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# .. . .

( .. .. )

.
. .

:
: a n ln k n .
k 0 k 0 .
bn n k . k
k 0 .

0 -

( ): cn q n . q 1 q 1 .
n! - .

n n - .
,
,
. .

, , ,
.
, , ,
.

,
.

.
lim
n

ln n
n

k n
lim n q

0;

ln 2 n

lim

10 n

0;

lim
n

0 k q

n 20
1,01n

0;

lim
n

10n
n!

0;

1.

. , , , lim n k q n
n

n
0 lim n

1.

!
,
.
1. lim

3n 2 17n 24

. ( 4n 2 5n cos n
, ) . -
n

.. . .
( .. .. )

. :
3n 2 17n 24

lim

4n 2

= lim

5n cos n n

3n 2 (1 . . . .)

= lim

4n 2 (1 . . . .) n

3 (1 .. ..)
4 (1 .. ..)

17n
4n 2

3
.
4

.. ( ).
2. lim
n

= lim
n

2n
2n 2

3n
3n 1

3 n ( . . 1)
3 n 1 ( . 1 . )

3. lim

3n ( (2 / 3 ) n 1)

lim

n3

3n 1 ( 8 ( 2 / 3 ) n 1 1 n 3 / 3n 1 )

= 3.

(n 1)! 132n

sin(n !)

.
14n 15 )
: . (n 1)! (1 .. )
. lim
. ,
2 (1 . .)
(
(
n
1
)!
(
1

.)
)
3
n
n
n ( n 1) ( 1 .. ) 1
.
(n 1)! (n 1)! n (n 1) , lim
3
3n 2 ( 1 .. )
n
n

( ( n 1)! 4 n 1 ) ( 3n 2

4. (

n2

lim

).

3n 15 n . -

n2

lim

n2

3n 15 n 2

n2

3n 15

=
n2

= lim

n2

3n 15 n

n (3 15 / n)

= lim

3n 15 n

3n 15

1 3 / n 15 / n 2

= lim
n

3 ..

3
.
1 .. 1 2
=

.
1.1. lim
n

1.4. lim
n

1.7. lim
n

1.10 lim
n

4n 2

3n 3

4n 3

n 10

7 5n 1 5 4 n 1
3n

2 5n 2

2 sin(n 3 1) 4n 2
11 (4n n 3 )
((n 2)! 5 n 1)
(5 7 n 2 ) n !

1.2 lim
n

5n 3

2n 4

4n 2

n 100

1.5. lim
n

1.8. lim
n

1.11. lim
n

1.3. lim
n

4 3n 1 3 4 n 1
4 n 1 3n 2

4n 3

4n sin n! n 2
4n 9n 3

7n 4

n 3 14

4n 2

3n 4 1

1.6. lim
n

1.9. lim
n

## ((n 1)! 2(n !) cos n) 3 n 1

(2 3 n

n !) 3 n

3 2n 1 4 2 n 1
2n

5 3 2n 1

4n 2n 2
cos n 3n 4

2n 4
3n 2

.. . .
( .. .. )

ln(n 5

1.12. lim
n

3n

2n)

1.13. lim

2n 3

1.15. lim ( n 2

sin n ! ln(n 2)

n2

7n 3

1.14. lim
n

2n 3

1.16. lim ( 4n 2

2n )

9n 3

4n 2

sin n 3

ln(4n 3

2)

3n )

3
1.17. lim ( 8n

4n 2 3n )

9n 3

. .

x
:
: f ( x) ln k x . x
, k 0 , k 0 .
: g ( x) x k . x
k 0 . x
.

, k 0 ,
, -

: h( x) a x . x
, a 1 ,
, 0 a 1 . x
, , , 0 a 1 , , a 1 (
!).
, , ,
.

.
ln x
lim
x
x

0,

ln 2 x

lim

10

k x

0;

lim

x 20
1,01x

0;

0 k.

lim x e
x

. .

!
5. lim
x

6. lim
x

7. lim
x

5x 2
4x

21x 24
51x sin 2 x

5x 2

2x 1

4x 2

2x 1

5x 2

2x 1

x 1

4x

= lim
x

lim
x

lim
x

5 6: x
, x 2 . x

5 x 2 (1 . .)
3

4 x (1 . .)

