Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 198

..

1.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1
1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.
. . . . .
6.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.

6
6
10
12
16
18
23

2 2
1.
. .
2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.
- . . . . . . . . . .

26
26
30
38

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

3
1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 CW-
1.
. . . . . . . . . .
2.
CW- . . . . . .

46
46
53
62
76
81
81
83

5

93
1.
. . . . . . . . . . . 93
2

3
2.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

6
1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

103

7
1.
. . .
2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.
. . . . . .
4.
. . . . . . .

122
122

103
115
117

130
142
145

8
149
1.
149
2.
156
3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
9
1.
1- 2- . . . . . .
2.
1- . .
3.
2- . . . . .

168
168
170
175

10
185
1.
- . . . . . . . . . 185
2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

195

1.

, ,
-.
" " .
, , [17, 18, 38, 40]. , ,
,
, ,
(., , [27, 36, 37,
39, 45, 46].) , .

, , , ..,
, , , , , ...
.

, , .
, . ,
, .
Rn .
, , .

2. , . C

, 3D-
, ,
.

1.

[1] [11].
(.,
, [13, 14, 20, 21], [23] [31], [33, 34]). .
[4, 18, 19], . , -,
, -, ,
.
,
, .
.
, , - ,
"".
. .
,

, 3D.

.. , .. , .. , .. , .. (), .. .
.. .
.. .



1.

[0, 1] = {x R|0 6 x 6 1} I.
1.1. v0 , v1 , . . . , vn RN v1 v0 , . . . , vn v0 .
, v0 , v1 , . . . , vn .
, v0 , v1 , . . . , vn n 6 N .
1.2. v0 , v1 , . . . , vn
RN ,
[v0 v1 . . . vn ] = {

n
X

si vi | s0 , s1 , . . . , sn I,

i=0

n
X

si = 1}

i=0

() n- () n v0 , v1 , . . . , vn . s0 , s1 , . .P
. , sn u = ni=0 si vi ,
, 1/(n + 1),
[v0 v1 . . . vn ].
, [v0 v1 . . . vn ]
v0 , v1 , . . . , vn .
n = 0 {v0 } . , v0 RN , ,
6

1.

1.1 . ,
v0 RN {v0 } .
, v0 , :
[v0 ] = {s0 v0 |s0 I, s0 = 1} = {v0 }.
, 0- , . ,
v0 .
1.1. n > 0 {v0 , v1 , . . . , vn } RN .
u RN n = [v0 v1 . . . vn ]
, ,
vn w n1 = [v0 v1 . . . vn1 ].
. u n ,
u=

n
X

si vi ,

s0 , s1 , . . . , sn I

i=0

n
X

si = 1.

(1.1)

i=0

sn = 1 u vn .
u [wvn ], w n1 .
sn 6= 1 (1.1) :
u = w + sn vn ,

= 1 sn

w=

n1
X

(si / )vi .

(1.2)

i=0

(1.2) ,
u
P
(s
/
w vn . (1.1) n1
i ) = 1. w
i=0
n1

= [v0 v1 . . . vn1 ].

,
1, 2 3.
{v0 , v1 } , v0 6= v1 . 1.1 1 = [v0 v1 ] v0 v1 .
v0 , v1 , v2 RN
, . 1.1 2- 2 =
[v0 , v1 , v2 ] .
, {v0 , v1 , v2 , v3 }
, , 3-
3 = [v0 , v1 , v2 , v3 ] .

1.

1.3. , {v0 , v1 , . . . , vn } RN , k 0 6 k 6 n.
{i0 , i1 , . . . , ik } {0, 1, . . . , n} k = [vi0 vi1 . . . vik ] k- n- n =
[v0 v1 . . . vn ]. k n .
1.3 n = [v0 v1 . . . vn ] , ,
. , . n , n- . .
P
, u = ni=0 ti vi n = [v0 v1 . . . vn ] k = [vi0 vi1 . . . vik ] , ti = 0
i
/ {i0 , i1 , . . . , ik }.
, .
1.1. n = [v0 v1 . . . vn ] k .
k n ;
l n k l ,
k , l n .
.
.
1.4. m n RN , m n . ,
,
:
m n = ;
m n = k k- m n , 0 6 k 6
min{m, n}.
1.2. m n RN , k m l n
.

1.

. , , k l 6= . m n p . ,

k l = ( k p ) ( l p ).
(1.3)
1.1 k p l p p .
(1.3) , k l p . 1.1 k l
m n .
1.5. K RN , :
(K1) n K K
;
(K2) m , n K .
1.1. 1.4 1.5 ,
m n K :
m n ,
;
m n , m n .
1.2. , .
,
.

.
n

1.3. S = {1n1 , . . . , q q }
n
RN , ini j j , i, j
{1, . . . , q}, , K S .
. 1.3 1.2.
1.6. K .

10

1.

1.7. K 0 K K , .
(K2) 1.5
K, K 0 K
, n K 0
K 0 .

2.

1.8. K n-
RN , P n- RN . K
P K = K(P ).
K = K(P ) P .
1.3. 1.3 n
S = {1n1 , . . . , q q } n
, ini j j S . , .
RN . , P
K(P ).
1.9. n- P K = K(P ). k = 0, 1, . . . , n
l K l 6 k P k k- P .
, P 0
K(P ), P n = P .
1.10. P P 0 , K(P ) K(P 0 )
, K(P 0 )
K(P ). P 0 P .
, P 0 P , . .

2.

11

1.4. P 0 P :
(1) P 0 P ;
n

(2) 1n1 , . . . , q q K(P ), P 0 .


. P 0 P ,
1.10 P 0 K(P 0 ) K(P ).
, (2) n
. 1n1 , . . . , q q K(P ), . K(P ) 1.3
.
P 0 . , P 0 P .
1.9 1.10 , k P k P . ,
, . , , P
n- n . k- k . P k k n .
Cnk , k < n k P k .
1.5. P Q RN .
:
(1) m K(P ) n K(Q)
;
(2) P Q ;
(3) P Q P Q.
. 1.3 1.5 1.8.
(1) (3).
, (1),
n

K(P ) = {imi |i A} K(Q) = {j j |j B}.



[ m
[ nj
P =
i i , Q =
j
iA

jB

P Q=

[
iA,jB

(imi j j ).

(1.4)

12

1.
n

imi j j imi K(P ).


(1.4) 1.4 , P Q P .
, P Q Q.
, P Q
. 1.4
[
P Q=
sks ,
(1.5)
sS

sks K(P ) K(Q).


m K(P ) n K(Q) ,
m n 6= . (1.5)
[
(1.6)
m n =
( m sks ) ( n sks ).
sS

m , sks K(P ), m sks = p m


sks . n sks = q n sks .
p , q K(P Q) , , p q
p p . 1.1 p q
m n . , (1.6) 1.4 ,
m n m n .
.
1.1. P1 , P2 P :
P1 P2 P ;
P1 P2 , P .

3.

1.11. u0 , u1 , . . . , up
P , i = 1, . . . , p
() [ui1 ui ] K(P ). x = {[u0 u1 ], . . . , [up1 up ]} P () P 1 , u0 x, up .
, x u0 up ( ) . {[up up1 ], . . . , [u1 u0 ]}
x x.

3.

13

1.12.
x = {[u0 u1 ], . . . , [up1 up ]} y = {[v0 v1 ], . . . , [vq1 vq ]}
P up = v0 ,
x + y = {[u0 u1 ], . . . , [up1 up ], [v0 v1 ], . . . , [vq1 vq ]},
x y. y = z x + y (
) x z.
, x + y x y. x = {[u0 u1 ], . . . , [up1 up ]}
i = 1, . . . , p {[ui1 ui ]}
. {[ui1 ui ]} [ui1 ui ], x = [u0 u1 ] + + [up1 up ].
1.13. P ,
u, v P 0 x
P1 P.
, .
1.6. P Q
RN . P Q ,
P Q .
. , P Q P Q. 1.5 P Q .
u, v P Q, u 6= v.
P Q,
. , u P , v Q.
P Q , w (P Q)0 .
P Q P Q, w P 0 w Q0 .
x P , u w,
y Q, w v. x + y P Q,
u v.
, P Q .
1.5 P Q P
Q. , P Q 6= .
u P v Q x =
[w0 w1 ] + + [wp1 wp ], w0 = u, wp = v. J
j {0, 1, . . . , p}, wj P 0 . k = max J.

14

1.

, k < p. [wk wk+1 ] P


k. , [wk wk+1 ] K(Q).
wk Q0 P Q 6= . k = p, P Q
, wk = v.
1.7. P w P 0 C(w, P ) w
Q P ( ) Pw C(w, P ).
. P 0 (w)
P , w P 1 P . Pw k K(P ), k = 0, 1, . . . , n =
dim P , P 0 (w).
1.4 Pw P .
u Pw0 . Pw u k K(P )
u0 P 0 (w).
w u0 x0 = [ww1 ] + [w1 w2 ] + + [wp1 u0 ] P .
i = 1, . . . , p 1 [ww1 ] + + [wi1 wi ]
wi w. , [ww1 ], [w1 w2 ], . . . , [wp1 u0 ] K(Pw ) x0
Pw . k u0 u
x1 k Pw . x = x0 + x1 Pw , w
u.
v Pw ,
w v Pw y. z = x + y
Pw , u v. , Pw
. , , w, Pw C(w, P ).
Q C(w, P ). k K(Q) v Q
w Q0 , v P 0 (w).
Pw P k . , K(Q) K(Pw ),
Q Pw .
1.14. P , w P 0 .
w Pw P
w P .
1.8. Pv Pw
v w P , .
. , Q = Pv Pw 6= . 1.1
Q P . 1.6 ,
Pv Pw P . v,

3.

15

Pv C(v, P ) Pv Pw Pv .
, , Pv Pv Pw . , Pv =
Pv Pw .
Pw = Pv Pw . Pv = Pw .

1.15. 1.8
P P1 , P2 , . . . , Pl P , P . P1 , P2 , . . . , Pl P .
, ,
.
1.16. P n , k- k , k < n,
n- n K(P ), k .
1.17. P n- , 0n1 , 1n1 , . . . , pn1
1n , . . . , pn n 1 n ,
n1
i1
in1 in i = 1, . . . , p. X = {1n , . . . , pn } n-
P , 0n1 pn1 .
n-, , n , . . . , n } X X. Y = {p+1
p+q
n , n-, pn1 p+1
n , . . . , n } n-
{1n , . . . , pn , p+1
p+q
X + Y . {in } in , X = 1n + + pn .
1.18. n- P , (n 1)-
P n-.
1.6, 1.7 1.8.
1.9. P Q n . P Q , P Q
P Q dim(P Q) > n 1.

16

1.

1.10. n- P
(n 1)- n1 K(P ) S( n1 , P ) n1
Q P ( ) Pn1
S( n1 , P ).
1.11. , 1n1 2n1 (n 1)-
n- P , Pn1 Pn1 1
2
P , 1n1 2n1 . dim(Pn1 Pn1 ) <
1
2
n 1, Pn1 = Pn1 .
1

1.19. 1.10 1.11,


n- P P1 , P2 , . . . , Ps P , dim(Pn1
i
Pn1 ) < n1 i, j = 1, 2, . . . , s; i 6= j. P1 , P2 , . . . , Ps
j
P .

4.

1.20. V , K
, :
(S) s K s0 s K.
S = (V, K) .
1.21. S = (V, K) S 0 = (V 0 , K 0 )
, f : V V 0 , :
s K s0 K 0 , f (s) = s0 ;
s0 K 0 s K, f (s) = s0 .
f S S 0 .
m = [u0 u1 . . . um ] P

m = {u0 , u1 , . . . , um }.
m
0
P ( P ). 1.5
) = {
K(P
m | m K(P )} (S). , .

4.

17

1.22. P , V (P ) = P 0 ,
m K(P )
m ,
) = {
)) K(P
m | m K(P )}. S(P ) = (V (P ), K(P
P . P
S(P ).
1.12. S = (V, K)
, P , S(P ) = S.
. V = {u1 , . . . , up }. i = 1, . . . , p
ui Rp , i
1, .
{u1 , . . . , up }
Rp . s = {ui0 , ui1 , . . . , uim } K s .

[
P =
s K(P ) = {s |s K}.
sK

(S) P , K(P )
. V (P ) = V
s = s s
K(P ). , (V, K) P .
1.23. P Q RN . F : P Q ,
:
F ;
F ;
F 1 : Q P .
P Q . : P Q.
1.13. P Q
, P Q .
)) S(Q) = (V (Q), K(Q))

. S(P ) = (V (P ), K(P

P Q.
f : V (P ) V (Q).
Pm
m
= [u0 u1 . . . um ] K(P ) w = i=0 ti ui m

m
m
X
X
ti f (ui ).
(1.7)
Fm (w) = Fm (
ti u i ) =
i=0

i=0

18

1.

k = [ui0 ui1 . . . uik ] m w k , ti = 0


P
P
i
/ {i0 , i1 , . . . , ik } w = ks=0 tis uis = m
i=0 ti ui .
Fk (w) =

k
X

tis f (uis ) =

s=0

m
X

ti f (ui ) = Fm (w).

i=0

m, n


K(P ), m n . k m n .
Fm (w) = Fk (w) = Fn (w). , F : P Q, m K(P ) Fm .
F . w P R.
m
Kw (P ) = {1m1 , . . . , p p } P ,
nq
n1
w, {p+1
, . . . , p+q
} = K(P ) \ Kw (P ). (1.7)
i = 1, . . . , p i > 0, |F (w0 ) F (w)| <
w0 imi |w0 w| < i . , j = 1, . . . , q
nj
p+j
w. , w
. p+j > 0,
p+j > 0 w nj
p+j
. = min{1 , . . . , p+q }. w0 P
|w0 w| < , |F (w0 ) F (w)| < .
f 1 : V (Q) V (P ) S(Q)
S(P ) F : Q P ,
m = [v0 v1 . . . vm ] K(Q)
m
m
X
X
F m (
ti vi ) =
ti f 1 (vi ).
i=0

(1.8)

i=0

(1.7) (1.8) , F = F 1 . , F : P
Q .
1.13 . .
.

5.

1.14. S = (V, K) , w
/
V , cV = V {w}, cs = s {w} s K cK = K {cs|s K}.
con S = (cV, cK) .

5.

19

. cK cV . , (S)
1.20.
1.24. S = (V, K) , w con S = (cV, cK)
1.14 S.
1.25. P S(P ) . con S(P )
P .
P
1.26. v = ni=0 ti vi n = [v0 v1 . . . vn ]
, ti > 0 i = 0, 1, . . . , n. .
n Int n . Fr n .
, v n
, k n k < n.
1.15. v P
(v) K(P ), v .
.
P , v. m (v).
, v (v). l < m, v. m (v). ,
v Int (v).
k , v,
(v). v (v) k .
l (v) k .
v Int (v), l = m l = (v). k 6= (v), k 6= l .
, l < k v Fr k .
P K(P ) . V 0 K(P ).
s V 0 ,
,
s = {u0 , u1 , . . . , un }
(u0 ) (u1 ) (un ),

(1.9)

20

1.

, 1.15, (ui )
P , ui , i = 0, 1, . . . , n.
V 0 K 0 .
1.16. P RN , V 0 K 0
V 0 ,
:
s = {u0 , u1 , . . . , un } K 0
RN , ,
n- s = [u0 u1 . . . un ];
K 0 (P ) = {s |s K 0 } ;
K 0 (P )
P.
. card s s K 0 .
, s = {u0 } = {v0 } .
,
, n , ,
card s = n + 1. s ,
s = {u0 , u1 , . . . , un }
(1.9). s0 = {u0 , u1 , . . . , un1 } n . RN , u1 u0 , . . . , un1 u0 . un
(un ), un u0 u1 u0 , . . . , un1 u0 ,
(un1 ) (un ), (un1 ) 6= (un ). ,
s = {u0 , u1 , . . . , un } .
s = {u0 , u1 , . . . , un } (1.9),
{i0 , i1 , . . . , ik } {0, 1, . . . , n} :
(ui0 ) (ui1 ) (uik ).
, s0 = {ui0 , ui1 , . . . , uik } s . K 0
, K 0 . s K 0 (P )
s K 0 , , K 0 (P ) .

5.

21

(1.9)
s = {u0 , u1 , . . . , un } K 0 (un )
K(P ). s = [u0 u1 . . . un ]
(un ) P . ,
[

s P.

sK 0

u P . 1.15
(u), u Int (u).
(u) = [v0 v1 . . . vm ].
u=

m
X

ti vi ,

i=0

m
X

ti = 1 0 < ti < 1 i = 0, 1, . . . , m.

i=0

v0 , v1 , . . . , vm ,
t 0 > t 1 > > tm .

(1.10)

i = 0, 1, . . . , m
i

1 X
ui =
vs
i+1
s=0

[v0 v1 . . . vi ], , [v0 v1 . . . vi ] =
(ui ). [v0 ] [v0 v1 ] [v0 v1 . . . vm ], {u0 , u1 , . . . , um }
[u0 u1 . . . um ] K 0 (P ).
t0i = (i+1)(ti ti+1 ) i = 0, 1, . . . , m1 t0m = (m+1)tm .

m
m
m
m
X
X
X
X
t0i =
ti = 1
t0i ui =
ti vi = u.
i=0

i=0

i=0

i=0

, (1.10) t0i > 0 i = 0, 1, . . . , m. ,


u [u0 u1 . . . um ].

[
s .
P
sK 0

22

1.

1.27. 1.16 K 0 (P ) K(P ).


1.16 K 0 (P )
P ,
K(P ).
, K 0 (P ) S 0 = (V 0 , K 0 ), V 0
K(P ), K 0
V 0 .
, .
P = [v0 v1 ] , V 0 = V {u01 },
u01 = (v0 + v1 )/2. (v0 ) = [v0 ], (v1 ) = [v1 ] (u01 ) = [v0 v1 ].
, V 0 .
. , {v0 , u01 } {v1 , u01 }. , K(P ) =
{[v0 ], [v1 ], [v0 v1 ]} 0-
P = [v0 v1 ], .
P = [v0 v1 v2 ] 2-.
V 0 = V {uij |i, j {0, 1, 2}, i < j} {u012 },
uij = (vi + vj )/2, u012 = (v0 + v1 + v2 )/3. ,
, :
(uij ) = [vi vj ],

(u012 ) = [v0 v1 v2 ] = P.

K 0 , , :
{vi , uij },

{vj , uij },

{vi , u012 },

{uij , u012 }

:
{vi , uij , u012 },

{vj , uij , u012 }.

, K 0 (P ) K(P ) 0-: [uij ], [u012 ], 1-: [vi u012 ], [uij u012 ],


2- P = [v0 v1 v2 ] 2-,
P (
u012 ).

6.

23


n- (n + 1)! n- .
1.1, .
K 0 (P 0 ) = K(P 0 ) , P n1 K 0 (P n1 ) K(P n1 ) .
n- n K(P n ). Fr n

K 0 (Fr n ) = { K 0 (P n1 )| n }.
K 0 (Fr n ), , v
u ,
dim + 1. K 0 (Fr n )
0- [u ], K 0 ( n ).
[
K 0 (P n ) =
K 0 ( n )
n K(P n )

K(P n ).
1.1. ,
K 0 (P ), 1.16.

6.

Dn = {x Rn ||x| 6 1}, M0 n- , M0 Rn o = (0, . . . , 0) M0 .


z Rn , z 6= o, lz = {tz|t R, t > 0}
z = lz Fr M0 , Fr M0 M0 .
1.2.

o
x
f (x) =

|
x|

x = o,

x 6= o

(1.11)

f : M0 Dn . f (Int M0 ) = Int Dn
f (Fr M0 ) = Fr Dn .
. g : Dn M0
(
o
y = o,
g(y) =
(1.12)
y|
y | y 6= o.

24

1.

, g f (o) = o f g(o) = o. x 6= o y 6= o
d = y.
lf (x) = lx lg(y) = ly . fd
(x) = x
g(y)
(1.11) (1.12) , gf (x) = f (x)|fd
(x)| = (x/|
x|)|
x|) =
1
d
x f g(y) = g(y)/|g(y)| = (y|
y |)/|
y |) = y. , g = f f
.
z Rn z 6= o. z (n 1)- Lm Rn ,

am1 z 1 + + amn z n + am0 = 0,
amk R m k.
z = tz, t > 0, :
t

n
X

amk z k + amk = 0.

k=1

am0 z
.
k
k=1 amk z

z = Pn

(1.13)

x M0 x 6= o, x
Li , i
. (1.11)
(1.13)
f (x) = x

Pn

k
k=1 aik x |

|ai0 ||x|

f .
, y Dn y 6= o y
Lj , (1.12) (1.13)
|aj0 ||y|
g(y) = y Pn
.
| k=1 ajk y k |
, g .
f (x) Fr Dn |f (x)| = 1,
(1.11) , |
x| = |x| =
6 0.
x
x lx , . , f (x) Fr Dn
, x = x
Fr M0 . f (Fr M0 ) = Fr Dn .
f (Int M0 ) = Int Dn .

6.

25

1.2. M h : M Dn , h(Int M ) = Int Dn


h(Fr M ) = Fr Dn .
, x0 Int M M0 = {x
x0 |x M } h0 (x) = x x0 . M0 ,
h0 : M M0 , h0 (Int M ) = Int M0 , h0 (Fr M ) =
Fr M0 o = h0 (x0 ) Int M0 . f : M0 Dn 1.2, h = f h0 M Dn
.
1.28. Q RN ,
Q=

m [
[

eni

(1.14)

n=0 iJn

:
(c1) eni ekj = n, k {0, . . . , m}, i Jn j Jk ;
(c2) n {0, . . . , m} i Jn ni : Dn Q, :
(c21) ni Int Dn Dn
eni Q,
S
S
k
(c22) ni (Fr Dn ) n1
k=0 jJk ej .
(1.14) Q, eni eni = ni (Dn ) ; eni \ eni
eni , ni : Dn P . K(Q) (1.14), (Q, K(Q))
CW-.
1.2 1.28 Dn
Rn , , n-.
, CW-,
.


2
1.

Z2 = Z/2Z 2. k Z k = k + 2Z.
b Z2 . ,
kl = kl,
, 0 = 0
1 = 1.
2.1. K(P )
P RN K n (P ) K(P ) n,
0 6 n 6 dim P . c = {1n , . . . , pn } K n (P )
n- P . n-
Cn (P ).
2.2. n- c, c0 Cn (P )
c + c0 = (c c0 ) \ (c c0 ).

(2.1)

n- c+c0 Cn (P ),
c c0 .
, 2.1 n- Cn (P )
.
0 = ; c Cn (P )
, c = c.
26

1.

27

0 c = 0 1 c = c,
Z2 . n- Cn (P )
Z2 .
n K(P ) { n } Cn (P ). c =
{1n , . . . , pn } Cn (P ) c = 1n + + pn .
2.3. n- n K(P ) n , (n 1)- .
c = {1n , . . . , pn } = 1n + + pn
c = 1n + + pn .
, n (c) = c c Cn (P ), ( ) n : Cn (P ) Cn1 (P ).
. .
2.1. n
n1 n = 0.
. n = [v0 v1 . . . vn ] n- P ,
k, i, j {0, . . . , n} i < j. {v0 , v1 , . . . , vn } \
n2
{vk } {v0 , v1 , . . . , vn } \ {vi , vj } kn1 ij
P
n
n1

n 1 n 2 . n =
k=0 k

n
n X
k1
n
X
X
X
n2
n2
).
+
kj
(
ik
( n ) =
kn1 =
k=0 i=0

k=0

j=k+1

, ( n ) = S1 + S2 ,
S1 =

n X
k1
X
k=0 i=0

n2
ik
,

S2 =

n
n
X
X

n2
kj
.

k=0 j=k+1

n2
st
S1 ( i = s
k = t) S2 ( k = s j = t). ( n ) = 0.
c = 1n + + pn , (c) = (1n ) + + (pn ) =
0 + + 0 = 0.

2.4. c Cn (P ), ,
. n- P Zn (P ).

28

2.

2.5. c Cn (P ) n- ,
(n + 1)- c0 Cn+1 (P ), c0 = c.
n- P Bn (P ).
2.4 2.5 n : Cn (P )
Cn1 (P ) n+1 : Cn+1 (P ) Cn (P ) Zn (P ) =
ker n Bn (P ) = im n+1 . , Zn (P ) Bn (P )
Cn (P ). , 2.1 n Bn (P ) n- Zn (P ).
.
2.6. - Hn (P ) = Zn (P )/Bn (P ) n P n-
n- .
, Zn (P ) Z2 , Bn (P ) , Hn (P ) = Zn (P )/Bn (P ) -.
, 2 Z2 .
, n > dim P
Hn (P ) .
2.7. c, c0 Cn (P ) c c0 , , c + c0 Bn (P ).
[c] = c + Bn (P ) = {c0 Cn (P )|c0 c} c.
, c n-, [c]
Hn (P ). , Hn (P ) = {[c]|c Zn (P )}
[c] + [c ] = [c + c ] [c], [c ] Hn (P ).
, [c] = 0 Hn (P ) ,
c Zn (P ) 0 = ; , .
c C0 (P ) P . ,
c = 0 c Z0 (P ). , C0 (P ) = Z0 (P ).
x = {a1 , . . . , ap } 1- P . V (x) =
a1 ap G(x) = (V (x), x). G(x) . ,
x Z1 (P ) ,
G(x) (. . 2.1).
. c = {1n , . . . , pn }
Cn (P ) E(c) = 1n pn , c Zn (P ) , (n1)- n1 E(c)
c.

1.

29

4
3

. 2.1: 1 4 , 2 3 .
2.1. P1 , . . . , Pl P ,
n
Hn (P )
= Hn (P1 ) Hn (Pl ).
. 1.6 n Pi 6=
, n Pi . ,
c Cn (P )
(c Pi ) = c Pi ,

i = 1, . . . , l.

(2.2)

ci = c Pi i = 1, . . . , l. (2.2) c
, c1 , . . . , cl .
c Bn (P ) ci Bn (Pi ), i = 1, . . . , l. f ([c]) = ([c1 ], . . . , [cl ]),
[c], [c1 ], . . . , [cl ] c, c1 , . . . , cl P , P1 , . . . , Pl ,
f : Hn (P ) Hn (P1 ) Hn (Pl ).
c, c0 Zn (P ) i {1, . . . , l}.
(c + c0 )i = ((c c0 ) Pi ) \ ((c c0 ) Pi ) = (ci c0i ) \ (ci c0i ) = ci + c0i .
, f .
2.1. 2.1 . ,
.

30

2.

2.2. P . H0 (P )
= Z2 .
. c = {v1 , . . . , vp }
C0 (P ).
[c] = 0 H0 (P ), c = x, x = a1 + +aq 1-
P . i = 1, . . . , q ai ,
p = card x .
v P 0 .
P y1 , . . . , yp , v v1 , . . . , vp . yi = v + vi
i = 1, . . . , p y = y1 + + yp
y = (v + v1 ) + + (v + vp ). , y = c
, p .
, [c] = 0 p =
card c.
f : H0 (P ) Z2 , [c]
H0 (P ) f ([c]) 2 card c.
[c], [c0 ] H0 (P ) [c] = [c0 ],
card(c + c0 ) . ,
card(c + c0 ) = card c + card c0 2 card(c c0 ).

(2.3)

card c card c0 , f .
(2.3) , f . f ([c]) = 0,
card c . [c] = 0
H0 (P ) , , ker f = 0.
, , z Z2 . z = 0 c = 0. z = 1,
v P 0 c = v.
f ([c]) = z. , f .
2.1. P , v.
, 2.2 H0 (P )
= Z2 . n Cn (P ) . , n > 0 Hn (P ) .

2.

P , Q n
. Cn (Q) Cn (P ).

2.

31

2.8. -
Cn (P, Q) = Cn (P )/Cn (Q) = {c + Cn (Q)|c Cn (P )}
(P, Q)
, c =
c + Cn (Q) c Cn (P ). Cn (P, Q) = {
c|c Cn (P )}.
, 0 = Cn (Q).
, c0 Cn (Q) , c0 Cn1 (Q).

c = c = c + Cn1 (Q) n (
c) =
c
n : Cn (P, Q) Cn1 (P, Q).

.
2.9.
Zn (P, Q) = {
c Cn (P, Q)|
c = 0},

Bn (P, Q) = {
a| a
Cn+1 (P, Q)}.

