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Professor of Mechanical Engineering (Retd)
Institute of Technology
Banaras Hindu University

Institute of Future Design

(Former National Vice President)
(Vijnana Bharati)

Technical advisor
Invertis Group of Technological Institutions
Bareilly (U.P.)




United Nations Organization says: For the next 10 years we must focus on education
for sustainable development. Development that meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs is
sustainable. It includes aspects such as peace, environmental integrity and human
rights, and requires us to reassess our concept of “progress”. The U.N. Earth Charter
says, “…… it is imperative that we, the peoples of Earth, declare our responsibility to
one another, to the greater community of life and to future generations”.
(The Times of India, January 25, 2005)

To achieve the aforesaid goal of sustaibability, we will have to draw knowledge from
the richest veins of human wisdom, both past and present.

To-day our survival requires a total change within ourselves. To achieve this, eduation
needs enhancing and strengthing the following human capacities:

The wisdom to perceive the interconnectedness of life and living; the courage not to
fear or deny difference, but to respect and strive to undersand people of different
cultures, and to grow from encounters with them; the compassion to maintain an
imaginative empathy that reaches beyond one’s immediate surroundings and extends
to those suffering in distant places.

Now, I pose following questions that need answers in connection with ancient wisdom 
of India:

1. Why is there an advanced scientific language like Sanskrit?

2. Why did the ancients need sub-micro measurements to the level of a trasrenu (nano range)?
3. Why is there such an advanced Architecture as Vaastu Shastra?
4. Why is there such an advanced mathematics as Vedic Ganit?
5. Why is there a science of life as Ayurveda?
6. Why is there a discipline like Yoga?
7. Why is there Indian Surgery, Metallurgy, numerals, chemistry, agriculture, ecological
concepts, time concepts, Ancient aviation science of Hindus, etc.?

Apparent combined answer to all the above raised questions is: There was an advanced
scientific Hindu Society in the remote past. The principles of its sciences are so dvanced that
not only these are applicable to-day but these are also suitable for the future base building of
modern science.
I shall continue to write my impressions about it and shall solicit querries.



Miracle inventions and discoveries provided by the modern day science are transforming
man’s environment. Age of intelligent machines has begun. Artificial intelligence, robotics,
nano-technology, cloning, genome etc. are indicators of an altogether new journey of man.
This modern day science has passed through many stages of radical developments. Most
important amongst these are:

1. The universe of Rene Descartes and Newton ( a big machine)

2. Relativity of Einstein
3. Quantum Mechanics
4. Thermodynamics
5. Darwin’s Evolutionary Theory
6. Recent developments related to the study of consciousness

Influence of these scientific developments has revolutionized the present day life. Man is
seemingly getting drowned in the global consumer culture. He is trying to unify himself with
machines. His appetite for collection is crossing all limits. This situation is leading towards
destabilization of ecological balance and severe crisis on all fronts of life. What a strange
situation it is! On one hand man seems to have obtained most satisfying artifacts for his life
and on the other he is terribly afraid of the onslaught of instability in life. In order to provide
a stable life environment, it appears, science needs a new base and in its search for one such
base it is approaching towards Ancient Indian Sciences. In the past also Ancient Indian
Sciences made fundamental contributions to the development of science. Eminent scholars of
the world like Shrodinger, Capra, David Bohm, Rhinecourte, Zukov, Talbot are amongst
those who have recognized this strength of Indian Ancient Sciences and they consider ancient
Indian Sciences as the center for the generation of new waves for the modern scientific
thought. Let us analyze and review these two scenarios (modern science spectrum vis-à-vis
Ancient Indian Science panorama).

History of Western science:

History of science begins with Thales of Miletus (640 -656 B.C.). The first recorded and
important land mark is due to Pythagorus (570 -497 B.C.). Atomism starts with Democritus
(460 -370 B.C.). These are the initial stages of science. Science took a definitive turn with the
findings of Copernicus (1473 -1543 A.D.) which are contained in his De revolutionibus.
Thereafter Tycho Brahe (1546 -1601A.D.), Johans Kepler (1571 -1630 ), Galileo Galilei
(1564 – 1642) appeared on the scene to put this on a firm pedestal. Rene Descarte (1637)
provided the analytical geometry and postulated the identity of space and matter which led to
the beginning of a new chapter. If we classify the areas of science until then, three lines
emerge: 1. Astronomy (Main scientists: Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Kepler, Galileo,
Huygens). 2. Mechanics (Main scientists: Stevin, Galileo, Huygens) and 3. Optics ( Main
scientists: Galileo, Kepler, Descartes, Huygens).

Journey of the western science is invalidation of one theory and its substitution by another in
its place. .Galileo invalidated the Aristotles’s theory of falling bodies and killed his physics.
Newton changed the Copernicus and Galilean theories [Observations of Galileo, Tycho Brahe
and Kepler provided Newton induction for his three laws of motion and law of universal
gravitation. Descartes was the leading philosophy behind Newtonian Physics].

The two most dominating scientists of the seventeenth century Huygenes (1629-1695) and
Sir Issac Newton (1642-1727) (Principia Mathematica and Opticks are two most outstanding
books of Newton which led to the transformation of seventeenth century science) opened
gates for further development of western science. At that point of time the predominant
method of the study of Nature was MECHANISTIC.

In 1905 A. Einstein published a small paper on Special Theory of Relativity wherein the
equivalence of mass and energy was established. Matter dominated science world of that time
got completely destroyed. Quantum Mechanics came on the scene and in 1927 Heissenberg
brought the final and catastrophic earthquake in science. He showed: Fundamental particles
like electron will remain eternally unknowable to man.The cause and effect relation do not
simply apply in the world of New Physics.

Works of Einstein, Bohr, Heissenberg and Schrodinger were aimed at the quest of the
ultimate stuff of the universe. Research turned into a wild goose chase.

It is interesting to note at this juncture that the relativity theory which revolutioned science
was little understood at that point of time. An observation is worth recording: According to
some accounts, a journalist told Eddington in the early 1920s that he heard there were only
three people in the world who understood general relativity. Eddington paused, and replied,” I
am trying to think who the third person is.”

At this time a new dimension was added by Eddington, though not recognized. Eddington
said: It is the scientist who admits consciousness as a fact and he is aware that but for
knowledge by consciousness, scientific investigation could not begin. Max Plank adds: As a
paleontologist reconstructs an extinct monster from its footprints so also a scientist constructs
his ideas from the messages from consciousness.

Most important milestones in the journey of science were due to the works of Newton,
Einstein, Bohr and Plank. Then Field Theories appeared on the scene with attempts to unify
all the four forces of nature. Most recent (2004) is the superstring theory. Noble prize for
physics (2004) has been awarded for work on interaction of quarks with reference to
superstrings. This is the up-to date history of the modern science.

Bronowski writes: Relativity derives essentially from the philosophical analysis which insists
that there is not a fact and an observer, but it is necessary to join the two in an observation.
The conclusion is that the event and observer are not separable.

During this entire course of journey spiritual values were devalued and disrespected. A
new religion emerged: Scientific materialism.

What are the problems which science faces to-day?

Universe remains a mystery. Problems of life are far from basic comprehension. One of the
hottest areas of research in physics is the problem of Consciousness. Over and above
everything else the fast deteriorating ecological balance of the earth has become a matter of
central concern. It may not be easy to answer the cause of the present day situation but some
concrete vision can be had by looking at what Stephan Hawking wrote in his world famous
book (A brief history of science). He says in conclusion:

“Up to now, most scientists have been too occupied with the development of new theories
that describe what the universe is rather than to ask the question why.”
“……. However, if we do discover a complete theory, it should in time be understandable in
broad principles by everyone, not just a few scientists. Then we shall all, philosophers,
scientists and just ordinary people, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of
why it is that we and the universe exist. If we find the answer to that, it would be the ultimate
triumph of human reason------ for then we would know the mind of GOD.”

Shrodinger was the first to fire a salvo when he said that the solution to modern day science
problems lie in the Vedantic literature of Hindus. Capra saw Shiv’s Tandav Nritya in the
solution of problems of interaction of elementary particles. Gary Zukov tried to solve
problems related to intellectual entrenchment and intellectual openness in the famous

A basic question, now, must be raised as to what were the basic inputs to the western science
of history. A glance at the global scenario, at different periods of time, would reveal that these
basic inputs were from India. It is a historical fact that the western science used Bhartiya
Gyan as basic inputs for its developments, e.g. numerals, ZERO, decimal system, Shulb
Sutras, Surgery etc.

We must remember some Basics of investigation according to which no fundamental

breakthrough in knowledge is possible. These are:
(1) Knowing the global past developments
(2) Freeing one from the existing theories and notions
(3) Using ones own ingenuity to arrive at new conclusions.
We must keep the above in mind while assessing contributions of India to the western science.

To know and appreciate the real strengths of ancient Bharatiya Science and Technology, it is
necessary to provide an account of its past scientific and technological achievements which
are available to-day and are still not only relevant but also can be used by the modern day
science and technology for their future bases.
Is there any Bharatiya science worth it? Does India possess anything which can
motivate a modern scientist to look into our old scriptures?

Let us study the history of Indian (Bharatiya) Sciences with respect to the above stated


Hindu science history dates back to many millennia past. Science is not new to 
India. As a matter of fact science is the spirit of India. It is clear that right from the 
Vedic period science dominated the Indian scene. Indian contributions to the science 
of life (Ayurveda), mathematics and astronomy were both original and fundamental, 
and it is these that laid the foundations of modern science in the world. Indians were 
the first to look upon grammar as a science, and its value is now recognized when one 
attempts   at   schemes   for   machine   translation   from   one   language   to   another.   Very 
fundamental questions on time, matter, energy, consciousness and reality were widely 
discussed   by   ancient   Indians.   Till  about   19th   century   when   the   British   colonized 
India, there was a well­recognized superiority for Indian Science in the whole world.

A   parallel   story   of   superiority   and   even   supremacy   could   be   told   about   Indian 
technology as well. It is a fact that one of the prized possessions that Alexander took 
from India during his raids in 3rd century BC was a ball of Indian steel. From that day 
to the day of wootz steel and Damascus sword upto 19th Century, metallurgy had been 
a strong point of Indian technology. Look at some of the technological marvels of 
India   spanning   over   a   period   of   5000   years:   Taj   Mahal   (17th   Century   AD); 
Brihadeswara Temple at Tanjore and thousands of similar temples ( 10th Century 
AD);  Ajanta, Ellora, Sanchi, and many  Buddhist monuments ( 5th century BC to 5th 
Century   AD);   and   Lothal,   Mohen   Jo   Daro   and   Harappan   civilizations   (   3rd 
millemium BC). All these and many other technological marvels have no equivalents 
anywhere in the world. 

To appreciate the real strengths of Indian Ancient Sciences, it is necessary to provide 
an account of our past scientific achievements which are available till to­day. We give 
below   only   some   of   those   scientific   achievements   of   the   past   which   modern   day 
science and technology can use to build new bases for their future course.

A glimpse of some of the past achievements of ancient Hindu

I. Vedic Ganit:
This branch of Hindu Mathematics has already acquired a status which presents it as
the future mathematics of the world. Its unique features are:
a. It provides algorithm for parallel processing;
b. Its operations are independent of base (decimal, octal, binary, etc.)
c. It is possible to solve simultaneous non-linear differential equations (manually).

[It may be noted that 10 Ph.D.s have already been completed under
Prof. Narendra Puri, Civil Engg. Dept., IIT, Roorkee]

II. Hindu Aviation Science:

Wg.Comdr.M.P.Rao carried out a DRDO project to investigate into Sage Bharadwaj’s
VIMAAN SHASTRA and came out with startling conclusions. Some of these conclusions are
briefly given below:

1. Many treatises of ancient origin feature in the study of knowledge of aviation associated
with the distant past of our country. The word 'ancient' used here refers to Vedic and Puranic
era. Maharishi Bharadwaja's 'Vymanika Prakaranam' (Vymanika Shastra), extracts from
Vedas, references in Puranic literature such as Bhagawata, Mahabharata,.Ramayana,
Harivamsha, Samarangana Sutradhara of King Bhoja Raja and other works throw light on
aviation knowledge pronounced by the preceptors of yester years.