= lim
x

2 x 1 (1 . .)

4.

2 x 1 (1 . .)
5 x 2 (1 . .)
2

4 x (1 . .)

5 1
=0.
4 x

5
.
4

2 x ,

2 x ,

7 x 2 .
3

.. . .
( .. .. )

.
4x3

2.1. lim

3e 2 x

e 3x

2 x 3 3e 3x

(3x 6

2.3. lim

e x

2.5. lim

6e x

5e 2 x

3e 2 x

4e x

3x 2

5x 2

2.6. lim

32x 5

2.4. lim

4x3

2.7. lim

0, x

4e 2 x

5x 4

5x 3

16x 4

sin x

4x 1

32x 5
5

cos x

e 3x

5x 2

2.5. lim

4x 1
5x 4

3e 2 x

2 x 3 3e 3x

4x 2

3x12
x
4e x 3e 2 x

2.2. lim

4e 2 x

x) ln(1 3x)

e 2 x sin 1

sin x

cos x

3x 5

2x3

sin 2 x

0 . .

0, x

x 0 :
: f ( x) ln k x . x
, k 0 , k 0 .

0 -

0 , k 0 ,
: g ( x) x k . x
0 , k 0 . x
.
a x x 0 ,
,
k

a1 / x . , 21 / x

0, e

1/ x2

1/

0
x 0 . e 1 / x x
0 . ( .)
x
,
, .
.

, .
n10

8. lim

e n

n
n

t,

= lim

t 20
et

0.

().
3.1. lim 3 x ln x
x

e 1/ x

3.2. lim
x

3.4. lim x e x

10

ex
0 x

3.5. lim
x

## 3.3. lim x100 e 1 / x

.. . .
( .. .. )

0
.
0

!
5x 2

21x ( 1 (5 / 21) x )
21x ( 1 .. )
21
7
= = lim
=
=
.
51
17
51x x 0 51x ( 1 (4 / 51) x )
x 0 4x
x 0 51x ( 1 .. )
: , .. , ,
.
x 6 3
( x 6 3) ( x 6 3)
10. lim
= lim
=
2
5 x 24 x 3 ( x 2 5 x 24) ( x 6 3)
x 3 x
( x 6 3)
1
1
= lim
= lim
= .
x 3 ( x 3)( x 8)( x 6 3) x 3 ( x 8)( x 6 3) 66
9. lim

21x

= lim

.
x2

4.1. lim
x

4.7. lim
x 1

x 7
x3

4.4. lim

3x 2

x 11 3

4.2. lim
x

3x 7

1 x2

4.5. lim
x

3x 2 5 x 2
2 x 2 3x 5

x 2

6 x x2
3 x3

4.6. lim

2 x 21

3x 2

5x 2

2 2x 2

3x 5

4.8. lim
x

x2

x 2

4.3. lim

x2

.
( .)
sin x
0 x

1.

.
tg x
1 cos x
5.3. lim
x2
x 0 x
x 0
arctg x
sin x sin a
cos x cos a
5.4. lim
5.5. lim
5.6. lim
x
x a
x a
x 0
x a
x a
tg x tg a
ctg x ctg a
5.7. lim
5.8. lim
x a
x a
x a
x a
.
sin 5 x
x
x 0

5.1. lim

5.2. lim

.
1
. lim 1
n
n

3x 2 5 x 2
2 x 2 3x 5

. .

lim

.. . .
( .. .. )

1
lim 1
n
n

. e

11. lim

3n 1

= lim

n 2

n
n

( 3n 1)

n 2
n

3n 1

2 2
n
= lim 1
= e 6.
n
n
.
.