2.1. c Cn (P, Q).


c Zn (P, Q) c Zn1 (Q) ;
c Bn (P, Q) ,
c0 Cn (Q), c + c0 Bn (P ).
. c Zn (P, Q) c =
0, , c Q. 2.1
c .
c Bn (P, Q) , c = a,
a (n + 1)- P . c0 = c + a.
c0 Cn (Q).
2.2 2.1 ,
P , Q = P .
x
= x + C1 (Q) x
= y + C1 (Q),
x y, , x Q y Q. Q
1- y 0 , y + y 0
e C2 (P ), y B1 (P, Q).
2.10. - Hn (P, Q) = Zn (P, Q)/Bn (P, Q) n- (P, Q).

32

2.

. 2.2: Q = P , x Z1 (P, Q), y B1 (P, Q).


Cn (Q) Cn (P ) n, : Cn (Q) Cn (P ), (c) = c, .
((c)) = c = (c) c Cn (Q). ,
([c]Q ) = [(c)]P = [c]P ,

(2.4)

[c]Q [(c)]P = [c]P (c) = c


Zn (Q) Zn (P ) Q P , : Hn (Q) Hn (P ).
, , c P , ,
, c Q.
: Cn (P ) Cn (P, Q) -, (c) =
c = c + Cn (Q). ((c)) =
c = c =
(c) c Cn (P ). , , ,

([c]P ) = [(c)] = [
c]
(2.5)
: Hn (P ) Hn (P, Q).
2.1 c
Zn (P, Q) c Zn1 (Q).
([
c] = [c]Q .

(2.6)

c0 Zn (P, Q) c0 c. c0 + c Bn (P, Q).


2.1 a Cn (Q),

2.

33

c0 + c + a Bn (P ). c0 + c = a,
[c0 ]Q = [c]Q Hn1 (Q). ,
(2.6) : Hn (P, Q) Hn1 (Q).
, P
Q

. . . Hn (Q)
Hn (P ) Hn (P, Q)
Hn1 (Q) . . .

(2.7)

2.11. (2.7) (P, Q).


2.12.
hn+1

n
. . . Gn+1 Gn
Gn1 . . .

, im hn+1 = ker hn n.
.
2.3. (P, Q) .
. (2.7),
. :

Hn1 (Q) . . . .
Hn (P ) Hn (P, Q)
Hn (Q)
. . . Hn+1 (P, Q)

:
im = ker ,

im = ker ,

im = ker .

(2.8)

(2.8) :
im ker ,

im ker ,

im ker ;

(2.9)

im ker ,

im ker ,

im ker .

(2.10)

(2.9), , :
= 0,

= 0,

= 0.

(2.11)

x Cn+1 (P ) x
Zn+1 (P, Q). (2.6) (2.4)
([
x]) = ([x]Q ) = [x]P .

34

2.

[x]P = 0 Hn (P ).
= 0.
y Cn (Q). (2.4) (2.5) :
([y]Q ) = ([y]P ) = [
y ].
y Q, y = 0. , [
y ] = [0] = 0
= 0.
z Zn (P ),
([z]P ) = ([
z ]) = [z]Q .
z = 0 [z]Q = 0. , (2.11)
.
, [y]Q y
Zn (Q) ker . [y]P = ([y]Q ) = 0. , x Cn+1 (P ) x = y (. 2.3).

. 2.3: Q = P , y Z1 (Q), x C2 (P ).
2.1 x
= x + Cn+1 (Q) (P, Q) . ,
[
x] Hn+1 (P, Q). ([
x]) = [x]Q = [y]Q . ,
[y]Q im ker im .
z Zn (P ) [z]P ker . (2.5) [
z] =
([z]P ) = 0 Hn (P, Q). 2.1
y Zn (Q), (z + y) Bn (P ) (. 2.4).
[z]P = [y]P . [z]P = ([y]Q )
[z]P im . , ker im .

2.

35
z

. 2.4: Q = P , z Z1 (P ), y Z1 (Q), (z + y) B1 (P ).
, , x Cn (P ), x
Zn (P, Q) [
x]
ker . (2.6) [x]Q = ([
x]) = 0 Hn1 (Q). ,
y 0 Cn (Q) y 0 = x (. 2.5).

y
x

. 2.5: Q = P , x C1 (P ), y 0 C1 (Q), y 0 = x.
z = x + y 0 , z Zn (P ) [z]P
Hn (P ). z + x Q, z x

. ([z]P ) = [
z ] = [
x] Hn (P, Q). : [
x] im
(2.10).
2.1. ,
2.1.

36

2.

2.4. , P1 , . . . , Pl
P , Q1 , . . . , Ql Q = Q1 Ql .
Hn (P, Q)
= Hn (P1 , Q1 ) Hn (Pl , Ql )
n.
2.5. P Q .
H0 (P, Q)
= Z2 Q = H0 (P, Q) = 0 Q 6= .
. H0 (P, Q) = H0 (P ) 2.2.
Q P .
c Z0 (P, Q) Z0 (Q) c = {v1 , . . . , vp } = (v1 + +vp ) Z0 (P ),
v1 , . . . , vp P . u Q0 . P xi ,
u vi , i = 1, . . . , p. , xi C1 (P )
xi = u + vi i. x = x1 + + xp 1- P
x = (u + v1 ) + + (u + vp ). c0 = 0 p
c0 = u . ,
c + c0 B0 (P ). 2.1 , c B0 (P, Q),
[
c] = 0 H0 (P, Q).
2.6. P v
H0 (P, v) = 0;
Hn (P, v)
= Hn (P ) n > 0.
. n > 1, Hn (v) = Hn1 (v) = 0.
(2.7) Q = v,

0 Hn (P ) Hn (P, v) 0.
, : Hn (P ) Hn (P, v) .
n = 1. H1 (v) = 0,
2.3

0 H1 (P ) H1 (P, v)
H0 (v)
H0 (P ).

(2.12)

H0 (v) H0 (P ) . [v]v = {v} [v]P =


C0 (P ) . (2.4) ([v]v ) = [v]P . ,

2.

37

: H0 (v) H0 (P ) . , (2.12) im =
ker = 0.

0 H1 (P ) H1 (P, v) 0,
: H1 (P ) H1 (P, v) .
2.5 H0 (P, v) = 0.
, m- P P m l 6 m (. 1.9).
2.7. P m N
m : K m (P ) = {1m , . . . , mm }.
m, n > 0 :
Hn (P m , P m1 ) = 0 n 6= m;
Hm (P m , P m1 ) = h1m i hmm i
= Z2 m .
. n > m P m n-
Cn (P m ) = 0. Cn (P m , P m1 )
Hn (P m , P m1 ).
c Cn (P m ) n-
P n . n < m, P n P m1 , , c c = 0.
Cn (P m , P m1 ) = 0 Hn (P m , P m1 ) = 0.
im , i = 1, . . . , m , im P m1 . ,
im m
m1
(P , P
). ,
m1
m
m
Cm (P
) = 0
i = i . , Zm (P m , P m1 ) 1m , . . . , mm .
, Bm (P m , P m1 )
P m m+
1.
2.13. P , Q P R Q . c Cn (P ) Cn (Q) c = c + Cn (R).

. . . Hn (Q, R)
Hn (P, R) Hn (P, Q)
Hn1 (Q, R) . . . ,


([
c]Q ) = [
c]P ,

([
c]P ) = [
c],

f Q.
([
c]) = [c]

(P, Q, R).

38

2.

2.8. (P, Q, R)
.
.

3.

P , M N .
1.1 Q = M N R = M N
P . , R = P .
2.2. c Cn (P ) cM
Cn (M ) cN Cn (N ), :
cM + cN = c;
c Zn (P ), cM = cN Zn1 (Q).
. K(M ) M cM = c K(P ). cM Cn (M ).
P \ M N , cN = c + cM Cn (N ). , , cM + cN = c.
c = 0, cM = cN .
M , N . ,
cM = cN Zn1 (Q).

cM
cN
M

. 2.6: P = M N , c Z1 (P ), cM cN .
2.2. , P , 2.2, , .

3. -

39

2.9. P M N , P = M N ,

. . . Hn (Q)
Hn (M ) Hn (N ) Hn (P )
Hn1 (Q) . . . ,
(2.13)
Q = M N , :

([z]Q ) = ([z]M , [z]N );

([x]M , [y]N ) = [x + y]P ;

([c]P ) = [cM ]Q = [cN ]Q .

(2.14)
(2.15)

.
.
c, c0 Zn (P ) a = c + c0 . aM = cM +
0
cM aM = cM + c0M , a = aM + aN ,
2.2.
.
, c0 c. a = b, b Cn+1 (P ).
b = bM +bN 2.2, aM +bM
aN +bN Q = M N . ,
z C( Q), cM + c0M + bM = z.
cM + c0M = z. , [c0M ]Q = [cM ]Q
.
:
= 0,

= 0,

= 0.

(2.16)

c Zn+1 (P ) (2.15)
([c]P ) = ([cM )]M , [cN )]N ) = (0, 0),
cM M cN N . , = 0.
z Zn (Q), (2.14)
([z]Q ) = ([z]M , [z]N ) = [z + z]P = [0]P = 0.
, = 0.
, , x Zn (M ) y Zn (N ).
(x + y)M = x (x + y)N = y.
([x]M , [y]N ) = ([x + y]P ) = [x]Q = [0]Q = 0
= 0 .

40

2.

(2.16) ,
im ker ,

im ker

im ker .



im ker ,

im ker

im ker .

z Zn (Q), [z]Q ker .


(2.14) , [z]M = 0 [z]N = 0 Hn (M )
Hn (N ) . , x Cn+1 (M )
y Cn+1 (N ) x = y = z (. 2.7).
c = x + y. c Zn+1 (P ), , cM = x cN =
y. (2.15) ([c]P ) = [x]Q = [z]Q . ,
[z]Q im ker im .

. 2.7: z Z0 (Q) .
, x Zn (M ) y Zn (N )
([x]M , [y]N ) ker . [x + y]P = 0 Hn (P )
c Cn+1 (P ) c = x + y. c = cM +
cN , cM Cn+1 (M ) cN Cn+1 (N ), cM +cN = x+y
z = cM + x = cN + y Zn (Q) (. 2.8).
[z]M = [x]M [z]N = [x]N ([z]Q ) = ([x]M , [y]N ).
, ([x]M , [y]N ) = im , ,
ker im .

3. -

41

w1
u1

M1

v1

N2

u2
N1

w2

M2

v2

. 2.8: M = M1 M2 , N = N1 N2 , x = {u1 , u2 } Z0 (M ), y = {v1 , v2 }


Z0 (N ), c = [u1 w1 ] [w1 v1 ] [u2 w2 ] [w2 v2 ], z = {w1 , w2 }.

, , c Zn (P ), [c]P
ker . c = cM + cN , 2.2,
(2.15) cM = cN = z Bn1 (Q).
a Cn (Q) a = z (. 2.9). x = cM +a y = cN +a.
x Zn (M ), y Zn (N ) x + y = c. (2.14) ([x]M , [y]N ) = [c]P . , [c]P im
ker im .
cM
z
a
z
N

M
cN

. 2.9: c Z1 (P ), cM , cN a C1 (Q) .

42

2.

2.14. 2.9
2.13 -
(P, M, N ).
, , P , M N , Q =
M N , R = M N , R = P , ,
.
c Cn (P ) :
c` = c + Cn (M ),

c = c + Cn (N ),

c = c + Cn (Q),

c = c + Cn (R).

2.10. (P, M, N )

. . . Hn (P, Q)
Hn (P, M ) Hn (P, N )

Hn (P, R)
Hn1 (P, Q) . . . ,

(2.17)

:
([
z ]) = ([`
z ], [
z ]);

([`
x], [
y ]) = [x]
+ y];

\
\
([
c]) = [(c)
M ] = [(c)N ],
c = (c)M +(c)N c,
2.2.
2.9. . ,
, .
2.15. 2.10
2.17 -
(P, M, N ).
2.11. M N P = M N , Q =
M N , M 0 N 0 M N , P 0 =
M 0 N 0 Q0 = M 0 N 0 .

. . . Hn+1 (P, P 0 )
Hn (Q, Q0 )
Hn (M, M 0 ) Hn (N, N 0 )

Hn (P, P 0 )
Hn1 (Q, Q0 ) . . . ,

(2.18)
:
([z + Cn (Q0 )]) = ([z + Cn (M 0 )], [z + Cn (N 0 )]);

3. -

43

([x + Cn (M 0 )], [y + Cn (N 0 )]) = [x + y + Cn (P 0 )];


([c + Cn (P 0 )]) = [cM + (c)M 0 + Cn (Q0 )] = [cN + (c)N 0 + Cn (Q0 )],
c = cM + cN c = (c)M 0 + (c)N 0 c c,
2.2.
. ,
c = cM + cN c = (c)M 0 + (c)N 0 .
c = cM +cN = cM +cN c = (c)M 0 +(c)N 0 = (c)M 0 +(c)N 0 .
cM + cM = cN + cN (c)M 0 + (c)M 0 = (c)N 0 + (c)N 0 .
, cM + cM = a Cn (Q) (c)M 0 + (c)M 0 = b Cn1 (Q0 ).
cM + cM + (c)M 0 + (c)M 0 = a + b. ,
[cM + (c)M 0 + Cn1 (Q0 )] = [cM + (c)M 0 + Cn1 (Q0 )].
, [cM + (c)M 0 + Cn (Q0 )] Hn1 (Q, Q0 ) c. ,
c + Cn (P 0 ) c + Cn (P 0 )
(P, P 0 ). h Cn (P 0 ) e Cn+1 (P ),
c + c + h = e.
(2.19)
e = eM + eN e = (e)M 0 + (e)N 0 ,
(e)M 0 eM (e)N 0 eN , g = eM +(e)M 0 .
g +eN +(e)N 0 = e+e = 0. eM +(e)M 0 = g = eN +(e)N 0
g Cn (Q).
(2.19)
g = (eM ) = cM +
cM + hM ,

(2.20)

, , c = cM +
cN h = hM 0 +hN 0 ,
e = eM + eN . h = (h)M 0 + (h)N 0
,
(h)M 0 + (h)N 0 = h = c +
c = (c)M 0 + (c)N 0 + (
c)M 0 + (
c)N 0 .
(c)M 0 + (
c)M 0 + (h)M 0 = (c)N 0 + (
c)N 0 + (h)N 0 ,
,
(c)M 0 + (
c)M 0 + (h)M 0 = z 0 Cn1 (Q0 ).
(2.20)
g = cM +
cM + (c)M 0 + (
c)M 0 + z 0 .

(2.21)

44

2.

(2.21)
[cM + (c)M 0 + Cn (Q0 )] = [
cM + (
c)M 0 + Cn (Q0 )].
, .
,
, , .
. (2.18).
c+Cn+1 (P 0 ) Zn+1 (P, P 0 )

([c+Cn+1 (P 0 )]) = ([(cM )+(c)M 0 +Cn (M 0 )], [(cN )+(c)N 0 +Cn (N 0 )]).
(c)M 0 Cn (M 0 ) (c)N 0 Cn (N 0 ). ,
[(cM ) + (c)M 0 + Cn (M 0 )] = 0 [(cN ) + (c)N 0 + Cn (N 0 )] = 0.
, = 0.
z + Cn (Q0 ) Zn (Q, Q0 ),
([z + Cn (Q0 )]) = [z + z + Cn (P 0 )].
= 0.
x + Cn (M 0 ) Zn (M, M 0 ) y + Cn (N 0 ) Zn (N, N 0 ).
(x + y)M = x, (x + y)N = y, ((x + y))M 0 = x, ((x + y))N 0 = y

([x+Cn (M 0 )], [y+Cn (N 0 )]) = [x+x+Cn (Q0 )] = [y+y+Cn (Q0 )].
, = 0.
[z + Cn (Q0 )] ker , [z + Cn (M 0 )] = 0 Hn (M, M 0 )
[z+Cn (N 0 )] = 0 Hn (N, N 0 ). , x0 Cn (M 0 ),
y 0 Cn (N 0 ), a Cn+1 (M ) b Cn+1 (N ),
a = z + x0 b = z + y 0 .
c = a + b. c Cn+1 (P ) c = x0 + y 0 Cn (P 0 ).
c + Cn+1 (P 0 ) Zn+1 (P, P 0 ). , ,
cM = a, cN = b, (c)M 0 = x0 (c)N 0 = y 0 .
([c + Cn+1 (P 0 )]) = [a + x0 + Cn (Q0 )] = [b + y 0 + Cn (Q0 )] = [z + Cn (Q0 )].
, [z + Cn (Q0 )] im .
, ker im .
[x+Cn (M 0 )] Hn (M, M 0 ) [y+Cn (N 0 )]
Hn (N, N 0 ) , ([x + Cn (M 0 )], [y + Cn (N 0 )]) = 0.

3. -

45

[x + y + Cn (P 0 )] = 0 Hn (P, P 0 ). c0 Cn (P 0 )
e Cn+1 (P ), e = x + y + c0 .
e = eM + eN c0 = c0M 0 + c0N 0
2.2. z = eM + x + c0M 0 . z + eN + x + c0N 0 =
e + x + y + c0 = 0. , z = eN + x + c0N 0 z Cn (Q).
, z = x + c0M 0 = y + c0N 0 z Cn1 (Q0 ).
, z + Cn (Q) Zn (Q, Q0 ).
[z+Cn (M 0 )] = [eM +x+c0M 0 +Cn (M 0 )] = [x+Cn (M 0 )]
[z + Cn (N 0 )] = [eN + y + c0N 0 + Cn (N 0 )] = [y + Cn (N 0 )]. ,
([z+Cn (Q)]) = ([z+Cn (M 0 )], [z+Cn (N 0 )]) = ([x+Cn (M 0 )], [y+Cn (N 0 )]).
, , ker im .
, , [c + Cn (P 0 )]
Hn (P, P 0 ) ([c + Cn (P 0 )]) = 0.
[(cM ) + (c)M 0 + Cn (Q0 )] = [(cN ) + (c)N 0 + Cn (Q0 )] = 0
Hn1 (Q, Q0 ). z 0 Cn1 (Q0 ) e Cn (Q),

(cM ) + (c)M 0 + z 0 = e = (cN ) + (c)N 0 + z 0 .


x = cM +e y = cN +e. , x Cn (M ) y Cn (N ).
, x = cM + e = (c)M 0 + z 0 x = cM + e = (c)M 0 + z 0 ,
x Cn1 (M 0 ) y Cn1 (N 0 ).
, x+Cn (M 0 ) Zn (M, M 0 ) y +Cn (N 0 ) Zn (N, N 0 ).
x + y = c
([x + Cn (M 0 )], [y + Cn (N 0 )]) = [c + Cn (P 0 )].
, ker im .

1.

3.1. i = 0, 1, . . . , n e1+n
i
1+n
R
, i
, .
= (0, 1, . . . , 0), . . . , e1+n
= (0, 0, . . . , 1)}
= (1, 0, . . . , 0), e1+n
{e1+n
n
1
0
. . . e1+n
e1+n
. n- n = [e1+n
n ]
1
0
n-.
S = {i0 , i1 , . . . , ik } {0, 1, . . . , n},
k
X

nS (

tj e1+k
)
j

j=0

k
X

tj e1+n
ij

(3.1)

j=0

nS : k n .
, S = {0, 1, . . . , n} \ {j}, j {0, 1, . . . , n},
nS = nj (. . 3.1). nS = nij S = {0, 1, . . . , n} \ {i, j}, i, j {0, 1, . . . , n} i < j.
,
 n
j i+1 j 6 i,
n1
n
j i
=
(3.2)
nij
i < j
46

1.

47
x2
e23
D2

l12

e12
D1

e13
e02

x1

e03
x0

. 3.1: 21 .
3.2. X RN , n
n-. : n X n-
X.

e12

a
D1
X
e02

. 3.2: 1- : 1 X.
n- X
Sn (X). ,
Sn (X) .
3.3. c = {1 , . . . , p } Sn (X)
n- . n X Cns (X).
3.4. n- c, c0 Cns (X)
c + c0 = (c c0 ) \ (c c0 ).
(3.3)
n- c + c0 Cn (X),
c c0 .

48

3.

, 3.3 n- Cns (X) . 0 c = 0


1 c = c, Z2 .
Cns (X) Z2 .
i
ci = {i } Cns (X),
c = {1 , . . . , p } = c1 + + cp = 1 + + p .
3.5. : n X n- X.
=

n
X

nj

(3.4)

j=0

n 1,
.
c = {1 , . . . , p } = 1 + + p
c = 1 + + p .
n (c) = c c Cns (X), s (X).
n : Cns (X) Cn1
3.1. n
n1 n = 0.
. , : n X
n1 n () = 0.
(3.4)
j1
n
n X
n1
X
X
X
() = (
nj ) =
(
nj in1 +
nj in1 ).
j=0

j=0 i=0

i=j

(3.2) ,
() =

j1
n X
n1
X
X
(
nij +
nji+1 )
j=0 i=0

i=j

() = S1 + S2 ,
S1 =

j1
n X
X
j=0 i=0

nij

S2 =

n
n
X
X
(
nji+1 .
j=0 i=j+1

1.

49

(n2)- nst , s < t, S1


( i = s j = t) S2 ( j = s i = t). ,
S1 + S2 ( n ) = 0.
,
.
3.6. c Cns (X), ,
. (n + 1)-
s (X), c0 = c, c .
c0 Cn+1
n- X
Zns (X) Bns (X) .
3.1 n-
n- Zns (X). .
Bns (X)

3.7. - Hns (X) = Zns (X)/Bns (X) n X n- n- .


,
. , C0s (X) = Z0s (X).
3.8. X RN x : I X, I = [0, 1] R.
x(0) x, x(1) .
x1 : I X, x1 (t) = x(1 t)
x.
3.9. x, y : I X X x(1) = y(0),


x(2t)
t [0, 1/2],
(xy)(t) =
y(2t 1) t [1/2, 1]
xy : I X,
x y.
3.10. X RN ,
a, b X x : I X
x(0) = a x(1) = b.

50

3.

, .
2
.
3.2. X Y RN . X Y
, P Q 6= .
3.3. X RN
a X C(a, X) a Y X ( )
La C(a, X).
3.11. a La X a X.
3.2 .
3.4. La Lb a b X , .
3.12. 3.4 X RN L X,
. X.
, 2
X RN
.
3.1. , X RN L1 , . . . , Ll . n
Hns (P )
= Hn (L1 ) Hns (Ll ).
. 3.2 c Cns (X) c = c1 + + cl ci
Cns (Li ), i = 1, . . . , l. 2.1, , c Zns (X) , ci Zns (Li )
i = 1, . . . , l, c Bns (X) ci Bns (Li ), i = 1, . . . , l. f ([c]) =
([c1 ], . . . , [cl ]), [c], [c1 ], . . . , [cl ]
c, c1 , . . . , cl X, L1 , . . . , Ll , f : Hns (X) Hns (L1 ) Hns (Ll ).

1.

51

1 R. c = {1 , . . . , p } Z0s (X) , i : 1 X , i = 1, . . . , p.
, 1 (1), . . . , p (1) X.
2.2.
3.2. X . H0s (X)
= Z2 .
3.1. , v. , 3.2 H0s (v)
= Z2 . n > 0.
Cns (v) = {0, vn }, vn : n v
n- v. vn nk = vn1 k = 0, 1, . . . , n,


n
X
0
1 + n (2Z),
n
n1
v =
v =
n1
1 + n (1 + 2Z).
v
k=0

s (v)
, n : Cns (v) Cn1
n . ker n =
Cns (v) = im n+1 , ker n = 0 = im n+1 . , Hns (v) =
0 n > 0.

Y X RN n
. n-
: n Y (n ) Y X.
X. ,
Cns (Y ) Cns (X).
3.13. -
Cns (X, Y ) = Cns (X)/Cns (Y ) = {c + Cns (Y )| c Cns (X)}
(X, Y ).
2, c = c + Cns (Y ) c Cns (X).
Cns (X, Y ) = {
c| c Cns (X)}.
s (Y ). c0 Cns (Y ) , c0 Cn1
s

c = c = c + Cn1 (Y ) n (
c) =
c
s (X, Y ).
n : Cns (X, Y ) Cn1
3.14.
Zns (X, Y ) = {
c Cns (X, Y )|
c = 0},

s
Bns (X, Y ) = {
a| a
Cn+1
(X, Y )}.

2.1.

52

3.

3.1. c Cns (X, Y ),


s (Y ) ;
c Zns (X, Y ) c Zn1

c Bns (X, Y ) ,
c0 Cns (Y ), c + c0 Bns (X).

c
Y

. 3.3: c 1-, c
.

3.15. - Hns (X, Y ) = Zns (X, Y )/Bns (X, Y )


n-
(X, Y ).
, 2 ,

Hn1 (Y ) . . .
Hns (X) Hns (X, Y )
. . . Hns (Y )

(3.5)

(X, Y ) .
3.3.
(X, Y ) .
3.4. X1 , . . . , Xl
X RN , Y1 , . . . , Yl Y = Y1 Yl ,
Hns (X, Y )
= Hns (X1 , Y1 ) Hns (Xl , Yl )
n.
3.5. X RN Y X.
H0s (X, Y )
= Z2 Y = H0s (X, Y ) = 0 Y 6= .

2.

53

3.6. X RN
vX
H0s (X, v) = 0;
Hns (X, v)
= Hns (X) n > 0.

2.

P , V (P ) .
, n = [v0 v1 . . . vn ] K(P ) , i < j
vi V (P ) vj .
n- n : n P
n
n
X
X
1+n
(
ti ei ) =
ti vi .

(3.6)

i=0

i=0

x2
e23

v3
v5

ls

D2

v1 s3

s1
e13

x1

s2

v2

v0
v4

e03
x0

. 3.4: 1 : 2 P .
S = {i0 , i1 , . . . , ik } {0, 1, . . . , n} Sk = [vi0 vi1 . . . vik ]
n , i0 < i1 < < ik .
k
k
X
X
1+k
k (
tj ej ) =
tj vij .
S

j=0

j=0

,
k
k
X
X
n nS (
tj vj ) = n (
tj e1+n
ij ).
j=0

j=0

54

3.

,
k = n nS .

(3.7)

X RN f : P X.
fs ( n ) = f n

(3.8)

fs : K n (P ) Sn (P ). (3.7)
fs (Sk ) = fs ( n ) nS

(3.9)

Sk n .
fs fs : Cn (P ) Cns (X),
fs (1n + + pn ) = fs (1n ) + + fs (pn )
c = {1n , . . . , pn } = 1n + + pn P .
k {0, 1, . . . , n} S = {0, 1, . . . , n}\{k} , , Sn1 n kn1 ,
nS : n1 n nk . (3.9)
n
n
n
X
X
X
fs ( n ) nk = (fs ( n )).
fs (kn1 ) =
kn1 ) =
fs ( n ) = fs (
k=0

k=0

k=0


fs (c) = fs (c)

(3.10)

c Cn (P ). , fs ([z]) = [fs (z)],


z Zn (P ), fs : Hn (P ) Hns (X).
P Q , Y RN , h : P Q
, g : Q Y .
n = [v0 v1 . . . vn ] K(P ) h( n ) Q h(v0 ), h(v1 ), . . . , h(vn ).

n
n
n
X
X
X
h(n ) (
ti e1+n
)
=
t
h(v
)
=
h(
ti vi ).
(3.11)
i
i
i
i=0

i=0

i=0

(3.8) (3.11)
gs (h( n )) = g h(n ) = g h n = (g h)s ( n ).
,
gs (h(c)) = (g h)s (c)

(3.12)

2.

55

c Cn (P ).
N N 0 , X RN
0
Y RN f : X Y .
: n X X f
: n Y Y .

f () = f f (1 + + p ) = f (1 ) + + f (p )
c = 1 + + p Cns (X).
f : Cns (X) Cns (Y ).
n
n
X
X
f nk = (f ) = (f ()).
f () = f (
nk ) =
k=0

k=0

, f = f f ([]X ) = [f ()]Y
f : Hns (X)
Hns (Y ).
3.16.
f : Hns (X) Hns (Y )
, f : X Y .
3.5. f : X Y g :
Y Z idX : X X
:
(g f ) = g f

(idX ) = idHns (X) .

. : n
X 3.16 (g f ) () = (g f ) = g (f ) = g f ()
id () = id = .
3.6. f : X Y , f : Hns (X)
Hns (Y ) .
. , f : X Y g : Y X, f
g f = idX f g = idY . 3.5 g f = idHns (X)
f g = idHns (Y ) . , f g
.

56

3.