2. Bharadwaja’s Vymanika Shastra is a part of Yantra Sarvaswa (encyclopedia on machines),

authored by Rishi Bharadwaja. He belonged to both Treta and Dwapara Yugas and featured in
a dynasty of preceptors, as son of Brihaspati and father of Dronacharya. In the introductory
passages, the sage himself explains that this knowledge is culled out from Vedas and is being
presented for the benefit of man-kind. On this treatise, Bodhananda, belonging to 10th
Century, introduced commentaries. After undergoing hibernation for 10 centuries the treatise
came in written form through Pandit Anekal Subbaraya Shastri between 1895 AD to 1918 AD
alongwith other Bhautika Shastras. The transcripts in Sanskrit were sent to oriental research
libraries in Pune and Baroda. English translation was done by Shri J R Josiar and published
as Vymanika Shastra in 1973. The Hindi version called BrihadVimana Shastra was published
by Dayanada Bhavan, Delhi in 1959.

3. Highlights of “Vymanika Shastra"

In each topic of the treatise we notice the pronouncements of Rishi Bharadwaja in the form of
'Sutras' followed by 'Vritis' or explanatory notes from Bodhananda. It is revealing that other
well known Rishis and preceptors such as Atri, Shownaka, Lallacharya, Galava, Agastya and
Viswambhara etc. have also contributed through citation of principles. Principles so quoted
draw references from certain topic-specific works such as Anshu Bodhini, Valmiki Ganita,
Yana Bindu, Loha Kalpa, Kriya Sara, Rahasya Lahari, and over 40 such works. It appears that
these reference works provided core research knowledge to applied science in Vymanika
Shastra. The treatise dwells upon a number of topics related to flying machines covered in
about 600 aphorisms. Leading topics of the treatise are:

1. Definition of Vimana.
2. The pilot (rahasyagnodhikari).
3. Concepts and techniques provided on board Vimana.
4. Season-specific food prescriptions for pilots.

5. Specific operational clothing for pilots.
6. Knowledge of atmosphere for pilots.
7. Function-based parts of Vimana.
8. Core metals and alloys for structural use.
9. Application-specific onboard yantras or contrivances.
10 Property-specific materials, Darapanas or mirrors( in yantras)
11. Varieties of Vimanas under Kritaka classification.

4.1 Definition:

Vimana is a Sanskrit word, generically used for flying craft in modern times as well. Derived
from Vimana, Vi meaning 'bird' and Mana meaning 'like', denotes a craft flying like a bird
under its own volition. It underlines the fact that ancient Indians had also derived inspiration
from the birds in conceiving flying craft.
Acharyas Nararayan, Lallacharya, Vishwambahara, Shownaka, quoting reference works
Vyomayana Tantra, Khetayana pradeepika, Yaana Bindu give definition as flying machine
moving under its own power from place to place, island to island and from one loka to

The point of interest to modern science is that bands of atmosphere such as troposphere,
stratosphere etc., equate well with this in characteristics as well as in bandwidth. 'Valmiki
ganitha' Akasha
Kalpa, Anshu Bodhinee, Soundamini Kala are references quoted by preceptors, Lallacharya,
Shownaka and Dundhinatha. Deeper studies in this area of science could bring out finer
resolutions in equations: The net outcome of the study is tabulated in the Table-I. '

4.2 Function Based Parts of Vimana

The Chapter on 'Parts of Vimana' strangely discusses only special parts and features meant for
specific functions, locations specified for these parts or fixtures seem to have been aptly
chosen. Some of the parts are yantras or contrivances, some are packages or systems. Thirty
one such parts are enumerated:

» Vishwakriyaadapana or Mirror of outside views

» Shaktyaakarshana or energy attracting mirror
» Parivesha mechanism above the hood of the Vimana
(Angopasarnhaara Yantra or folding up yantra)
» Vistritakriyaa or opening out yantra.
» Vyroopya darpana
» Kuntinee-shakti mechanism
» Pushpinee and Pinjulaa Mirrors
» Naalapanchaka (or 5 pipes)
» Guhaagarbha mirror yantra
» Thamoyantra
» Pancha-vattaskandha-naala
Rowdree Mirror
» Vaataskandh~ Keelaka
» Shaktisthaana

» Vidyuddwaadashaka
» Vakraprasaarana
» Saktipanjara
» Shirahkeelaka
Shabadaakarshaka yantra
Dishaampati yantra
» Pattikaabhraka
Solar power attractor
Apasmarra or poison gas
» Sthambhana Yantra
» Vyshwaanara-naala

4.3 Core Metals and Alloys

The treatise prescribes three core metals and their alloys for constructional requirements of
Vim ana. Basic requirements of these materials are lightness, strength and heat
absorbent/resistant. Looking at properties prescribed, they are in consonance with stipulations
in modern Aeronautics.

The three core metals are: SOMAKA, SOUNDALlKA and MOURTHWIKA; the ores being
obtained from specified layers of earths crust. Even ge010gical aspects relating to formation
of ores, the causative factors governing the ore formation such as Temperature, Huridisy,
centrifugal force of earth, pressure inside earth's crust. While these features are known in
modem science, the treatise gives additional factors such as intra-planetary forces of
attraction in specified ratios and the gravitational force of the centre of universe. Elaborate
metallurgical processes include extraction, purification, melting and mixing three core metals,
alloying 16 types of alloys.Metallurgical processes explain use of varieties of crucibles,
furnaces and bellows of various shapes. These supporting tools themselves reflect on the
existence of a high order of material practice. Use of acids, decoctions, juices materials of
organic and inorganic origins in metallurgy system needs to be

4.4 Application -Specific Yantras

By far the most high end part of the treatise Vimana Shastra is in 'Yantradhi Karanam' or
chapter on contrivances. One half of the treatise dedicates to description of yantras explaining
the arrangements to provide the desired effect. Many researchers have focused their study in
this topic. Correct interpretation of key words in the aphorisms has led them to logical
interpretations of intended functional roles. However this needs deeper study and
experimentation. A few of these yantras analysed and explained through interpretational logic
are shown in Table-2.

4.5 Property -Specific Materials

Many unique and property specific materials typically needed for construction of yantras
form in~eresting study for specialists of material sciences. Having many constituents in them,
these materials are metallic, non-metallic, Acids (Drava), glues (Lepa), Mirrors (Darpanas).
The number of ingredients in these materials is even up to 20. They are of organic and

inorganic nature, include pars from animals and birds, botanical plants and substances of
oceanic origins.There are clear indications that ancient Indians had nahlre-centric approach
methods in preparation of special materials. It is this aspect of natural science that has been
attracted many modem scientists in the last decade. Reports received from some leading
laboratories in India confirm that some of the materials, developed in their labs as per
formulae given in Vimana shastra and related works Anshu Bodhinee, are unique in nature.
Given a fair chance to the research activists, a new family of materials and parallel generation
of material technology could evolve. With the advent of bio-metallurgy in modem science,
olden metallurgical practices should get a phillip. Some of the materials already developed

Tamogarbha Loha
Panchadhara Loha
Arara Loha
Chumbaka Mani
Paragrendka Drava
Prakashasthanbhanabida Loha

4.6 Varieties of Vimanas

The treatise deals with four types of Viman as of Kritaha Category. In the absence of detailed
descriptions, it would be a difficult exercise to understand all about them. Some of the
diagrams given in the work give a rough idea even though diagrams themselves need to be
reviewed. Nevertheless, a few deductions about these four aircraft are cited below:

Out of Twenty Five types listed, four Vimanas, Shakuna, Sundara, Rukma and Tripura are
explained in brief.
Their constructional details include Structural parts, propulsion system, on board accessories,
electrical and solar energy harnessing, flying control arrangements etc.,
Aerodynamic streamlining of the structure appears interesting.
Special alloys like Rajaloha and Trinetra loha in structural construction specified.
Propulsion energy systems include engine-driven propellers, internal combustion, jet
propulsion, mercury and solar energy.

.Shakuna Vimana
Apparently it is one of the early conceptions under Kritaka category.

Propeller-driven; powered by an internal combustion power plant.

Deriving its name from Shakuna (Bird), it has flapping and feathering control surfaces
actuated by powered jacks.

Raja loha used for structural constructions.

Out of 28 parts mentioned major ones are; floor board, hollow mast, heaters, air suction pipes
wheeled kcclakas, stcam boilcr, Vidyut yantra ctc.,

.Sundara Vimana
Significant feature is in the jet propulsion system. A Mixture of three oils form the Energy-
developing fuel.

Ignition is by electric energy.
High energy gases are pushed through flexible metal-impregnated fabric hoses acting as jet
Flexible jet pies also provide directional control.
Structural material specified is Raja Loha.
Main parts of this vimana are - five engines, base plate, electrical generator, wind blower,

Rukma Vimana
Appearance of a hover Craft
Rukma Meaning Golden, the Vim ana has aesthetic Golden Appearance.
Structural material is Raja Loha
Solar Energ y harnessing mentioned.
Retractable landing gear indicated
Directional control is from three rudder arrangement

.Tripura Vimana
It is a unique three-in-one concept. It can operate under water, on land and space.
Propulsion power is by solar energy
Construction material is Trinetra Loha making the Vimana an extremely light vehicle.
Has three-tier construction, one for each flying application.
Each tier is functionally equipped.
On-board systems include yantras providing safety against air currents and radiations.

5. Other Aspects of Science Unraveled in Vymanika Shastra

Besides aspects of Aviation Science, Vymanica Shastra exposes several other interesting
phenomenon of scientific interest.
> Principles elucidated refer to several core text hinting that the basis of these texts was on
broad based research.
> While discussing formation of metallic ores in the earth's crust, causative factors governing
ore fonnation are:
-Force of earth's rotation
-Temperature and humidity inside earth
-Gravitational force of earth
-Gravitational influence of other planets, stars and even the centre of the universe.
> Material science includes substance of metallic, non-metallic, organic, Inorganic, Botanical
and Herbal,
Oceanic origins
> Source-related Classification of Materials
-Artificial or Synthetic
-Soil Origin
-Aquatic Origin
-Mineral Origin
-Vegetation origin
-Vennin based
-Animal origin
-Hair Origin
-Egg born.
> Mercury as a potent source of energy in a number of applications.
>- Use of Mirrors for Radiation Energy-Control and harnessing

>- Definite system of units of measurements existed.
-Length -Vitasthi, Angula, Danda, Krosha
-Weight -Mushthi, Linka, Pala
-Temperature -Kakshya
-Speed -Prenkhana, Linka
-Time -Ghatika
-Volume -Drona.
>- Description on special clothing for pilots indicates the extent of knowledge prevailing on
fabric technology using silk, cotton, wool, hair, moss and leather.
>- Harnessing of energy from atmospheric source such as solar radiation, cloud energy,
energy from air currents seem to be unique.
>- Principles of development of electrical energy by different means were conceived.
>- Stipulations of close melting temperaturcs citcd in material production hint at prccision in
>- Knowledge on high potency explosives and their detection methods indicate a different
kind of warfare, akin to recent centuries.

6. Conclusion

The subject of ancient aviation science is too vast to be covered in a short presentation. At
best an attempt can be made to gloss over the leading features. The need of the day is getting
into practical interpretations followed by laboratory experimentations to validate the
substance of textual contents. In this effort suitable methodology, creation of a common
platform in research activity among study groups, initiative from Sanskrit scholars, bridge-
builders and scientists hold the key.

Troposphere High Air Densitv Rekha Patha Shaktyavarta
Stratosphere Clear Air Turbulence MandaI Patha Vatavarta
Mesosphere Extreme Cold Kendra Patha Shaitva Varta
Thermosphere Extreme Hot Sakti Patha Gharshana Varta
Van-Allen Belt Radiation Hazards Kaksha Patha Kiranavartha

Yantra Interpretations
Viswakriya Darshana A telescopic camera arrangement to take
picture of activities

Darpan Yantra Situated below the craft. (Even constructional

Drawings have been made by researchers)

Parivesha Kriya Yantra Auto guidance device to keep the

Vimana in a desired flight path

Prana Kundalini Yantra Throttle control to regulate the speed of

Propulsion power plant

Dikpradarshna Yantra Direction finder to get warning of

direction of approach of enemy Vimana

Pushpani Yantra To produce cabin comfort on the lines of

pressurized cabin

Shabadakarshana Yantra Device to forewarn the presence of birds
and quadrupeds in the vicinity to help
pilot in taking deviation

Guha Grabha Yantra Using Vimana as an aerial plform,

detecting presence of explosive hidden

III. CONSTRUCTION & ARCHITECTURE: Excellent examples of superb ancient

architecture are available which throw light on not only the past glory but also for use in the
modern day context.