6.1. lim
n

6.3. lim
n

n 1
n

2n

2n
6.2. lim
2n 2
n

3 7n
5

n 4
n 2

6.4. lim
n

2n 3
2n 1

3n 4
5

5n 2
3

.
,
7.1. lim 1
x

1
x

## 7.2. lim (1 x)1 / x

x

ex 1
(1 x) p 1
7.5. lim
1
x
x
x 0
x 0
.
7.4. lim

ln x ln a
x a
x a

7.6. lim

ln(1 x)
x
x 0

7.3. lim

ex ea
x a x a

7.7. lim

p
xn an
x a x a

7.8. lim

o-.
. f g x

a ( f ~ g

a ), lim f ( x) 1 .
x

g ( x)

.
. , h = o(f) x a ( h o- f),
h
h( x) f ( x) ( x) , (x) - x a .
f g .
. f ~ g x a , g f o( f ) x a (
f g o(g ) ).
.
x 0 :
sin x ~ x
sin x x o( x) ;
ln(1 x) ~ x
ln(1 x) x o( x) ;
6

.. . .
( .. .. )

ex 1 ~ x

ex

1 cos x ~ x 2 / 2
arcsin x ~ x
tg x ~ x
arctg x ~ x

1 x o( x) ;
1 x 2 / 2 o( x 2 ) ;
x o( x) ;
o(x) ;
x o(x) ;

cos x
arcsin x
tg x x
arctg x

(1 x) p 1 ~ px

p 0

(1 x) p

. (1 x) p
p 0 .
z 1
ln z ~ z 1

1 px o( x) .

1 px o( x)

ln z

z 1 o( z 1)

. .
12. C n, 3 tg 2 (e 2 x
3 tg 3 (e

. x 0
, C=24, n=6.

2 x2

1) ~ 3 (e

2 x2

1) ~ Cx n x

0.

1) 3 ~ 3 ( 2 x 2 ) 3 = 24x 6 .

.
, .
sin 5 x
=
x
x 0

13. lim

14. lim ( 2n 2

n) arctg

2
= lim ( 2n ) (1 ..)

3n 2
2n 3

5x
x 0 x
3n 2

= lim

sin 5x ~ 5x

2n 3

5.

arctg

3n 2
2n 3

3n 2

4 2n 3

3
2n 2

3.
2n 2
15. ( , o(x) .)
5x
5x
5x
lim
= lim
= lim
= 5.
x 0 sin 4 x 3x x 0 4 x o( x) 3x x 0 x (1 . .)
n

00 , 0 1 .

x ?
0
x

exp(t)

et .

16. lim (cos x)
=
=
x
0 x2
x
0

.. . .
( .. .. )

exp ( lim
x

1
0 x2

x

1
0 x2

x2
)) = e 1 / 2 .
2

17.

## lim ( x 1)1 / ln x = lim exp

x

x
x 1
x 3

18. lim
x

x 1
x 3

= exp

ln

1
ln( x 1) = .
ln x

3x 2 2
x =

exp

3x 2 2
ln
lim
x
x

x 1
x 3

x 1
x 1
4
4
~
1
~
=
x 3
x 3
x 3
x

3x 2 2
lim
x
x

4
x

= e 12 .
3x 2
2x

x 1
2x 3

19. lim
x

(1 / 2 ) 3 / 2 .

.
20. A

lim

8x 3

6x 2

4x 2

4 x 17

: x
)
)

8x

4x 2

1/ 3

3
6x = 2x 1
4x
2

= 2x 1

1
o(1 / x)
4x

= 2 x 1 / 2 o(1) ;

1/ 2

4 x 17 = 2 x

, A

lim

1
1
= ( 2 x) 1
o(1 / x) =
o(1 / x)
2x
x
( 2 x 1 / 2 o(1) ( 2 x 1 o(1)) )
3/ 2.

2x 1 o(1) .

.
8.1. : sin 3 1 5 tg 2 3x 1 ~ Cx n x

0 . n.

