 1
,
. Ag+ > Cs+ > Rb+ > NH4+ > K+ > Na+ > Li+
.

( ) (-
).


, 10
, .