IIIa. Sea Ports in Ancient India (5000 years back)

Lothal (Maharashtra) : a city uncovered during excavations. It is dated 2400 b.c.
Ample proof of trade with foreign lands
A garland of sea-ports starting from Lothal via Kanya Kumari up to Tamra- Lipti
In Bangal (Description in PERIPLUS BOOK OF 1ST century)
Ships of the size of 754 ft.X 126 ft. used to sail.
For sea port at Lothal:- there was a wall of1400 ft built for controlling sea-
Waves and was so constructed that even during the period of low tide ships could
directly sail right up to the port.


Science and technology of modern architecture revolves round the main idea that every piece
of land designated for some building construction is an independent piece of land. The
designer is required to provide all that is needed to fulfill the needs of the owner. This can be
in total disregard to other considerations. Modern world is witnessing many problems due to
this approach in construction. To find solution to the problems, there is a growing awareness
amongst architects to look into the methodology of ancient Indian architecture, called Vaastu
Shastra. It is observed that buildings/apartments with good Vaastu have healthy, happy and
prosperous owners whereas places with negative Vaastu energy will have losses, ill health, ill
repute, hurdles etc.

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mnkgj.k % 1- dykRed LFkkiR; %

izkphu efUnjksa dh LFkkiR; dyk thoUr rFkk dgrh gSA bu

eafnjksa esa dks.kkdZ dk izkphu dk lw;Z eafnj] ,syhQsUVk dh
xqQk,Z] Hkqous'oj ¼mM+hlk½ dk fyaxjkt efUnj] [ktqjkgks ds
eafnj] fxjukj ds eafnj] jaxiV~V dk eafUnj] jkes'oje~ dk eafUnj
enqjbZ dk ehuk{kh nsoh dk eafnj vkfnA

izkphu LFkkiR; 'kkL= ds dqN vn~Hkqr uewus vkt Hkh
miyC/k gSa] ;Fkk vtUrk dh ,d xqQk esa LFkkfir cq) dh izfrekA bl
izfrek ds oke Hkkx esa [kM+s gksdj ns[kus ij xEHkhj eqnzk]
nkfguh vksj ls ns[kus ij gkL; eqnzk rFkk lkeus ls ns[kus ij /;ku
esa yhu 'kkUr eqnzk nh[krh gS] foB~By efUnj ¼nf{k.k esa
fot;uxj fLFkr½ ds iRFkjksa dk foU;kl bl izdkj fd;k x;k gS fd blds
fofHkUu LrEHkksa ls laxhr o ok|ksa dk vuqHko gksrk gSA blds
lkr LrEHkksa esa ls izR;sd izR;sd dks ckjh&ckjh ls ctkus ij
ckjh&ckjh ls lk]js]xk]ek]ik]/kk]uh]lk dh /ofu;k¡ dku esa lquh tk
ldrh gSaA dqN LrEHkksa esa ls ck¡lqjh] rcyk rFkk oh.kk dh
/ofu;k¡ lquh tk ldrh gSaA

bathfu;fajax ds izkphu vk'p;Ztud fuekZ.k %

¼1½ eksgutksnkMks ¼2½ }kfjdk ¼3½ yksFky ¼4½

okjk.klh ¼5½ dkathoje~

ns'k ds fofHkUu LFkkuksa ij ty iznk; dh O;oLFkk vk'p;Ztud

mnkgj.k feyrs gSa ftuesa rkykc] ugjsa vkfn gSaA ty laj{k.k ds
lEcU/k esa dkSfVY; ¼2500 o"kZ iwoZ dgrs gSa fd jktk ftl ifo=
Hkko ls eafnj fuekZ.k djrk gS mlh Hkko ls mls ty jksdus dk iz;kl
djuk pkfg,A
,yksjk dk f'ko eafnj bathfu;fjax dh ;kstuk] fuekZ.k dkS'ky
vkSj vk/kqfud bathfu;fjax ds fl)kUrksa ds mi;ksx dk thoUr :i gS
¼;g eafnj ;kstukuqlkj ,d cM+s ioZr dks dkV dj bl izdkj cuk;k x;k
gS fd dgha Hkh dksbZ Hkh tksM+ ugha gSA
lkSjk"Vª esa 13oha 'krkCnh esa fufeZr jkuh dh ckoM+h lkr
eafty dh gS vkSj fo'o esa vius izdj dh ,d gh mnkgj.k gSA
bl izdkj ds mnkgj.k Hkkjr ds fofHkUu LFkkuksa ls mn~/kr fd, tk
ldrs gSaA ;g o.kZu ,d ckr dks Li"V djrk gS fd izkphu esa Hkkjr
esa vfr mUur fuekZ.k foKku Fkk ftldk ek= ,d va'k dh miyC/k
gSA bl foKku dk lqLi"V vk/kkj FkkA bl foKku dk ftldk ek= ,d va'k
gh miyC/k gSA bl foKku dk lqLi"V vk/kkj ij FkkA bl foKku dk
vk/kkj LFkkiR; osn esa gS tks fd vFkZosn dk ,d va'k gSA bl
'kkL= ds dqN miyC/k xzUFk gSA bl foKku dk lqLi"V vk/kkj FkkA
bl foKku dk vk/kkj LFkkiR; osn esa gS tks fd vFkZoZosn dk ,d
va'k gSA bl 'kkL= ds dqN miyC/k xzUFk gSa % d';i f'kYi'kkL=]
o`gr lafgrk] fo'odekZ

okLrq'kkL=] lejkax.klw=/kkj] fo".kq /keksZÙkj iqjk.k] vijkftr

izPNk] t; izPNk izek.k eatjh] e; okLrq] Hk`xq lafgrk vkfnA izeq[k
egf"kZ] ftUgksaus bl fo"k; esa ;ksxnku fd;k] os gSa Hk`xq]

c`gLifr] 'kqØ d';i] of'k"B] vfXu] e; fo'odekZ] ojkgfefgj] Hkkst
vkfnA bu _f"k;ksa us fo"k; izfriknu esa lw;Z] pUnz xzg vkSj
u{k= dk i`Foh vkSj mlds tho txr ij muds }kjk mRlftZr izdk'k]
xehZ vkfn dk izHkko dk ok;qe.My] ok;q vkSj mldh fn'kk i`Foh dk
pqEcdh; {ks=] xq#Ro cy vkfn dk mi;ksx fd;k Fkk tks vk/kqfud
foKku ds (architecture) esa vuqiyC/k gSA

okLrq&'kkL= ,d ,slk foKku gS ftldk vuqikyu Hkou ds

fuokfl;ksa dks iap&Hkwrksa ls vf/kdre ykHk izkIr gksrk gSA bl
foKku ds mi;ksx ls lUrqfyr i;kZoj.k dk fuekZ.k gksrk gSA gekjs
izkphu _f"k;ksa dks bu 'kfDr {ks=ksa dk fu;af=r djus dk iw.kZ
Kku FkkA ;g foKku ,d ,slk fd;kRed foKku gS ftlesa lhfer Hkwfe
jpuk dk vifjfer oSf'od 'kfDr ls lkeatL; LFkkfir fd;k tkrk gSA vuke
vkSj v:i lÙkk tks bl okLrq e.My esa vkc) dh tkrh gS] ogh okLrq
iq#"k gSA fo'odekZ okLrq izdk'k ds v/;k; 2 dk 30oka 'yksd
nz"VO; gS&

prqoZx QyizkfIr lyksd'o Hkos/kzqoe~A

f'kYi'kkL= ifj´kukUeR;qsZfi lqjrka o`tsrAA

f'kYi'kkL= ds Kku ls vkSj rnuq:i vkpj.k ls euq"; dks

/keZ&vFkZ&dke&eks{k dh izkfIr rks gksrh gh gS] blh yksd esa
og nsoRo ds fnO; Hkko esa Hkh igq¡p tkrk gS tks vkRe dY;k.k ds
vkxs yksd&dY;k.kdkjh cu tkrk gSA

bgykSfdd thou ds blh y{; dks izkIr djus dk foKku vkSj izkS|
ksfxdh vFkkZr` LFkkiR; osn dk okLrq&'kkL= gekjs ikl gS] bls
vk;kr ugha djuk gSA ;g gekjs lexz jk"Vªh; O;fDrRo vkSj pfj= dk
izk.kk/kkj gSA fo'o jaxeap ij viuh vfLerk dh ifgpku ds fy, ;g ,d
cM+k vk/kkj gSA

f'kYi 'kkL= ds vuqlkj tc ijekRek us bl HkkSfrd txr dk fuekZ.k

fd;k rks mudh fnO; 'kfDr loZ= O;kIr gks xbZA ;g 'kq) dEiu Fkk
ftls 'kCn czã dgrs gSaA iaphdj.k ds vuqlkj fofHkUu 'kfDr
la?kV~Vksa ds }kjk fuekZf.kr ;g fo'o vfLrRo esa vk;kA gekjs
_f"k;ksa us ml lzksr rd igq¡p dj fofo/k fuekZ.kksa ds 'kkL=
LFkkfir fd, tks ml vk/kkjHkwr lR; dh vuqdwfy FksA okLrq&'kkL=
ds bu fu;eksa esa izkd`frd ÅtkZ ds mi;ksx k izko/kku gSA ;s
ÅtkZ vn~n'; jg dj ekuo thou ij nh?kZdkyhu izHkko Mkyrh gSA
thfor izkf.k;ksa ds pkjksa vksj ,d fo'ks"k fo|qr pqEcdh; {ks= jgrk
gS ftlesa tSo&fo|qr&pqEcdh; dgrs gSaA vFkZoZosn ds izFke
izkFkZuk ea= esa gh bldk Li"V mYys[k gS%

ये ििसपाः पिियििि ििशा रपािि ििभिः।
ब ा िेषां िििो अद दधािु मे ।।

This MANTRA from ATHERWA-VEDA is of paramount importance for understanding the

Indian Architecture. This mantra is the key to the basics of ancient Indian architecture (Vaastu

Concepts revealed have a remarkable parallel with the most modern ecological considerations
and even transcend present day science in some respects so far as building design and
construction are concerned. Explanation provided here is perhaps the first ever attempted.
The beauty of the explanation is that it leads to automatic unfolding of the meaning of the
Mantra. The rishi, the seer, writes about the secret in a highly coded way. As per this mantra
there are 21 bio-electro-magnetic fields which are required to be balanced for happy life in a
dwelling place. These fields have been named as Deva which an ordinary investigator will
translate in conventionally which is not the way with Vedic mantras.

bl ea= dk lk/kkj.k vFkZ eks{k dh Hkkouk ls fd;k tkrk gSA

oSfnd ea=ksa dh ;g fo'ks"krk gS fd buds vFkZ Hkko ls fd, tkrs
gSaA ;fn ge HkkSfrd n`f"V ls ea= dh O;k[;k djsa rks vFkZ fHkUu
gks tkrk gSA bl ea= dk vFkZ fuEu gS%
¼;s f=lIrk%½ tks izfl) bDdhl nso ¼fo'ok :ikf.k½ lc vkdkjksa dks
¼foHkzr%½ /kkj.k iks"k.k djus okys ¼ifj;fUr½ izfr 'kjhj esa
;Fkk;ksX; orZeku jgrs gSa ¼rs"kka cyk½ mu dks ¼okpLifr%½
osn ok.kh dk j{kd vkSj Lokeh

