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ANCIENT ISRAELITES

Chapter 6

Beginnings

Abraham
Important

religious figure Lived during the rule of Hammurabi Believed in only one god
Monotheism

God

made a covenant with Abraham

Special

agreement Promised the land of Canaan.

The Exodus

Abraham -> Isaac -> Jacob (Israel)


12

sons Became known as Israelites

Moved to Egypt
Moses

led a revolt against the Egyptians Exodus


Large

movement of people from place to place

The Exodus

Lasted many years Lack of food and water Disagreements Ten Commandments
Set

of laws for responsible behavior Important part of Judaism


The

religion of the Jewish people

Judiasm

Teaches that God is just and that Gods virtues must be imitated A persons service to God is measured by how many good deeds he or she has done for other people Torah
First

five books of the Hebrew Bible

Kingdom of Israel

Saul
First

king of the Israelites

Kingdom of Israel most powerful during the reigns of King David and King Solomon
Solomon
The

built a grand temple

First Temple Holiest site in all of Jerusalem

After Solomon died, Israel split into 2 parts.

Israel

Northern Kingdom
Made

up of 10 tribes Called Israel Conquered by the Assyrians

Southern Kingdom
Made

up of 2 tribes Called Judah Conquered by the Babylonians


Enslaved

and exiled the Jewish people

Forced to leave country and live somewhere else

The Diaspora

Romans now in control Jewish and Roman revolts


Romans

destroyed many valuables Jews settled outside of the region


Diaspora

Greek for scatter

Jews built synagogues


Houses

of worship

Phoenicia

Consisted of separate city-states


Byblos,
Each

Sidon, Tyre, and Berytus

had their own King

Center for commerce Borrowed Egyptian burial practices & hieroglyphics Borrowed Babylonian cuneiform (writing) Built settlements all around the Mediterranean Sea
Established
Area

colonies

of land ruled by a government in another land

Phoenician Alphabet

One of the most important innovations 22 letters could be combined to form any word Simpler than hieroglyphics or cuneiform People began to master the art of writing Spread to other colonies
Israelites

-> Greeks -> Estruscans -> Romans

Lydia

Kingdom of Lydia a very wealthy place First people to use coined money Bartering
Exchange

for goods with other goods (NOT MONEY)

Created coins
First

coin was size of a bean Mixture of gold and silver First known mark was a Lions head.

Created Money Economy


An

economic system based on the use of money (NOT

Persian Empire

Cyrus the Great


Person

most responsible for building the Persian

Empire Son of a noble


People

of high rank or title in a society.

Skilled

military leader Huge army

Persian Empire

The Persian Infantry


Soldiers

trained for fighting mainly on foot Well protected by bronze helmets and shields

The Persian Calvary


Soldiers

who fought on horseback, camels or

chariots Made swift attacks

Cyrus the Great


Treated

the people he conquered with respect Only battle he lost was the battle in which he died

Darius, the Organizer

Divided the empire into 20 territories


Satrapies

Each territory had a governor


Satrap

Developed a relay system for communication


Couriers

on horseback

Messengers

Secret Service
Eyes

and ears of the king.

Religion

Polytheism
Belief

in many gods

Zoroastrianism
Based

on the belief of one god Zarathustra


Founder Prophet

Person who is believed to speak or write with a message from God or a god.