3.6 X RN
0
Y RN .
, Hns (X) . , , .
3.17. f, g : X Y H : X I Y
, H(x, 0) = f (x) H(x, 1) = g(x)
x X. f g ,
. f g
f g.

g
g(X)

X
f(X)
f

. 3.5: f, g : X Y .

Xx1

Y
H

I
Xx0

. 3.6: H : X I Y , f g.
3.7. f : X Y g : X
Y , f : Hns (X)
Hns (Y ) g : Hns (X) Hns (Y ) .
. H : X I Y ,
H(x, 0) = f (x) H(x, 1) = g(x)

(3.13)

2.

57

x X.
m
m = [e1+m
e1+m
. . . e1+m
] I = [0, 1].
n
0
1
m
I,
(e1+m
, ), i {0, 1, . . . , m}  {0, 1},
i

pm+1 = [(e1+m
, 0) . . . (e1+m
, 0)(e1+m
, 1) . . . (e1+m
p
p
m , 1)],
0
p = 0, 1, . . . , m. K m+1 (m I),
(m + 1)- m I
(K m+1 (m I)) = K m (m I) + {m 0} + {m 1}.

(3.14)

Sm (X), idI :
I X I H ( idI ) : m I Y .
= H ( idI ) D() = H
s (K m+1 (m I)).
H

(3.15)

s
D() Cm+1
(Y )
s
D : Sm (X) Cm+1 (Y ).
s (X) C s
D : Cm
m+1 (Y ).

Xx1

Xx0

Y
H
a x id I

D xI

(e 02 ,0)

(e 12 ,0)

: 1 I Y .
. 3.7: H

58

3.

n Z, n > 0, k {0, 1, . . . , n},


1+n
1+n
n1
= [e1+n
. . . e1+n
0
k
k1 ek+1 . . . en ]

n 1 n , nk : n1
n1
,
k
n1
X

nk (

ti eni ) =

i=0

k1
X

ti e1+n
+
i

i=0

n1
X

ti e1+n
i+1 .

i=k

n1
I n I n1
I
k
n I, nk idI : n1 I kn1 I
.
(3.15), (3.10) (3.14)
: n X
s ((K m+1 (n I))) =
(D()) = H

s (K n (n I) + {n 0} + {n 1}). (3.16)
H

,
D() =

n
X

D( nk )

(3.17)

k=0

(3.15)
(n idI ))s (K n (n1 I)).
D( nk ) = H
k

(3.18)

nk idI : n1 I kn1 I , (3.12) ,


(n idI ))s (K n (n1 I)) = H
s (K n (n1 I)).
(H
k
k

(3.19)

(3.17), (3.18) (3.19)


D() =

n
X

s (K n (n1 I)) = H
s (K n (n I)).
H

(3.20)

k=0

(3.16) (3.20),
s ({n 0} + {n 1}).
(D()) + D() = H

(3.21)

2.

59

s (n ) = H
n  , (3.6) (3.15)
(3.8) H

n  (u) = (H ( idI ))(u, ) = H((u), )


H
 {0, 1} u n . (3.13) ,
s (n 0) = H
n 0 = f = f (),
H

(3.22)

s (n 1) = H
n 1 = g = g ().
H

(3.23)

(3.21), (3.22) (3.23)


(D()) + D() = f () + g ().

(3.24)

(3.24) , (D(c)) + D(c) = f (c) + g (c)


c Cns (X). c , c = 0
f (c) + g (c) = (D(c)). , f (c) g (c)
, f ([c]) = [f (c)] = [g (c)] = g ([c]).
0

3.18. X RN , Y RN , f : X Y g : Y X
g f : X X f g : Y Y
idX idY . f g , X Y . X Y
X Y .
3.8. f : X Y
,
f : Hns (X) Hns (Y ) .
. f : X Y
g : X Y ,
gf idX f g idY . 3.7
(gf ) = (idX ) (f g) = (idY ) . 3.5 g f =
idHns (X) f g = idHns (Y ) . , f g .
0

3.19. X RN , Y RN , A X B Y .
f : X Y f (A) B, ,
f : (X, A) (Y, B) .
, f : (X, A) (Y, B) Sn (A). f () = f Sn (B). ,
f (Cns (A)) Cns (B) f (
c) = f (c), c Cns (X),
s
s
c = c + Cn (A) f (c) = f (c) + Cn (B), f : Cns (X, A) Cns (Y, B), f ([
z ]) = [f (z)],
s
s
s
z Zn (X, A), f : Hn (X, A) Hn (Y, B).

60

3.

3.20. f : Hns (X, A) Hns (Y, B)


.

. . . Hns (A) Hns (X) Hns (X, A)

f
f
f
y
y
y
. . . Hns (B) Hns (Y ) Hns (Y, B)

s (A)
s (X)
Hn1
Hn1
. . .

f
f
y
y
s (B)
s (Y )
Hn1
Hn1
. . . ,
(3.25)

(X, A) (Y, B), f ,
f : (X, A) (Y, B).

3.7. (3.25) .
. [c]A Hns (A) :
f ([c]A ) = f ([c]X ) = [f (c)]Y

f ([c]A ) = ([f (c)]B ) = [f (c)]Y .

, f = f .
, [x]X Hns (X),
f ([x]X ) = f ([
x]) = [f (x)] f ([x]X ) = ([f (x)]Y ) = [f (x)].
f = f .
, [
x] Hns (X, A)
f ([
x]) = f ([x]A ) = [f (x)]B ,

f ([
x]) = ([f (x)]) = [f (x)]B .

f (x) = f (x) x Cns (X), , f = f .


3.21. {f } (3.25)

(X, A) (Y, B).

2.
3.2. ,

p
q
F G

y
y
p0

61

q0

r0

(3.26)

s0

F 0 G0 H 0 K 0 L0
, , , , . .
. h0 H 0 . r0 (h0 ) K 0 . : K
K 0 , k K,
(k) = r0 (h0 ).

(3.27)

s0 r0 (h0 ) = 0.
s(k) = s0 r0 (h0 ) = 0.
: L L0 , , s(k) = 0.
, k ker s.
ker s = im r. k im r, h H,
r(h) = k. r0 ((h)) = (r(h)), (3.27)
, r0 ((h)) = r0 (h0 ).
0 = (h) + h0 . h
0 ) = 0, h
0 ker r0 . h
0 im q 0
r0 (h
0
0
0
0
0

g G , q (g ) = h . : G G0 , g 0 = (g) g G. :
0.
q 0 ((g)) = h

(3.28)

= h + q(g). (h)
= (h) + (q(g)) = (h) + q 0 ((g)).
h
= (h)+ h
0 = (h)+(h)+h0 =
(3.28) , (h)
0
h.
, h0 H 0
H, (h)
= h0 . h
, : H H 0 .
, h H (h) = 0. r(h) = r0 (h) =
0. : K K 0 ,
, r(h) = 0. h ker r = im q
g G,
q(g) = h.

(3.29)

62

3.

q 0 ((g)) = (q(g)) = (h) = 0. ,


(g) ker q 0 = im p0 . ,
(g) = p0 (f 0 ),

(3.30)

f 0 F 0 .
: F F 0 ,
f F , f 0 = (f ). (3.30) p(f ) = p0 (f ) =
p0 (f 0 ) = (g). : G G0
p(f ) = g. (3.29)
h = q(g) = q p(f ) = 0.
, h ker . : H
0
H .
3.22. f : X Y g : Y X , f (A) B g(B) A, f g
(X, A) (Y, B).
0

3.9. , A X RN , B Y RN
f : (X, A) (Y, B) ,
f : Hns (X) Hns (Y ) f : Hns (A) Hns (B)
n > 0. f : Hns (X, A) Hns (Y, B)
.
. 2.3 3.3 (3.25)
. 3.7 .
,
. 3.2 , f : Hns (X, A) Hns (Y, B) n > 0.
3.1. (X, A) (Y, B) , Hns (X, A) Hns (Y, B) n > 0.

3.

m Rl b m
, m- .
: n X X RN
K 0 (n ) , , (3.8)
s (X), m = 0, 1, . . . , n.
s : Cm (n ) Cm

3.

63

b = s (bn ). b : Sn (X)
b : Cns (X) Cns (X),
b(1 + + p ) = b1 + + bp c = 1 + + p .

Cns (X).

3.23. b(c) c Cns (X).


(3.10) (bn ) = b(n )
(b) = (s (bn )) = s ((bn )) = s (b(n )).

(3.31)

,
n
n
n
X
X
X
b() = b(
nk ) =
b( nk ) =
( nk )s (bn1 ).
k=0

k=0

(3.32)

k=0

.
nk : n1 n1
k
(3.32) (3.12)
b() =

n
X
k=0

n
X
s
s (bn1
)
=

(b(
kn1 )) = s (b(n )).

(3.33)

k=0

(3.31) (3.33) , (b) = b(). (b(c)) =


b(c) c Cns (X) b ([z]) = [b(z)],
z Zns (X), b : Hns (X) Hns (X).
3.8. b : Hns (X) Hns (X)
Hns (X).
. m > 0 m =
. . . e1+m
], I = [0, 1] V 0 (m )
e1+m
[e1+m
n
1
0
m . m I, (e1+m
, 0) (v 0 , 1), i = 0, 1, . . . , m
i
0
0
m
v V ( ). .
kS m , S = {i0 , i1 , . . . , ik } {0, 1, . . . , m}, (m k)- mk
S
m , kS
wS . (kS 0)(mk
S 1) m + 1.
I.
K m+1 (m I) (m+1)-
,
(K m+1 (m I)) = K m (m I) + {m 0} + b(m 1).

(3.34)

64

3.

Sm (X)

(u, t) = (u) D() =


s (K m+1 (m I)).

(3.35)


: m I X, s
s
D() Cm+1 (X) D : Sm (X) Cm+1
(X).
s
s
D : Cm (X) Cm+1 (X).

3.7, (3.34)
(D()) + D() =
s ({n 0} + b(n 1)).

(3.36)

(3.8)

s (n 0) = s (n ) = .

(3.37)

b : Cns (X) Cns (X) (3.35)

s (b(n 1)) = b
s (n 1) = bs (n ) = b.

(3.38)

(3.36), (3.37) (3.38) ,


(D()) + D() = b + .

(3.39)

(D(c)) + D(c) = b(c) + c c


Cns (X). c , c = 0 b(c) + c = (D(c)).
, b(c) c b ([c]) = [b(c)] = [c].
A X. n > 0 c = b(c) = b(c)+Cns (A). c = c+Cns (A) b
b : Cns (X, A) Cns (X, A). c Zns (X, A), b ([
c]) = [b(
c)], b : Hns (X, A) Hns (X, A).
3.9. b : Hns (X, A) Hns (X, A)
Hns (X, A).
. c Zns (X, A). c = c + Cns (A),
c Cns (X). (3.39) (D(c))+
D(c) = b(c) + c.
b(c) + c + Cns (A) = (D(c)) + D(c) + Cns (A).

(3.40)

s (A), D(c) C s (A). (3.40)


c Cn1
n
b(c) + c = D(c),
b ([
c]) [
c].

3.

65

X\B

i
A\B

. 3.8: : (X \ B, A \ B) (X, A).


Int A,
3.10. , A X RN , B A B

B B, Int A
A. n > 0 : (X \ B, A \ B) (X, A) : Hns (X \ B, A \ B) Hns (X, A).
. [
x] Hns (X, A). s (A) (. 3.9).
x
= x + Cns (A), x Cns (X) x Cn1

x
B

. 3.9: x, x Z1s (X, A),


B.

, x = {1 , . . . , p }, i : n X
1 (X \ Int A) , i = 1, . . . , p. i1 (B)
i
n . di . -

66

3.

i : n X qi ,
j : n X 0 i = b(b . . . (bi ) . . . ), qi i , j (n ) di .
q = max{q1 , . . . , qp } x0 q-
x. x0 = {1 , . . . , r }, x00
k x0 ,
k (n ) B 6= . k (n ) Int A k x00 . ,
x00 Cns (A) x00 Cn1 (A).
y = x0 + x00
X \B (. . 3.10). , y Cns (X \B), y = y +Cns (A\B)
Cns (X \ B, A \ B). , y = x0 + x00 Cn1 (A \ B).
, y Zns (X \ B, A \ B).

y
B

. 3.10: y y Z1s (X, A) X \ B.

x0 + y = x00 Cns (A), x


0 = x0 + Cns (A) y = y + Cns (A)
. ([
y ]) = [
y ] = [
x0 ]. 3.9
[
x0 ] = [
x]. , ([
y ]) = [
x],
: Hns (X \ B, A \ B) Hns (X, A).
[
y ] Hns (X \ B, A \ B) ,
([
y ]) = 0. y = y +Cns (A\B), y Cns (X \B) y Cn1 (A\B).
s (X), c = y+z
, z Cns (A) c Cn+1
(. 3.11).
, , c0 = {1 , . . . , t } c, B,

3.

67

y
c

z
X

. 3.11: c = y + z, z c B.
Int A. a
j c0 , j (n+1 ) B = . ,
s (X \ B) (. 3.12).
, a Cn+1

y
z` a
z
X

. 3.12: a = y 0 + z 0 , z 0 a X \ B.
y 0 y , c0 . z 0 = y 0 + a. z 0 Cns (A \ B) y 0 + z 0 = a.
, y0 = y 0 + Cns (A \ B)
, [
y 0 ] = 0 Hns (X \ B, A \ B).
, 3.9 [
y 0 ] = [
y ].
3.11. n- n = [v0 v1 . . . vn ] RN :
Hns ( n , n )
= Z2 ;
Hks ( n , n ) = 0 k 6= n.

68

3.

. 0 = {v0 } 0 = , Hks ( 0 , 0 ) =
Hks (v0 ) k > 0. 3.1 H0s (v0 )
= Z2 Hks (v0 ) = 0
k > 0. n = 0 .
n > 0. n 3.5
H0s ( n , n ) = 0.

(3.41)

s
s
. . . Hks ( n ) Hks ( n , n )
Hk1
( n )
Hk1
( n ) . . .
(3.42)
( n , n ). 3.3 .
1 , 3.8 Hks ( 1 ) = 0 k > 0 H0s ( 1 )
= Z2 . , 1 = {v0 , v1 }
1
s
. Hk1 ( ) = 0 k > 1. ,
n = 1 (3.42) :

0 H1s ( 1 , 1 )
H0s ( 1 )
H0s ( 1 ) 0,

0 Hks ( 1 , 1 ) 0,
k > 1. H0s ( 1 )
= Z22 H0s ( 1 )
= Z2 , ,

(3.43)
H1s ( 1 , 1 )
= Z2 , Hks ( 1 , 1 ) = 0 k > 1.
(3.43) (3.41) n = 1.
n > 1. k = 1 (3.42)

H0s ( n ) 0.
H0s ( n )
0 H1s ( n , n )

: H0s ( n ) H0s ( n ) , ,

H1s ( n , n ) = 0 n > 1.
(3.44)
, , k > 1. (3.42) : Hks ( n , n )
.

s ( n )
Hk1

s
s
s
. . . Hk1
(v0 )
Hk1
( n ) Hk1
( n , v0 )

s
s

Hk2
(v0 )
Hk2
( n ) . . .

s ( n ) H s ( n , v )
( n , v0 ) , : Hk1
0
k1
.

3.

69

, i = 0, 1, . . . , n in1 n = [v0 v1 . . . vn ],
{v0 , v1 , . . . , vn } \ {vi }.
n1 =

n
[

in1 .

i=1

,
=

n1 = 0n1 = n1 .
n1
u
u = t0 v0 + (1 t0 )u0 ,
t0 I = [0, 1] u0 0n1 = n1 .
0n1

n1

0n1

v0

v0

. 3.13: : 3 3 2 3
v0 .

n1 = {t0 v0 + (1 t0 )u0 | t0 [1/2, 1], u0 0n1 },


(u) = u u 0n1
(
(t0 v0 + (1 t0 )u0 ) =

2t0 v0 + (1 2t0 )u0


v0

t0 [0, 1/2];

t0 [1/2, 1]

u = t0 v0 + (1 t0 )u0 n1 .
u 0n1 n1 t0 = 0 u0 = u,

u . ,
: n n (. 3.13).
H : n I n , H(u, ) = u
u 0n1 I,

2t0
1 2t0 0
2

v0 +
u t0 [0,
];

2
2
H(t0 v0 + (1 t0 )u0 , ) = 2
2

v0 t0 [
, 1]
2

70

3.

u = t0 v0 + (1 t0 )u0 n1 I. ,
. , H(u, 0) = u H(u, 1) = (u)
u n . H , idn : n n . 3.7
: Hqs ( n ) Hqs ( n ), q > 0.
(n1 ) = v0 . |n1 : n1
v0 v : v0 n1 . , | n1 v = idv .

0 v0 + (1 t0 )u0 , ) = ((1 )t0 + )v0 + (1 (1 )t0 )u0


H(t
: n1 I : n1
u = t0 v0 + (1 t0 )u0 n1 I. H

, H(u,
0) = u H(u,
1) = v0 = v0 |n1 (u)
n1

u
.
, | n1 : n1 v0

. , : Hqs (n1 ) Hqs (v0 ) q > 0.


3.9 : n n
,
s
s
( n , v0 ).
( n , n1 ) Hk1
: Hk1

{v0 } n
Int n1 , 3.10
0 : ( n \ {v0 }, n1 \ {v0 }) ( n , n1 )
s
s
( n , n1 ).
( n \ {v0 }, n1 \ {v0 }) Hk1
0 : Hk1


: n \ {v0 } 0n1

F : n \ {v0 } I n \ {v0 },

(u) = u F (u, ) = u u 0n1 , I,


(t0 v0 +(1t0 )u0 ) = u0 ,

F (t0 v0 +(1t0 )u0 , ) = (1 )(t0 v0 +(1t0 )u0 )+ u0

u = t0 v0 + (1 t0 )u0 n1 \ {v0 }, I.
n1 : 0n1 n \ {v0 } . n1 = idn1 .
0
F (u, 0) = u F (u, 0) = (u) u n \ {v0 },
F , id : n \
{v0 } n \ {v0 } n1 .
, : Hqs ( n \ {v0 }) Hqs (0n1 )
q > 0.

3.

71

02

3 \ v0

. 3.14: 3 v0 02 .

b \ v0

02

. 3.15: : 02 2 \ {v0 } 2 .

(u0 ) = (v0 + u0 )/2


G(t0 v0 + (1 t0 )u0 , ) = (1 )(t0 v0 + (1 t0 )u0 ) + ((v0 + u0 )/2)
u0 0n1 , t0 v0 + (1 t0 )u0 n1 \ {v0 } I.
: 0n1 n1 \ {v0 } (. 3.15)
G : (n1 \ {v0 }) I n1 \ {v0 }.
(n1 \ {v0 }) = 0n1 ,
n1 \{v0 } : n1 0n1 .
, = idn1 , G(u, 0) = u G(u, 1) = n1 \{v0 } (u) 0
u n1 \{v0 }. , n1

\{v0 }

q > 0
: Hqs (n1 \ {v0 }) Hqs (0n1 ).

72

3.

, 3.9, ,
: ( n \ {v0 }, n1 \ {v0 }) (0n1 , 0n1 )

s
s
: Hk1
( n \ {v0 }, n1 \ {v0 }) Hk1
(0n1 , 0n1 ).

( )1

s
s
( n , v0 )
( n ) Hk1
Hk1
Hks ( n , n )

( )1

0 1

( )

s
s
Hk1
( n , n1 )
Hk1
( n \ {v0 }, n1 \ {v0 })

s
(0n1 , 0n1 ). (3.45)

Hk1

n1 = 0n1 , (3.45) :
s
( n1 , n1 ).
Hks ( n , n )
= Hk1

(3.46)

k = n. (3.46) (3.43)
Hns ( n , n )
= H1s ( 1 , 1 )
= Z2 .

(3.47)

k > n, ,
s
Hks ( n , n )
( 1 , 1 ) = 0.
= Hkn+1

(3.48)

, k < n (3.46) (3.44)


Hks ( n , n )
= H1s ( nk+1 , nk+1 ) = 0.

(3.49)

(3.47), (3.41), (3.49) (3.48) ,


n > 1.
P m- , K(P ) , 0 6 n 6 m, K n (P ) K n1 (P ) n
n 1 .
n = [v0 v1 . . . vn ] K n (P )
i {0, 1, . . . , n}
w=

v0 + v1 + + vn
,
n+1

vi =

w + vi
.
2

(3.50)

3.

73

w n , vi n i = 0, 1, . . . , n
{
v0 , v1 , . . . , vn } .

n = [
v0 v1 . . . vn ] n .

[
P n =

P n1 = P n1 (

(3.51)

( n \ Int
n )).

(3.52)

n K n (P )

n K n (P )

,
P n = P n1 =

n.

(3.53)

n K n (P )

u n
u = tw + (1 t)u , t I u n .
, vi = vi vi = (1/2)w + (1/2)
vi . u = tw + (1 t)u n
n

, t [1/2, 1].
fn : n n
(
u t [0, 1/2];
fn (tw + (1 t)u ) =
2tw + (1 2t)u t [1/2, 1].
f (u) = u u P n1 f (u) = fn (u) u n K n (P ).
u n u = u fn (u) = u = u,
f : P n P n .
f (P n1 ) = P n1 , f : (P n , P n1 ) (P n , P n1 ) .
(3.52) (3.53) : P n P n : (P n , P n ) (P n , P n1 ). = f : (P n , P n ) (P n , P n1 ) (. 3.16).
3.10. = f
: Hks (P n , P n ) Hks (P n , P n1 )
k > 0.
. Hn : n I n

u t [0, /2];

Hn (tw + (1 t)u , ) =
2 2t w + 2 + 4t u t [ /2, 1].
2
2

74

3.

~n ~n
(p
,p )

~ n-1
(p n ,p
)

(p n ,pn-1 )

. 3.16: = f P 2 P 2 .

H(u, ) = u u P n1 H(u, ) = Hn (u, ) u


n K n (P ) I. H : P n I P n
, H(u, 0) = u H(u, 1) = f (u) u P n . ,
f idP n P n P n
f : Hks (P n ) Hks (P n ), k > 0.
f |P n1 : P n1 P n1 n1 : P n1 P n1
f |P n1 n1 = idP n1 .
n (tw + (1 t)u , ) = (1 )tw + ((1 )(1 t) + )u
H
u = tw+(1t)u n P n1 I. (1 )t+(1 )(1t)+
= 1 (1 )t 6 (1/2),
n : n P n1 I n P n1 . H(u,

H
) = u u P n1

n (u, ) u n P n1 I. H(u,
) = H
: P n1 I P n1 ,
H
idP n1 : P n1 P n1 n1 f |P n1 . , f |P n1 : P n1 P n1
f : Hks (P n1 ) Hks (P n1 ), k > 0.
3.9 ,
f : (P n , P n1 ) (P n , P n1 )
f : Hks (P n , P n1 ) Hks (P n , P n1 )
k > 0.
P n1 P n
Int P n1 P n1 P n ,

3.

75

3.10 n : (P n \ P n1 , P n1 \ P n1 ) (P n , P n1 )

n : Hks (P n \ P n1 , P n1 \ P n1 ) Hks (P n , P n1 )
k > 0.
n K n (P ) u = tw +(1t)u Int n

(
w/2 + u /2 t [0, 1/2];
(tw + (1 t)u ) =
tw + (1 t)u t [1/2, 1].

P n \ P n1 =

Int n

n K n (P )
0n

Int n Int = n , 0 n K n (P ), : P n \ P n1 P n .
(P n1 \ P n1 ) = P n , : (P n \ P n1 , P n1 \ P n1 )
n

(P , P n ) . n : (P n , P n ) (P n \ P n1 , P n1 \ P n1 ). , n
(P n , P n ) .
n K n (P ), u = tw + (1 t)u Int n I

(t t + )w + (1 t + t )u t [0, ];
2
2
2
F (tw+(1t)u , ) =
1

tw + (1 t)u t [ , 1].
2
F : (P n \P n1 )I P n \P n1 ,
F (P n1 \ P n1 ) = P n , F (u, 0) = 0 F (u, 1) = n (u)
u P n \ P n1 . n : (P n , P n ) (P n \ P n1 , P n1 \ P n1 )
k > 0

n : Hks (P n , P n ) Hks (P n \ P n1 , P n1 \ P n1 ).
,
n

Hks (P n , P n )
Hks (P n \ P n1 , P n1 \ P n1 )
n

Hks (P n , P n1 ) Hks (P n , P n1 ). (3.54)

,
n n : (P n , P n ) (P n , P n1 ).

76

3.

4.

3.12. n , P ,
P n P n1 n n 1 , p
n- ,
p
Hns (P n , P n1 )
= Z2

Hks (P n , P n1 ) = 0

k 6= n, k > 0.
. , K n (P ) = {1n , . . . , pn },
1n , . . . ,
pn (3.50) (3.51).
k > 0 3.10
Hks (P n , P n1 )
= Hks (P n , P n1 ),

(3.55)

P n =

p
[

in ,

P n1 =

i=1

p
[

in .

i=1


in Int in , i = 1, . . . , p,
in
P n . 3.4 ,

Hks (P n , P n1 )
1n ,
1n ) Hks (
pn ,
pn ).
(3.56)
= Hks (
, 3.11
Hns (
n,
n)
= Z2 ;

n,
n ) = 0 k 6= n.
Hks (

(3.57)

(3.55), (3.56) (3.57)


.
, n K n (P ) (3.6)
n : n P . n
s (P n1 ).
n = n + C s (P n1 )
Cns (P n ) n Cn1
n
n- (P n , P n1 ).
3.11. K n (P ) = {1n , . . . , pn },
n , . . . ,
n
p
1
s
n
n1
Hn (P , P
).

4.

77

. n = 0 P n1 Hns (P n , P n1 ) =
H0s (P 0 ). K 0 (P ) = {10 = v1 , . . . , p0 = vp }, 3.1
3.1 v1 , . . . , vp H0s (P 0 ).
n > 0,
= ( )1 : Hns (P n , P n1 ) Hns (P n , P n )
3.10,
: Hns (P n , P n ) Hns (
1n ,
1n ) Hns (
pn ,
pn )
3.4.
i = 1, . . . , p
s
( n1 , n1 )
n : Hns (
in ,
in ) Hn1

(3.45) k = n, n =
in 0n1 = n1 .
= 2 3 n .
: Hns (
in ,
in ) H1s ( 1 , 1 ).
, n = 1 , 1 =
in
.
i = 1, . . . , p
n ]P n ) = [
n ] n
([
i
i P

n ] n ) = (0, . . . , [
n ] n , . . . , 0),
([
i P
i
i

(3.58)

n
n ] n H s (
[
in ). ,
n i ,
i
i

n ] n ) = [
1 ]1 .
([
i
i

(3.59)

1 = {v, w} : H1s ( 1 , 1 ) H0s ( 1 )


( 1 , 1 ),
1 ]1 ) = v + w .
([
v w H0s ( 1 ), v + w 6= 0.
1 ]1 6= 0 H s ( 1 , 1 ) (3.59) [
n ] n 6= 0
, [
1
i
i
s
n
n
Hn (
i ,
i ). (3.58)
n ] n ) = (0, . . . , 0, [
n ] n )
n ] n ) = ([
n ] n , 0, . . . , 0), . . . , ([
([
p P
p
p
1 P
1
1
Hns (
1n ,
1n ) Hns (
pn ,
pn ), s
n
n
n ]P n ) H (P , P ).
n ]P n ), . . . , ([
([
1

n ]P n ), . . . , [
n ]P n
[
p
1
Hns (P n , P n1 ).

78

3.

id : P P . 2 ,
ids ( k ) = k ids ([z]) = [ids (z)]
ids : Hk (P ) Hks (P ), k > 0. id(P n ) = P n n > 0,
k n ids : Hk (P n ) Hks (P n ) ids : Hk (P n , P n1 ) Hks (P n , P n1 ).
3.13. P k ids : Hk (P ) Hks (P ) .
. k = 0 2.1, 2.2,
3.1 3.2.
, k > 0,
P .
dim P = 0, P = K 0 (P ) = {v1 , . . . , vq } ,
vi .
2.1 3.1,
H0 (vi )
= Z2
= H0s (vi ) Hk (vi ) = 0 = Hks (vi ) k > 0.
2.1 3.1
Hk (P )
= Hk (v1 ) Hk (vq ) Hks (P )
= Hks (v1 ) Hks (vq ).
, Hk (P ) Hks (P ) k > 0. , H0 (P ) H0s (P )
0- v1 , . . . , vq
v1 , . . . , vq . , ids (vi ) = vi i = 1, . . . , q.
dim P = 0 .
, m < n, P , dim P = n.
(P n , P n1 )
, ids : Hk (P l ) Hks (P l ), l = n, n 1, ids : Hl0 (P n , P n1 )
Hls0 (P n , P n1 ), l0 = k, k + 1.