¼esa rUo%½ esjs 'kjhj ds fy, ¼v| n/kkrq½ vc /kkj.k djsA

ge ea= esa fn;s 21 nsoksa dk lkekU; vFkZ 5 egkHkwr] 5
´kusfUnz;ksa] 5 desZfUnz;k¡ vkSj desZfUnz;k¡ vkSj 1 vUr%dj.k
ds :i esa fd;k tkrk gSA bl vFkZ esa ea= ds fo'ok:ikf.k ds lkFk
laxfr Bhd izdkj ls ugha cSBrh gSA ;fn eks{k ls /;ku gVk ysa rks
gesa u;s fljs ls bu 21 nsoksa dh [kkst djuh gksxhA vk/kqfud
HkkSfrd&foKku ds vuqlkj izdk'k ds o.kZiV esa 7 vojDr jax] 7
O;Dr jax rFkk 7 ijkcsZxuh jax gksrs gSaA bl izdkj dqy 21 jaxksa
esa izdk'k o.kZ&iV dh O;k[;k dh tkrh gSA vk/kqfud HkkSfrd
'kkL= esa bu jaxksa dk fo'ys"k.k fo|qr&pqEcdh; {ks=ksa ds :i
esa gksrk gSA gesa dsoy O;Dr jax fn[kkbZ nsrs gSa] 'ks"k
vO;Dr jgrs gSaA lEiw.kZ fo|qr&pqEcdh; {ks= vO;Dr jgrk gSA
lEiw.kZ fo|qr&pqEcdh; {ks= v;Dr jgrk gSA cl ;gh 21 {ks= gekjs
21 nso gSaA bl vFkZ ds vuqlkj gesa ea= ds fo'ok:ikf.k dh laxfr
Lor% fey tkrh gSA bl laxfr ds lkFk gh ea= ds 'ks"k Hkkx dk
vFkZ Hkh Li"V gks tkrk gSA bu 21 fo'ok:ikf.k nsoksa dh LFkkiuk
lhfer vkSj LFkwy Hkou :ih 'kjhj esa bl izdj dh tkrh gS ftlls fd ;s
nso ¼cy½ Hkou esa lUrqfyr jgsaA ;gh izkphu Hkkjrh; f'kYi'kkL=

dk ewy Hkko gSA ,sls Hkou ds fuoklh lq[kh jgrh gSA 'kk'or lq[k
dh izkfIr dh eks{k dh izkfIr gSA vr% izpfyr HkkokFkZ esa
vk/kqfud foKku dk lekos'k djus ij gesa vFkZ tqVkuk ugha iM+k
oju ;g Lo;a mifLFkr gks x;kA vFkoZosn ds bl izkFkZuk ea= esa
gh LFkkiR; osn dh ewy izsj.kk fufgr gSA


When was the origin of the creation? Up to what time will it remain?

To understand this we must understand काल (Time).

Let us see what does Stephan Hawking says about the most modern concept of time.

Einstein’s general theory of relativity, on its own, predicted thar space-time began at the big
bang singularity and would come to an end either at the big crunch singularity ( if the whole
universe recollapsed), or at a singularity inside a black hole ( if a local region, such as a star,
were to collapse).
When a star dies, its fuel gets transformed into light and energy; it starts contracting and
reduces to a point. Even light is absorbed, so it cannot be known as to what is there. Absence
of light is darkness. These are black holes.

S. Hawking says,” The work that Roger Penrose and I did between 1965 and 1970 showed
that, according to general relativity, there must be a singularity of infinite density and space-
time curvature within a black hole. This is rather like the big bang at the beginning of time,
only it would be an end of time for the collapsing body and the astronaut. At this singularity
the laws of science and our ability to predict the future would break down. However, any
observer who remained outside this black hole would not be affected by this failure of
predictability, because neither light nor any other signal could reach him from the singularity.
This remarkable fact led Roger Penrose to propose the cosmic censorship hypothesis which
might be paraphrased as “God abhors a naked singularity.”

“The existence of radiation from black holes seems to imply that gravitational collapse is not
as final and irreversible as we once thought. If an astronaut falls into a black hole, its mass
will increase, but eventually the energy equivalent of that extra mass will be returned to the
universe in the form of radiation. Thus, in a sense, the astronaut will be “recycled”. It would
be a poor immortality, however, because any personal concept of time for the astronaut would
almost certainly come to an end as he was torn apart inside the black hole!”

S. Hawking mentions three arrows of time:

1. Cosmological time: direction in which universe expands;

2. Psychological time: direction of time in which we remember past;
3. Thermodynamic time: direction in which disorder increases.

S. Hawking says (1981), “ ….the possibility that space-time was finite but had no boundary,
which means that it had no beginning, no moment of creation.”

This is modern Science.

Hindus explained time in a beautiful manner. With Brahma the creation starts and ends with
his age of 100 Divine years.

l`f"V drkZ czEgkth dh vk;q

ifgys vkb, fglkc yxk,sa fd l`f"VdrkZ czEgkth dh vk;q fdruh
gSA gekjs ,d lky esa 360 fnu gksrs gSaA ;g gekjk ,d lky
nsorkvksa dk ,d fnO; fnu gksrk gS vksj ,sls esa 360 fnu dk ,d
fnO; o"kZ gksrk gSA tc pkjksa ;qx lR; ;qx] =srk;qx] }kij;qx
dfy;qx ,d ckj O;rhr gksrs gSa rc 12000 fnO; o"kZ chr tkrs gSaA
;kuh gekjs 43,20,000 o"kZ dh ,d prq;qZxh gksrh gSA izR;sd ;qx dh
ftrus gtkj fnO; o"kksZa dh vof/k gksrh gS mlls nksxqus lkS fnO;
o"kksZa dk laf/k dky Hkh gksrk gSA x.kuk bl izdkj gS%&
;qx ;qxkof/k $ laf/kdky =
1- lR;;qx 4000 o"kZ $ 800 o"kZ = 4800 o"kZ
2- =srk;qx 3000 o"kZ $ 600 o"kZ = 3600 o"kZ
3- }kij;qx 2000 o"kZ $ 400 o"kZ = 2400 o"kZ
4- dfy;qx 1000 o"kZ $ 200 o"kZ = 1200 o"kZ
dqy;ksx & 10000 o"kZ $ 2000 o"kZ
= 12000 o"kZ

pkjksa ;qx tc gtkj ckj chr tkrs gS rc czEgkth dk ,d fnu gksrk

gSA ;g czEgkth dk ,d fnu gh ,d dYi dgykrk gSA fnu ds izkjaHk ds
lkFk czEgkth l`f"V izkjaHk djrs gSa vkSj la/;k esa izy; gksdj
l`f"Vy; gks tkrh gSA nwljs fnu os fQj mBrs gS & vkSj ogh l`f"V
pØ izkjaHk gksrk gSA rks tc czEgkth dk fo".kq Hkxoku ds
ukfHkdey ls tUe gqvk Fkk rc ls mudh vk/kh vk;q chr xbZ gSA
;kuh 43 yk[k 20 gtkj euq"; ds lky okyh ,d prqZ;qxh xq.ks 1000 cjkcj
czEgkth dk ,d fnu ,sls 360 fnuksa dk ,d lkyA ,sls 100 lkyksa dh
vk;q gksrh gS czEgkth dh] mlds ckn egkizy; gksrk gSA vc
ns[ksa mudk ,d fnu ekuoh o"kksZa esa fdruk gSA 43 yk[k 20 gtkj
xq.ks 1000=4 vjc 32 djksM+ ekuoh o"kksZa dk ,d fnu gS czEgkth
dkA bl vof/k dks 14 eUorajksa esa ckaVk gSA 6 eUoraj chr x,
gSaA lkrosa oSoLor eUoarj ds vkxs 27 ckj pkj ;kqx chr x, gSaA
vc 28oha ckj izFke rhu ;qx chr x;sA vV~Bkblosa dfy;qx ds Hkh
5104 lky chr x,A tc l`f"V dks czEgkth us lqcg mBdj izkjaHk dh

gksrh rks ns[ks mudh ;g lqcg dc gqbZ gksxh \ ,d eUoarj dh
vof/k 4320000x1000/14x6= N% eUoarjksa ds 185428568 lky curs gSaA
blds vkxs 27 ckj pkjksa ;qx chr x, rks mlds 116640000 lky vkSj
tksM+ nsaA fQj bl lkrosa oSoLor eUoarj ds rhuksa ;qxksa ds lky
388000 ds lkFk 28 osa dfy;qx ds 5104 lky vkSj tksM+ nsa rks 1 vjc
97 djksM+ 19 yk[k 61 gtkj 6 lkS 72 lky iwjs gks tkrs gSa ;gh gS
gekjk l`f"V laor~A vkfn ekuo egkRek euq vkt ls dksbZ 15
djksM+ lky igys gq,s FksA

HkwxHkZ 'kkL= dh vk/kqfud x.kuk ds fglkc ls 15 djksM+ lky igys

fØVsf'k;l ;qx FkkA rHkh cgqr cM+k izy; vkSj mFky&iqFky rFkk
igkM+ksa vkSj leqnzksa esa ifjorZu vk;k FkkA _Xosn esa of.kZr
blh izy; esa izkf.k;ksa dk egkfouk'k gqvk FkkA fo'kky nkuoljV
¼Mk;ukslkWlZ½ Hkh mlh mFky&iqFky esa u"V gq,A
Tokykeq[kh] Hkwdai] vuojr o`f"V] ti izy; dk o.kZu vkt ds
OkSKkfud djrs gSaa ftls os dsVkLVªkQ dgrs gSaA blds ckn gh
euq dh ekuoh iztk c<+hA thou ds mn; vkSj fodkl dkykof/k dk
vk/kqfudr oSKkfud fu.kZ; yxHkx 2 vjc lky gh gSA ijUrq ftruh lVhd
vkSj 'kq) x.kuk T;ksfrfoZKku ds vk/kkj ij gekjs 'kkL=ksa esa
gSa] mruh 'kq) x.kuk vHkh dkcZu] flfydkWu MsfVax okyh
VsDukykWth Hkh ugha dj ikbZ gSA izkjafHkd ,d dks'kdh; lw{e
thoksa dh mRifÙk yxHkx 2 vjc lky igys dh gh vk/kqfud
izkf.koSKkfud ekurs gSaA vr% gekjk ;g l`f"V laor vk/kqfud
dlkSVh ls Hkh vf/kd 'kq) vkSj lgh cSBrk gSA

We connected “Our time” with that of the “Universe time”, not only physical time but also
solar time and bio-time.

In bio-time we connect पाि (time between one inhalation and exhalation) and कला
( duration of movement of earth).

360 deg.X60 = 21600 कला (minutes)

In 24 hours पाि = 21600 कला
Thus time and space are united. Where else do you find this type of correlation?
We should ask a question: Why did they do it?

The concept of entire gamut of creation is beautifully explained in the following shloka:

अवयकादीिि भूिािि, वयकमधयीिि भाििः।

अवयकििधिीियेि िि का पििदे ििा ।।
This means: All the objects (animate and inanimate) normally remain unmanifested, it is
only during some period of time that they become manifest…..

V. Metallurgy:

Achievements are well known and properly recorded.

Iron pillar of Kutub Minar (1500 years old). It is about 12 meters long and is uniform in
diameter. How was this size of forging carried?? The pillar is rust proof. It is an eye opener to
the technical world.

VI. Astronomy

VIa.In 1760 Sir John PLayfair published an article in the Proc. Royal Soc. (Edinburgh). He
says: Indians either knew modern Astronomy or they were observing planets.

Ancient Indian astronomers were able to calculate the orbiting periods of planets round the
sun. They calculated ratios of their orbiting periods to that of the earth. Modern day
astronomers too have done it. Following table gives the comparison:
Planet Surya Siddhanta Modern Science
Mercury 0.24 0.24
Venus 0.61 0.68
Earth 1.00 1.00
Mars 1.88 1.88
Jupiter 11.86 11.86
Saturn 29.47 29.46

The above table clearly shows the accuracy with which ancient Indians were making their

VIb Write about precession of equinoxes…..

