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1.

Explain Defect nanostructuring


Defects are generated on a metal surface, and the holes generated in this way are later decorated through deposition of the foreign metal Creation of defects is achieved by the application of ultrashort (10 ns) voltage pulses to the tip of an electrochemical STM arrangement Example: A polymer-coated Pt ultramicroelectrode is used as the tip of a STM, and graphite is used as substrate. Ag atoms are deposited on the tip at underpotentials, a first bias pulse is applied to the tip, causing the formation of a shallow pit. Then a second bias pulse with a smaller amplitude is applied to cause the desorption of silver from the tip.

2. What is the disadvantage of TIMD and what are the alternatives


As simple as it seems, experiments attempted by this technique are not always successful, depending very strongly on the nature of the materials involved. The method works well and reproducibly for several combinations of metals, in particular for copper and palladium clusters on Au(111) (cohesive energy of Cu and Pd in lower than Au) For other combinations, such as Cu on Ag(111) and Ni on Au(111), cluster formation is not observed but surface damage instead A systematic study with different metal couples shows that a necessary condition for nanostructuring is that the binding energies of the metals involved are similar. Localized electrochemical nucleation and growth is much better (more generalized types) That can be used with Cu on Ag and Ni on Au This technique also appears as a very promising one, since there is no restriction concerning the nature of the adsorbate and the substrate

3. Compare by drawing the 4 types of nanostructuring


Defect NS TIMD Localized nucleation and growth Electronic contact NS

4. What is the common feature between all SPM techniques The common feature of all SPM techniques is that a solid probe with a sharp tip (its size determines the locality of the signal measured) is physically scanned by means of piezoelectric translators over the surface of a sample, with a separation between the tip and the sample of the order of angstroms .