. . . Hk+1 (P n , P n1 ) Hk (P n1 ) Hk (P n )

ids
ids
ids
y
y
y
s (P n , P n1 )
. . . Hk+1
Hks (P n1 ) Hks (P n )

4.

79

Hk (P n , P n1 ) Hk1 (P n1 ) . . .

ids
ids
y
y

(3.60)

s (P n1 )
Hks (P n , P n1 ) Hk1
. . . .

2.3 3.3 .
(3.60) , .
s (P n1 ) ids : H (P n1 ) H s (P n1 ) ids : Hk1 (P n1 ) Hk1
k

k
. , 2.7 3.12,
3.11 ids : Hk (P n , P n1 )
Hks (P n , P n1 ). 3.2 ids : Hk (P n )
Hks (P n ) . , P = P n
P Q P . ids (
z) =
s
s
s
s
z ]) = [id (
z )] z = z +
+ Ck (Q)) = id (z) + Ck (Q) id ([
Ck (Q) Zk (P, Q), ids : Hk (P, Q) Hks (P, Q),
k > 0.

ids (z

3.14. k
(P, Q), P Q P ,
ids : Hk (P, Q) Hks (P, Q) .
. k = 0 2.4, 2.5,
3.4 3.5.
k > 0

. . . Hk (Q) Hk (P ) Hk (P, Q)

ids
ids
ids
y
y
y
. . . Hks (Q) Hks (P ) Hks (P, Q)

Hk1 (Q) Hk (P ) . . .

ids
ids
y
y

(3.61)

s (Q)
Hk1
Hks (P ) . . .

(P, Q) , ids , P , Q (P, Q) .

80

3.

2.3 3.3 (3.61) . .


3.13 . 3.2.
3.2. P P 0 ,
Hk (P ) Hk (P 0 )
k > 0.
3.3. , P P 0 , Q Q0
(P, Q) (P 0 , Q0 ) . Hk (P, Q) Hk (P 0 , Q0 ) k > 0.

CW-
1.

1.2 n N hn : ( n , n ) (Dn , Dn ). 3.11


,
Hns (Dn , Dn )
= Z2 ;

Hks (Dn , Dn ) = 0 k 6= n.

(4.1)

, Q RN
m [
[
eni .
(4.2)
Q=
n=0 iJn

K n (Q)

(4.2), n {0, 1, . . . , m}, Qn , n.


K(Q) =

m
[

K n (Q).

n=0

(Q, K(Q)) CW-, Qn n-


.
en K n (Q) n ), D
n = {x Dn | |x| 6 1/2}.
n : Dn Q en = n (D
u en
u = n (tu ), t I u Dn . fen : en en
(
n (u ) t [1/2, 1];
fen (n (tu )) =
n (2tu ) t [0, 1/2].
81

82

4. CW-

n =
Q

n1 = Qn1 (
Q

en

(en \ Int en )).

(4.3)

en K n (Q)

en K n (Q)

,
n = Q
n1 =
Q

en .

(4.4)

en K n (Q)

f (u) = u u Qn1 f (u) = fen (u) u en


K n (Q). u en n (u ) = u
fen (u) = n (u ) = u, f :
n1 ) = Qn1 , f : (Qn , Q
n1 ) (Qn , Qn1 )
Qn Qn . f (Q
.
n, Q
n ) (Qn , Q
n1 ).
(4.3) (4.4) : (Q
= f .
en = n hn hn : n Dn , hn ( n ) =
Dn , n : Dn Q en
K n (Q) . n hn ( n ) = n (Dn ) Qn1 . ,
en = en +Cns (Qn1 ) n- (Qn , Qn1 ).

3.10, 3.12 3.11.


en

n, Q
n)
4.1. : (Q
(Qn , Qn1 )
n, Q
n ) H s (Qn , Qn1 )
: Hks (Q
k
k > 0.
4.1. q n- CW-
(Q, K(Q)).
q
Hns (Qn , Qn1 )
= Z2

Hks (Qn , Qn1 ) = 0

k 6= n, k > 0.
4.2. K n (Q) = {en1 , . . . , enq },
en , . . . ,
en
q
1
s
n
n1
Hn (Q , Q
).

2. CW-

2.

83

CW-

- Q RN (4.2)
n = 0, 1, . . . , m K n (Q) Qn n n- CW- (Q, K(Q)).
, Q1 = .
4.2. j > m = dim Q, Hjs (Q) = 0.
. n {1, . . . , m} (Qn , Qn1 ).
s (Qn , Qn1 ) = H s (Qn , Qn1 ) = 0, 4.1 Hj+1
j
:

0 Hjs (Qn1 )
Hjs (Qn ) 0.

, Hjs (Qn )
= Hjs (Qn1 ).
Hjs (Q) = Hjs (Qm )
= Hjs (Qm1 )
=
= Hjs (Q0 ).
Q0 .
3.1 3.1 Hjs (Q0 ) = 0.
n = 1, . . . , m : Hns (Qn , Qn1 )
s (Qn1 ) H s (Qn1 , Qn2 )
0 : Hn1
n1
(Qn , Qn1 ) (Qn1 , Qn2 ) . n = 0 ,

s (Qn1 )
Hn1

s
n : Hns (Qn , Qn1 ) Hn1
(Qn1 , Qn2 ).

, k = 0 k = 0 k > m.

n+1

n
s
s
. . . Hn+1
(Qn+1 , Qn ) Hns (Qn , Qn1 )
Hn1
(Qn1 , Qn2 ) . . . .

4.1. n n n+1 = 0.
. n n+1 (Qn+1 , Qn ), (Qn , Qn1 ) (Qn1 , Qn2 ):
00

s
. . . Hn+1
(Qn+1 , Qn )
Hns (Qn ) . . . ,

s
. . . Hns (Qn ) Hns (Qn , Qn1 )
Hn1
(Qn1 ) . . . ,

s
s
. . . Hn1
(Qn1 )
Hn1
(Qn1 , Qn2 ) . . . .

84

4. CW-

= 0.
n n+1 = 0 00 = 0.

4.3. CW- (Q, K(Q)) k >


0 Hks (Q)
= ker n / im n+1 .
. m CW Q.
m = 0, Q {v1 , . . . , vq }
RN .
q
H0s (Q)
= Z2 Hks (Q) = 0 k > 0.
,
q
H0s (Q0 , Q1 ) = H0s (Q, ) = H0s (Q)
= Z2 Hks (Qk , Qk1 ) = 0 k > 0.

j = 0 im j = 0 j > 0. , ker 0 =
q
H0s (Q0 , Q1 )
= Z2 ker k = 0 k > 0. ,
q
ker 0 / im 1
= Z2
= H0s (Q) ker k / im k+1 = 0 = Hks (Q) k > 0.

, CW- m < n CW-


Q, m = dim Q = n. Qn = Q Qj = j > n.
4.2 4.1 Hjs (Q) = 0
Hjs (Qj , Qj1 ) = 0. , ker j / im j+1 = 0 =
Hjs (Q) j > n.
ker n / im n+1 Hns (Q) (Qn , Qn1 ) (Qn1 , Qn2 ).
s (Qn2 ) = 0. 4.2 Hns (Qn1 ) = Hn1
:

s
0 Hns (Qn ) Hns (Qn , Qn1 )
Hn1
(Qn1 ) . . . ,

s
s
0 Hn1
(Qn1 )
Hn1
(Qn1 , Qn2 ) . . . .

0 .
, im
= Hns (Qn ) ker n = ker(0 ) = ker = im .
, ker n
= Hns (Qn ).
s (Qn+1 , Qn ) = 0 im
n+1 = 0.
, Hn+1
: ker n / im n+1
= Hns (Qn ).

2. CW-

85

n1
(Qn , Qn1 ), (Qn1 , Qn2 ) (Qn2 , Qn3 ):

s
s
. . . Hns (Qn , Qn1 )
Hn1
(Qn1 )
Hn1
(Qn ) 0,

s
s
s
0 Hn1
(Qn1 )
Hn1
(Qn1 , Qn2 )
Hn2
(Qn2 ) . . . ,

00

s
s
0 Hn2
(Qn2 )
Hn2
(Qn2 , Qn3 ) . . . . (4.5)

, s (Qn , Qn1 ), H s (Qn2 ),


Hn1
n1
s (Qn3 ).
Hn2
(4.5) 00 .
ker n1 = ker(00 0 ) = ker 0 .
s (Qn1 ). ,
ker 0 = 0 (Hn1
s
ker n1 = 0 (Hn1
(Qn1 ).

(4.6)

im n = 0 (im ).

(4.7)


(4.5) im = ker
s
s
s
Hn1
(Qn )
(Qn1 )/ ker
(Qn1 )/ im .
= Hn1
= Hn1

(4.8)

0 ,
s
s
Hn1
(Qn1 )/ im = 0 (Hn1
(Qn1 ))0 (im ).

(4.9)

(4.6) (4.7)
s
0 (Hn1
(Qn1 ))0 (im )
= ker n1 / im n .
s (Q) ker
n1 / im n .
(4.8) (4.9) , Hn1
=
s
n
n1
s
n
n1
0 6 k 6 n 2 Hk+1 (Q , Q
) Hk (Q , Q
)
. (Qn , Qn1 ) :

0 Hks (Qn1 )
Hks (Qn ) 0.

H s (Qn1 ).
, Hks (Qn ) =
k
Hks (Qn1 )
= ker k / im k+1 .
Q Qn1 . ,
Hks (Q) = Hks (Qn )
= ker k / im k+1 .

86

4. CW-

n > 0. Dn Dn = 0
n , 0 Dn , n1 = Dn \ 0 n = Int Dn .
Dn = 0 n1 (n 1)- CW, 4.1 Hns (Dn , Dn )
= Z2 . Dn
s
n
, Hn (D ) = 0. ,
(Dn , Dn )
:

n1

s
s
0 Hns (Dn , Dn )
Hn1
(Dn )
Hn1
(Dn ) 0,

(4.10)

s (D n ) = 0 n > 1 H s (D n ) Z n = 1.
Hn1
= 2
n1
en K n (Q) : Dn Q. (Dn ) Qn (Dn ) Qn1 . , 0 : Dn Qn1 : (Dn , Dn )
(Qn , Qn1 ) .
D

s (D n )
s (D n )
0 Hns (Dn , Dn ) Hn1
Hn1
0

0
y
y

s (Qn1 )

. . . Hns (Qn , Qn1 ) Hn1

...

(4.11)
(4.10)
(Qn , Qn1 )
s (D n ) Z . [z]
n > 1, (4.10) , Hn1
= 2
s
n
, . . . , eqn1 }.
Hn1 (D ) K n1 (Q) = {en1
1
4.2 [en : ekn1 ] Z2 ,
k = 1, . . . , q,
0

0 ([z])

q
X

n1 ].
][
[en : en1
k
e

(4.12)

k=1

4.1. [en : ekn1 ] Z2 , (4.12), en


en1
, k = 1, . . . , q.
k
n = 1 Dn = D1 1 R 1 R.
= e0i 0 (1) = e0j .

0 (1)

4.2. e0i 6= e0j , [e1 : e0i ] = [e1 : e0j ] = 1


[e1 : e0k ] = 0 k
/ {i, j}. e0i = e0j ,
[e1 : e0k ] k = 1, . . . , q.

2. CW-

87

4.3. n > 0
en ]) =
n ([

q
X

n1 ].
[en : en1
][
k
e

(4.13)

k=1

. n = Int Dn
id : Dn Dn , n = hn ,
hn : n Dn . n = hn = en
n ]) = [
en ].
([

(4.14)

(4.11) (4.14) ,
en ]) = 0 0 D ([
n ]),
0 ([

(4.15)

s (Qn1 ) H s (Qn1 , Qn2 ) 0 : Hn1


n1
(Qn1 , Qn2 ).
n ])
n > 1. D D ([
s
n
Hn1 (D ). (4.12) ,
q
X
0
0
D n
n1 ].
[en : ekn1 ][
([ ]) =
e
k

k=1

(4.15) (4.13) .
, n = 1. H0s (D1 ) = h1 i h1 i,
1 1 0 = {1} 1 1 . (1 ) = (1 ),
im D = ker D
= h1 + 1 i.

(4.16)

0 (1) = e0i 0 (1) = e0j . (4.16)


n ]) = 0 (1 + 1 ) = [ 0 ] + [ 0 ].
0 D ([
e
e
i

(4.17)

n ]) = 0,
e0i = e0j , (4.17) 0 D ([
1
0
4.2 [e : ek ] = 0 k = 1, . . . , q. (4.15)
(4.13) . e0i 6= e0j (4.17) (4.15)
,
en ]) = 0 ([
en ]) = [
0 ] + [
0 ].
n ([

e
e
i

[e1 : e0i ] = [e1 : e0j ] = 1 [e1 : e0k ] = 0 k,


i j. , (4.13) .

88

4. CW-

4.3. n Z, n > 0, n CW- Q n-. Cncw (Q) n- Q


c + c0 = (c c0 ) \ (c c0 ).
cw (Q)
ncw : Cncw (Q) Cn1
ncw (en )

q
X

[e :

en1
]ekn1
k

l
X

ncw (

enij )

j=1

k=1

l
X

ncw (enij ),

j=1

en K n (Q), {en1
, . . . eqn1 } = K n1 (Q) c = eni1 + + enil =
1
{eni1 , . . . , enil } Cncw (Q).
en ],
4.2 n n (enk ) = [
k
n
n1
s
n
cw
).
K (Q), n : Cn (Q) Hn (Q , Q
4.3 4.3 ,

enk

Cncw (Q)

n y

cw

cw (Q)
Cn1

n1
y

(4.18)

s (Qn1 , Qn2 )
Hns (Qn , Qn1 ) n Hn1

.
4.4.
cw
n+1

cw

n
cw
cw
. . . Cn+1
(Q) Cncw (Q)
Cn1
(Q) . . .

(4.19)

. Hncw (Q) =
cw H s (Q) CWker ncw / im n+1
n
Q.
. (4.18) n. ,
cw

n+1
= 1
n n+1 n+1

ncw = 1
n1 n n .

(4.20)


cw

ncw n+1
= 1
n1 n n+1 n+1 .
cw = 0, (4.19)
4.1 , ncw n+1
.
n+1 , n n1 , (4.20)
cw
cw = 1 (ker

n ).
im n+1
= 1
n (im n+1 ) ker n
n
Hncw (Q)
= ker n / im n+1 . 4.3 ,
cw
Hn (Q)
= Hns (Q).

2. CW-

89

, n > 1 (4.12) .
. ,
.
4.4. n > 1 en K n (Q) : M Q, M
n- , (n 1)-
a M |a : a Q (n 1)- CW-
(Q, K(Q)). en1 K n1 (Q) [en : en1 ] Z2 = Z/2Z, (n 1)- a M ,
(a) = en1 .
. M , Int M n,
k {0, 1, . . . , n 1} k- . B = M
(n 1)- M n1 CW- (M, K(M )). M , 0- CW-.
x (n 1)- B = M .
x Zn1 (B). Cn (B) = 0, [x] = {x} 6= 0. , Hn1 (B)
= Z2 . , [x]
Hn1 (B).
a K n1 (B) = K n1 (M ) M xa a . xa Cn2 (a) Cn1 (a) = 0. xa Zn1 (a, a).
, Cn1 (a, a) . Zn1 (a, a) = {, xa }. Cn (a, a) = 0, ,
[xa ] = {xa } Hn1 (a, a)
=
Z2 .
(n2)- B n2 CW- (B, K(B)).

[
B n2 =
a,
(4.21)
aK n1 (B)

xa Zn1 (B, B n2 ) a K n1 (B). a, b K n1 (B)


a 6= b xa xb . {xa | a K n1 (B)}
(B, B n2 ).
(4.21) Zn1 (B, B n2 ).

90

4. CW-

Cn (B, B n2 ) = 0 , {[xa ]| a K n1 (B)}


Hn1 (B, B n2 ).
0a : n1 a , a : a B ,
0a = 0a + C s (a)
a = a + C s (B n2 ).
a = a 0a ,
n1
n1
0a ] H s (a, a)
4.2 [
= Z2 ,
n1
n1
s
n2

{[a ]| a K
(B)} Hn1 (B, B
).
s (a, a) (id )s :
(ida )s : Hn1 (a, a) Hn1
B
n2
s
n2
Hn1 (B, B
) Hn1 (B, B
) 3.13. Hn1 (a, a)
s (a, a). Hn1
,
0a ].
(4.22)
(ida )s ([xa ]) = [
ca : Cn1 (a, a) Cn1 (B, B n2 ) a : (a, a) (B, B n2 )
(ca ) : Hn1 (a, a) Hn1 (B, B n2 ) (a )s :
s (a, a) H s (B, B n2 ). , x = n1 + + n1 .
Hn1
a
m
n1
1

m
X
Bn1 ],
(idB )s (ca ) ([xa ]) = (idB )s ([xa ]) =
[

i=1

n1 , (3.6)
i
Bn1 = n1 + C s (B, B n2 ). ,

n1

(a )s

(ida )s ([xa ])

m
X

(a )s (

i=1

a n1 ]) =
[

m
X

Bn1 ],
[

i=1

a n1 = n1 + C s (a, a). ,
n1
i
i

(c )

a
Hn1 (a, a)
Hn1 (B, B n2 )

(id )s

(ida )s y
y B

(4.23)

(a )s

s (a, a)
s (B, B n2 ).
Hn1

Hn1

0a ]) = [
a ]. (4.22) (4.23)
(a )s ([
0a ]).
(idB )s ([xa ]) = (idB )s (ca ) ([xa ]) = (a )s (ida )s ([xa ]) = (a )s ([
,
a ].
(idB )s ([xa ]) = [

(4.24)

2. CW-

91

Hn1 (B)

(idB )s y

s (B)
Hn1

0 y

Hn1 (B, B n2 )

(id )s
y B

s (B, B n2 )
Hn1

0
y

(4.25)

s (Qn1 )
s (Qn1 , Qn2 ),
Hn1
Hn1

(B, B n2 )
(Qn1 , Qn2 ), , : M Q.
[z] = (idB )s ([x])
s (B). (4.25)
Hn1
0 0 ([z]) =
0 (idB )s ([x]).

(4.26)


x=

Cn1 (B n2 ) = 0,

xa

aK n1 (B)

([x]) =

[xa ].

aK n1 (B)

(4.24) ,
X

(idB )s ([x]) =

a ].
[

(4.27)

aK n1 (B)

|a : a Q en1
K n1 (Q). en1
= a , ,
a
a
0

([a ]) = [en1
]. (4.27)
a

0 (idB )s ([x]) =

n1 ].
[
ea

aK n1 (B)

(4.12) (4.26)
X
X
en1 ] = 0 0 ([z]) =
[en : en1 ][

en1 K n1 (Q)

aK n1 (B)

n1 ].
[
ea

(4.28)

92

4. CW-

en1 = en1
, (a) = en1 .
a
, en1 K n1 (Q)
en1 ] (4.28)
[
, a K n1 (M )
en1 . ,
en1 ]
[
X
en1 ]
[en : en1 ][
en1 K n1 (Q)

[en : en1 ] = 0. [en : en1 ] = 1.




1.

5.1. P , K n (P ) = {1n , . . . , pn } K n1 (P ) =
{1n1 , . . . , ln1 } P n
n 1 . i = 1, . . . , l j = 1, . . . , p aij = 1,
in1 jn , aij = 0 .

a11 a12 . . . a1p


a21 a22 . . . a2p

A= .
..
.. .
..
..
.
.
.
al1

al2

. . . alp

n 1
n P .
, in1 jn
in1 jn .
jn =

l
X

aij in1 .

(5.1)

i=1

n- c = {jn1 , . . . , jns } Cn (P ). xj = 1 j {j1 , . . . , js } xj = 0 j {1, . . . , p} \ {j1 , . . . , js }.


93

94

5.

x = (x1 , . . . , xp ) Zp2

c=

p
X

xj jn .

(5.2)

j=1

c =

l
X

y i in1 ,

y = (y 1 , . . . , y l ) Zl2 .

(5.3)

i=1

(5.2) (5.1)
n (c) = c =

p
X
j=1

xj jn =

p
l X
X

aij xj in1 .

(5.4)

i=1 j=1

(5.4) (5.3)
i

y =

p
X

aij xj ,

i = 1, . . . , l; j = 1, . . . , p,

j=1


y T = A xT ,

(5.5)

xT y T x = (x1 , . . . , xp ) y =
(y 1 , . . . , y l ) .
n- P , n1
n1
K
(P ), 1 ( n1 , P ).
m- P , ,
V (P ) = K 0 (P )
K m (P ). K n (P )
n = 0, 1, . . . , m. , n1 K(P )
1 ( n1 , P ) n- .
5.2. , V (P ) = K 0 (P ) = {u0 , u1 , . . . , up0 }
P , n = [ui0 ui1 . . . uin ]
0n = [ui00 ui01 . . . ui0n ] n- .
n 0n , k {0, 1, . . . , n}, ij = i0j
j < k ik < i0k .
, . , .

1.

95

5.3. S = {1n , . . . , pn } P , in jn i < j,


i, j {1, . . . , pn }.
5.4. S = {1n , . . . , pn } n- P n K n (P ) ,
n S k, k {1, . . . , p}, n = kn
n
k1
n kn .
5.1. 5.4 n S , , n
.
5.1.
.
:
1) V (P ) = K 0 (P ) P ;
2) m- K m (P ), m = dim P .
:
1) K 1 (P ), . . . , K m (P );
2) n K n (P ), n = 0, 1, . . . , m 1,
(n + 1)- 1 ( n , P ).
3) An n 1 n; n =
1, . . . , m
.
1. . K m (P ) ,
.
2. n = 1, . . . , m 1. n
m 1 1 1 2.1 2.2.
2.1. . K n (P ) = .
2.2. (n + 1)-. (n + 1) n+1 K n+1 (P ) (n+1).0 (n+1).2.
(n+1).0. i = 0.
(n+1).1. i. n+1 i,
n n+1 . n
n.1 n.3.
n.1. n K n (P );
k K n (P ).
n.2. n
/ K n (P ), n K n (P )
k, 1 ( n , P ) = { n+1 } . (n+1).2.

96

5.

n.3. n K n (P ) 1 ( n , P ) n+1 .
(n+1).2. i. i < n,
i i + 1 (n+1).1.
3. n = 0.
3.1. . u V (P ) 1 (u, P ) = .
3.2. 1-. e = [v, w]
K 1 (P ) 1 (v, P ) = 1 (w, P ) = .
4. .
pm = card K m (P ) n m 1 1
4.1 4.3.
4.1. pn1 K n1 (P ).
4.2. An = (anij ) pn1 pn
.
4.3. i = 1, . . . , pn1 4.3.1 4.3.2.
4.3.1. n 1 (in1 , P )
j K n (P ) anij = 1.
4.3.2. i {1, . . . , pn1 } ( i).
.

2.

5.2. n-.
:
1) l, p, q, l (n 1) P , p n- q
, n + 1;
2) K n (P ) = {1n , . . . , pn } n- P ;
3)

a11 a12 . . . a1p


a21 a22 . . . a2p

A= .
..
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
al1

al2

. . . alp

n : Cn (P ) Cn1 (P );

2.

97

4)

B=

b11 b12 . . . b1q


b21 b22 . . . b2q
..
.. . .
.
. ..
.
.
bp1 bp2 . . . bpq

n+1 : Cn+1 (P ) Cn (P ).
:
1) r;
2) n- z1 , . . . , zr P .
.
1. n .
1.1.
A

... ...

.
.. 1 ...

.
.
. 0 ...

.
. . ... . . .

A=
0 ... 0 ...
0 ... 0 ...

.. . . .. . .
.
. .
.
0 ... 0 ...
1
0
0
..
.

1
..
.

... ...
... ...
... ...
. . .. . .
. .
.
0 ... 1 ...
0 ... 0 ...
.. . . .. . .
. .
.
.
0 ... 0 ...

..
.

0
..
.

Z2 .
A .
1.2. s A,
.
F = {f1 , . . . , fs }.
2. n+1 .
2.1. B f1 , . . . , fs .
B 0 .
2.2. -

98

5.

B 0

1 0
.. ..
. .

.. ..
. .

0 =
B

.. ..
. .

.. ..
. .

0 ... 0 0 ... 0
.. . . .. .. . . ..
. . .
. .
.

0 ... 0 0 ... 0

.. . . .. .. . . ..
. . .
. .
.

1 ... 0 0 ... 0
,
.. . . .. .. . . ..
. . .
. .
.

... 1 0 ... 0

.. . . .. .. . . ..
. . .
. .
.
... 0 ... 0

, ,
Z2 .
0 , 2.3. t B
. G =
{g1 , . . . , gt }.
3. r. r = p s t.
4. n .
4.1. {1, . . . , p} F G,
U = {u1 , . . . , ur }.
4.2.

1 a
1f2 a
1f3 . . . a
1fs a
1u1 . . . a
1ut
0
2u1 . . . a
1
a
2f3 . . . a
2fs a
2ut

3u1 . . . a
0
1
... a
3fs a
3ut
A0 = 0

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0
0
0
...
1
a
su1 . . . a
sut
s A,
f1 , . . . , fs , u1 , . . . , ur .
4.3. A0 ,

1 0 0 . . . 0 a1u1 . . . a1ut

0 1 0 . . . 0 a

2u1 . . . a2ut

0 0 1 . . . 0 a

A =
3u1 . . . a3ut .
.. .. .. . . ..
..
..
..
. . .
. .
.
.
.
0 0 0 . . . 1 asu1

. . . asut

5. z1 , . . . , zr . k = 1, . . . , r
5.1 5.3.

2.

99

5.1. zk = {unk }.
5.2. i = 1, . . . , s . 5.2.1 5.2.2.
5.2.1. aiuk = 1, fni zk .
5.2.2. i {1, . . . , s} (
i).
5.3. k {1, . . . , r} (
k).
.
5.1. 5.2 z1 , . . . , zr
, [z1 ], . . . , [zr ]
Hn (P ).
. m Cm (P ) Z2 .
K m (P ) m- P
Cm (P ). m : Zp2 Cm (P )

pm
X
m (x) =
xi im ,
i=1

card K m (P ).

pm =
D m m 1,

m (m (x)) = m1 ((D xT )T ),

(5.6)

xT , x = (x1 , . . . , xp ) Zp2 .
(5.6) x Zq2
n1 ((A B xT )T ) = n (n ((B xT )T )) = n n+1 (n+1 (x)).
n n+1 = 0, , A B = 0.
A A . A n
{1n , . . . , pn } Cn (P ) Cn1 (P ).
B , B 0 0 . B.

B
n+1
1 , . . . , qn+1 ,
c1 , . . . , cq Cn+1 (P ).

100

5.

B B
, n+1 c1 , . . . , cq 1n , . . . , pn Cn+1 (P ) Cn (P )
.
, , ,
= 0.
A B

(5.7)

j {1, . . . , q}, yj = (yj1 , . . . , yjp ) Zp2

yji = bij i = 1, . . . , p. yjT j- B.


5.1. j > t yj Zp2 .
. AF , s
A,
f1 , . . . , fs . AF , 1.1 5.2 det AF = 1.
AV ,
V =
A,
f1 , . . . , fs
{1, . . . , p} \ F . B

BF . 2.1 V = B
0.
B
i = 1, . . . , s j = 1, . . . , q
p
X
k=1

a
ikbkj =

s
X
=1

a
if bf j +

ps
X

a
iv bv j .

=1

F + AV B
V = A B.

, AF B
(5.7)
V .
F = A1 AV B
(5.8)
B
F
2.2 5.2 j > t
V = B
0 . (5.8)
j B
F .
j- B

BF BV B,
.
(5.6)
eT )T ) = n (yj ),
n+1 (cj ) = n ((B
j
ej Zq2 ekj = jk , jk = 1
k = j jk = 0 . 5.1 ,
im n+1 = hn (y1 ), . . . , n (yt )i.

(5.9)

2.

101

(5.7) y1 , . . . , yt Zp2

A xT .
(5.10)
R
Zp2 . rank A = s, dim R = p s = t + r.
(5.6)
n (n (x)) = n1 ((A xT )T ).
x Zp2 n (x) ker n x R . ,
ker n = n (R).