VIc. Bhaskaracharya (12th century A.D.) wrote SIDDHANTA SHIROMANI which has
following parts:
Bija ganit

VId. Shulb Sutras

cks/kk;u 'kqYclw=
cks/kk;u izFke T;ksfefrK gq, gSa ftUgksuas T;kfefr Kku dks
oSfnd ;Kksa dh osfn;ksa ds fuekZ.k ds lanHkZ esa fodflr fd;k
FkkA bUgksuas lqYc lw=ksa ds ek/;e ls js[kk] i`"B] ekiu ;a=
rFkk ek=d dk vUos"k.k fd;k FkkA buds }kjk jfpr lqYc lfkgR; esa
ekiu ;a= dks jTtq Hkh dgk x;k gS rFkk dbZ LFkkuksa ij js[kk dks
Hkh jTtq dgk x;k gSA mnkgj.kkFkZ % d.khZ js[kk dks
v{kuke&jTtq ds :i esa mYysf[kr fd;k x;k gSA blh dze esa d.khZ]

rRd.khZ] f=;ek.kh] ik'oZek.kh rFkk v{kuke jTtqvksa dk mYys[k
gqvk gSA
d.khZ rRd.kh ik'oZekU;{k.k;k psfr iap jTtoAA 9AA

T;kfefrd lkfgR; ewyr% _Xosn ls mRiUu gqvk gSA ftlds

vuqlkj vfXu ds rhu LFkku gksrs gSa & o`Rrkdkj osnh esa esa
xkgZiR;] oxkZdkj esa vaâkU;k rFkk v/kZo`Rrkdkj eas
nf{k.kkfXuA rhuksa osfn;ksa es ls izR;sd dk {ks=Qy leku gksrk
gSA vr% o`Rr] oxZ] ,oa d.khZoxZ dk Kku Hkkjr esa _Xosn dky
dk gSA bu osfn;ksa ds fuekZ.k ds fy, fuEufyf[kr T;kferh;
fØ;kvksa dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk FkkA
1. fdlh ljy js[kk ij oxZ dk fuekZ.k
2. oxZ ds dks.kksa ,oa Hkqtkvksa dks Li'kZ djrs g,q
o`Rrksa dk fuekZ.k
3. o`Rr dks nks xq.kk djukA blds fy, oxZewy 2 dk eku
vko';d FkkA
dqN vU; osfn;ka vkSj Hkh tfVy T;kferh; izdkj dh gksrh FkhA
tSls fd ';sukflr ¼';su i{kh ds vkdkj dh½A

cks/kk;u lqYc lw= fdaok ik;Fkkxksjl izes;

cks/kk;u us rFkkdfFkr ik;Fkkxksjl izes; dks Lora= :i ls [kkstk
Fkk ftlds vuqlkj fdlh vk;r ds fod.kZ }kjk O;qRiUu {ks=Qy dh
yackbZ ,oa pkSM+kbZ }kjk i`Fkd&i`Fkd O;qRiUu {ks=Qyksa ds
;ksx ds rqY; gksrk gSA
nh?kZprqjlzkL;k{.k;k jTtq% ik'oZekuhA
fr;ZM~&ekuh p ;Ri`Fkx~Hkwrs dq:rLnq Hk;a
djksfrAA 10AA
leprqjlzL;k{.k;k jTtqf)Zdj.khAA 11AA

vFkkZr~ fdlh oxZ ds d.kZ }kjk O;qRiUu {ks=Qy mlds

{ks=Qy dk nks xq.kk gskrk gSA vr% rFkkdfFkr ik;Fkkxksjl izes;
dks cks/kk;u lqYc&lw= ds :i esa i<+k;k tkuk pkfg,A

VII. Ayurveda: Sushruta was the first surgen of the world. Modern day plastic surgery starts
with his methodology.
Make a mention of Sandhan Karni

VIII. Vriksha Ayurveda:

This book was published by UNESCO (1st century B.C.)

This is an outstanding book which clearly describes the principles of Botany.
Leaves prepare food for the plant (िं जकेि पंचमिः)

िसिदिी कोििका दािा भोजि ( कचचा) िथा जल पिियो िक पहुँचिा है िथा अपिसिदिी
दािा मल बाहि ििकाला जािा है । पिियो दािा मल (गैस) ििसिजि
ब होिा है । िक
ृ ो मे cells
होिे है । आधिुिक ििजाि मे cells की पििकलपिा 200 िषब से अिधक पुिािी िहीं है ।

IX. Other contributions of ancient Indians

izkphu Hkkjr ds }kjk foKku rFkk VSDukykWth ds fofHkUu

{ks=ksa esa fd;s x;s ;ksxnkuksa dh iz'kalk ew/kZU; fo}kuksa }
kjk gksrh jgh gSA dqN mnkgj.k ;gka fn;s tk jgs gS%&
1­ Dr. ARNORLD TOYNBEE :  It is already becoming clear that a chapter which had a 
western beginning will have to have an Indian ending, if it is not to end in the self­destruction 
of the human race. At this supremely dangerous moment in human history, the only way of 
salvation for mankind is the Indian way.
2­ LIN YUTANG : India was China's teacher in religion and imaginative literature, and 
the world's teacher in trigonometry, quadratic equations, grammar, Phonetics, arabian nights, 
animal fables, chess as well as in philosophy.
3­  PROF. A.A. MACDONELL  :  In Science, too the debt of Europe to India has been 
considerable. There is in the first place, the great fact that Indians invented the numerical 
figures used all over the world. The influence of the decimal system not only on mathematics 
but on the progress of civilization in general can hardly be over estimated. During the eighth 
and ninth centuries the Indians became the teachers in arithmetic and algebra, of the Arabs, 
and through them of the nations of the west. Thus though we call the latter science by an Arab 
name, it is a gift that we owe to India.''
4­   PROF.   BRIAN   DAVID   JOSEPHSON  (Youngest   Nobel   Laureate)  :  The  Vedanta   and 
Sankhya hold the key to the laws of mind and thought process which are co­related to the 
Quantum Field i.e. the operation and distribution of particles at atomic and molecular levels.
5­ PROF. HEISENBERG : After the conversations about Indian philosophy, some of the 
ideas (of Quantum Physics) that had seemed so crazy suddenly made much more sense.
Hkkjr dk fo'o dks foKku ds ;ksxnku dk fuEufyf[kr o.kZu ek=
ftKklk tkx`r djus ds fy, ,d NksVk miØe gS&
I. izkphure lH;rk % 3000 b.c. esa gh Hkkjr ds fofHkUu {ks=ksa
esa oSKkfud <ax ls ;ksftr uxj Fks rFkk bZaVksa ls fufeZr HkouA
yxHkx 1520 fdyksehVj dh isVh esa ¼mÙkj ls nf{k.k½ 10 yk[k oxZ
fdyksehVj {ks= esa QSyh vR;f/kd mUur laLd`fr;ksa dh [kkst
gqbZ gS ftuesa gM+Iik] eksgu&tks&nkM+ks] dkyhcaxu rFkk
yksFky eq[; gSaA vk'p;Ztud rF; ;g gS fd fuekZ.k dk;Z esa ftu
bZaVksa dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk Fkk mudk vkdkj ekud 24x14x7 cm.
FkkA bu ;ksftr uxjksa esa ls izR;sd esa 20-25 gtkj fuoklh jgrs FksA
,slh dk;Z'kkyk,sa Hkh izkIr gqbZ gSa ftuesa fofHkUu izdkj ds
mRiknksa dk fuekZ.k gksrk FkkA buesa ls vusd mRiknksa dk
fu;kZr gksrk FkkA gM+Iik ds ukfod eslksiksVkfe;k rFkk vU;

ns'kksa esa viuk lkeku ys tkdj csprs Fks] bldk izek.k ogka ij
fla/kq&lhyksa dh izkfIr gSA thou vkSj uxjh; O;oLFkk vR;f/kd
mUur FkhA

II. (a) ^'kwU;* % ;g loZekU; gS fd Hkkjr us fo'o dks 'kwU;

dk Kku fn;kA vk/kqfud le; esa xf.kr dh fdlh izfØ;k dks 'kwU; ds
fcuk lEikfnr djuk laHko ugha gSA lcls egRoiw.kZ rF; ;g gS fd
'kwU; ds fcuk fdlh dEI;wVj dh dYiuk Hkh ugha dh tk ldrh D;ksafd
os Binary system ¼1 vkSj 0½ ij vk/kkfjr gksrs gSaA
(b) 100 b.c. esa n'key i}fr dk Hkkjr esa Hkjiwj mi;ksx FkkA
(c) vk/kqfud xf.kr esa vf/kdre la[;k 'Deca' gS tks 1030 gSA 100
b.c. esa gh Hkkjrh; rky{k.k ¼1053½ rd dk mi;ksx djrs FksA
(d) ''Geometry'' dk vUos"k.k %
Hkkjr esa T;kfefr dk mi;ksx 1000 b.c. ls gksrk vk;k gS tcfd
;wfDyM dks blds vUos"k.k dk Js; (300 b.c.) fn;k tkrk gSA vfr izfl)
Pythagoras Theorem dk Li"V :i cks/kk;u ds 'kqYc lw=ksa esa
miyC/k gS] tks 600 b.c. ds gSaA

(e) u{k= foKku %

Hkkjrh; u{k= foKkuh 3500 o"kksZa ls vkdk'k dk ekufp= cukrs
jgs gSaA mudh [kkstsa vk'p;Z pfdr djus okyh gSaA
(i) dksijfudl ls 1000 o"kZ iwoZ gh vk;ZHkV~V us dgk Fkk fd
i`Foh lw;Z dh ifjØek djrh gSA ^vk;Z HkVh;e* esa mUgksaus
fy[kk gS fd i`Foh xksy gS] viuh v{k ij ?kwerh gS vkSj vUrfj{k
esa yVdh gSA lw;Z vkSj pUnz xzg.k lw;Z] pUnz vkSj i`Foh dh
ijLij Nk;kvksa ds dkj.k gksrs gSaA
(ii) lw;Z fl)kUr* esa HkkLdjkpk;Z us i`Foh ds lw;Z ifjHkze.k
dky dh x.kuk n'keyo ds ukS LFkkuksa rd dh gSA
HkkLdjkpk;Z = 365.258756484 fnu
u{k=&foKkuh W.M Smart = 365.2564 fnu
vk/kqfud Lohd`r eki = 365.2596 fnu
(iii) lcls yEck le;eku] bfrgkl esa ¼dYi½ % ekuoh; lH;rk esa
Hkkjrh; dky ekiu fof/k lcls yEck le;eku izLrqr djrh gSA ;g gS dYi
tks 4.32x109 o"kZ dk gksrk gSA

III. ok;q;ku] iuMqCch rFkk vUrfj{k;ku \

ekuoh; lH;rk ds izkphure xzaFk ¼_Xosn½ esa dqN fo'ks"k

;kuksa dk lUnHkZ feyrk gS ¼dkj] jFk] ;ku] iuMqCch]
vUrfj{k;ku½A dfri; laLd`r lUnHkZ uhps fn;s x;s gSa %
1. ok;q jFk % xSl 'kfDr vFkok ok;q'kfDr pkfyrA

iz oks ok;qe~ jFk;qta fØ.kq/oe~ ¼_0 5/41/6½
2. ty;ku %
;Lrs iw"ku ukoks vUrLleqnzs
fgj.;e;h vUrfj{ks pjfUr ¼_0 6/58/3½
3. fo|qr jFk % _0 3/14/1
4. dkj (Hovercraft) : i`Foh rFkk leqnz dh ygjksa ij pyus okyk
flU/kksj vekZof/k JkSr% dkje~ fcHkzriq#lfiz;e~ ¼_0 9/14/1½
4. f=pØ jFk % _0 4/36/1

IV. lkSnkfeuh dyk % Ancient art of Photography :

egf"kZ erax o.kZu djrs gSa fd fdl izdkj Terrestrial rFkk Celestial
Nk;k fp= fy, tk ldrs gSa vkSj fdl izdkj bu bodies ds /ofu dEiuksa
dk v/;;u] fo'ys"k.k rFkk mi;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gSA
V. 'kfDr rU=e~ %
_f"k vxLR; us bl egku xzaFk dks jpuk dh FkhA bl xzaFk ds
vuqlkj 'kfDr ds cÙkhl izdkj gSa ¼fo|qr] pqEcdRo] lkSj] vkfn----½
vkSj buds ekuoh; mi;ksx esa yk;s tkus ds mik; Hkh of.kZr gSaA

VI. fpfdRlk foKku rFkk 'kY; foKku %

(a) Hkkjrh; fpfdRlk 'kkL= dk fodkl 1000 b.c. ls ifgys gqvk FkkA
fo'o dk izFke fpfdRld&pjd FkkA
pjd lafgrk* ¼500 B.C.) ,d c`gr xzaFk gS tks ,d ''Hand book of a
physician'' gS ftlesa Human anatomy, pathology, diagonoses, diseases
rFkk mipkj ds fy, vkS"kf/k;ksa nh gSaA blesa 341 cuLifr inkFkZ]
64 [kfut inkFkZ rFkk 177 i'kq vk/kkfjr inkFkksZa dk nok cukus ds
fy, o.kZu gSA vjc rFkk jkseu fo'o esa pjd dh vf/kdkjh fpfdRld ds
:i esa [;kfr FkhA mUgksaus vk;qosZn ds vkB eq[; foHkkx fd, Fks
tks vkt Hkh izpfyr gSaA