8.2. : sin 3 (5 4 x
1) ~ Cx n x 0 . C n.
8.3. ,
.
:
) f ( x)

o( x) x

) f ( x)

o( x 3 ) x

) f ( x) o( x 2 ) x
:
1) f ( x)

x2

x4

3) f ( x)

x2 cos x4

) f ( x)

o( x 2 ) x

) f ( x)

o( x) x

) f ( x)

o( x 3 ) x

2) f ( x)

x2

4) f ( x)

2
x (e 1 / x 1)

sin x 4

.. . .
( .. .. )
2

5) f ( x) x e 1 / x
8.4. C n,
) f (x) ~ Cx n x
3

8.5. :

8 x 3 15x 2

ax b o(1) x

.
5x
8.6. lim
sin 4 x 3x
x
8.9. lim (3n 4) tg
n

5n 2

7n 3

4n

3n 2
2n 3

3x 2
5x

1 /( x 1)
8.16. lim x
x

## 8.21. lim (3x

3
1) 5 4 ln x

8.22. lim
x

ln(e 2 x sin 4 x)
tg (sin 7 x)
x 0

8.23. lim

x)

8.26. lim
x

5
2x

e
8
1 cos | 3x |

sin (2 4 x

3
8.19. lim
x
0 x

tg ( x / 2)

x 1

## 8.25. lim ln(1 6 x) ( x 4

8.13. lim x1 / ln x
x

8.18. lim 2 x

6
2 ln 4 x 1
8.20. lim
x
0 sin 3x

1 / ln x
8.15. lim x

x 5
2x 4

n) arctg

1/ x
8.12. lim x

ln(1 4 x)

8.17. lim

1 4x 6x
4x

8.8 lim

tg 3x

8.10. lim ( 2n 2

8.14. lim x x
x

. a b.

ln(1 5 x )

8.7. lim

## 8.11. lim ln(1 2 x) ln 5 2 x

x

) f (x) ~ Cx n x

1 / ln( 5 sin 2 x )

x 2
1
2 2
x

)
1

4 x)

.
x

0
x2
2!

x
1
1!

...

xn
n!

o( x n ) ,

cos x 1

x2
2!

x4
4!

...

sin x

x3
3!

x5
5!

( 1) n x 2n 1
...
(2n 1) !

( 1) n x 2n
(2n) !

o( x 2n 1 ) ,
o( x 2 n 2 ) ,

x 2 x3
( 1) n 1 x n
...
o( x n ) ,
2
3
n
p
p p 1 2
p p 1
p n 1 n
(1 x) p 1
x
x
...
...
x
o( x n )
1
1 2
1 2
n
. sin x cos x .
.
ln (1 x)

x
1

.. . .
( .. .. )

. , x
1) tg x

x3
3

2) arcsin x

3) arctg x

0:

o( x 4 ) ;

x3
o( x 4 ) ;
6
x3
o( x 4 ) .
3

. tg x

sin x
, arcsin (sin x)
cos x

x arctg (tg x)

x.

ln(1 6 x) 6 x
. ,
x 0 arcsin x tg 4 x

21. lim

ln(1 6 x) 6 x

lim
x

4x

, , o( x 2 ) .

1
(6 x) 2 o( x 2 ) 6 x
18x 2
2
18x 2 o( x 2 )
9
ln(1 6 x) 6 x
= lim
=
.
lim
2
x 0 arcsin x tg 4 x x 0
4x 2

ln(1 6 x) 6 x

6x

o( x 2 ) .

.
9.1. ,
.
:
) f ( x)

o( x) x

) f ( x)

o( x 3 ) x

0
0

) f ( x) o( x 2 ) x
:
1)
3)
5)
7)

f ( x)
f ( x)
f ( x)
f ( x)

) f ( x)

o( x 2 ) x

) f ( x)

o( x) x

) f ( x)

sin x2 x2
ln(1 x) x
arcctg x x
sin x x

2)
4)
6)
8)

f ( x)
f ( x)
f ( x)
f ( x)

o( x 3 ) x

sin x x
arctg x x
sin x x
sin x x

9) f ( x) x 2 x 4
9.2. C n,
) f (x) ~ Cx n x
9.3. : (2 x 2

3x ) cos

) f (x) ~ Cx n x

ax b o(1) x

2x

. a b.