(5.11)

x1 = (a1u1 , a2u1 , . . . , asu1 , 1, 0, . . . , 0),


x2 = (a1u2 , a2u2 , . . . , asu2 , 0, 1, . . . , 0),
....................................
xr = (a1ur , a2ur , . . . , asur , 0, 0, . . . , 1)
A (x )T = 0.

xfj i = xi
j = aiuj ,

k
xuj k = xk
j = j

xgj = 0

(5.12)

fi F , uk U , g G j = 1, . . . , r. x1 , . . . , xr
Zp2 (5.10).
5.2. y1 , . . . , yt , x1 , . . . , xr R Zp2 .
. C y1T , . . . , ytT , xT1 , . . . , xTr .
g1 , . . . , gt , u1 , . . . , ur

1 0 ... 0 0 0 ... 0
1 ... 0 0 0 ... 0

.. .. . . .. .. .. . . ..
. .
. . . .
. .

... 1 0 0 ... 0
0

,
C =

... 1 0 ... 0
... 0 1 ... 0

.. .. . . .. .. .. . . ..
. .
. . . .
. .
... 0 0 ... 1
, . det C 0 = 1, C

102

5.

s+r. , y1 , . . . , yt , x1 , . . . , xr
. dim R = p s = t + r,
.
(5.11) 5.2
ker n = hn (y1 ), . . . , n (yt )i hn (x1 ), . . . , n (xr )i.
(5.13)
P
5 5.2 zj = unj + si=1 aiuj fni
j = 1, . . . , r. (5.12)
X u
X f
X g
zj =
xj k unk +
xj i fni +
xj gn .
uk U

,
zj =

fi F

p
X

gG

xhj hn = n (xj )

(5.14)

h=1

j = 1, . . . , r. (5.13) (5.9) ,
ker n = im n+1 hz1 , . . . , zr i.

(5.15)

, z1 , . . . , zr . 5.2
(5.14) . (5.15) , [z1 ] = z1 + im n+1 , . . . , [zr ] = zr + im n+1
Hn (P ) = kern / im n+1 . .


1.

P m, K(P )
n = 0, 1, . . . , m K n (P ) n- K(P ).
, n n1 K(P ) , n1 n . n- P , n1 , 1 ( n1 , P ),
[ n1 : K n (P )]. ,
1 ( n1 , P ) = { n K n (P )| n1 n },
[ n1 : K n (P )] = card 1 ( n1 , P ).
6.1. P -, , ,
P .
6.1. .
:
1) K m (P ) K m1 (P ) P ;
2) m1 K m1 (P ) 1 ( m1 , P )
m1
[
: K m (P )] m- .
:
1) K m (Pi ), K m1 (Pi ) K m1 (Q)
Pi , Pi , Q P , i = 1, . . . , l;
103

104

6.

2) Di Cm1 (P ), i = 1, . . . , l.
.
1. K m1 (Q) := i := 1.
2. K m (Pi ) := K m1 (Pi ) := ,
( ) Di := .
3. (m 1)-,
, R := .
4. Pi , Pi ,
Di Pi Q.
4.1. . 0m K m (P ), K m (Pi ) K m (P ).
m1
0m 0
m1
R 0m
: 0
m1
1
(0 , P ).
4.2. .
m1 R, K m1 (P ). [ m1 : K m (P )]
1 ( m1 , P ).
4.2.1. [ m1 : K m (P )] = 2 1 ( m1 , P ) ,
m . m
K m (Pi ) K m (P ).
m1 m \ { m1 }
: m1 R m
1 (m1 , P ).
, 4.3.
4.2.2. m1
m1
K
(Pi ) K m1 (Q), Di Di +
m1 .
4.3. .
R. , 4.2.
5. m- .
K m (P ) , i := i + 1 2.
6. Q. K m1 (Q) K m1 (Q) K m1 (P ) K n (Q) :=
K n (P ) n < m 1.
.
6.1 6.1
P R2 .
Q, R.

1.

105

P1

P2

P1

P1

. 6.1: 6.1 .

106

6.

6.1. , 6.1
Pi Pi P , i = 1, . . . , l.
i {1, . . . , l} m-
Mi Rm i : Mi P , :
Mi (m 1)- , Mi ;
Mi , Mi ;
i Mi Pi ;
i Int Mi Mi Ui = Pi \ Pi ;
i (Mi ) = Pi .
. Pi K m (Pi ) = {0m , 1m , . . . , tm }. ,

. , , jm K m (Pi ) m j = 1, . . . , t.
j1
, jm K m (Pi ), R,
. K m1 (Pi ) R
m1 (Pi ) R
. Pij
K
m1

Pij = m m m
K
(Pi ) R.
0
1
j
Uij = Pij \ Pij .
, j {1, . . . , t} Mij Rm ij : Mij Pij ,
:
(j1) Mij (m 1)- ;
(j2) Mij , Mij
;
(j3) ij Mij Pij ;

1.

107

(j4) ij Int Mij Uij ;


(j5) ij (Mij ) = Pij .
j = 0 , Pi0 =
0m , Pi0 (m 1)- .
, j {0, 1, . . . , t 1} , j + 1
((j+1)1) ((j+1)5).
m
j+1
K m (Pi ).
m
K (Pi ) 4.2
m
4.2.1. j+1
1
m1
(
, P ) m1
R. , [ m1 : K m (P )] =
2.
Pij m1 .
(j5) m1 Mij , ij m1 .
, m1 R
K m (Pi ) sm , 0 6
s < j + 1. m1 m- .
s 6 j, sm K m (Pij ). m
s
m.
Mij , ij (m
)
=

s
s
, 0 m1 Mij , 0 m1 6= m1 ij (0 m1 ) = m1 . (j2) 0 m K m (Mij ). (j3) ij (0 m ) m- Pij . , ij (0 m ) = sm0 ,
s0 6 j < j + 1. m1 sm0 . (j4)
ij m- Mij
m- Pij . s0 6= s,
sm .
, m1 K m1 (Mij ),
ij (m1 ) = m1 . (j3)
0ij : m1 m1 .
Pij+1 K m1 (Pi ) R , m P , (m 1)- , m1 ,
j+1
i
R
.
, Pij (m 1)-
R, m1 , -

108

6.

. 4.2.2 ( Pij+1 m-,


m ). Pij j+1
K m1 (Pi ). , m1 4.2 K m1 (Pi )
(m 1)- Pij .
m1 4.2.1 m1 R Pij+1 . R , ,
Pij+1 (m 1)-
m .
j+1
,
m
Pij+1 = (Pij j+1
) \ m1 .

(6.1)

m
Pij+1 = Pij j+1
.

(6.2)


(6.1) (6.2) ,
Uij+1 = Uij Int m1 Int m .

(6.3)

m =
m1 = [u0 u1 . . . um1 ], m1 = [v0 v1 . . . vm1 ] j+1
[v0 v1 . . . vm1 vm ]. A
GL(m, R),
m1
m1
X
X m1
X
ij (
t u ) =
(
a t )v .
(6.4)
=0 =0

=0

Rm um ,
m = [u0 u1 . . . um1 um ], Mij
m = m1 , Mij+1 = Mij m
. ((j+1)1) ((j+1)2) Mij+1
Mij+1 .
m ,
: m j+1
(

m
X

=0

t u ) =

m1
X m1
X

a t )v + tm vm .

(6.5)

=0 =0

, , .

(
ij (u) u Mij ,
ij+1 (u) =
(6.6)
(u) u m .

1.

109

(6.4) (6.5) (u) = ij (u) u m1 = Mij m . (6.6) ij+1 : Mij+1


m
Pij+1 . ij : Mij Pij : m j+1
(6.2) ,
ij+1 (Mij+1 ) = Pij+1 .

(6.7)

, (j3) (6.5) (6.6) ij+1 Mij+1


Pij+1 , ((j+1)3).
Mij+1 :
Int Mij+1 = Int Mij Int m1 Int m .

(6.8)

m ,
ij+1 Int Mij Uij , m j+1
(6.3) (6.8) 1ij+1 : Int Mij+1 Uij+1 ij+1
.
(6.7) 1ij+1 Pij+1 ij+1 (Mij+1 ).
m1
K m1 (Mij+1 ) m1 =

ij+1 (m1
). , (6.8) m1
6= m1 .

m1

Mij , (6.1),
m1 ) = {m1 } (j5)
1
(
ij

m1 K m1 (Pij ) \ { m1 } K m1 (Pij+1 ).
m ,
m . m1 j+1
m1

m1 = (m1
) 6= (m1 ) = m1

m .
: m j+1
, m1 Pij+1 .
(6.7) (6.1) Int m1 Uij . , m1 m1
. 4.2.1. , m1
m- P Pij .
m P , .
j+1
ij
, ,
, m1
m m1 K m1 (Pij+1 ).

, , ij+1
Mij+1 Pij+1 . ,

110

6.

ij+1 (Mij+1 ) Pij+1 ,


((j+1)5).
, 1ij+1 : Int Mij+1
Uij+1 . , , , .
6.1. B Rp , A B
{an } A, a B.
. v Rp r > 0 Dp (v, r) = {x Rp | |x v| < r}
Dp (v, r) r v.
A B v11 , . . . , v1q1 Rp , A Dp (v11 , 1) Dp (v1q1 , 1).
A , k1 {1, . . . , q1 }
Dp (v1k1 , 1) A1 A.
- a1 A1 .
A1
Dp (v21 , 1/2) Dp (v2q2 , 1/2), v21 , . . . , v2q2
Rp . A2 A1
Dp (v2k2 , 1/2). a2 A2 .
,
{an } A, m an
n > m 1/n. ,
{an } . , a Rp . {an } B, B
, a B.
6.2. X Rp , U X, Y Rq , f : X Y , :
f (X) = Y ;
f (U ) f (X \ U ) = ;
f |U : U Y .
V = f (U ) f |U : U V .

1.

111

. f |U :
U V . g : V U , f |U .
y V , x = g(y) , g y. > 0,
n yn V Dq (y, 1/n),
|g(yn ) x| > .
(6.9)
{g(yn )}
, y {yn }
y, (6.9) g.
6.1 , {g(yn )} {xn }, x0 X. (6.9)
x0 6= x. f : X Y {f (xn )} y 0 = f (x0 ).
x0 U , y 0 6= y f |U : U V .
x0 X \ U y 0 = f (x0 )
/ V y 0 6= y.
, {f (xn )} {yn }, y. ,
, g : V U y.
, X = Mij+1 , Y = Pij ,
U = Int Mij+1 f = ij+1 . , f (U ) = V = Uij+1
f : X Y 6.2.
, 1ij+1 : Int Mij+1
Uij+1 .
, (j1) (j5) j = 0, 1, . . . , t.
, j = t. Pit = Pi , Pit = Pi Int Pit = Int Pi . Mi = Mit i = it . Mi = Mit ,
Int Mi = Int Mit (t1) (t5).
K k (Q) = {1k , . . . , lkk } k- Q P , k = 0, 1, . . . , m 1. eki = Int ik k
{0, 1, . . . , m 1} i Jk = {1, . . . , lk }, em
i = Ui i Jm =
{1, . . . , l}.
m [
[
P =
epi
(6.10)
p=0 iJp

112

6.
0

epi epi0 = p, p0 {0, 1, . . . , m}, i Jp i0 Jp0 .


6.1 i Jm m Mi m
i : Mi P ,
Int Mi em
=
Ui ,
i
Mi Q.
Q=

m1
[

eni .

(6.11)

n=0 iJn
m
1.2 , em
i m- , i
.
eki k {0, 1, . . . , m 1} i Jk ( 1.2).
m- em
i Pi P i = 1, . . . , l, (6.10) ,
.

6.1. 6.1 (6.10) -


P . Q (m 1)- .
6.1. , (6.10)
-
P =

m [
[

pj

(6.12)

p=0 jJp

P . j Jm
i Jm = {1, . . . , l}, m
m
m
m
j Pi = e
i ,
j e
i
m
m
j ei .

. 6.1
.
r
6.3. m = m
j r- P ,
r
0 6 r 6 m 1, Int m .

S( r ) m- P , r , ;
r = m 1 S( r ) P m-.

1.

113

. S1
S( r ) S10 m-
S( r ), S1 . , S10 6= .
S1 S10 P s, r 6 s 6
m 2.
s- s S1 S10 v. S( s ) m- P , s . r s , Int s m S( s ) S( r ).
: Dm P m .
0 , W0 = {w
P | |w v| < 0 } S( s ). U0 = 1 (W0 ), g = (|U0 )1
u = g(v).
U0 Rm , > 0, U Rm
u U0 . g : W0 U0
, : 0 < < 0 g(W ) U ,
W = {w P | |w v| < }. ,

g
W \ {v} U \ {u}

m
y
y
g

W0 \ {v} U0 \ {u},
m . n = 0, 1, . . . , m
g

Hn (W \ {v}) Hn (U \ {u})

m
y
y

(6.13)

Hn (W0 \ {v}) Hn (U0 \ {u}).


, g : W0 \ {v}
U0 \ {u} , g . , W \ {v} s.

g (Hs (W \ {v}))
= Hs (W \ {v})
= Z2 ,

> 1.

(6.14)

U \ {u} (m 1)-
Hs (U \ {u}) = 0. ,
m
m
g (Hs (W \ {v})) = (0) = 0.

(6.15)

114

6.

, (6.13) n = s (6.14) (6.15) .


, , S10 = . , S( r ) P
.
r = m 1. Int m1 m S( m1 ) m- .
, S( m1 ) q m
q > 2.
v s = m1 ,
, W0 S( m1 ), W
W0 , U0 Int Dm U U0 , g : W0 U0 v =
g(u) U . (6.13).
W \ {v} q 1 m 1. ,
q1
(g )(Hm1 (W \ {v}))
= Hm1 (W \ {v})
= Z2 ,

q 1 > 2. (6.16)

, Hm1 (U \ {u})
= Z2
m
rank(m
g (Hm1 (W \ {v}))) 6 rank (Z2 ) 6 1.

(6.17)

(6.13) n = m1 (6.16) (6.17),


q > 2 . .
6.1. 6.3 , m- m , m
m m- X = {0m , 1m , . . . , pm }
(m 1)- Y = {1m1 , . . . , pm1 }, :
0m = m , pm = m ;
m m = m1 k = 1, . . . , p;
k1
k
k

Int km1 m k.
, w w m m , w0 =
1 (w), w0 = 1 (w ) x(t) = ((1 t)w0 + tw0 ) t [0, 1].
x([0, 1]) m t0 , t1 , . . . , t [0, 1] m X 0 = {0m , 1m , . . . , m },
0 = t0 < t1 < < t = 1 x([t1 t ]) m m = 1, . . . , .
m
r = 1
m
m
m
r
r < m 1, 1 S( ). 6.3

2.

115

X 0 X,
.
m
, m em
i i {1, . . . , l},
m
ei . k m
X, em
i . k 1
m
Pi = em
i , k P1 , . . . , Pl .
6.1 km1

m- P . 6.3. , m em
i . .
6.2. - P m- , (6.10).

2.

6.2. 6.1
Ci , Di , i = 1, . . . , l, Q P :
Ci , m- Pi , Di = Ci Zm1 (Q) Ci Zm (P, Q);
n < m 1 : Q P
: Hn (Q) Hn (P );
hD1 , . . . , Dl i Hm1 (Q), D1 , . . . , Dl , D : hD1 , . . . , Dl i Hm1 (Q)
: Hm1 (Q) Hm1 (P )

0 hD1 , . . . , Dl i
Hm1 (Q)
Hm1 (P ) 0.

(6.18)

. (m 1)- m1 Pi
1 ( m1 , Pi ) = {1m , . . . , qm } m-
Pi . 0 < q 6 [ m1 : K n (P )].
m1 Ci , q .
, m1 Di 4.2
. 4.2.2. , [ m1 : K n (P )] 6= 2
. 4.2.1 m1 . R,

116

6.

Di q . Pi
m1 Di ,
q .
, m1 Pi m1 Ci
m1

Di . , (m 1)-,
Pi , . ,
Ci = Di , , Di .
m1 Di ( . 4.2.2)
K m1 (Q), Di
Q. Di Zm1 (Q).
2.1 Ci Zm (P, Q). P m + 1
Ci Ci .
6.2 (6.10) P , Q
(m 1)- .

. . . Hp+1 (P, Q)
Hp (Q)
Hp (P ) Hp (P, Q) . . .

(6.19)

(P, Q).
p = n < m 1 p < p + 1 < m.
4.1 3.14 , Hp (P, Q) = Hp+1 (P, Q) = 0.
(6.19)

0 Hn (Q)
Hn (P ) 0,

.
p = m 1. 4.1 3.14
Hp (P, Q) = 0, 3.14 4.2 Hp+1 (P, Q) =
Hm (P, Q) = hC1 , . . . Cl i. , (6.19)

hC1 , . . . , Cl i
Hm1 (Q)
Hm1 (P ) 0.

(6.20)


im = hD1 , . . . Dl i.

(6.21)

0 hD1 , . . . Dl i
Hm1 (Q)
Hm1 (P ) 0,

(6.22)

3.

117

D .
ker D = 0 im D = hD1 , . . . Dl i.
(6.23)
(6.20), (6.21)
(6.23)
im = Hm1 (P ),

ker = im = im D = hD1 , . . . Dl i = im D . (6.24)

, (6.23) (6.24) (6.22).

3.

6.4. m m- , m1 m 1, D m (m 1)-
m , m1 . r : m D m .
. m = [u0 u1 . . . um ]
, m1 = [u1 . . . um ]. k {1, . . . , m} km
, u0 , u1 , . . . , uk1 , ubk , uk+1 , . . . , um ,
m1 .
ubk = (u1 + + um )/m
Pm
, u = i=0 ti ui m km , ti > tk i = 0, 1, . . . , m.
, l {1, . . . , m} l 6= k, u km lm
, tl =Ptk .
m
u = m
i=0 ti ui k
m

rk (u) =

X ti tk
mtk
u0 +
ui .
1 tk
1 tk

(6.25)

i=0

(6.25) , uk , rk (u)
km1 m , uk .
, rk (u) D m .
u km lm k, l {1, . . . , m}, k 6= l,
(tl tk )/(1 tk ) = 0 = (tk tl )/(1 tl )
rk (u) = rl (u). , r(u) = rk (u)
k = 1, . . . , m u km , r : m D m .

118

6.

m
m
u D m . D m = m
k=1 k , u Dk
k. tk u
. (6.25) , r(u) = rk (u) = u.
r .
: D m m , I = [0, 1]. h : m I m h(u, s) = (1 s)u + sr(u).
. ,
h(u, 0) = u h(u, 1) = r(u). , r
id : m m , r
.

6.2. P
K(P ). , m m- P , m1 K(P ) .
rm1 : P P 0 , P 0 K(P ), m m1 .
. r : m D m ,
. 6.4. rm1 : P P 0 , rm1 (u) =
u u P 0 rm1 (u) = r(u) u m .
, m m1 ,
0
P m D m P . r ,
u D m e r(u) = u.
, rm1 ,
.
H(u, s) = (1 s)u + srm1 , 6.4,
, idP : P P
P 0 rm1 , P 0 : P 0 P .
6.2. 6.2
rm1 : P P 0
( ) P P 0 m1 . rj : Pj Pj+1 , j = 0, 1, . . . , n 1, P0 = P , P1 , . . . , Pn , R = rn1 r1 r0
( ).
6.1. , P Q, P Q .
. , P , , Q P .

3.

119

6.2. .
:
1) K m (P ) K m1 (P ) P ;
2) m1 K m1 (P ) 1 ( m1 , P )
[ m1 : K m (P )] m- .
:
1) K m (Q) K m1 (Q) Q P ;
2) m1 K m1 (Q) 1 ( m1 , Q)
[ m1 : K m (Q)] m- Q.
.
1. Q. K m (Q) := K m (P ) K m1 (Q) := K m1 (P ).
m1 K m1 (Q) 1 (m1 , Q) = 1 (m1 , P )
[ m1 : K n (Q)] = [ m1 : K n (P )].
2. (m1)-. 0m1 K m1 (P ) R = {0m1 }.
3. . m1 R K m1 (P )
R.
4. . [ m1 : K m (Q)] . ,
7.
5. . K m1 (Q) m1 , K m (Q)
m- m 1 ( m1 , Q).
6. . m1 m , m1 , : m1 R, m 1 (m1 , Q)
[m1 : K m (Q)] , [m1 :
K m (Q)] 1.
7. . R 6=
, 3.
8. R. K m1 (P ). , 2.
.
6.3. P , K m (Q) K m1 (Q) , 6.2, Q

120

6.

K m (Q), K m1 (Q) K n (Q) = K n (P ) n, m m 1. Q P ,


:
P Q;
Q
m 1.
. Q0 = P Qk P , k- 5
6.2. , 4, , m m Qk1 , m1 .
6.2 , ri : Qk1 Qk . Q = Qp , r = rp r1
P = Q0 Q.
, Q m1 K m1 (Q). [ m1 : K m (Q)] =
1.
, K m1 (P ) 3.
R .
8 , (m 1)-
P 4.
[ m1 : K m (P )] = 1, [ m1 : K m (Q)] =
1 . 4
m1 5,
K m1 (Q). .
[ m1 : K m (P )] = k > 1, 1 ( m1 , Q),
1 ( m1 , P ), k 1 .
, k 1 , 1 ( m1 , Q) m- m .
5.
6, m1
R. R, 3, , 7 m1
4. m
K m (Q). [ m1 : K m (Q)] = 1
. 5 m1 -

3.

121

K m1 (Q). ,
.
, Q m1 (
) .

1.

7.1. P .
7.2. e K 1 (P ) P
,
() K(P ). P , .
u K 0 (P ) P 2 = [uvw] K(P ). Lk(u, 2 ) =
[vw] 2 , u.
7.3. 2 (u, P ) 2- 2
K(P ), u K 0 (P ).
[
[
St(u, P ) =
2 Lk(u, P ) =
Lk(u, 2 )
2 2 (u,P )

2 2 (u,P )

u
K(P ). st(u, P ) = St(u, P ) \ Lk(u, P ) u.
, St(u, P ) Lk(u, P ) P 2 1 , st(u, P )
u P (. 7.1).
122

1.

123

. 7.1: u.
7.4. u K 0 (P ) P , :
u P ,
St(u, P ) ,
, Lk(u, P ) .
n, r > 0 v Rn
o = (0, . . . , 0) Rn
D n (v, r) = {x Rn | |x v| < r},
n
D n = D n (o, 1) D +
= {x D n | xn > 0}.

7.5. P RN , D 2 , P
.
7.1. P Rn
, :
(e) e K 1 (P ) () P ,
(v) St(u, P ) u K 0 (P ) .

124

7.

. , P .
e K 1 (P ) , [e :
2
K (P )] e P . v e \ e. 7.5 V P v f : D 2 V .
,
V , f (o) = v, o = (0, 0) D 2 .
[e : K 2 (P )] = 0, , V e.
D 2 \ {o} , V \ {v}
(. . 7.2).

. 7.2: D 2 o , V v = f (o) .
, H0 (D 2 \ {o})
= Z2 , H0 (V \ {v})
= Z22 .
f : D 2 \ {o} V \ {v}
f : H0 (D 2 \ {o}) H0 (V \ {v}).
, [e : K 2 (P )] = 0 .
, [e : K 2 (P )] = 1
t K 2 (P ), e . , V t.
> 0, W = D n (v, ) P t.
f > 0,
f (D 2 (o, )) W (. . 7.3). ,
f
D 2 (o, ) \ {o} W \ {v}

y
y
D 2 \ {o}

V \ {v},

1.

125

2 .

t
D

V
f
W

D (0,)

v
e

. 7.3: f D 2 V , D 2 (o, ) W .

f
H1 (D 2 (o, ) \ {o}) H1 (W \ {v})

y
y

H1 (D 2 \ {o})

(7.1)

H1 (V \ {v}).

, W \{v} . H1 (W \
{v}) = 0 [] H1 (D 2 (o, ) \ {o})

f ([]) = (0) = 0.
(7.2)
, 2 : D 2 (o, ) \ {o} D 2 \ {o}
. 2 . ,
D 2 (o, ) \ {o} D 2 \ {o}
S 1 . , H1 (D 2 (o, ) \ {o})
= H1 (D 2 \ {o})
= Z2 .
2

[] H1 (D (o, ) \ {o}).
f 2 ([]) 6= 0,

(7.3)

2 : H1 (D 2 (o, ) \ {o}) H1 (D 2 \ {o}) f : H1 (D 2 \ {o})


H1 (V \ {v}) .
, (7.2) (7.3)
(7.1) ,
[e : K 2 (P )] = 1 .
, , [e : K 2 (P )] = q > 2
1
(e, P ) = {t1 , . . . , tq } e

126

7.

P . g = f 1 , V t1 tq .
0 > 0, W0 = D n (v, 0 )P
V . U0 = g(W0 ), g : W0 U0 .
U0 R2 ,
> 0, D 2 (o, ) U0 . g : V D 2 , :
0 < < 0 g(W ) D 2 (o, ), W = D n (v, ) P (. 7.4).

D (0,)
W

W0

U0

. 7.4: g(W0 ) = U0 g(W ) D 2 (o, ).


,
g
W \ {v} D 2 (o, ) \ {o}

2
y
y
g

W0 \ {v}

U0 \ {o},

, , 2 .
g
H1 (W \ {v}) H1 (D 2 (o, ) \ {o})

2
y
y
g

H1 (W0 \ {v})

(7.4)

H1 (U0 \ {o}).

, g : W0 \ {v}
U0 \ {o} , g . ,
W \ {v} q 1 .
q1
im(g )
(7.5)
= H1 (W \ {v})
= Z2 .

1.

127

H1 (D 2 (o, ) \ {o})
= Z2 . ,
rank im(2 g ) = rank 2 (im g ) 6 rank 2 (Z2 ) 6 1.

(7.6)

, q > 2 (7.4) (7.5) (7.6) . [e : K 2 (P )] > 2


.
, , e K 1 (P ) P ,
P (e). u K 0 (P ),
St(u, P ) u e0 1 (u, P ).
t0 2 (u, P ), e0 . e1 t0 ,
u,
t1 2 (u, P ).
t0 , t1 , . . . , tl 2 (u, P ), ti1 ti = ei 1 (u, P ).
, el u tl e0 .
Q = t0 t1 tl P
St(u, P ). , St(u, P ) 6= Q.
Q0 St(u, P ) 2 (u, P )
P .
{e0 , e1 , . . . , el }
Q P , Q0 P . ,
Q Q0 = {u},

Q Q0 = St(u, P ).

(7.7)

Q
D
v

Q
. 7.5: St(u, P ) = Q Q0 u.
P , U St(u, P )
u h : U D 2 , h(u) = o (. 7.5).

128

7.

h : U \ {u} D 2 \ {o} .
(7.7) U \{u} . , rank H0 (U \ {u}) > 1.
D 2 \ {o} H0 (D 2 \ {o})
= Z2 . ,
, St(u, P ) Q P . , P
(v).
, P (e) (v).
, .
t K 2 (P ) v Int t, V = Int t v.
1.2 D 2 .
, v e\e. (e)
t t0 P , e .
t t0 = e, V = (t t0 ) \ V , V
(t + t0 ), v. ,
f tt0 M
R2 , f (V ) = Int M . 1.2 g :
Int M D 2 . g f : V D 2 .
u K 0 (P ). (e)
, ,
t0 , t1 , . . . , tl 2 (u, P )
e0 = [uv0 ], e1 = [uv1 ], . . . , el = [uvl ] 1 (u, P ),
ti ti+1 = ei i = 0, 1, . . . , l 1 tl t0 = e0 . , ei 6= ej i, j {0, 1, . . . , l}. ,
ei K 2 (P ) \ {t0 , t1 , . . . , tl }.
(v) , Q = t0 t1 tl
St(u, P ).
0 , 1 , . . . , l t0 , t1 , . . . , tl
u, = 0 + 1 + + l . 0 = 0
i =

2(0 + 1 + + i1 )

i = 1, . . . , l + 1.
Li R2 , o = (0, 0)
i R0 R2 ,
i = 0, 1, . . . , l. ,
, .
S 1 = {x R2 | |x| = 1}, wi = Li S 1 , 2i = [owi wi+1 ] i =

1.

