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MOCK PAPER IV ANSWER KEY 1.Covalent bonding 2. (i) Ketone group (ii) Aldehyde group 3.

Agricultural wastes and sewage. 4.Atomic number gives the number of electrons in a neutral atom. The number of electrons in an atom decides its electronic configuration and thus the number of valence electrons. The valence electrons decide the chemical properties of an element. Thus, atomic number is more important than atomic mass in determining chemical properties. 5. Here, f = +40 cm = 40 m 100 1/2 .P=1 f 1/2 = +1 = 100 D 40 m 40 100 1/2 =2.5 D 6. (a) Coal and petroleum contains: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur. (b) Petroleum is also known as mineral oil. 7. (i) Reforesting those forest lands from where large number of trees have been cut. (ii) By taking help from local people. 8. Three problems in particular (i) Social problems because they displace large number of peasants and tribals without adequate compensation or rehabilitation, (ii) Economic problems because they swallow up huge amounts of public money without the generation of proportionate benefits,

(iii) Environmental problems because they contribute enormously to deforestation and the loss of biological diversity.

9. The power of a lens is defined as the reciprocal of its focal length in meters. The SI unit of the power of a lens is dioptre. The negative sign of the power shows that the focal length of the concave lens is negative and thus the power is negative whereas the positive sign of power of convex lens shows that the focal length of convex lens is positive 10. Formation of rainbow: The rainbow is formed when in the sky when sun shines and it is raining at the same time. The raindrops in the atmosphere act like many small prisms. As white light enters and leaves these raindrops the various colours present in white light are refracted by different amount due to which an arch of seven colours called rainbow is formed in the sky. 11. If the object is placed closed to the concave mirror it forms virtual and enlarged image of the object so dentist uses concave mirror to see enlarged image of teeth.

Convex mirror will result in virtual image which is errect but diminished than the actual size. Diminished image of the teeth will not help dentist identify the tooth problem. 12. (a) The testes are located outside the abdominal cavity in scrotum because sperm formation requires a lower temperature than the normal body temperature. (b) The aim of the mechanical barrier of contraception is to prevent the sperms from reaching the egg. 13. . (a)(i) Layering for propagating jasmine. (ii) Stem cuttings/grafting for rose plant. (b) Inside the ovule which is present in the ovary. (c) Advantages of vegetative propagation: (i) It helps in producing similar kinds of plants.

(ii) It helps in producing such plants which do not produce viable seeds, or produce very few seeds. 14.. a) No. This is because all the F1 progeny plants show the genetic makeup Pp, which results in purple flowers. b) Dominant trait is a genetic trait that is expressed in a person who has only one copy of that gene. Recessive trait is a genetic trait that is expressed only when two copies of the gene are present. 15. . (a) Pollination: Transfer of pollen grains from another of a stamen to stigma of a pistil called pollination. Cross-pollination: The transfer of pollen from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower of a different plant of the same species is called cross-pollination. Self-pollination: Transfer of pollen from the anther of a flower to the stigma of the same flower or a flower on the same plant is call self-pollination. (b) Variations are beneficial for species because they give survival advantage even in the adverse environmental conditions. 16. (a) A section of DNA that provides information for one protein is called the gene for that protein. (b) Speciation may takes place when variation is combined with geographical isolation. (c) Black hair.

17.

18. (a) Lithium (Li), sodium (Na), and potassium (K) have a single electron in their outermost shells. (b) Magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) have two electrons in their outermost shells. (c) Neon (Ne), argon (Ar), and xenon (Xe) have filled outermost shells.

19. (a) C2H5OH

Acidified K2Cr2O7 + Heat

CH3COOH

(b) The two properties of carbon that give rise to a large number of compounds are as follows: (i) Catenation It is the ability of carbon to form bonds with other atoms of carbon. (ii) Tetravalency With the valency of four, carbon is capable of bonding with four other atoms of carbon or atoms of some other mono-valent elements.

20. (a) A soap molecule consists of two ends a hydrocarbon tail which is hydrophobic (water repelling) and a polar head which is hydrophilic (water attracting or loving). When soap is dissolved in water, the hydrocarbon tail aligns itself towards the dirt and ionic part aligns itself towards the water. The molecules gather together as clusters, called micelles. When water is agitated, the dirt suspended in the micelles is easily rinsed away. Thus, the cloth gets cleaned.