9.4. a, b, c , :
) (3x 3 3x 2 )

ln 1

2
x

2
x

ax b

c
x

1
x
x

10

.. . .
( .. .. )

) (2 x 2

e 3/ x

2 x)

ax b

c
x

1
x
x

, .
4x

9.5. lim

1
2
2x e x

sin 1

2x

1
(1 3 x) 3 x

9.6. lim
x

4x

0
2

9.7. lim

0 e2x

4 tg x

9.9. lim
x

1
cos 2 x 1

3x

9.8 lim
x

9.11. lim

0 e2x

1 cos 2 x 3 x 2
2x 2
x 0

9.10. lim

1
1

ln(cos3 x 2 )

ln(1 2 x 2 ) cos 2 x 1

e 2 x cos 2 x 1

1 6x 2

9.12. lim
x

1 6x

e2x

arcsin x 2

.
1. lim n sin
n

1
n

sin x
x

5. lim
x

8. lim x (ln( x 1)
x

1
1
sin x
sin n 3. lim n cos
4. lim
n
n
n
n
x 0 x
sin x
6. lim
7. lim x (ln( x 1) ln x)
x 1
x 1 x
3 x sin 2 x
3x sin 2 x
9. lim
10. lim
6 sin x 5 x
x 0 6 sin x 5 x
x
2. lim

ln x)

11. lim ( 4n 2

5n 1

4n 2

## 12. lim (2n

n)

2
13. lim (n
n

3) tg

1
n 2

ln(3x 2)

3 x sin 2 x

25. lim
x

x3

lim

20.
x

sin x 3 ln 3 x
x

ln(1 2 x) e 2 x

2x

17. lim
x 1 sin( x 2 1)

19. lim
6 sin x 5 x
x

6x

sin(1 x)

lim

4x 2

lim

14.

16. lim
x 1 ln(2 x 1)

22.

3) sin

23. lim
x 3

26. lim
x

3x sin 2 x
sin x 5 x
/2

cos2 x
x

cos2 3
3

e2x

1 6x

0 cos 2 x arcsin x 2

11

7n 2
3n 2

4n 5
ln x ln 3
3 x

15. lim
x 3
18. lim
x

23 x

0 3x 2

5x 2 1
21 x

3 x sin 2 x
1 6 sin x 5 x

21. lim
x

tg 2 x tg 2 4
x 4
4

24. lim
x

ln(1 6 x) 6 x

27. lim
x 0 arcsin x (3 x

1)

.. . .
( .. .. )

cos 4 x 1 8 x 2

28. lim
x

0 (2 x

1) tg (2 x 3 )

3 x ln 2 x
31. lim
x
x
3x 2

5x 2

1 2x 2

3x 5

34. lim
x

23 x

3x 2

43. lim

2x 3
9 x

46.

lim
x

49.

2 0

lim

21 x

2 2x 2

3x

32 x
5x 4

41. lim

cos(3x)

36. lim

31 x

3x 3
x 3

3 /( 4 2 x)

47. lim
x 0

ex

lim

39.
x

4 / x2

sin x

lim
x

3/ x

2 0

ln(3 x 3

5e 3 x )

53. lim

1 4 x ln(1 4 x) sin 4 x
x3

55. lim

9x 5
3

2
2 x) 3 ln x 2

ln(1 6 x) 6 x 18x 2
2

arcsin x tg 4 x

56.

e 6 x cos(6 2 x)
x3

tg x tg 2 x

lim
x

/4

12

3x 5

1 4x
23 x

e2x
5x 2 1

3x 2

ex

12x 5
52. lim (ln(4 x 5e 3x )
)
4
x
54. lim

2x 2

2x 3
7 x

lim

48.
x

50. lim (3

5x 2

21 x

0 0

5 /( 6 2 x)

45.

3x 2

x (2 / ln x)

lim

42.

e 3x

0 cos x arcsin x 2

44. lim

1 3/ x

3x 2

1 6x

0 cos 2 x arctgx2

33. lim

3 /( 4 2 x)

1)

51. lim

5x

lim

38.

5x 2 1

5 2x
x 9

ex

3x 2

35. lim

30. lim

sin x ln 2 x
x

37. lim
x 0 sin 2 x tg (2 x 2 )
lim

0 arcsin x (e 9 x

lim

32.

cos 4 x 1 8 x 2

40.

29. lim

1 12x

5 /( 4 2 x)

sin x 1

3/ x