(b) 'kY; fpfdRlk %

lqJqr 'kY; fpfdRlk ds tud ds :i esa fo[;kr gSaA ;s 600 b.c. esa
'kY; fpfdRlk djrs FksA mUgksaus 300 'kY;&fØ;kvksa dk o.kZu fd;k
gSA mUgksaus 'kY; fpfdRlk dks vkB Hkkxksa esa foHkDr fd;k
Hkkjr esa izkphu dky esa gh Caesarean operation vkSj Cranial
surgery dh tkrh FkhA Hkkxor~ esa of'k"B _f"k }kjk ,d xHkZorh
efgyk dk Caesarean operation fd;k x;k FkkA thod ¼Hkxoku cq) dk
fpfdRld½ efLr"d dh 'kY;&fØ;k djrs FksA
SIR WILLIAM HUNTER: The surgery of the ancient Indian physicians was bold and
skillful. They conducted amputation, practiced lithotomy, performed operations in the

abdomen and uterus, cured hernia, fistula and piles, and set broken bones and dislocations. A
special branch of surgery was devoted to rhinoplasty or operation for improving deformed
ears, noses and forming new ones, which European surgeons have now borrowed. The
ancient Indian surgeons also mention a cure for neuralgia.
DR. HIRSCHBERG: Shushruta, known as the Father of Surgery practiced his skill as
early as 600 B.C. He used cheek skin to perform plastic surgery to restore or reshape the
nose, ears and lips with incredible results. Modern plastic surgery acknowledges his
contributions by calling this method of rhinoplasty as the Indian method.
The whole surgery in Europe has taken its new light when the devices of the Indian
workmen became known to us.

(c) vf}rh; miyfC/k;k¡ %

(i) pjd us ân; vkSj jDr ifjHkze.k dk o.kZu fd;k gSA blds 2000
o"kZ i'pkr~ Harvey us bldk o.kZu fd;kA
(ii) lqJqr us vfXu&deZ fof/k dk fodkl fd;k ftlds }kjk fcuk 'kY;
fØ;k ds vkSj dsoy ek= fdj.k rFkk xehZ ls fpfdRlk dh tkrh FkhA
VII. /kkrq foKku ds {ks= esa izkphu Hkkjr dk fo'o dks
;ksxnku vf}rh; gSA bldk vusdkusd xzaFkksa esa o.kZu izdV Lo:i
vkt Hkh miyC/k gSA bl lUnHkZ esa ^/kkrq eUtjh* xzaFk ifj'khyu
;ksX; gSaA /kkrq eatjh ds dqN mnkgj.k ;gka izLrqr fd, tk jgs
gSaA bl xzaFk dh izkphurk lqjf{kr gSA
1. jtrstSo la;qDrk /kkrks:Ùkerk lnkA
¼pkanh ds lkFk la;qDr gksus ij gh /kkrq dh lnk mÙkerk
gksrh gSA½
2. e/;ek lÙotk /kkrquhZtk p =iqlhl;ks%A
=iqrkezla;ksxsu tkrk /kkrq'p e/;ekAA
¼=iq vkSj rkez ds la;ksx ls cuus okyh lÙotk /kkrq e/;e gSA
=iq vkSj lhlk ds ;ksx ls cuus okyh /kkrq fud`"V gSA½
3. [kiZjS% lg ikjna fnO;a fdafpr
tk;rs jldks uke ukuk jksx&gjks
¼[kiZj vkSj ikjn ds ;ksx ls ^bld* curk gSA ;g jld vusd
jksxksa dk uk'kd gS½
4 ukxjrq jgrsghZuks e`r/kkrqLÙkq
l ,oa dkseykfXuLFk% flUnwj tk;rs
¼ukx&lhlk dkseykfXu esa xje djus ij flUnwj esa ifj.kr gks
tkrk gSA½

5. Lo.kZ fuekZ.k fof/k ¼jgL;e; lw=½ %

ukxL; lEHkoa rkeza e/;s esykiua
foHkkxs rq d`rs r= tk;rs dqfEidk
rUe/;s xky;sUukxa f=okja
tk;rs fueZya Lo.kZeqfnra pSo

/kkrq eatjh esa /kkrqvksa dks 'kq) djuk] mudks e`nq cukuk
rFkk e`nqrk dk yksi] vkfn rFkk /krqvksa ds xq.k&/keksZa dk
o.kZu miyC/k gksrk gSA

VIII.laLd`r Hkk"kk %

(a) SIR MONIER WILLIAMS: The Panini Grammar reflects the

wondorous capacity of the human brain which, till today, no other country
has been able to produce, except India,''
(b) FORBES 87: Sanskrit is the most convenient language for
computer software programming.
mDr laf{kIr o.kZu ;g Li"V djrk gS fd oSfnd dky esa gh Hkkjr
esa foKku dh ijEijk dk vkjEHk gks x;k FkkA oSfnddky ds _f"k;ksa
us vusd 'kkL=ksa] foKkuksa ,oe~ osnkaxksa dh uhao Mkyh
FkhA mUgksaus ,d ,sls ;FkkFkZ ijd lekt dh ijEijk LFkkfir dh ftlds
vk/kkj ij vkt dk lekt [kM+k gS vkSj fons'kksa esa bl lekt ds
fl)kUrksa ds vuqdj.k dh Hkkouk tkx`r gks jgh gSA bfrgkl lk{kh
gS fd 600 bZ0 rd Hkkjr us lalkj ds lHkh izxfr'khy ns'kksa dk
usr`Ro fd;k vkSj Kku ds leLr vaxksa vkSj mikaxksa dk fodkl
fd;kA ijEijk ls tks lkfexzh vkSj lkfgR; vkt miyC/k gS mlls fn'kk
xzg.k djds vkSj 'kks/k ds ek/;e ls vius vrhr ds xkSjo dks iqu%
LFkkfir fd;k tkuk pkfg,A ,slk djrs le; gesa ;g /;ku j[kuk pkfg, fd
vius Kku esa fufgr fl)kUrksa dks rksM+ ejksM+dj vk/kqfud
foKku ls laxfr cSBkus dk iz;Ru ugha djuk pkfg,A ;g vko';d gS
D;ksafd vk/kqfud oSKkfud fl)kUr vfUre lR; ugha gSaA l=goha
'krkCnh ls vkjEHk vk/kqfud foKku ;k=k us dbZ iM+ko ns[ks
gSaA MsdkVZ rFkk U;wVu dk fo'o /oLr gks pqdk gS( vkbULVkbu
dk "God does not play with dice" vc DokUVe HkkSfrdh esa lEiw.kZ :i ls
udkj fn;k x;k gS( Shrodinger dh wave equation ds gy Hkkjrh; ^,da lr~
foizk cgqnk onfUr* dks fl) dj jgs gSa( foKku vc psruk rFkk
inkFkZ esa lkE; [kkst jgk gS tks gekjs ;gka LFkkfir gSA vR;f/kd
egRo dk lw= ;g gS fd vius fooj.kksa ds lR;kiu ds i'pkr~ gesa
fuMjrk iwoZd mu Hkkjrh; oSKkfud rF;ksa dks Hkh izLrqr djuk
pkfg, ftudks vk/kqfud foKku vkt ugha ekurk ijUrq tks vk/kqfud

foKku ds fy, Hkh vk'p;Ztud fl) gks ldrs gSaA bl vad esa
^dksfYyikos* ys[k izLrqr gS tks fo'o dks uohure lkfexzh izLrqr dj
ldrk gS vkSj iw.kZ fooj.k 'kks/k }kjk izkIr djus ds i'pkr bldk iz;ksx
Hkkjr ds fy, ,d vf}rh; lk/ku flf) gks ldrh gSA


Science aims to explain natural phenomena through many branches like mechanics,
thermodynamics, optics, electromagnetism, astrophysics, etc. using mathematical framework.
Experiments are designed to test the theoretical predictions. This often leads to the necessity
of new theory to replace the existing one or modify it. This cycle goes on. (Give description
of Hawking’s work). New concepts emerge in all branches of science ( e.g. in the micro-
world of atoms, an electron behaves like a particle or wave, it being present with different
probabilities at many places at the same time, interconvertibility of mass and energy, etc.).
There is no long lasting theory. Absence of long lasting theory makes life unstable. Man is at
a loss to regulate his life. This leads to chaos. We are a witness to it. Is there a way out? YES.
Adopt a model which is eternal yet gives all the comforts of life. Indian models are excellent
sources using which present day ailments of social and monetary life are removed as well
besides providing a healthy ecology.

Ancient Indian seers provided models using which holistic view of the entire cosmos,
animate or inanimate world is taken. The results obtained using these models are valid even
to-day. It is interesting to see that some the observations of ancient Indian seers can be
compared with those of the 21st century world.

We must try to understand some basic tenets of Bhartiya Science Model which makes it
relevant even to-day. A model! Is there a model of Bharatiya Science? Let us consider it.


Models can be understood and defined in many ways. It depends on the objective in view.
The present situation warrants a model using which one is able to describe this universe
(macro level and micro level). For such purposes we can classify models in the following

1. Abstract Models
2. Symbolic Models
3. Physical models



All thought All Mathematical All material

Formulations Formulations Formulations

Darshan leads to thought process; thought process leads to formulations (mathematical) and
mathematical formulations and/or thought processes lead to physical models. It is the
DARSHAN which guides the adoption of subsequent steps in model formulations. First
Western Model was given by Aristotle (340 b.c.). He remained confined to thought process
related to physical world and its phenomena. He abhorred experimentation. He guided their
destiny of the western world for over one thousand years. Philosophy was merely the subject
of analyzing WORDS. It was only in 16th-17th centuries that this was substituted by
SYMBOLIC models. These Development Eras can be categorized as those

A. Up to Rene Descartes three areas are identified:

a. Astronomy( Copernicus, Galileo, Huygens)
b. Mechanics(Galileo, Huygens)
c. Opticks (Galileo, Kepler, Descartes, Huygens)

B. After Rene Descartes:

Eminent scientists like Newton; Einstein; Quantum Mechanics; N. Bohr provided

different models. Latest are the Super-Strings, Unified Field theories, etc.

All the developments of science have taken place according to Symbolic and physical
modeling. Visible Objects have remained the only concern i.e. predominant method of the
study of nature remains MECHANISTIC. All scientific developments can be said as

To-day science is facing great difficulties in its march AND now they are looking towards
INDIA for possible solutions.

Seers of the ancient times provided Bharatiya Science model which incorporates all the three
types of models in a coherent manner. Bhartiya Science Model travels from unmanifest
(अवयक ) to manifest(वयक). Let us discuss the salient points of Bharatiya Science Model:

I. BASIS: The Basis of Bharatiya Science Model is the philosophy ( दिि ब ) which is
no word-speculation but is the realization in practice. The basic tenet is:

ईिािासयिमदमसिव यििकिच जगियां जगि ।

िेि ियकेि भुञजीथा मा गध
ृ ः कसयिसिदिम ् ।।

In order to realize the above mentioned goal one must follow the following:

ब िेिेह कमािबि िजजीििषेचछिँसमाः।
एिं िििय िाियथेिोिसि ि कमब िलपयिे ििे ।।

To perform actions as stated above, one must remember the following:

अिधिमः पिििििि येS ििदामुपासिे ।

ििो भूय इि िे िमो य उ ििदायाँ ििाः ।।
ििदां चाििदां च यसिदे दोभयँ सह ।
अििदया मिृयुं िीििाब ििदयामि
ृ मशुिे ।।

Using the basis mentioned above, sages of ancient India lead us to physical concepts which
are contained in HINDU DARSHANS.

II THEORY ( Sankhya Darshan—A Holistic Science)

III LOGIC (Nyaya) and PHYSICAL SCIENCE (Vaisheshika)


There was no automatic acceptance of any statement/theory. It was needed to be

subjected to the following processes:

पियक (Direct perception)-अिुमाि (Inference)-आगम (verbal arguments/sacred texts) –

पमािािि (proof).