129

0, 1, . . . , l1 2l = [owl w0 ]. l+1 = 2, M = 20 21 2l
, S 1 .
i fi : ti
2
i , : fi (u) = o, fi (vi ) = wi fi (vi+1 ) = wi+1 .
fi fi+1 ei+1 = ti
ti+1 , fl f0 e0 = tl t0 ,
f (v) = fi (v) v ti , f :
Q M (. 7.6). , g(w) = fi1 (w)
i w 2i , g : M Q,
f . , f : Q M .
1.2 , st(u, P ) = Int Q
D 2 .

v2

t1
e1

e2
t2

e3
v3

t4

e4
t3

v4

v0

u1

u2

t2
e0

L1

L2

v1
f

L0
u0

L 3 u3
u4
L4

. 7.6: u M .
7.6. P RN ,
2,
, D 2 D +
.
7.2. P Rn
, :
(e) e K 1 (P )
() P ,
(v) St(u, P ) u K 0 (P ) .
7.1 .

130

7.

7.1. P 2- ( ) ,
.
7.7. e K 1 (P ) P , K(P ), .
P P .
7.1. P P .
, P P ,
u K 0 (P )
K(P ).

2.

7.1. X Rp , Y Rq , f : X Y
y0 Y . R R, > 0, y Y Dq (y0 , ) x f 1 (y),
x0 f 1 (y0 ) |x x0 | < .
. . >
0, n yn
Y Dq (y0 , 1/n) xn f 1 (yn ), :
|xn x| > x f 1 (y0 ).
(7.8)
{xn } , {yn }. y0 .
yn = y0 n, n0 . xn f 1 (y0 )
n (7.8) .
, {xn } X.
6.1 {zn } {xn },
z X. (7.8) z
/ f 1 (y0 ) f (z) 6= y0 .
, f : X Y
{f (zn )} f (z).
{f (zn )} {yn }, {yn } y0 , f (z) = y0 .
, .

2.

131

7.8. m , m > 3, M m-, M R2 .


K 0 (M ) K 1 (M ). K 0 (M ) = {v1 , . . . , vm }
K 1 (M ) = {[v1 v2 ], . . . , [vm v1 ]}), M = [v1 . . . vm ].
, M = [v1 . . . vm ] v1 , [v1 v3 ], . . . , [v1 vm1 ].
7.9. 2- P
M1 , . . . , Mn . M = M1 Mn K l (M ) = K l (M1 ) K l (Mn ), l = 0, 1.
Int M = Int M1 Int Mn M = M1 Mn . ,
: M P :
(Int M ) (M ) = ;
|Int M : Int M P ;
a K 1 (M ) |Int a : Int a P
;
a K 1 (M )
a0 K 1 (M ) a : a a0 , |a0 a = a .
(M, ) P .
a a0 (: a
a0 ), a : a a0 .
(M, ) P , " ". K 1 (M ) , {a, a0 },
,
a : a a0 . , K 0 (M ).
7.10. (M, ) P .
v K 0 (M ) v 0 K 0 (M ) ,
w0 , w1 , . . . , wk K 0 (M )
a1 , a01 , . . . , ak , a0k K 1 (M ), :
ai a0i i = 1, . . . , k;

132

7.

v = w0 a1 , wi = ai (wi1 ) a0i ai+1 i = 1, . . . , k 1


v 0 = wk = ak (wk1 ).
(M, )
P , M = M1 Mn M1 = [v1 . . . vm ]. k {2, . . . , m 1}, k- M11 = [v11 . . . vk1 ] 2
(m k + 2)- M12 = [v12 . . . vmk+2
]. ,
1
2
M1 , M1 M1 v1 , v11
v12 .
f : M11 M12 M1 , f (vi1 ) = vi
i = 1, . . . , k, f (v12 ) = v1 f (vj2 ) = vj+k2 j = 2, . . . , m k + 2. M = M11 M12 Mn : M P ,
(u) = (u) u M2 Mn (u) = (f (u))
u M11 M12 . (M , ) P (. 7.7).
v 12

v2
v 11

v3

v1

v 13

2
1

M1

M1

M1
v4

v5

v 14

2
3

2
2

. 7.7: P .
7.11. , (M , ) (M, )
[v1 vk ] M1 .
, (M, ) P , M =
M1 Mn , a K 1 (M1 )

2.

133

a0 K 1 (M2 ). M1 =
[v11 . . . vp1 ] M2 = [v12 . . . vq2 ] ,
a = [v11 vp1 ],

a0 = [v12 v22 ],

a (v11 ) = v12 ,

a (vp1 ) = v22 .

(7.9)

m = p + q 2 m- M0 =
[v1 . . . vm ]. , M1 , M2 M0 v11 , v12 v1 . f : M1 M2 M0

f (v12 )

= v1

f (vi1 ) = vi

i = 1, . . . , p,

f (vj2 )

j = 2, . . . , q.

= vj+p2

(7.10)

M = M0 M3 Mn , (u) = (u) u M3 Mn
(u) = (f 1 (u)) u M0 . 7.9 7.10 : M P . 7.1 .
f , (M , )
P (. 7.8).
v 14
v

1
3

v4

v 22
M2

a a

v5

v3

v 23
f

a
M0

M1
v 11
v 12

v1

v 21
v2

. 7.8: P .
7.12. (M , )
P (M, )
{a, a0 }.

134

7.

(M, ) P ,
M = M1 Mn , M1 = [v1 . . . vp ], M2 = [v10 . . . vq0 ],
a = [v1 v2 ],

a0 = [v10 v20 ],

b = [v2 v3 ],

a (v1 ) = v10 ,

b0 = [v20 v30 ],

a (v2 ) = b (v2 ) = v20 ,

b (v3 ) = v30 .

, M1 M2 v2 v20 . (p 1)- M1 =
[u1 . . . up1 ] (q 1)- M2 = [u01 . . . u0q1 ],
w w0 c = [u1 u2 ] c0 = [u01 u02 ]. M1 M2 , w w0 u3 , . . . , up1
u03 , . . . , u0q1 . M = M1 M2 M3 Mn
f : M M ,
:
f (u1 ) = v1 ,
f (u01 )

v10 ,

f (w)

= v2 ,

v20 ,

f (w ) =

f (ui ) = vi+1

i = 2, . . . , p,

f (u0j )

j = 2, . . . , q,

0
vj+1

u M3 Mn .

f (u) = u

(M , ), = f , P . (. 7.9).
v2
v1

v3

M1

v1

v4

v5

v2

M2

v4

u2

u1

u1

v3

u2

M2

M1

f
u4

u3
u3

. 7.9: P .

2.

135

7.13. (M , ) P
(M, ) a b.
, a b
{a, a0 } {b, b0 }
{c, c0 }. .
7.2. (M, ), . .
7.14. (M, )
M = M1 . ,
(M, ) .
M . M , a : a a0 . a K 1 (M ) , ( ) , 1 (
) a
M 1 .
:
, a a0 ,
;
a b M ,
.
, M ,
, M ,
s, (M, ).
7.14 ,

.
.
7.15. (M, )
, )
(M
2- P P . s s , s s M (
7.14), .

136

7.

a
c

. 7.10: s = ab1 acc1 b1 .


7.3. s s (M, )
, )
(M
2- P P , P P .
. -, (M, )
, )
(M
, M M
. = M . -, s = s
, M
u P u
P 1 (u)
1 (
u)
, . , f (u) =
(
1 (u)) f(
u) = (
1 (
u)) f :

P P f : P P . f = f 1 .
P ,
U
1
) M
W =
(U

: M P . , W
: M P . 7.1
U = (V ) P . U =
). f : P P .
f 1 (U

f : P P .
7.16. , (M, ) 2- P , s
:
abb1 a1 ;
abab;
1
1 1
a1 b1 a1
1 b1 . . . ap bp ap bp , p > 1;

c1 c1 . . . cq cq , q > 2.

2.

137

7.1. P
.
. 6.1 P (M, ). .
1. , M 4-.
,
(M, ) :
abb1 a1 ,

abab,

aba1 b1 ,

aabb,

abba1 ,

aba1 b.

s (M, ) , (M, ) .
, s = abba1 M = [v1 v2 v3 v4 ]. a = [v1 v2 ], b = [v2 v3 ], a0 = [v1 v4 ] b0 = [v3 v4 ]. a a0
b b0 . (M, )
x = [v1 v3 ]. ( ) {b, b0 }.
(M1 , 1 ) xa1 xa1 . y = a1 , xyxy,
7.16. , (M1 , 1 )
.
s = aba1 b M = [v1 v2 v3 v4 ], a = [v1 v2 ], b = [v2 v3 ], a0 = [v4 v3 ],
0
b = [v4 v1 ], a a0 b b0 . x = [v1 v3 ] {b, b0 }, (M1 , 1 ) P , xxa1 a1 .
y = a1 xxyy. ,
, (M1 , 1 ) .
2. r M
. , P (M2 , 2 ), M2 4-, s2 aa1 .
r > 4 s (M, ) aa1 , M ,
M = [v1 v2 v3 . . . vk . . . vr ], a = [v1 v2 ], a0 = [v3 v2 ], a a0 3 < k < r.
(M, ) x = [v2 vk ] , , a x. (M , ),
{a, a0 } {x, x0 } {y, y 0 }. (M , ) {y, y 0 }
(M , ), s s
aa1 . M

138

7.

r = r 2 . r > 4 s ,
. r < ,
(M2 , 2 ) .
3. , M2 r2 - r2 > 4. ,
(M3 , 3 ) P ,
M3 4-, K 0 (M3 )
.
C K 0 (M2 ) , C 6=
0
K (M2 ). M2 , C, . M2 = [v1 v2 v3 . . . vr2 ], v1 C v2
/ C. a = [v1 v2 ].
0
0
a 6= [v2 v3 ] a 6= [v3 v2 ]. , a0 = [v2 v3 ],
a (v1 ) = v2 , a : a a0 ,
v2 C . a0 = [v3 v2 ] s2 aa1 ,
(M2 , 2 ) .
(M2 , 2 )
x = [v1 v3 ] {b, b0 }, b = [v2 v3 ].
.
aa1 , .
(M2 , 2 ), C v1
card(K 0 (M2 ) \ C ) = card(K 0 (M2 ) \ C) 1. M2 r2 .
,
(M3 , 3 ) .
4. M3 r3 -, r3 > 4 s3 , . , s3 = as0 as00 , s0 6=
s00 6= . M3 , M3 =
[v1 v2 . . . vk vk+1 . . . vr3 ], a = [v1 v2 ] a0 = [vk vk+1 ]. 2 < k < r3 .
(M3 , 3 ) x = [v2 vk+1 ].
{a, a0 }. (M3 , 3 ),
a, xx.
, K 0 (M3 ) M3 (M3 , 3 ).
, cc1 s3 -

2.

139

. , s3
bb, , b1 b1 , .

(M4 , 4 ) P , . M4 r4 = r3 , (M4 , 4 ). s4
, (M4 , 4 )
.
5. , s4 a a1 .
,
s4 = as0 a1 s00 , s0 6= s00 6= .
b s0 b b1 s0 ,
s0 M4
, s00 . b s0 b s00 ,
b1 s00 . (M4 , 4 ) s4
. , .
,
M4 = [v1 v2 . . . vi vi+1 . . . vj vj+1 . . . vk vk+1 . . . vr4 ],
a = [v1 v2 ], a0 = [vj+1 vj ], b = [vi vi+1 ] b0 = [vk+1 vk ], 1 < i < j < k <
r4 . , a, b, a1 b1 s .
, 2 < i, i + 1 < j, j + 1 < k k + 1 < r4 .
y = [v2 vj ],
{b, b0 },
(M4 , 4 ) (M4 , 4 ),
M4 = [u1 u2 u3 u4 . . . ul ul+1 . . . ur4 ],
a = [u1 u2 ], u0 = [u4 u3 ], y = [u2 u3 ] y 0 = [ul+1 ul ].
x = [ul u3 ],
{a, a0 }.
(M4 ,
4 ) P s4 ,
1
1
a, a , b b , xyx1 y 1 .
, M4 r4 -. , s4 cc cdc1 d1 ,

s
4 . , M4

(M4 , 4 ).

140

7.


(M5 , 5 ),
cc cdc1 d1 .
, (M5 , 5 ) .
6. , s5 cc, aba1 b1 . M5 , M5 = [v1 . . . vr5 ], c = [v1 v2 ], c0 = [v2 v3 ], a = [vi vi+1 ],
a0 = [vi+3 vi+2 ], b = [vi+1 vi+2 ] b0 = [vi+4 vi+3 ].
d = [v2 vi+2 ]
{c, c0 }
(M5 , 5 ), M5 = [v1 . . . vr5 ], a0 = [v2 v3 ], a =
], b0 = [v v ], b = [v v ], d0 = [v v ] d = [v v ].
[vj vj+1
1 2
4 3
j+1 j+2
j+3 j+2
v]
x = [vj+2
2
0
{b, b }. (N, ). N , N = [w1 . . . wr5 ], a0 = [w4 w5 ], a = [wk wk+1 ], d = [w1 w2 ],
d0 = [w6 w5 ], x = [w2 w3 ] x0 = [w3 w4 ].
y =
[w4 wk ] {a, a0 }, (N, )
(N , ). d = [w1 w2 ], d0 =
], x = [w w ], x0 = [w w ], y = [w w ] y 0 = [w w ].
[wl wl+1
2 3
3 4
4 5
5 6
, (N , )
w ]
z = [wl+1
2
0

{d, d }. s (N , )
a, a1 , b, b1 c,
zzxxyy. ee ghg 1 h1
s5 , s .
, N r5 - (N , ).
, (M6 , 6 ), aba1 b1
s5 ,
. , (M6 , 6 )
.
7.1. P ,
6.1 (M, ), M ,
K(P )
P . , . -

2.

141

,
, K(M ). P
(M, ) , M , : M P .
7.17. P
P ,
M1 , . . . , Mn M = M1 Mn . , : M P :
(Int M ) (M ) = ;
|Int M : Int M P ;
a K 1 (M ) |Int a : Int a P
;
K 1 (M ) = K11 (M ) K21 (M ), a K21 (M ) a0 K21 (M )
a : a a0 , |a0 a = a ,
d K11 (M ) c K 1 (M ) (Int d) (Int c)
.
(M, ) P , a a0 (: a a0 ),
a : a a0 .
, ,
,
.
7.18. , (M, ) 2 , s :
ada1 ;
aba1 b1 d;
aad;
1
1
1
1 1
a1 b1 a1
1 b1 . . . ap bp ap bp c1 d1 c1 . . . ck dk ck , p > 1, k > 1;

142

7.
1
a1 a1 . . . aq aq c1 d1 c1
1 . . . cl dl cl , q > 2, l > 1.

7.2.
.
7.1.

3.

Q = {(x, y) R2 | 0 6 |x| 6 1, 0 6 |y| 6 1}.

(1/3, 2/3) (2/3, 1/3)


Q, .
R3
v0 = (0, 0, 0),

v1 = (1, 0, 0),

v2 = (0, 1, 0),

v = (0, 0, 1)

0 = [v1 v2 v ],

1 = [v0 v2 v ],

2 = [v0 v1 v ].

S0
i , i = 0, 1, 2. S0 , .
: Q S0 ,
((0, 0)) = v ,

((1, 1)) = v+ ,

((2/3, 1/3)) = v1 ,

((1/3, 2/3)) = v2

((0, 1)) = ((1, 0)) = v0 .

a = [(0, 0)(0, 1)],

b = [(0, 1)(1, 1)],

a0 = [(0, 0)(1, 0)],

b0 = [(1, 0)(1, 1)].

(Q, ) 2- S0
abb1 a1 .
Q1 = {(x, y) M | y 6 1 x}. S1 = (M1 )

i , i = 0, 1, 2. ,
, .
1 = |Q1 d = [(0, 1)(1, 0)], (Q1 , 1 ) S1 ada1 .

3. 2-

143

T 2 , {(0, y, z) R3 | (y 2)2 + z 2 = 1} oz = (0, 0) R. : Q T 2


(, ) = ((2 + cos 2) cos 2, (2 + cos 2) sin 2, sin 2).
a b , a0 b0
[(0, 1)(1, 1)] [(0, 0)(1, 0)] . (Q, ) T 2 aba1 b1 .
Q
0 = [(0, 0)(1/3, 2/3)(2/3, 1/3)],
Q0 Q. R = (Q0 )
, ,
.
,
.
N R2 (0, 0), (0, 1),
(1/2, 2), (1, 1) (1, 0). ,
(1/3, 0) (0, 1) (1/2, 2), (2/3, 0)
(1/2, 2) (1, 1). : N Q0 ,
(0, 1) = (0, 1),

(1/2, 2) = (1, 1),

(1/3, 0) = (1/3, 2/3),

(1, 1) = (1, 0),

(2/3, 0) = (2/3, 1/3),

(0, 0) = (1, 0) = (0, 0).

a = [(0, 0)(0, 1)],


0

b = [(0, 1)(1/2, 2)],

a = [(1, 1)(1/2, 2)],

b0 = [(1, 0)(1, 1)],

d = [(1, 0)(0, 0)]

= . (N, ) R aba1 b1 d.

D2 = {(r cos , r sin )| r [0, 1], [0, 2]}.

(r cos , r sin ) = (cos (r 1/2) cos , cos (r 1/2) sin , sin (r 1/2))
: D2 S 2 , S 1 = D2 (0, 0, 1) S 2 = {(x, y, z) R3 | x2 +y 2 +z 2 = 1}.

144

7.

Mp S 1 p-, p > 2,
Sp = (Mp ) , ,
, p .
7.1 , S 0 , : Mp S 0
, |Mp \S 1 : Mp \ S 1 S 0
(Mp S 1 ) , S 0 Sp .
M = [v0 v1 . . . v4p1 ] 4p-, p > 1, (M, )
1
1 1
a1 b1 a1
1 b1 . . . ap bp ap bp 2- P . di = [v4(i1) v4i ], i =
1, . . . , p 1, dp = [v4(p1) v0 ]. p-
d1 , . . . , dp Mp , ai , bi , a0i , b0i
di Ni , i = 1, . . . , p.
Ri = (Ni ) Ri = (di ). p > 2 Sp = (Mp )
p , Ri . P p .
p = 2, M
N1 N2 d = d1 = d2 . P
R1 = (N1 ) R2 = (N2 ), R1 =
(d) = R2 . .
7.3. ,
.
7.4. , 2-, 1
1
1
1 1
a1 b1 a1
1 b1 . . . ap bp ap bp c1 d1 c1 . . . ck dk ck , p > 1, k > 1,
p k .

Q = {(x, y) R2 | 0 6 |x| 6 1, 0 6 |y| 6 1}.

b = [(0, 0)(0, 1)],

b0 = [(1, 1)(1, 0)],

d1 = [(1, 1)(0, 1)],

d2 = [(1, 0)(0, 0)]

b : b b0 b ((0, y)) = (1, 1


y). b b0 Q b ,
u b b (u) b0 , L,
( ) .
(Q, ) bd1 bd2 .
(Q, ) a = [(0, 0)(1, 1)] {b, b0 },
aad1 d2 .

4. 2-

145

d1 d2 aad. , 2- L0 , (, 0 ) aad,
. L0 = (d).
2q- M = [v0 v1 . . . v2q1 ], p > 1, (M, ) 2- P ,
a1 a1 . . . aq aq . dj = [v2(j1) v2j ] j = 1, . . . , q 1
dq = [v2(p1) v0 ]. q- d1 , . . . , dq Mq , aj , a0j dj j ,
j = 1, . . . , q. Lj = (j ) Lj = (dj ).
q > 2, Sq = (Mq ) q ,
Lj .
P q .
7.5. , 2-, abab aabb,
. , , .
7.6. , 2-, 1
a1 a1 . . . aq aq c1 d1 c1
1 . . . ck dk ck , q > 1, k > 1,
q k .
( ) .
7.3. , p , q
; p, q > 1.
7.4. k , p k ,
q k ; p, q, k > 1.

4.

7.5. P .

P S 2 ,
H0 (P )
= Z2 ,

H1 (P ) = 0,

H2 (P )
= Z2 ;

P p , p > 1,
H0 (P )
= Z2 ,

2p
H1 (P )
= Z2 ,

H2 (P )
= Z2 ;

146

7.

P q , q > 1,
H0 (P )
= Z2 ,

q
H1 (P )
= Z2 ,

H2 (P )
= Z2 .

. (M, )
P . P ,
e2 = (Int M ) 2, (a) a K 1 (M ) , (v) v K 0 (M ) .
0cw = 0 , 3cw = 0
,
ker 0cw = C0cw (P ) im 3cw = 0.
(7.11)
7.9 CW- (P, K(P ))
4.4.

M , 4.4 [e2 :
e1 ] = 0 e1 K 1 (P ). , 2cw = 0

ker 2cw = C2cw (P ) = he2 i im 2cw = 0.


(7.12)
(7.11) (7.12) , H2 (P ) = C cw (P ) = he2 i
=
2

Z2 2- P .
1
1 1
(M, ) a1 b1 a1
1 b1 . . . ap bp ap bp ,
0
p > 1, c1 c1 . . . cq cq , q > 2, K P e0 . a M
(a) = e0 . 4.2 ,
[e1 : e0 ] = 0 e1 K 1 (P ). ,
1cw = 0.
ker 1cw = C1cw (P )

im 1cw = 0.

(7.13)

P p , p > 1.
1
1 1
(M, ) a1 b1 a1
1 b1 . . . ap bp ap bp .
2p
C1cw (P ) = ha1 b1 . . . ap bp i
= Z2 .

(7.14)

(7.11), (7.13) (7.14) H0 (P ) = C0cw (P ) = he0 i


= Z2
2p
H1 (P ) = C1cw (P )
= Z2 .
P q , q > 2, (M, )
c1 c1 . . . cq cq .
(7.11) (7.13)
q
C1cw (P ) = hc1 . . . cq i
= Z2 .

(7.15)

4. 2-

147

H0 (P ) , ,
q
(7.15) H1 (P ) = C1cw (P )
= Z2 .
, P S 2 . (M, )
1
abb a1 . , M = [v1 v2 v3 v4 ], a = [v1 v2 ], b =
[v2 v3 ], a0 = [v1 v4 ] b0 = [v4 v3 ]. e01 = (v1 ), e02 = (v2 ) = (v4 ),
e03 = (v3 ), e11 = (a) = (a0 ) e12 = (b) = (b0 ).
4.2 [e11 : e01 ] = [e11 : e02 ] = [e12 : e02 ] = [e12 : e03 ] = 1, [e11 :
0
e3 ] = [e12 : e01 ] = 0. , 1cw (e11 ) = e01 + e02 1cw (e12 ) = e02 + e03 .

ker 1cw = 0

im 1cw = he01 + e02 , e02 + e03 i = he01 , e03 i.

H1 (P ) = 0 H0 (P ) = he01 , e02 , e03 i/he01 , e03 i


= Z2 .
, , P , . (M, )
abab. M = [v1 v2 v3 v4 ], a = [v1 v2 ], b = [v2 v3 ],
a0 = [v3 v4 ] b0 = [v4 v1 ]. e01 = (v1 ) = (v3 ), e02 = (v2 ) = (v4 ),
e11 = (a) = (a0 ) e12 = (b) = (b0 ). [e1i : e0j ] = 1
i, j = 1, 2. , 1cw (e11 ) = 1cw (e12 ) = e01 + e02 .
ker 1cw = he11 + e12 i
= Z2

im 1cw = he01 + e02 i.


H1 (P )
= Z2

H0 (P ) = he01 , e02 i/he01 + e02 i


= Z2 .

7.2. , 7.5 H0 (P )
. P , H0 (P )
=
Z2 3.2. P .
7.6. P .
H0 (P )
= Z2 , H2 (P )
= Z2 ;
H1 (P ) = 0 P D2 ;
H1 (P )
= Zk1
2 , P k , k > 2;

148

7.
2p+k1
H1 (P )
, P p
= Z2
k , p, k > 1;
q+k1
H1 (P )
, P q
= Z2
k , q, k > 1.


7.5 . .


1.

m- P .
k- k , 0 6 k 6 m,
m- m . ,

k = [v0 v1 . . . vk ] m = [v0 v1 . . . vk vk+1 . . . vm ].

(8.1)

(m k 1)- Lk( k , m ) = [vk+1 . . . vm ]


m , k .
8.1. D1 ( k , P ) m- m
K(P ), k .
[
[
St( k , P ) =
m Lk( k , P ) =
Lk( k , m )
m D1 ( k ,P )

m D1 ( k ,P )

k
K(P ).
, St( k , P ) Lk( k , P )
P m m k 1.
8.2. k- k K(P )
Lk( k , P ) () m k, P .
149

150

8.

8.1. , P 7.1 8.2 7.5 .


, Smk , m k .
Smk .
k m , (8.1).
: {k + 1, . . . , m} {k + 1, . . . , m}
v0 + v1 + + vk
,
1+k

(8.2)

v0 + v1 + . . . vk + v(k+1) + + v(i)
1+i

(8.3)

uk =
ui =

i = k + 1, . . . , m,
bst ( k , m ) = [uk uk+1 . . . um ]

blk ( k , m ) = [uk+1 . . . um ]. (8.4)

(m k)- bst ( k , m ) K 0 (P ) K(P ) (m k 1)-


blk ( k , m ).
8.3.
cbst( k , P ) = {bst ( k , m )| Smk , m D1 ( k , P )},

(8.5)

cblk( k , P ) = {blk ( k , m )| Smk , m D1 ( k , P )},

(8.6)

Smk {k + 1, . . . , m}.
cbst( k , P ) Cmk (P ) bst( k , P ) k
P . cblk( k , P ) Cmk1 (P )
bst( k , P )
k .
8.1. blk( k , P ) K 0 (Lk( k , P )) K(Lk( k , P ))
.
. (U, BL) blk( k , P ).
U=

[
m D1 ( k ,P )

Um ,

1.

151

Um = {ui | Smk , i = k + 1, . . . , m},


k m (8.1), ui (8.3). BL
{ui0 , . . . , uip } V , {i0 , . . . , ip } {k + 1, . . . , m}.
K 0 (Lk( k , P ))
wi =

v(k+1) + + v(i)
ik+1

(8.7)

mk = [vk+1 . . . vm ] m = [v0 . . . vm ] D1 ( k , P ),
Smk .
Wm = {wi | Smk , i = k + 1, . . . , m},
W =

W m .

m D1 ( k ,P )

p- p K 0 (Lk( k , P )) wi0 , . . . , wip , {i0 , . . . , ip } {k+1, . . . , m}.


{wi0 , . . . , wip } W L. (W, L)
K 0 (Lk( k , P )).
f : V W g : W V , f (ui ) =

wi g(wi ) = ui m D1 ( k , P ), Smk i {k +
1, . . . , m}.
,
m = [v0 . . . vk vk+1 . . . vm ], : {k + 1, . . . , m} {k + 1, . . . , m} j {k + 1, . . . , m}
ui
u
j =

v0 + + vk + v(k+1) + + v(j)
j+1

. j = i
v(k+1) + + v(j) = v(k+1) + + v(i) .
f (
uj ) = wj = wi = f (ui ) f : V W .
g :
W V.
(8.3) (8.7) g f = idV f g = idW . , f
.

152

8.

,
f ({ui0 , . . . , uip }) = {wi0 , . . . , wip } L
{ui0 , . . . , uip } BL
g({wi0 , . . . , wip }) = {ui0 , . . . , uip } BL
{wi0 , . . . , wip } L.
8.2. m-
P k- k
(cbst( k , P )) = cblk( k , P ).

(8.8)

. (8.4) (8.6)
(cbst( k , P )) = blk( k , P ) + ck+1 + + cm ,

(8.9)

j = k + 1, . . . , m
cj =

( m , , j),

m D 1 ( k ,P ),
Smk

m (8.1), ( m , , j) = [uk uk+1 . . . uj1 uj+1 . . . um ],


uk , uk+1 , . . . , um (8.2) (8.3).
, cj = 0 j = k + 1, . . . , m.
j < m. fj : cj cj fj ( ( m , , j)) = ( m , , j), = j , j (i) = i i,
j j + 1, j (j) = j + 1 j (j + 1) = j. j j = id,
fj fj = id .

(8.10)

(8.2) (8.3) ui = ui i 6= j. ( m , , j) = ( m , , j).


(8.10) , cj
.
bst( k , P ) blk( k , P ) uk , 8.1,

h([uk uk+1 . . . um ]) = [wk+1


. . . wm
]

m = [v0 v1 . . . vk vk+1 . . . vm ] D1 ( k , P )
: {k+1, . . . , m} {k+1, . . . , m},
cbst( k , P ) , (m k 1)-
K 0 (Lk( k , P )).

1.