(b) (i) CH3CHO (Ethanal) (ii) CH3COCH2CH3 (Butan-2-one) (iii) CH3CH2CH2Cl (Chloropropane)

OR (a) (i) CH3COOC2H5 (Ethyl Ethanoate) (ii) CH3COOH (Ethanoic acid), conc. H2SO4 absorbs water produced in the reaction which may otherwise reverse the reaction (b) Catenation, covalent compounds 21.(a) X (Z=12): 2, 8, 2 Y (Z=16): 2, 8, 6

Both these elements are present in third period. An ionic bond is formed between X & Y as a result of transfer of two electrons from X to Y (b) Atomic number = 13 Valency = 3

OR

(a) (i) Tendency to lose electrons decreases (ii) increases. (b) X3(PO4)2 X (NO3)2 XSO4 X belongs to Group II in the periodic table. It will form ionic compounds because it will readily lose 2 electrons.

22. Here, Object Distance, u= -12cm Image distance, v=? Focal Length, f= +8 cm Putting these values in the lens formula:

1/v-1/u=1/f We get, 1/v+1/12=1/8 1/v=1/24

So, Image distance, v = + 24 cm Thus, the image is formed at a distance of 24 cm from the convex lens. The plus sign for image distance shows that the image is formed on the right side of the convex lens.

Magnification, m = v/u Image distance, v = 24 cm Object distance, u = - 12 cm

m=-2 Since the value of magnification is more than one, so the image is larger than the object. The minus sign shows that the image is formed below the principal axis. Hence the image is real and inverted. m = h2/ h1

Magnification, m = -2 Height of object, h1 = + 7 cm Height of image, h2 =? h2 = - 2 x 7 Thus, height of image h2 = -14 cm The minus sign shows that this height is in the downward direction i.e. the image is formed below the axis. Thus the image is real and inverted. (b) (i) For headlights of a car we use a concave mirror and headlight is fitted at the principal focus of the mirror. Thus, we get a powerful, parallel beam of light after reflection from the concave mirror. (ii) A convex mirror is used as a side view mirror of a vehicle. Convex mirror forms erect and diminished image of vehicles coming from behind. Thus, it provides a wider field of view to the driver.

OR (i) Scattering of blue colour in sunlight by earth's atmosphere. (ii) Light has to pass through thicker layers of air and large distance. Shorter wavelengths are scattered away. Only larger wavelength (red) of light reaches us. (iii) No atmosphere, no scattering of light. (iv) Due to atmospheric refraction of starlight and physical conditions of earth's atmosphere not being stationary. (v) Planets are much closer to earth and are seen as extended sources.

23. (a) As the image formed is of the same size as that of the object, it can be said that the object & image are located at 2F on the either side of the lens.

(b)

(c) (i) -25cm, - 20cm, -10cm, -5cm. Lens arranged in decreasing order of focal length would correspond to increasing bending power.

(ii) Lens with same numerical value of focal lengths, irrespective of signs, will show same bending powers. (+5cm, -5cm); (+10cm, -10 cm) (iii) Yes, a convex and a concave lens of same numerical value of focal lengths will show similar bending power.

However a convex lens of focal length +10cm will exhibit converging power, whereas a concave lens of focal length -10cm will exhibit diverging power. Consequently, both these lens will show similar extent of bending power.

OR (a) The linear magnification produced by a mirror is equal to the ratio of the image distance to the object distance, with a minus sign. (b) The power of a lens has positive sign, so it is a convex lens. Power, P = 1/f

+2.5 = 1/f f = 1 /2.5 m 1/2.5 X 100 cm So, focal length, f = 40 cm. (c) When the object is between focus and optical centre of a convex lens then the image formed is:

24.(a)

(b) (i) The development of foetus inside the uterus till birth is called gestation. (ii)Carnation and Dahlia. (iii) Sporangium. OR (a)Placenta is a special tissue in the form of a disc embedded in the uterine wall. Two functions of placenta are: (i) Placenta allows the passage of nutrients and oxygen from the mothers blood to the embryo. (ii) The waste substances generated by the developing embryo can be removed by transferring them into the mothers blood through the placenta. (b) (i) Gonorrhoea and syphilis (ii) Warts and HIV-AIDS

SECTION B 25.(d) 26.(b)

27.(d) 28.(a) 29.(c) 30.(b) 31.(b) 32.(a) 33.(b) 34.(a) 35.(c) 36.(c) 37.(b) 38.(c) 39.(a) 40.(b) 41.(b) 42.(a)