Entire Hindu Science & Technology is developed on the basis and concepts mentioned above.

Is it possible for the modern science to make use of the facts/theories mentioned above?

The answer is a BIG YES. It is precisely because of this situation that the modern science is
trying to look into these aspects of Hindu Darshan for their possible application in scientific

Let us briefly take up the following models for purposes of illustration:

A document published by eminent scientists of the world

18 November 1992: A document signed by 1575 scientists (including 100 Noble Laureates)
from all over the world was published in in the Atlanta Journal(U.S.A.). It says:
“We want to give an emergency warning to the entire humanity. We are fast approaching a
horrible situation. This warning is no exaggeration. Severe global environmental damage is
seriously endangering our ecology. ….. If nothing is done to rectify this situation then this
planet will not be able to sustain life. …….”

Warning signals are being felt throughout the world. It appears that we are heading towards
an ecological disaster..
Who is responsible for this state of affairs? Our western scientific outlook is directly
responsible for it. Is there a remedy? For the remedy we may turn to India and its ancient
Vidyas. Let us discuss one such vidya for the cure.

I.पंचाििि ििदा

1. Roots of ecology disaster and mechanics of harmonious living with nature as per 
Hindu scriptures
We are witnessing the greatest ever technological revolution. Technology has reshaped 
living conditions through different kinds of technical devices. Appliances for routine day­to­
day   living   business,   communication,   administration,   entertainment,   education,   publishing, 
etc. have undergone total transformations. Presence of computers is being felt in different 
walks   of   life.   Present   day   medical   science   has   made   significant   advances   towards   the 
eradication of human diseases. Mapping of complete genetic code of living beings has been 
done. This will lead to treatment of diseases by mere gene manipulation.
The cost of these technological changes in terms of consumption of natural resources 
and degradation has been enormous. Man is adding, everyday, a new source of environmental 
pollution. (A new form of pollution was reported in world famous U. S. SCIENCE Journal. 
Mexico city dwellers faced a veil of brown smog. This smog caused stinging of eyes and 
burning sensation of the throat. For over a decade this smog was attributed to the emissions 
from automobiles and factories. 1t has, now, been discovered that this smog was primarily 
due to the leakage of the liquefied petroleum gas from tanks and cylinders. It is a common 
knowledge that this gas is commonly used in homes for cooking and heating)
In order to understand the cause of this horrible situation we shall have to go back to the 
beginnings of industrial revolution. This industrial revolution can be related to the result of 
one invention: the invention of the Carnot cycle of thermodynamics. 1t is not the bicycle but a 
theoretical sequence of events arranged in a cyclic order. The related events executed in order 
are: process of induction of working fluid; process of compression of working fluid; process 
of expansion of the working fluid; and the process of the expulsion of used working fluid. 
Processes of compression and expansion take place inside a hypothetical engine. During the 
induction process the working fluid is drawn into the cylinder from outside and during the 
process   of   exhaust   the   used   working   fluid   is   emptied   into   the   “SINK”.   This   sink   is   the 
atmosphere. Sadi Carnot. the inventor of the Carnot cycle, assumed this sink to be of infinite 
size. It is this sink into which all exhausts are emptied. As the industrial revolution picked up 
momentum, this concept of infinite sink gained universal acceptance in all techno1ogica1 
deve1opments.   Thereafter   man   started   using   all   types   of   natura1   places   like   rivers, 

waste1ands, oceans and what not as infinite sink. It is on1y, now, that the man has started 
realizing that the assumed “INFINITE SINK” is in reality a “FINITE SINK”. It is this single 
concept of infinite sink that has been responsible for the pollution of our environment. With 
the passage of time the rate of increase of pollution has witnessed an exponential growth 
resulting in the present day havoc on earth.
Man possesses an insatiable desire to lead a perfectly comfortable living environment. 
Technology   provided   means   to   achieve   this   state.   We   have   coolers   and   air­conditioners; 
heaters   and   heating   systems;   automatic   kitchen   appliances;   furnishings   for   all   kinds   of 
situations   and   for   all   places;   a   myriad   of   entertainment   gadgets;   various   communication 
systems; a wide variety of modes of transport; enormous variety of dwelling places with all 
kinds   of   internal   amenities   etc.   To   get   these   set   of   things,   it   is   necessary   to   use   natural 
products and to put them to various kinds of transformations. Since the requirements are 
enormous,   therefore,   the   demand   on   natural   products   is   also   enormous.   To   meet   these 
requirements   natural   resources  have  been  exploited  to  the   maximum  possible  extent.  The 
result is extreme kind of shortages of natural products. This has led to the development of 
synthetic   products.   All   along   this   process,   unimaginable   quantities   of   waste   are   being 
exhausted into the natural environment. The 'Infinite sink' is gradually becoming 'finite' and 
the effects are visible in various forms of problems being faced by man. The entire science 
and   techno1ogica1   community   of   the   wor1d   is   worried   at   this   alarming1y   deteriorating 
i;kZoj.k iznw"k.k ,oa Hkkjrh; fpUru

1- i;kZoj.k ifjn`'; % vk/kqfud foKku ,oe~ VSDuksykSth ds

vUos"k.k rFkk vkfo"dkj ekuo ifjos'k dks lEiw.kZrk ls ifjofrZr dj jgs
gSaA d`f=e cqf) vkSj efLr"d lajpuk] jkscksfVDl] lkbcksxZ]
cpqZvy fjvkfyVh] bUVjusV] uSuks] VSDukWyksth] Dyksfuax]
thukse vkfn euq"; ds Hkfo"; dh ,d fof'k"V ;k=k dk ladsr iznku dj
jgs gSaA bu ifjorZuksa dk ewY; izkd`frd lalk/kuksa dk Rofjr {kj.k
rFkk i;kZoj.k dk Hk;adj iznw"k.k gSA ekuo xfrfof/k;ksa ds
ifj.kkeLo:i izfrfnu fdlh u :i esa dksbZ :i esa dksbZ u dksbZ
i;kZoj.k dks iznwf"kr djus dk lzksr [kqy tkrk gSA fiNys nks
n'kdksa ls ¼Hkwe.Myh;½ i;kZoj.k ds fo"k; esa i;kZIr psruk tkx`r
gqbZ gS tks fuEufyf[kr 'kh"kZdks esa fuEcfU/kr gS %
2- Hkwe.Myh; rki o`f) % ;g Hkwe.My ds ok;q e.Myh;
rkieku esa o`f) dks iznwf'kZr djrk gS ftldk dkj.k okrkoj.k esa
ehFksu] ukbMªkstu vkDlkbM] dkcZu MkbZvkDlkbM] ÝsvkWu
vkfn dh vR;f/kd ek=k esa mifLFkfr gSA ,slk vkdyu fd;k x;k gS fd
lu~ 2025 rd okrkoj.k esa 10C dh o`f) gks tk;xh ftlls vUrkfVZdk
dh oQZ fi?ky tk;sxh vkSj egkleqnzksa dk ry ,d ehVj Åij mB
tk;sxkA bldk ifj.kke uhph lrg okys ns'kksa vkSj uxjksa dk leqnz
esa foyhuhdj.k gksxkA

2- vkstku ijr dk {kj.k % i`Foh ls yxHkx 25 fd0eh0 Åij
¼LVSªVksLQh;j½ vkstksu dh ,d /kuh ijr gS tks lw;Z ds ijkcSaxuh
fofdj.kksa dks jksd dj thou dh j{kk djrh gSA ekuo dh vk/kqfud
mPp lH;rk ds fØ;kdykiksa ds dkj.k okrkoj.k esa dkj.k okrkoj.k
esa Ýsvku vkfn xSlsa mRlftZr gksrh jgrh gSa vkSj ok;q ds lgkjs
LVSVksLQh;j esa igq¡prh gSA ogka ij mifLFkr ijkcSaxuh fofdj.k
bu xSlksa dk fo[k.Mu Dyksjhu xSl mRiUu djrh gS tks vkstksu dh
ijr dk {kj.k djrh gSA ifj.kkeLo:i ijkcSxuh fofdj.k okrkoj.k esa vkdj
dSUlj vkfn LokLF; lEcU/kh Hk;adj leL;k;sa mRiUu djrh gSA
3- vEy&o"kkZ % vk/kqfud lH; lekt ds fØ;k dykiksa ds
ifj.kke Lo:i okrkoj.k esa mRlftZr lYQj rFkk ukbVªkstu ds vkDlkbM
dk :ikUrj.k lYQsV rFkk ukbVsªM ds :i esa gksrk gSA ty o"kkZ
rFkk fge&o"kkZ esa ;s rRo vo'ksf"kr gks tkrs gSa vkSj i`Foh ij
vkus okys ty rFkk fge ds ih,p ewY;ksa dks 5-6 ls Hkh de dj nsrs
gSaA tc ,slk gksrk gS rks bls vEy&o"kkZ dgrs gSaA ;g
vEy&o"kkZ izd`fr dk Hk;adj fouk'k djrh gS( ;Fkk taxyksa dks
u"V djuk] >hyksa dk vEyhdj.k] tyh; thoksa dk thou vlEHko djuk
vkSj iRFkj rFkk laxejej ds Hkouksa vkfn dk {kj.kA
4- m".kdfVcU/kh; taxyksa dk fouk'k&taxyksa dh vlhfer
dVkbZ ds dkj.k oU; thoksa dk fouk'k gks jgk gSA ;s ou vla[;
thoksa ds vkJe LFky gSaA ;s oU; tho ds vusd i;kZoj.kksa ds
fuekZ.k djrs gSa tks ekuo thou ds laj{k.k esa vrqfyr ;ksxnku
djrs gSaA vk/kqfud euq"; ds bu fØ;k dykiksa ds dkj.k vusd
iztkfr;k¡ u"V gqbZ fdlh Hkh iztkfr dks iqu% mRiUu djuk ekuo
'kfDr ls ijs dk dk;Z gSA (FAO, UNO) ds ,d vkdyu ds vuqlkj 1-7
djksM gsDVs;j m".k dfVcU/kh; ou izfro"kZ u"V gks jgs gSaA
5- lkxjh; iznw"k.k % vk/kqfud lH; euq"; }kjk mRiUu bruk
dpjk egkleqnzksa esa fxj jgk gS tks leqnzksa dh 'kq)hdj.k dh
'kfDr ls ckgj gSA ifj.kke Lo:i leqnz ty iznw"k.k c<+ jgk gSA
6- mUur vFkZO;oLFkk rFkk oSKkfud miyfC/k;ksa ds
ifj.kkeLo:i vR;f/kd ek=k esa gkfudkjd dpjk mRiUu gksrk gSA
fltdk fu"iknu djus ds fy, /ku :ih lalk/ku vko';d gSaA vr% ,d ,slh
izfØ;k viuk;h tkrh gS ftlds rgr mUur jk"Vª bl dpjs dk fu"iknu
fodkl'khy vkSj vfodflr jk"Vªksa ds ek/;e ls djrs gSa tgka bldh
ykxr de vkrh gSA ifj.kkeLo:i bu xjhc jk"Vªksa esa izfrfnu
iznw"k.kksa ds u;s vk;ke tqM+rs tk jgs gSaA
II i;kZoj.k iznw"k.k dk ewy mn~xe % mDr o.kZu ls Li"V gS fd
ekuo xfrfof/k;ksa us ok;q] ty rFkk /ofu iznw"k.k] feV~Vh]
iznw"k.k] dpjk QSyko vkfn dh ,slh Hk;adj fLFkfr dk fuekZ.k dk
fuekZ.k dj fn;k gS tks vkt fo'o dh Hk;adj ekuo leL;k cu xbZ gSA
bl fLFkfr ds fuekZ.k dk ewy dkj.k dgk¡ gS \ vki vk'p;Z pfdr
gksaxs fd bldk mn~xe foKku ds vfr izfrf"Br fo"k;