153


m D1 ( k , P ) :
{k+1, . . . , m} {k+1, . . . , m}.
m = [v0 v1 . . . vk vk+1 . . . vm ], mk = [uk uk+1 . . . um ] cbst( k , P )
mk = [uk u
k+1 . . . u
m ]
cbst( k , P ) (m k 1)-
] h(
, h( mk ) = [wk+1
. . . wm
mk ) =

...w
m
] m k 2.
[w
k+1
Lk( k , P )) m k 1, (m k 2)- K 0 (Lk( k , P ))
(m k 2)- . , ( m , , m)
cm (
m , ) D1 ( k , P ) Smk ,
(
m , , m) = ( m , , m). cm = 0.
, ck+1 = = cm = 0. (8.9) .
8.3. P m-
k K(P ),
(cbst( k , P )) =

cbst( k+1 , P ).

(8.11)

k+1 1 ( k ,P )

. blk ( k , m ) cblk( k , P ), (8.1), (8.3) (8.4)


Smk . vi = vi i = 0, 1, . . . , k vj = v(j)
j = k + 1, . . . , m. k = [
v0 , . . . , vk ] m = [
v0 , . . . , vm ].
k+1

= [
v0 , . . . , vk+1 ]
(l) = l l = k + 2, . . . , m.

Smk1 ,
v0 + . . . vk+1
u
k+1 =
= uk+1 ,
2+k
u
l =

v0 + . . . vk+1 + v(k+2)
+ + v(l)

= ul ,
1+l

l = k + 2, . . . , m.
k+1 = [v0 . . . vk v(k+1) ] 1 ( k , P ),

bst ( k+1 , m ) = [
uk+1 u
k+2
+ +u
m
] = [uk+1 + + um ] = blk ( k , m ).

,
(cbst( k , P ))

X
k+1 1 ( k ,P )

cbst( k+1 , P ).

(8.12)

154

8.

k+1 1 ( k , P ) m D1 ( k+1 , P ),
Smk1 .
k+1 = [v0 . . . vk+1 ] m = [v0 . . . vk+1 vk+2 . . . vm ]. ,
bst ( k+1 , m ) = [uk+1 uk+2 . . . um ],
v0 + + vk+1
,
2+k
v0 + + vk+1 + v(k+2) + + v(l)
ul =
1+l
l = k + 2, . . . , m. (k + 1) = k + 1 (l) = (l)
l {k + 2, . . . , m}. Smk .
blk ( k , m ) (8.3) (8.4).
uk+1 =

blk ( k , m ) = [uk+1 . . . um ] = [uk+1 u . . . um ] = bst ( k+1 , m ).


,
X
(cbst( k , P ))
cbst( k+1 , P ).

(8.13)

k+1 1 ( k ,P )

(8.12) (8.13) .
BStmk (P ) = {bst( k , P )| k K k (P )}
(m k) K(P ). (m k)-. (m k)- P

(P )
(P ). c1 , c2 Cmk
Cmk

c1 + c2 = (c1 c2 ) \ (c1 c2 )
k
k
{bst(
Pp, P )}k bst( , P ).

c =
i=1 i Ck (P ) c =
P
p
k

i=1 bst(i , P ) Cmk (P ).

X
bst( k , P ) =
bst( k+1 , P ),
(8.14)
k+1 1 ( k ,P )

mk
(c )

p
p
X
X
k
= c = (
bst(i , P )) =
bst(ik , P )

i=1
n :

(8.15)

i=1

(P ), n = m k = 1, . . . , m.

Cn (P ) Cn1

0 = 0 m+1 = 0.

n+1
n

(P ) Cn (P )
Cn1
(P ) . . . .
(8.16)
. . . Cn+1

1.

155

8.4. n
n n+1
= 0. (8.16) .
. c : Cn (P ) Cn (P ) ,
p
p
X
X
c (
bst(ik , P )) =
cbst(ik , P ),
i=1

(8.17)

i=1

n = 0, 1, . . . , m.
(8.14) (8.17) k = m n = bst( k , P ) BStn (P )
X
X
c ( ) = c (
bst( k+1 , P )) =
cbst( k+1 , P ).
k+1 1 ( k ,P )

k+1 1 ( k ,P )

(8.11) (8.17)
X
cbst( k+1 , P ) = cbst( k , P ) = c ( ).
k+1 1 ( k ,P )

,
c = c .

(8.18)

c n n+1
= n c n+1
= n n+1 c = 0.

(8.19)

c , (8.19) .
(8.18) c : Cn (P ) Cn (P ) c : Hn (P ) Hn (P ).
8.5. P m- ,
c : Hn (P ) Hn (P ), n = 0, 1, . . . , m,
.
. , m = dim P = 2.
8.2 m- P blk( k , P ) k K(P ), (m k)- M , bst( k , P )

156

8.

. , bst( k , P ) M Dmk .
8.2 bst( k , P ) , Dmk1 .
emk ( k ) = bst( k , P ) \ blk( k , P )
k K(P ), k = 0, 1, . . . , m.
P =

m
[

emk ( k )

k=0

P , P CW-.
emk ( k )
k : bst( k , P ) P .
4.3, 4.4 (8.14)
(8.15) (8.16) (4.19) .
4.4 3.13 ,

cw
s

Hmk
(P ) = Hmk
= Hmk
= Hmk .

(8.20)

8.2. (8.20)

(P )
Hmk
Hmk (P ). , c . 8.5
, c ( ).

2.

P m- , K(P ) , K 0 (P ) K(P ).
8.4. k {0, 1, . . . , m}, k- k , k K(P )
x=

p
X

ik Ck (P ),

z =

i=1

q
X

bst(jk , P ) Ck (P ).

j=1

,
(
I ( k , bst( k , P )) =

1 k = k ,
0 k 6= k .

2.

I (x, z ) =

p X
q
X

157

I (ik , bst(jk , P )).

i=1 j=1

8.1.
Ind ([x], [z ]) = I (x, z ),
x Zk (P ) z Zk (P ),
Ind : Hk (P ) Hmk
(P ) Z2 .
. , l
{0, 1, . . . , m 1} l+1 l K(P )

I ( l+1 , bst( l , P )) = I ( l+1 , bst( l , P )).

(8.21)

, .
8.4 I ( l+1 , bst( l , P )) = 1
, l l+1P
.
1
l
( , P ) = rs=1 sk+1 . (8.14)

bst( , P ) =

r
X

bst(sl+1 , P ).

s=1

,
I ( l+1 , bst( l , P )) =

r
X

I ( l+1 , bst(sl+1 , P )).

s=1

,
s {1, . . . , r}, l+1 = sl+1 . {sl+1 |s = 1, . . . , r}
(l + 1)- , l
, l l+1 .
, I ( l+1 , bst( l , P )) = 1 I ( l+1 , bst( l , P )) = 1
. (8.21) .

(8.21) , a Cl+1 (P ) c Cml


I (a, c ) = I (a, c ).

(8.22)

x
Zk (P ) z Zmk
(P ),

x z . x + x
= a z + z = c ,

a Ck+1 (P ), c Cmk+1 (P ).

I (x + x
, z ) = I (x, z ) + I (
x, z ),

158

8.

(8.22)
I (x + x
, z ) = I (a, z ) = I (a, z ) = I (a, 0) = 0.
, I (x, z ) + I (
x, z ) = 0, I (x, z ) =

I (
x, z ).
, I (x, z ) = I (x, z ).
8.4.
8.5. Ind ([x], [z ]) Z2 8.1 [x] [z ],

x Zk (P ) z Zmk
(P ).

(P ) Hmk (P ) 8.3. [x] Hk (P ) c : Hmk


8.5. [y] Hmk (P )

Ind([x], [y]) = Ind ([x], (c )1 [y]).

(8.23)

8.1 Ind :
Hk (P ) Hmk (P ) Z2 . Ind([x], [y]) Z2
[x] [y]
x Zk (P ) y Zmk (P ).
8.6. P , (M, ) .

1
1 1
(M, ) a1 b1 a1
1 b1 . . . ap bp ap bp , p > 1, H1 (P ) [x1 ], . . . , [x2p ],
(
1 i = 2n 1, j = 2n, n = 1, . . . p;
Ind([xi ], [xj ]) = Ind([xj ], [xi ]) =
0 .

(M, ) c1 c1 . . . cq cq , q >
1, q = 1 c1 = ab, H1 (P )
[x1 ], . . . , [xq ],
(
1 i = j;
Ind([xi ], [xj ]) = Ind([xj ], [xi ]) =
0 i 6= j.
.
7.1 , M ,
: M P . ,

2.

159

K(M ) K(P ) M
P , K 0 (M ) K 0 (P ) .
, (M, )
1
1 1
a1 b1 a1
1 b1 . . . ap bp ap bp .

P ,
an , x2n1 , , bn x2n , n = 1, . . . , p.
H1 (P ).
K(M ), bn ,
2- t0 , t0 , . . . , tr , e0 e00 = er+1 , an . ts1 ts = es s = 1, . . . , r es 6= es0
s 6= s0 .
u0 , u1 , . . . , u00 = ur+1 e0 , e1 , . . . , e00 = er+1 ,
v0 , v1 , . . . , vr t0 , t0 , . . . , tr .

z2n = [u0 v0 ] + [v0 u1 ] + [u1 v1 ] + [v1 u2 ] + + [ur vr ] + [vr ur+1 ].


z2n K 0 (M ).
0 = (
z2n
z2n ) K 0 (P ). e0
0
0 ,
e0 = er+1 01 P , z2n
K 0 (P ) x2n .
, s0 = ([vr u00 ][u0 v0 ]) sk = ([vk1 uk ][uk vk ])
1- 01 = (e0 )
= s +s + +
k1 = (ek ) P , k = 1, . . . , r. z2n
0
1

0
sr . z2n Z1 (P ) (z2n ) = z2n .

0
c ([z2n
]) = [z2n
] = [x2n ]

(8.24)

{01 , 11 , . . . , r1 } 01
x2n1 . (8.24) ,

Ind([x2n1 ], [x2n ]) = Ind ([x2n1 ], [z2n


]) = 1.

01 , 11 , . . . , r1 xi
i 6= 2n 1,

Ind([xi ], [x2n ]) = Ind ([xi ], [z2n


]) = 0

i = 1, . . . , 2p, i 6= 2n 1.

160

8.

K(M ),
a1
n ,

Ind([x2n ], [x2n1 ]) = Ind ([x2n ], [z2n1


]) = 1,

Ind([xj ], [x2n1 ]) = Ind ([xj ], [z2n1


]) = 0,

j = 1, . . . , 2p, j 6= 2n.
, (M, )
c1 c1 . . . cq cq ,

q > 2.

xn P , cn , n = 1, . . . , q.
[x1 ], . . . , [xq ] H1 (P ).
e0 ( ,
) cn e00 ( )
cn . t0 , t0 , . . . , tr 2-, e0 e00
K(M ), cn . tk1 tk = ek
k = 1, . . . , r ek 6= ek0 k 6= k 0 .
, u0 , u1 , . . . , u00 =
ur+1 e0 , e1 , . . . , e00 = er+1 , v0 , v1 , . . . , vr t0 , t0 , . . . , tr .
zn = [u0 v0 ] + [v0 u1 ] + [u1 v1 ] + [v1 u2 ] + + [ur vr ] + [vr ur+1 ]
zn0 = (
zn ). e0 e00 = er+1 01 P . zn0 K 0 (P ), xn .
s0 = ([vr u00 ] [u0 v0 ]) sk = ([vk1 uk ] [uk vk ])
= s + s + + s 1 = (e l =
k = 1, . . . , r. z2n
0
1
r
)
l
0, 1, . . . , r. s0 , s1 , . . . , sr 1-
01 , k1 , . . . , r1 , zn Z1 (P ), c (zn ) = zn0
c ([zn ]) = [zn0 ] = [xn ]

(8.25)

{01 , 11 , . . . , r1 }
01 , x2n1 , (8.25)
Ind([xn ], [xn ]) = Ind ([xn ], [zn ]) = 1.

2.

161

01 , 11 , . . . , r1 xi i 6=
n. ,
Ind([xi ], [xn ]) = Ind ([xi ], [zn ]) = 0
i = 1, . . . , q, i 6= n.
, (M, ) abab,
.
8.4. , ,
abb1 a1 , 8.6 .
,
.
8.6. 8.6 H1 (P ) .
8.7.
P 2- Ind : H1 (P ) H1 (P ) Z2 .
. P 1
1 1
a1 b1 a1
1 b1 . . . ap bp ap bp , 8.6 A
Ind [x1 ], . . . , [x2p ] H1 (P )

0 1 0 0 ... 0 0
1 0 0 0 . . . 0 0

0 0 0 1 . . . 0 0

A=
0 0 1 0 . . . 0 0 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0 0 0 0 . . . 0 1
0 0 0 0 ...

1 0

det A = 1. P ,
c1 c1 . . . cq cq , q > 1, q = 1 c1 = ab,
Ind [x1 ], . . . , [xq ] .
8.8. P
[y1 ], . . . , [yr ] H1 (P ). [z] H1 (P )
:
I1) [z] = 0;
I2) Ind([z], [yn ]) = 0 n = 1, . . . , r.

162

8.

Pr
. [z] =
i=1 li [yi ], li Z2 i =
1, . . . , r. B bij = Ind([yi ], [yj ]); i, j =
1, . . . , r.
r
X
Ind([z], [yn ]) =
li bin .
i=1

I2)
L B = 0,

(8.26)

L = (l1 . . . lr ). 8.7 det B = 1. , (8.26) , L = 0.


, I1).
8.1. [z1 ], . . . , [zr ] P x, y C1 (P ).
x y , x + y Z1 (P )
Ind([x + y], [zn ]) = 0 n = 1, . . . , r.
8.9. P ,
1
1 1
a1 b1 a1
1 b1 . . . ap bp ap bp , p >
1, [x1 ], . . . , [x2p ] H1 (P ), [z] H1 (P )
l1 , . . . , l2p Z2 . :
[z] =

P2p

i=1 li [xi ];

l2n1 = Ind([z], [x2n ]) l2n = Ind([z], [x2n1 ]) = 0 n = 1, . . . , p.


8.10. P , c1 c1 . . . cq cq ,
q > 1, q = 1 c1 = ab, [x1 ], . . . , [xq ] H1 (P ), [z] H1 (P ) l1 , . . . , lq Z2 ,
:
[z] =

Pq

i=1 li [xi ];

ln = Ind([z], [xn ]) n = 1, . . . , q.
8.9 8.10
8.8 .

3.

3.

163

, P
1
1 1
a1 b1 a1
1 b1 . . . ap bp ap bp ,

q > 1.

8.1. 1-.
:
1) x y P ;
2) E(P, y) P y;
3) e E(P, y) 1 (e, P )
2- P .
:
1) z E(P, y);
2) J : E(P, y) x Z2 ;
3) I(x, y) Z2 .
.
0. . B := ,z := , I(x, y) := 0
J(e) := 0 e E(P, y) x.
1. t, b v.
1.1. a = [uv] y t = [uvw] 1 ([uv], P ).
1.2. , [uw] [vw] t
y? [uw]
/ y [vw]
/ y, 1.5.
1.3. [vw] y, v u.
1.4. [vw] y, I(x, y) = 0
5.
1.5. b := [vw].
2. z J. b
B z := z + {b} J(b) := J(b) + 1 mod 2.
3. t, b
v.
3.1. t0 1 (b, P ) \ {t}
t t0 .
3.2. e t, v, b.
3.3. , e y? e
/ y,
b := e 2.

164

8.

3.4. e y , e = a. e = a,
4.
3.5. e 6= a, w0 e, v v := w0 . e0 t, b
e, e e0 .
3.6. , e y? e
/ y,
b := e 2.
3.7. e y e = a. e = a,
4.
3.8. e 6= a w00 e, v,
v := w00 2.
4. I(x, y) Z2 .
c x I(x, y) := I(x, y) + J(c) mod 2.
5. .
.
8.2. , P 2-, 1
1 1
a1 b1 a1
1 b1 . . . ap bp ap bp , q > 1, x y
, z I(x, y) Z2 8.1. bst(b, P )
b z z Z1 (P ), ([z ]) = [y] Ind([x], [y]) =
I(x, y).
. y K(P ),
1.4 z = I(x, y) = 0. [y] = 0 H1 (P ). ,
[z ] = 0 = [y] Ind([x], [y]) = 0 = I(x, y).
.
K 0 (P ) , y 0
y.
8.1. z y 0 K 0 (P ) .
. ,
B = z.
E(y) y, T (y) K(P ), . 1.1 3.1.
t = [uvw] T (y),
v E(y). ub wb
[uv] [wv], tb t. 2
8.1 [uv], [wv] B. B = z

3.

165

[uv], [wv] z. [ub tb ] [tb wb ] K 0 (P ) z . z = z +[ub tb ]+[tb wb ]+[ub v]+[vwb ]. z + z


[ub tb v] + [vtb wb ]. , z z .
t T (y),
E(y), z K 0 (P ), z
.
t = [uvw] T (y),
y [uv]. B = z [uw] [vw]
y. , 2
8.1 z.
ub v b [uw] [vw] , wb
[uv], tb t. z =
z + [ub tb ] + [tb v b ] + [ub u] + [uwb ] + [wb v] + [vv b ]. z + z
[ub utb ] + [tb uwb ] + [wb tb v] + [vtb v b ] z z .
K(P ), y , z ,
z
T (y).
z
y 0 E(y) b z.
b z T (y).
, ,
z . , z y 0 .
, y
t T (y). z . , y 0 z B = z
.
,
y.
card y = 3, B = z z y 0 .
, , n , y,
card y = n.
, B = {b1 , . . . , bp }
K(P ). ,
b, B k- , k {1, . . . , p},
z, B l {1, . . . , p},
l 6= k. , bk = b = bl .
k < l, t E(y), 3.1 1 (b, P ) b B k- ,

166

8.

v0 , v1 , . . . , vq y,
v B bk , bk+1 , . . . , bl .
ei = [vi1 vi ] i = 1, . . . , q y = b + e1 + + eq .
8.1 y,
b t, B
= {bk+1 , . . . , bl1 } z =
bk+1 + + bl1 . card y < card y = n,
z y0 .
y = y + y. 8.1 y,
a t,
B z y.
= {b1 , . . . , bk1 , bl+1 , . . . , bp } = B \ {bk , . . . , bl } z = z + z.
B
z y0 .
z + z = z y + y = y,
, z y 0 . .
[y 0 ]

8.2. 8.1 ([z ]) =


= [y].
Ind([x], [y]) = Ind ([x], [z ]) = I (x, z ).

(8.27)

x = {c1 , . . . , cm } z = {e1 , . . . , en }, 8.4

I (x, z ) =

m X
n
X

I (ci , bst(ej , P ).

i=1 j=1

, I (ci , bst(ej , P )) = 1 ci = ej I (ci , bst(ej , P )) = 0


ci 6= ej . , I (x, z ) = 1 ,
z x.
, 2 4 8.1
I(x, y) =

m
X

J(ci ),

i=1

J(ci ) = 1 ci z J(ci ) = 0 ci
/ z. I(x, y) = 1
, z
x .
, I (x, z ) = I(x, y). (8.27) ,
Ind([x], [y]) = I(x, y).
8.5. 8.1 8.2
x y 1-. ,

3.

167

P
P
x y x = i xi , y = j yj
xi yj
[16].
Ind
X
Ind([x], [y]) =
Ind([xi ], [yj ]).
(8.28)
i,j

Ind([x], [y])
8.1 Ind([xi ], [yj ]),
(8.28).



1.

1- 2-

, P R3 . V (P ) = K 0 (P ) T (P ) = K 2 (P ).
5.1
E(P ) = K 1 (P ), n1 K(P ), n = 1, 2,
1 ( n1 , P ) n- .
9.1. 1-.
:
V (P ) = K 0 (P ) T (P ) = K 2 (P ) P .
:
zi Z1 (P ), i = 1, . . . , r.
.
1. K(P ) 2 : C2 (P ) C1 (P ). 5.1
:
E(P ) = K 1 (P ) P ,
a E(P ) T (a) = 1 (a, P )
[a : T (P )] .
168

1. 1- 2-

169

2. . 6.1, V (Q) = K 0 (Q) E(Q) = K 1 (Q) Q P , 6.2.


3. . , P , [a : T ] = 1?
d , E(Q).
V (Q0 ) = V (Q) E(Q0 ) = E(Q)\{d} Q0 Q.
4. 1 : C1 (Q0 ) C0 (Q0 ).
v V (Q0 ) E 0 (v) = 1 (a, Q0 ) [v : E(Q0 )]
Q0 .
5. . 6.2,
Q00 Q0 , Q0 . V (Q00 )
E(Q00 ), E 00 (v) = 1 (a, Q00 ) [v : E(Q00 )]
v V (Q00 ).
6. Q00 .

[16] z1 , . . . , zr Q00 .
.
9.1. [z1 ], . . . , [zr ] H1 (P )
9.1 z1 , . . . , zr
H1 (P ).
. 6.2

D
H1 (P ) 0,
0 hDi
H1 (Q)

(9.1)

D 1-, P , D : hDi H1 (Q)


: Q P . 0 : H1 (Q0 ) H1 (P ),
0 : Q0 P .
[x] H1 (P ). (9.1) y H1 (Q), (y) = [x]. z = y + D d y z = y
d
/ y. z Q0 Q.
[D] = D (D) = 0, [z] = [y] H1 (P ). ,
z H1 (Q0 ), 0 (z) = [x]. , 0
.
z H1 (Q0 ) 0 (z) = 0 H1 (P ),
z ker . (9.1) z = 0, z = D.
z d D. 0
.
, , 0 : Q0 P 0 : H1 (Q0 ) H1 (P ). ,

170

9.

00 : Q00 Q0 . , h = 0 00
H1 (Q00 ) H1 (P ) [z1 ] = h(z1 ), . . . , [zr ] = h(zr )
.

2.

1-

M 2-, A .
9.2. H1 (M, A).
:
1) V (M ) = K 0 (M ) T (M ) = K 2 (M )
M ;
2) E(A) = K 1 (A) T (A) = K 2 (A) A.
:
zi C1 (M ), i = 1, . . . , r.
.
1. P M \ A A. T (P ) = T (M ) \ T (A)
T (P ) P .
2. K(P ) : C2 (P ) C1 (P ).
5.1 E(P ) P
e E(P ) 1 (e, P ) T (P ).
3. A P .
e E(P ) , e E(A)?
3.1. e E(A), e B, [e :
T (P )] = 1 4.
3.2. e
/ E(A) [e : T (P )] = card 1 (e, P ).
4. "" H0 (B). B1 , . . . , Bn B.
uk Bk U = {u1 , . . . , un }.
5. H1 (B). 6.2, B 0 B,
B. B

2. 1-

171

, [16].
Z(B).
6. P , . 6.1 K m (P ) = T (P ) K m1 (P ) = E(P ),
1 ( m1 , P ) = 1 (e, P ) [ m1 : K m (P )] = [e : T (P )]
m1 = e E(P ). V (Q) = K 0 (Q)
E(Q) = K 1 (Q) Q P ,
6.2, 1- D1 , . . . , Dl Z1 (Q).
7. Q,
H1 (B) H1 (Q). z Z(B)
E(Q). L Q.
8. ,
(M, A). K =
con U , () u ,
u U . K L,
G.
9. H1 (G). 6.2 G G0 G.
[16].
X(G) = {x1 , . . . , xr }.
10. H1 (M, A). xk X(G) , K.
zk , k = 1, . . . , r.
.
9.2. z1 = z1 + C1 (A), . . . , zr = zr + C1 (A)
H1 (M, A).
. .
9.1. :
B Q Dk Z1 (B) Z1 (Q) k = 1, . . . , l;
hD1 , . . . , Dl i H1 (Q),
D1 , . . . , Dl , D : hD1 , . . . , Dl i H1 (Q)
QP : Q P

172

9.


QP

0 hD1 , . . . , Dl i H1 (Q)
H1 (P ) 0.

(9.2)

. e B 3.1
[e : T (P )] = 1. 6
6.1 4.2.2. e
E(Q) = K m1 (Q). , B Q.
P ,
6 6.1 P1 , . . . , Pl P
.
6.2 k {1, . . . , l} Ck
2- Pk , Dk = Ck .
M . , e Dk , e
- 2- A. e K(B).
Dk Z1 (B), k = 1, . . . , l.
6.2.

9.2.
LQ

BQ

H1 (Q) H1 (B)
H1 (L)

LP
QP
BP

y
y
y

id

(9.3)

id

H1 (P ) H1 (P ) H1 (P ),
.
BP
x H1 (L), y H1 (B) LP
(x) = (y), x = 0.
BQ
0
. x0 = LQ
(x) y = (y). QP
BP
(9.3) , (x0 +y 0 ) = LP
(x)+ (y) = 0.
QP
QP
0
0
x + y ker . 9.1 ker = hD1 , . . . , Dl i im BQ
.
BQ
0
0
, x + y im H1 (Q)
BQ
y 0 . x0 im LQ
im . 0
. x = 0.
LQ
: H1 (L) H1 (Q) , .

9.3. N = P C, C = con B B.
GN : G N GN
: H1 (G)

H1 (N ).

2. 1-

173

. (G, L, K) , (N, P, C), . L K = U P C = B, K C .


H1 (K) = H1 (C) = 0

LG

dGU

P N

dN B

. . . H1 (L)
H1 (G)
H0 (U ) . . .

B
LP
GN
U
y
y
y

BP

. . . H1 (B)
H1 (P )
H1 (N )
H0 (B) . . . ,
(9.4)
.
UB
z H1 (G) GN
(z) = 0. (9.4)
GU
N
B
U
B
d (z) = d (0) = 0. , GU = im LG ,
dGU
(z) = 0. z ker d

, x H1 (L), LG
(x)
=
z.

(9.4), PN =
LP
GN
P N LP
(x) = (z) = 0. (x) ker
BP
BP
im . y H1 (B), (y) =
LP
(x). 9.2 , x = 0. z = 0.
, ker GN
= 0 .

: H1 (G) H1 (N ) 9.4. GN

.
.
U K

. . . H1 (N, U )
H1 (N, K)
H0 (K, U ) . . . ,

U L

. . . H1 (N, U )
H1 (N, L)
H0 (L, U ) . . .

(9.5)
(9.6)

(N, K, U ) (N, L, U )
K L , U K U L, H0 (K, U ) = 0
H0 (L, U ) = 0. (9.5) (9.6)

K
L
im U
= H1 (N, K) U

= H1 (N, L).

(9.7)

. . . H1 (N, U ) H1 (N, K)H1 (N, L) H1 (N, G) H0 (N, U ) . . .

174

9.

(N, K, L). , H0 (N, U ) = 0,


H1 (N, G). , =
K UL
(U
, ) (9.7) ker = im = H1 (N, K) H1 (N, L).
,
H1 (N, G) = im = 0.
(9.8)
, (9.8)
GN

. . . H1 (G)
H1 (N ) H1 (N, G) . . .

(N, G) im GN
= ker = H1 (N ).
.
y Cs (N ), s = 0, 1, 2, pN P (y) , y C. pN P (y) = pN P (y) + Cs (B). pN P :
Cs (N ) Cs (P, B).
P
N P (y) + C (B)] 9.5. pN
s
([y]) = [p
P : H (N ) H (P, B).
pN
1
1

P
. pN P = pN P , pN

.
pN P

H1 (N )
H1 (P, B)

PN
idy
y

(9.9)

H1 (N ) H1 (N, C),
P N ,
CN

CN

. . . H1 (C)
H1 (N ) H1 (N, C)
H0 (C)
H0 (N ) . . .
(9.10)
(N, C). [y] H1 (N )
P
PN
N P (y) + C (B)]) = [pN P (y) +
P N pN
1
([y]) = ([p
C1 (C)] ([y]) = [y + C1 (C)]. pN P (y) + y C1 (C)
(9.9).
(9.10) CN
: H0 (C) H0 (N )

. , im = ker CN
=
0

im = ker =

H1 (N, C). , H1 (C) = 0. ker = im CN


= 0.

, . N = P C C = con B,

3. 2-

175

P N [3].
(9.9) .
, , 9.2.
GN

pN P

P M

H1 (G)
H1 (N )
H1 (P, B)
H1 (M, A).

P .
9.1 9.5 , GN
pN

(M, A, P ) (A, A, B).


, AP = M , AP = B, AB =
A A B = B, 2.11
0

. . . H1 (B, B)
H1 (A, A)H1 (P, B)
H1 (M, A)
H0 (B, B) . . . .

H1 (B, B) = H0 (B, B) = H1 (A, A) = 0



0

0 0 H1 (P, B)
H1 (M, A) 0.

0
0 (0, [x + C1 (B)]) = [0 + x + C1 (A)] = P M ([x + C1 (B)]).
[x + C1 (B)] H1 (P, B).
, P M : H1 (P, B) H1 (M, A) .
P
, q = P M pN

GN
. 9.2 xk , k = 1, . . . , r, H1 (G)
q(xk ) = [pN P (xk )+C1 (A)]. , pN P (xk ) =
zk .

3.

2-

, P
m = 2, , . P = P1 Pl , 6.1.
i {1, . . . , l}. 4.1 02 , Pi , e K 1 (Pi ) \ K 1 (Pi ) . 2-

176

9.

Pi +Ci . +Ci , Ci . C2 (P ) =
{+C1 , C1 , . . . , +Cl , Cl }.
9.1. 2- +Ci Ci
C2 (P ) 2-, Pi P .
2- 2 +Ci
Ci i {1, . . . , l}, h( 2 ) = +Ci
h( 2 ) = Ci . h 2- P C2 (Pi ).
9.2. T = {02 , 12 , . . . , p2 } 2- P :
2 2
k {1, . . . , p} ek = k1
k
2
k1
k2 ;
2
k1
k2 ek , ek ;

ek 6= ej k, j {1, . . . , p}.
T 2- 02
p2 . , T 2 02 p2 .
9.1. 2-
2 2 P , h( 2 ) = h(2 ), 2- {02 , . . . , p2 } 02 = 2
p2 = 2 .
. -, h( 2 ) = h(2 ) ,
2 2 Pi , i {1, . . . , l}.
-,
02 . 6.1 2 2 02 2-.
9.3. 2-.
:
1) W (P ) P ;

3. 2-

177

1) C2 (P ) = {+C1 , C1 , . . . , +Cl , Cl }
2-, Pi , i = 1, . . . , l,
P = P1 Pl ;
2) e W (P ) 1 (e, P )
2- P .
:
1) r;
2) R r P .
.
0. .
C C2 (P ) f (C) = 0.
1. . ,
W (P ) , : v K 0 (P ) ,
W (P ) , v
.
2. .
e W (P ) 2.1 2.5.
2.1. e .
1 (e, P ) ,
e
e.
2.2. .
1 (e, P ) t0 .
tk 1 (e, P )
k [0, 2) t0 tk
, e.
2.3. e .
1 (e, P ) ,
ti 1 (e, P ) tj 1 (e, P ) i < j i < j .
2.4. e .
n = card 1 (e, P ). D1 (e, P ) = {s1 =
t0 , s2 = t1 , s3 = t1 , . . . , s2n2 = tn1 , s2n1 = tn1 , s2n = t0 }.
2.5. . k = 1, . . . , n
2.5.1 2.5.5.
2.5.1. f (h(s2k1 )) = p > 0 f (h(s2k )) = q > 0,
f (h(s2k )) = f (h(s2k1 )) = min{p, q} 2.5.5.

178

9.

2.5.2. f (h(s2k1 )) = p > 0 f (h(s2k )) = 0, f (h(s2k )) =


p 2.5.5.
2.5.3. f (h(s2k1 )) = 0 f (h(s2k )) = q > 0, f (h(s2k1 )) =
q 2.5.5.
2.5.4. f (h(s2k1 )) = f (h(s2k )) = 0
m = max{f (+C1 ), f (C1 ), . . . , f (+Cl ), f (Cl )}
f (h(s2k1 )) = f (h(s2k )) = m + 1.
2.5.5. k (
k).
3. . i = 1, . . . , l : f (+Ci ) = f (Ci ), f (+Ci ) = f (Ci ) =
0.
4. . r0 {n1 , . . . , ns } , Fj =
f 1 (nj ) 6= , j = 1, . . . , r0 . j = 1, . . . , r0 Yj () ,
- Fj .
5. . r = r0 1 ,
S = {Y1 , . . . , Yr0 } , R = {Z1 , . . . , Zr }.
.
9.3. 9.3 Z1 , . . . , Zr ,
H2 (P ).
. j {1, . . . , r0 } Fj 2- C C2 (P ), f (C) = nj 3.
j X
, Fj . Fj Fj ,
j .
2- 2 Yj X
e 2- 2 Yj .
e , P 2- 2 K(P ),
e 2 . 2 ,
, 2-
C C2 (P ), 2 . C Yj , , 2 Yj .
: e
/ Yj .

3. 2-

179

j
, e W (P ). 2.5 X
1
D (e, P ).
j ,
3 X
2
{+ , 2 }, , . Xj , -
2-, e. , Xj 2- ,
Xj Yj . , e 2- Yj
e
/ Yj .
, Yj = ,
Yj .
, Z1 , . . . , Zr .
. S
,
Y1 + + Yk = 0,
(9.11)
1 6 k 6 r.
U C2 (P ). Uk =
1 X
k U = U \ Uk . P ,
X
e K 1 (P ),
Uk U . D1 (e, P ) = {s1 , s2 , . . . , s2n } si1 , si , Uk ,
U . (9.11) Uk + 2
2 . i . 2.5 f (h(si1 )) = f (h(si )) si1 si
Uk , U . . ,
Z1 , . . . , Zr .
P R3 , M ,
P . , P M = . M
, P [6].
3 , 3 K 3 (M ). , 03 , 13 , . . . , p3 M t1 , . . . , tp ,
:
3
i1
i3 = ti i = 1, . . . , p;

ti
/ K 2 (P ) i = 1, . . . , p;

180

9.

03 = 3 p3 = 3 .
, 3 3 M \P , 3 3
M \ P.
S( 3 , M \ P )
M , 3 M \ P .
S( 3 , M \P )
3 M \ P .
, S( 3 , M \P ) S(3 , M \P ) , . M = M0 M1 M ,
Mq M , q = 0, 1, . . . , ,
3- M \ P , Mq Mq0 q 6= q 0
.
Dq ,
Mq M . Dq Z2 (P ) q {0, 1, . . . , }.
C, C C2 (P ) 3D-, :
2- +t C +t C ,
e t t ; e
W (P );
D1 (e, P ) = {s1 , s2 , . . . , s2n } +t +t 2k 1 2k, k {1, . . . , n}.
2- +t = [v0 v1 v2 ] K 2 (M )
3 K 3 (M ). +t 3 , , [ 3 : +t] = 0. 3 = [v0 v1 v2 v3 ], v3 K 0 (M ).
[ 3 : +t] = 1, (v0 v1 , v0 v2 , v0 v3 )
, [ 3 : +t] = 1 . ,
+t [ 3 : +t]
, .
+t. , [ 3 : +t]
.
j , 3 , 3 K 3 (M ), [ 3 :
9.6. j {1, . . . , r0 }, +t, +t X

+t] = [3 : +t ] = 1, q {0, 1, . . . , } 3 K 3 (Mq ). 3


K 3 (Mq ).
. C = h(+t) Fj C = h(+t ) Fj ,
+t +t .

3. 2-

181

C0 , C1 , . . . , Cm
Fj , C0 = C, Cm = C , Cp1 Cp 3D-
p = 1, . . . , m .
9.1 , ,
+t +t e
:
e K 1 (Pi ) \ K 1 (Pi ) i {1, . . . , l}
+t +t e ;
e W (P )
+t = s2k1 D1 (e, P )

+ t = s2k D1 (e, P ),

(9.12)

D1 (e, P ) = {s1 , s2 , . . . , s2n } k {1, . . . , n}.


, , t0 = +t t1 = t . t0 t1
e 2.4 9.3
s1 = t0 = +t, s2 = t1 = +t , s3 = t1 = t s4 = t0 = t.
D1 (e, P ) = {s1 , s2 , s3 , s4 } +t +t
2k 1 2k, k = 1.
+1 13 , e, +t t , e , +t = +0 .
[13 : +1 ] = 1.
+1 6= t , (9.12) +1
/ K 2 (P ). M , 23 K 3 (M ),
+1 13 . , [23 : +1 ] =
1. +1
/ K 2 (P ) 3 K 3 (Mq ),
Mq M 23 K 3 (Mq ).
, 3
13 , . . . , m
2- +0 , +1 , . . . , +m , :
(1) p3 K 3 (Mq ) p = 1, . . . , m;
(2) 2- +0 , +1 , . . . , +m e
;
(3) [p3 : +p1 ] = 1 [p3 : +p ] = 1 p = 1, . . . , m;

182

9.

(4) +0 = +t, +m K 2 (P ), +1 , . . . , +m1 P .


3 : +t ] =
(2) (4) (9.12) +m = t . [m

3 : ] = 1. 3 = 3 (1) 3 K 3 (M ).
[m
m
q
m

: {1, . . . , r0 } {0, 1, . . . , } . j {1, . . . , r0 } t Yj .


j . 2- +t X
3
3
3- K (M ) q {0, 1, . . . , } ,
[ 3 : +t] = 1 3 K 3 (Mq ). (j) = q.
9.6 q t .
.
, : {1, . . . , r0 } {0, 1, . . . , } . q {0, 1, . . . , } 2 t Dq . Dq 3- 3
K 3 (Mq ), t . , +t, j
[ 3 : +t] = 1. +t X
0
j {1, . . . , r }.
j . 3
, t
/ Yj . t X

K 3 (M ), [3 : t] = 1. 9.6
3 K 3 (Mq ).
Mq M t . ,
t
/ Dq . ,
. , t Yj .
(j) = q. , .
r0 > 1 + .
r0 = r + 1, ,
r > .

(9.13)

9.7. > rank H2 (P ).


. = rank H2 (P ).
= 0. M \ P ,
1 + . > 0 = .
, > 0 P 0 M , 0 = rank H2 (P 0 ) < , 1 + 0
M M \ P 0 0 > 0 .

3. 2-

183

2- c1 , . . . , c Z2 (P ),
H2 (P ), t c . t
c , {1, . . . , }, c0 = c + c c0 = c
{1, . . . , } \ {}. , c0i = ci
i = 1, . . . , .
P 0 = P \ Int t. t c t
/ c 6= ,
0
c1 , . . . , c01 H2 (P 0 ).
M00 , M10 , . . . , M0 0 M M \ P 0 ,
Int t M0 0 \ P 0 .

(9.14)

3 , 3 K 3 (M ), +

3 , M \ P ) = S( 3 , M \ P ). t, , S(+

03 , 13 , . . . , p3 t1 , . . . , tp
3 3 M \ P .
M , +

t0 = t
p
X
x =
bst(ti , M )
i=0

,
ti M . . ,
[x ] H1 (M ). [c ]M c = c0 M . M , H2 (M ) =
0. , [c ]M = 0 Ind ([c ]M , [x ]) = 0.
, x c P .
, Ind ([c ]M , [x ]) = I (c , x ) = 1. , .
, ,
3
3
S(+
, M \ P ) 6= S(
,M \ P)

(9.15)

P = P 0 t. (9.14) ,
M00 , M10 , . . . , M0 0 1
M M \ P .
3 3 M (9.15) +

3 M0
3
0
M \ P . +
0 1 M0 1 ,
0
M0 1 .
, M 1 + 0 1 + 2 =
2 + 0 = 1 + M \ P ,

184

9.

= 0 + 1. 0 > 1. ,
> .
(9.13) 9.7 r > rank H2 (P ). ,
Z1 , . . . , Zr
P . r = rank H2 (P ) Z1 , . . . , Zr H2 (P ).

10

1.

P , y1 , . . . , yr Z1 (P )
[y1 ], . . . , [yr ] H1 (P ).
10.1. J : C1 (P ) Zr2 , J = (J 1 , . . . , J r ),
-, z Z1 (P ) k {1, . . . , r}
J k (z) = Ind([z], [yk ]).

(10.1)

x C1 (P ) J(x)
[y1 ], . . . , [yr ].
10.1. x, x0 C1 (P ) x = x0 , J(x) = J(x0 )
, x x0 .
. z = x + x0 . z Z1 (P )
10.1 k = 1, . . . , r
(10.1). 8.8 , J(z) = 0
, [z] = 0 H1 (P ). ,
x x0 .
P
1
1 1
a1 b1 a1
1 b1 . . . ap bp ap bp , q > 1.
10.1. -.
:
185

186

10.

1) E(P ) P ;
2) e E(P ) 1 (e, P )
2- P ;
3) 1- y1 , . . . , yr H1 (P );
4) x C1 (P ).
:
J(x) = (J 1 (x), . . . , J r (x)) Zr2 .
.
1. k = 1, . . . , r 1.0 1.4.
1.0. . J k (x) := 0 J k (e) := 0
e E(P ).
1.1. t, b v
yk .
1.1.1. a = [uv] y t = [uvw] 1 ([uv], P ).
1.1.2. , [uw] [vw] t
y? [uw]
/ y [vw]
/ y, 1.1.5.
1.1.3. [vw] y, v u.
1.1.4. [vw] y, I(x, y) = 0
2.
1.1.5. b := [vw].
1.2. , yk .
J k (b) := J k (b) + 1 mod 2.
1.3. t, b v.
1.3.1. t0 1 (b, P ) \ {t}
t t0 .
1.3.2. e t, v,
b.
1.3.3. , e y? e
/ y,
b := e 1.2.
1.3.4. e y , e = a. e = a,
1.4.
1.3.5. e 6= a, w0 e, v
v := w0 . e0 t,
b e, e e0 .
1.3.6. , e y? e
/ y,
b := e 1.2.
1.3.7. e y e = a. e = a,
1.4.

1. -

187

1.3.8. e 6= a w00 e, v,
v := w00 1.2.
1.4. k- x.
c x J k (x) := J k (x) + J k (c) mod 2.
2. k.
.
10.1. P 2-, 1
1 1
a1 b1 a1
1 b1 . . . ap bp ap bp , q > 1, y1 , . . . , yr
, 10.1
J(x) = (J 1 (x), . . . , J r (x)) Zr2 x C1 (P ) [y1 ], . . . , [yr ] H1 (P ).
. , x Z1 (P ). 8.2 J k (x) = Ind([x], [y k ]) k = 1, . . . , r. J : C1 (P )
Zr2 -.
10.2. V (P )
P , E(P ) , [y1 ], . . . , [yr ] H1 (P ), J : C1 (P ) Zr2 . V (P ) = V (P ) Zr2 . u
= (u, ) V (P )

v = (v, ) V (P ) , :
(A1) 1- e = [uv] E(P );
(A2) = + J(e).
(
u, v) V (P ) V (P ),
1 (P ).
V (P ), K
0 (P ) V (P )
K

0 (P ) K
1 (P ), S(P
) = (V (P ), K(P
))
K(P ) = K
.
)
10.3. P S(P
1-, P
) - J. E(P

P .
10.4. P 1-, P - J :
C1 (P ) Zr2 .
V ((u, )) = u,

E ([
uv]) = [V (
u)V (
v )],

p
p
X
X
(
ei ) =
E (
ei )
i=1

i=1

188

10.

) x = Pp ei C1 (P ).
(u, ) V , [
uv] E(P
i=1
E : C1 (P ) C1 (P ).
V : V V , E : E
10.2. x = [u0 u1 ]+[u1 u2 ]+ +[up1 up ]
P 0 Zr2 x
= [
u0 u
1 ] + [
u1 u
2 ] + + [
up1 u
p ]
1- P , :
(C1) u
0 = (u0 , 0 );
(C2) (
x) = x.
. u
0 = (u0 , 0 ),
xi = [u0 u1 ] + [u1 u2 ] + + [ui1 ui ],

u
i = (ui , J(xi ))

(10.2)

i = 1, . . . , p. (C1) .
, J(xi ) = J(xi1 ) + J([ui1 ui ]) u
i1 u
i
V (P ) . ,
), i = 1, . . . , p. ,
[
ui1 u
i ] E(P
P x
= [
u0 u
1 ] + [
u1 u
2 ] + + [
up1 u
p ].
V (
ui ) = ui i = 0, 1, . . . , p, x
(C2).
y = [
v0 v1 ] + [
v1 v2 ] + + [
vp1 vp ]

P , v0 = (u0 , 0 ) (
y ) = x. vi = V (
vi ) = ui .
v0 = u
0 i Zr2 ,
i = 1, . . . , p,
vi = (ui , i ).
(10.3)
) , vi1 vi [
vi1 vi ] E(P

V (P ). i = i1 + J([ui1 ui ]).
, 0 = 0 . ,
i = 0 +

p
X

J([ui1 ui ]).

(10.4)

i=1

(10.4) (10.2) i = J(xi ). (10.2) (10.3) vi = u


i i = 1, . . . , p. , y = x

.
10.5. x
10.2 x.

2.

189

10.3. x = [u0 u1 ] + [u1 u2 ] + + [up1 up ] y =


[v0 v1 ]+[v1 v2 ]+ +[vp1 vq ] P ,
u0 = v0 up = vq , x
= [
u0 u
1 ] + [
u1 u
2 ] + + [
up1 u
p ] y =

[
v0 v1 ] + [
v1 v2 ] + + [
vp1 vq ] P , x y
u
0 = v0 . u
p = vq
, x y.
. 10.2,
(
x) = x (
y ) = y , u
p = (up , J(x)) vq =
(vq , J(y)). u
p = vq , J(x) = J(y)
, , J(x + y) = 0. J : C1 (P ) Zr2 -, x + y , 10.1
J k (x + y) = Ind([x + y], [yk ])
k = 1, . . . , r. , J(x + y) = 0 , x + y
1- y1 , . . . , yr P . 8.1 x y.

2.

L : E(P ) R .
L : C1 (P ) R
p
p
X
X
L(0) = 0 L({e1 , . . . , ep }) = L(
ei ) =
L(ei ),
i=1

(10.5)

i=1

ei E(P ), i = 1, . . . , p.
, L : C1 (P )
R , x, y
C1 (P )
L(x + y) = L(x) + L(y) 2L(x y).

(10.6)

,
L : C1 (P ) R, (10.6), (10.5).
10.6. L : C1 (P ) R,
(10.6), .
x C1 (P ) L(x)
.

190

10.

, L(x) x, . L(e) = 1 e E(P ),


x = {e1 , . . . , ep } L(x) p , x
.
,
,
P ,
. .
.
10.2. , .
:
1) V (P ) P ;
2) v V (P ) U (v, P )
P ;
3) - J : C1 (P ) Zr2 H1 (P );
4) L : C1 (P ) R;
5) i Zr2 ;
6) u V (P ).
:
1) z C1 (P );
2) L(z).
.
0. z := L(z) = 0.
1. S P : V (P ) Zr R.
V (P ) Zr2 , D
2
S := {(u, 0)}, 0 Zr2 , P :=

D(u,
0) = 0.

2. P D.
v U (u, P ) 2.1 2.4.
2.1. j := J([uv]).
2.2. (v, j) P
j) L([uv]).
2.3. D(v,
2.4. F (v, j) := (u, 0).

3. S.

(w, k) (P \ S),

D(w,
k) =

min

(v,j)(P \S)

j).
D(v,

2.

191

4. P D.
w = u k = i,
S,
8.
(w, k)
5. S.

S.
6. P

D. v U (w, P ) 6.1 6.7.


6.1. j := k + J([wv]).
6.7.
6.2. (v, j) S,
D(v,
j) 6 D(w,

6.3. (v, j) (P \ S)
k) + L([wv]),
6.7.
6.4. (v, j)
/ P , (v, j) P .
j) D(w,

6.5. D(v,
k) + L([wv]).
6.6. F (v, j) := (w, k).
6.7. U (w, P ) (
v).
P
7. S,
3.
D.
8. z .
8.1. (v, j) = F (w, k).
8.2. z := z + [vw] = z {[vw]} L(z) := L(z) + L([vw]).
8.3. (v, j) 6= (u, 0), (w, k)
(v, j) 8.1.
.
10.2. 10.2 z C1 (P )
:
z Z1 (P );
J(z)=i;
u E(z), E(z) z;
L(z) 6 L(x) x Z1 (P ), J(x) = i u E(x).
: C1 (P ) R, . L

x) = L (
L(
x)
(10.7)
x
C1 (P ).
10.2 v = (v, j) u
= (u, 0) 2,
v = (v, j) w
= (w, k) 6 .

192

10.

[
vu
] E(P ) [
v w]
E(P )
. , (10.7) 2
vu
v w])
L([
]) = L([vu]), 6 L([
= L([vw]). , 8 S
P
L,
u
= (u, 0), (u, i).
, 8 z = [v0 v1 ] + [v1 v2 ] +
+ [vq1 vq ] v0 = u vq = u, j0 , j1 , . . . , jq Zr2 , j0 = 0, jq = i js = js1 + J([vs1 vs ]). vs = (vs , js )
s = 0, 1, . . . , q. [
vs1 vs ] E(P ) vs1 = F (
vs ) s,
z = [
v0 v1 ] + [
v1 v2 ] + + [
vq1 vq ]
P u
= (u, 0) (u, i).
[12],
z ) P ,
L(
u
= (u, 0) (u, i).
z ). z 0
z (10.7) L(z) = L(
P , u
J(z 0 ) = i, 10.2
z0 P , z 0 u
= (u, 0).
J(z 0 ) = J(z) 10.1 , z z 0
. 10.3
z z0 .

z ) 6 L(
z 0 ) = L(z 0 ).
L(z) = L(

10.1. 10.2 , 10.2 , P .


z. , . P 2r ,
P .
. .
10.2.
, V (P )

2.

193

V (P ) P . r H1 (P )
V (P )
V (P ).
10.3. .
:
1) V (P ) P ;
2) v V (P ) U (v, P )
P ;
3) y1 , . . . , yr H1 (P );
4) V (y1 ), . . . , V (yr ) y1 , . . . , yr ;
5) - J : C1 (P ) Zr2
[y1 ], . . . , [yr ] H1 (P );
6) L : C1 (P ) R;
7) x Z1 (P ).
:
z Z1 (P ).
.
0. Z := .
1. i = J(x).
2. i = 0, z = 0 6.
3. s {1, . . . , r}, is
i .
4. u V (ys ) 4.1 4.3.
4.1. 10.2 zu Z1 (P ), u, J(zu ) = i
L(zu ) , .
4.2. zu Z.
4.3. V (ys ) ( u).
5. Z z, L(z) = minz 0 Z L(z 0 ).
6. .
.
10.3. z P ,
10.2.
z x;
L(z) = miny[x] L(y).

194

10.

. i = 0, 10.1 x . 2 z = 0. (10.5) L(0) =


0. , z x L(z) = 0 = miny[x] L(y).
i 6= 0. 3 is = 1 s {1, . . . , r}.
zu Z.
4.1, J(zu ) = i = J(x).
10.1 , zu x. z = zu
u V (ys ), z x.
, , y P [x]. ,
, J(y) = J(x) = i. , Ind([y], [ys ]) = J s (y) = 1
y ys u V (ys ).
zu 4.1 L(zu ) 6
L(y). 5 , L(z) 6 L(zu ) 6 L(y).


[1] .. . . . .: . 1947.
[2] . . . .: . 1976.
[3] .. , .. , .. . . . .: . 1984.
[4] . , . . . . - .: , 1938;
: , 2001.
[5] .. . . .: .
1986.
[6] . , . . .
.: . 1974.
[7] .. , .. . . . .: . 1977.
[8] . . . .: . 1971.
[9] . , . . .
.: . 1956.
[10] .. , .. . . .: . 1989.
[11] . , . . . . .: . 1966.
[12] .. , .. , .. . . - : . "".
2001.
195

196

10.

[13] .. , .. .
2-. .. . : -
. . 2002. . 18. . .
[14] .. .
. ..
. : - . . 2003.
. 21. . 118-120.
[15] . , . , . . : . .: . 2001.
[16] . . , .: . 1988.
[17] .. . Algorithmic classification of 3-manifolds: Problem and
results. .. ,
. 225, 1999, 264-275.
[18] .. , .. .
. : . 1991,
1998.
[19] .. . .
. .: - , 1992.
[20] .. , .. .
. VII
" ", 2001, . 284287.
[21] .. , .. . . . . : - . 2003. . 1. . 132-142.
[22] D. Anick. Computing Rational Homotopy Groups in P-Hard in
Computers in Geometry and Topology, Lecture Notes in Pure and
Applied Mathematics, ed, M. Tangora, Marcel Dekker: New York
(1989).
[23] U. Axen. Computing morse functions on triangulated manifolds. In
Proceedings of the SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SODA),
1999.

2.

197

[24] U. Axen, H. Edelsbrunner. Auditory morse analysis of triangulated


manifolds. In H.-C. Hege and K. Polthier editors. Mathematical
Visualization, p. 223-236. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998.
[25] J. Chao and J. Nacayama, Cubical singular simplex model for 3D
objects and fast computation of homology groups - Proc. IEEE, 190194 (1996).
[26] C.J. A. Delfinado, H. Edelsbrunner. An incremental algorithm for
betti numbers of simplicial complexes on the 3-sphere. Comput. Aided
Geom. Design, 12:771-784, 1995.
[27] T.K. Dey, H. Edelsbrunner, S. Guha. Computational topology. In
Chazelle, B., Goodman, J., and Pollack, R., eds., Advances in Discrete
and Computational Geometry, Providence, 1998. Contemporary
Mathematics, AMS.
[28] T.K. Dey, S. Guha. Optimal algorithms for curves on surfaces. In "Proc.
35th IEEE Ann. Sympos. Found. Comput. Sci. 1995", 266-274.
[29] T.K. Dey, S. Guha. Algorithms for manifolds and simplicial complexes
in Euclidean 3-space. In "Proc. 28th ACM Sympog. Theory Comput.
1996", 398-407.
[30] T.K. Dey, H. Schipper. A new technique to compute polygonal schema
for 2-manifolds with application to null-homotopy detection. Discrete
Comput. Georm. V. 14 (1995), 93-110.
[31] B.R. Donald, D.R. Chang. On the complexity of computing the
homology type of a triangulation - Proc. IEEE, 650-661 (1991).
[32] R. Forman. A discrete morse theory for cell complexes, Geometry,
Topology and Physics for Raoul Bott, International Press, 1994, pp.
112-125.
[33] J. Friedman. Computing Betti numbers via combinatorial Laplacians.
In "Proc. 28th ACM Sympos. Theory Comput. 1996", 386-391.
[34] P.A. Gordienko, A.D. Krakhnov, E.I. Yakovlev. The algorithms
of homology groups basis cycles fast calculation and topological
recognition of a 2D polyhedron. In GraphiCon2001 Conference
Proceedings, Computational Geometry Section, p. 177-181.
[35] Grapo, H. Applications of Geometric Homology, Geometry and
Robotics, Springer-Verlag LNCS 391, ed. Boissonnat and Laumond
(1989).

198

10.

[36] I. Guskov. Wood Z.J. Topological Noise Removal. In GI 2001


proceedings, June 2001, pp. 19-26.
[37] J.C. Hart. Morse theory for implicit surface modeling. In Hege, H.C. and Polthier, K., eds.. Mathematical Visualization, pp. 257-268.
Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1998.
[38] C. Hayat-Legrand, S.V. Matveev, H. Zieschang. Computer calculation
of the degree of maps into the Poincare homology sphere, Preprint
IHES, M/99/11, 1999.
[39] J.R. Kent, R.E. Parent, W.E. Carlson. Establishing correspondences
by topological merging: A new approach to 3d shape transformation.
In Proc. Graphics Interface 91, pages 271-278. Morgan Kaufmann, San
Francisco, Calif., June 1991.
[40] S.V. Matveev. Computer recognition of three-manifolds, Experimental
Mathematics, 1998, V. 7, N. 2, 153 - 161
[41] J. Rubio, F. Sergeraert. Locally effective objects and Algebraic
Topology, in Computational Algebraic Geometry, Birkhauser, 1993, pp.
235-251.
[42] J. Rubio, F. Sergeraert, Y. Siret. EAT: Symbolic Software for Effective
Homology Computation, ftp: //fourier.ujf-grenoble.fr/pub/EAT,
Institut Fourier, Grenoble, 1997.
[43] H. Schipper. Determining contractibility of curves. In "Proc. 8th
Sympos. Comput. Geom. 1992", 358-367.
[44] F. Sergeraert. The computability problem in algebraic topology,
Advances in Mathematics, 1994, vol. 104, pp. 1-29.
[45] Y. Shinagawa, T.L. Kunii, Y.L. Kergosien. Surface coding based on
morse theory. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 11(5), Sep.
1991, pp. 66-78.
[46] G. Taubin, J. Rossignac. Geometric compression through topological
surgery, Research report. IBM (1997).
[47] G. Vegter, C.K. Yap. Computational Complexity of Combinatorial
Surfaces, Proc. 6th ACM Symp. on Computational Geometry, Berkeley,
CA (1990), pp. 102-111.

Оценить