FkeksZMkusfeDl dh ,d lkbZfdy gSA ;g lkbZfdy dksbZ nks ifg,
dh xkM+h ugha gS oju~ ,d pfØ; izfØ;k gS ftldks lknh dkuksZV
uked oSKkfud us vfof"d`r fd;k FkkA bl esa ,d izfØ;k ds fy,
^^flUd dh vko';drk gksrh gSA bl flUd ds fy, vko'd fo'ks"krk gS
fd ;g ^^vuUr flUd** gksA ;g ^^flUd** dqN vU; ugha oju~ gekjk
ok;qe.My gSA dkykUrj esa izR;sd dk;Z ds dapjs ds mRltZu ds fy,
^^flUd** dk :i i;kZoj.k gks x;kA /khjs&/khjs euq"; izd`fr ij fot;
vfHk;ku ds en esa i;kZoj.k dk vf/kdkf/kd iznw"k.k djrk jgk vkSj
fQj mldk izd`fr ls lEcU/k foPNsfnr gksrk x;kA tc rd euq"; og le>k
fd ;g ^^flUd** vuUr ugha gS oju~ lkUr gS vkSj izkd`fr ls lEcU/k
foPNsn mfpr ugha gS] rc rd cgqr nsj gk pqdh FkhA vkt bldh
foHkhf"kdk ge lcds le{k gSA
i;kZoj.k iznw"k.k dk fujkdj.k vkSj Hkkjrh; fpUru % i;kZoj.k
lEcU/kh leL;kvksa dk lh/kk lEcU/k thou 'kSyh vkSj O;kolkf;d
xfrfof/k;ksa ls gSA bl fn'kk esa psruk tkx`fr ds mijkUr Hkh izxfr
ugha gS rqY; gSA bldk eq[; dkj.k gS jktuSfrd lkaLd`frd] fof/kd
rFkk O;olkf;d n`f"V ls ,dhd`r dk;Z ;kstuk dk vHkkoA vr% buds
gy ds fy, iz'kkldh; ukxfjd m|ksxifr] iz'kklu rFkk ljdkj lefUor
fØ;kvksa }kjk i;kZoj.kh; iznw"k.k dks vk/kkjHkwfe ij gh fu;af=r
djus ds fy, l'kDr dne mBkosaA izkd`fr ¼vusdkusd Ecosystems
dk lefUor :i½ ds lkFk iqu% tho lEcU/k LFkkfir djus dh vko';drk
gS ftlls mRiUu fod`fr;k¡ nwj gks vkSj ,d lqLojkRedrk LFkkfir gks
vkSj vUrrksxRok i;kZoj.k iznw"k.k lekIr gksA la;ksx dh ckr gS fd
Hkkjrh; Kku ds iqjks/kkvksa us izkphudky esa gh ,slh fof/k;ksa
dk fodkl dj fy;k Fkk ftudk mi;ksx djds dkykUrj esa i;kZoj.k
iznw"k.k ls iw.kZ eqfDr fey ldrh gSA bu fof/k;ksa esa ls ,d
^^iapkfXu fo|k** vuqdj.kh; gSA blds vuqlkj leLr lalkj ¼tho rFkk
futhZo½ czãk.Mh; vkgqfr;ksa ds fy, fu/kkZfjr ?kVd lewg gSA ;s
vkgqfr;ka ikap vfXu;ksa esa nh tkrh gSa tks fd mÙkjksÙkj
lw{erk ds vuqlkj LFkkfir gSaA bu vkgqfr;ksa esa Lo0&cfynku dh
Hkkouk fufgr gksrh gS ftlls uohu l`f"V mRiUu gks vkSj izR;sd
voLFkk esa uothou l`ftr gksA bl iapkfXu fo|k ds ewy esa cfynku
dh Hkkouk u fd izd`fr ds 'kks"k.k dh izfØ;k esa fufgr gSA
fgUnw vius thou esa czãk.M vkSj izd`fr ds lkFk lqLojkRedrk
dh izkFkZuk fuR; djrs gSA ;g mudh mikluk dk vfHkUu vax gSA
,slh gh izkFkZuk fuEufyf[kr osn ea= ¼;tqosZn v- 36] ea- 17½
esa fufgr gS% Å¡ |kS 'kkfUrjUrfj{ka 'kkfUr% i`Foh 'kkfUrjki%
'kkfUrjks"k/k;% 'kkfUrA cuLir;% 'kkfUr 'kkfUrfoZ'osnsok%
'kkfUrcZzã% 'kkfUr loZ 'kfUr% 'kkUrjso'kkfUr% lk ek 'kkfUrjs
mDr eU= dk 'kCn rFkk Hkko lfgr ikyu fo'o dks i;kZoj.k iznw"k.k
ls eqDr djus esa lQy gksxkA foLrkj ls fooj.k izkIr djus ds fy,

oSfnd lkfgR; dk vuq'khyu vko';d gSA ys[kd dh lgk;rk Hkh
miyC/k gSA

Above mentined scnaio depcting horrible ecological imbalances has been caused due to 
wrong  scientific perceptions.The science and techno1ogy which aimed at providing comfort 
through the exploitation of nature will have to revise its philosophy and will have to relearn 
the method of harmonious living with nature. A solution to this vexed problem is available in 
the Hindu Darshan of harmonious 1iving with nature. One such vidya and its projections for 
ecological harmony is outlined below.

To ancient Indian seers there was no idle philosophy. No philosophy had any claim to 
recognition unless it had some bearing on life. The philosophy must provide 'Darshan' to  an 
ordinary mortal. Students were required to chant vedic mantras daily. Seers discouraged it as a 
mechanical   process   and   instead   encouraged   some   reflection   in   the   form   of   meditational 
upasna. In regard to achieving a harmonious living with nature one such upasna. is called 
panchagni­vidya (or the meditation on the five fires) and is worth consideration. According to 
this PANCHAGNI­VIDYA the whole world, sentient and insentient, is considered to be a 
homogeneous group of factors in a cosmic sacrifice involving five successive fires arranged 
in   the   order   of   their   subtleness.   They   are   all   knit   together   through   a   spirit   of   SELF 
SACRIF1CE, so that a new creation may emerge, new life may come into existence, at every 
stage. The ancients looked on all things and processes from a higher intellectual and spiritual 
plane. To them all things were agents in a sacrifice bringing new life into existence. IT 1S 
HOMOSAPIEN,   THE   ENJOYER   OF   NATURE   which   lies   at   the   root   of   this   panchagni 
Hindus daily worship and practice harmony with the Cosmos and nature (पकृ िि). One 
such Vedic mantra is given below: 

¬ |kS% 'kkfUrjUrfj{ka 'kkfUr% i`Foh 'kkfUrjki%

'kkfUrjks"k/k;% 'kkfUr%A cuLir;% 'kkfUrfoZ'osnsok% 'kkfUrczZã
'kkfUr% loZa 'kkfUr% 'kkUrjso 'kkfUr% lk ek 'kkfUrjs foAA
¼;tqosZn v- 36] ea- 17½
Above mentioned Mantra, when followed in letter and spirit will enable a pollution free world to 
come in existence.

4. Temporal Hindu worship and chrono­therapy

It is one of the simplest facts of life that the living body shows signs of malfunctioning 
through various diseases. It is said that ििीिमादम ् खलु धम ब साधिम ् Our rishis evolved a 
methodology  of   keeping  one’s  body  vehicle   in   a  fit  condition  through  the  observance   of 
certain  temporal actions.  This methodology  in modern day terminology  is  called  chrono­

therapy. Before we discuss the provisions of that” great old science of India let us discuss 
modern variants through the terminology of chrono­biology.

The science of rhythmic temporal biological phenomenon in living being is known as 
chronobiology. It is related to rhythmic temporal patterns of living systems. This phenomenon 
has been studied for over two centuries. It has been found that various physiological activities 
show variations during the day time. Some of these variations are listed below: 
Daily pattern of sleep and activity is one of the most obvious cyclic patterns of living. 
One’s pulse rate and blood pressure rise sharply early in the morning. Body temperatures rise 
during day time and fall off sharply at night. Number of hormones essential for the control of 
1ife’s processes, are secreted with faithfu1 circadian regularity. The number of white blood 
cells in the immune system also fluctuates regularly with a normal variation of as much as 
50% in a day. Why do all living organisms do virtually everything cyclically?
Daily cycles of life as well as seasonal and monthly ones arise because life evolved on this 
planet. The waxing and waning of light, heat and electromagnetic and gravitational forces 
cause rhythmic changes both in the availability of and in the physical medium in which the 
evolution was  unfolding.  It is very  important  to realize  that  the  rhythmic  organization  of 
temporal processes maximizes the stabiIity of living things and ensures that they not waste 
precious   energy.   For   a   stable   life   it   is   absolutely   necessary   that   there   is   a   continuous 
readjustment of internal and external dynamic requirements. This adjustment is cyclical, viz. 
a phase of production followed by an assessment of stability; then a midcourse correction 
based on feedback and then a return to the beginning of the  cycle. The breakdown of this 
cyclical temporal ordering has lethal consequences for the organism.
One of the most important practical applications of the understanding of the role of 
cycles in biology is the treatment of diseases. The treatment of diseases according to daily 
rhythms   is   referred   to   as   CHRONO­THERAPY.   Scientists,   the   world   over   have   tried   to 
unravel   the   mystery  of   nature   with   respect   to   temporal   response   of   drugs   in   the   cure   of 
ailments. Let us consider the case of a cardiovascular disease called myocardial iscemia. It is 
a disease which is caused due to partial blockage of coronary arteries. It means that some part 
of the heart muscle does not get enough blood supply. Several large scale studies have shown 
that ischemia is severe during the first four to six hours after people arise in the morning than 
it is at other times of the day. It is mainly influenced by circadian rhythms in pulse rate, blood 
pressure and interactions with the nervous system controlling involuntary functions. Many 
studies have shown that heart attacks strike twice as often in the morning as they do during 
the rest of the day. The severe heart attacks also result from a lack of blood supply to the heart 
muscle. Blood pressure is strongly circadian. The damage of the blood vessels is caused by 
severe shear stresses caused by the forces exerted on them through the flow of blood cells. 
The most pronounced increase in shear stress takes place when one gets up in the morning. 
Both   the   shear   stresses   and   the   blood   pressure   are   responsible   for   the   damage   of   blood 
vessels. To­day we know that the cardiovascular diseases are amongst very important sources 
of premature deaths of adults. Medical experts have realized that in the morning the heart’s 

need of oxygen should be decreased. They have been trying to solve this problem through, the 
administration of different kinds of drugs.
Throughout the world, very intensive and extensive research studies are being pursued to 
control cardiovascular diseases. But there appears to be no stable solution. Hindu saints long 
back   having   realized   the   importance   of   the   cyclical   variations   of   various   (internal   and 
external) body functions evolved a methodology using which occurrence of these ailments 
could be  prevented­this  course  of  prevention is contained in  the  method of worship.  Our 
saints devised a method of slowing down the pulse rate and blood pressure coupled with the 
control of involuntary nervous system functions through YOGIC PRACTICE and that too 
during very early hours of the day. This set of actions performed during the early hours of the 
morning, the time of most probable onset of heart attacks virtually eliminates the chances of 
failure of cardiovascular system and ensures longevity. Discussion on the technology of all 
this   is   not   possible   here.   This   hint   is   suggestive   of   the   enormous   potential   available   for 
handling   various   kinds   of   ills   (physical   and   psychological)   through   the   methodologies   of 
Hindu worship.

As a result of the use of Hindu models ancient sages were able to have science which is not
only relevant to-Day but can also be used by modern day science. Name of few areas for
possible future use by science are:

Hindu aviation science; inter-planetary voyages; cold fusion; gold making (transmutation of
elements); many Indian Technologies; holistic science of living and non-living; matter and
consciousness; discovery of underlying unity behind the universe.

Eddington, Shrodinger, Capra, Zukov, David Bohm, Rhinecourte, Talbot, Penrose, (even
Hawking could not escape the use of the word GOD) and others seek the God of Vedanta for
the solution of modern day science problems.

2- oSfnd n'kZu ,oa vk/kqfud HkkSfrdh

fofo/krkvksa ,oa tfVyrkvksa ls ;qDr izd`fr dh ekSfyd lefefr
,oa ,drk dh [kkst esa oSfnd _f"k;ksa us ,fdd fl)kar (Unified field
theory) dh vo/kkj.kk dh FkhA blesa fo'o ,oa bldh oLrq,sa
fo'oT;skfr (Cosmic Energy) uked /kukRed ÅtkZ dk iqf"Vdj.k gS rFkk
buds xrh; i{k ,oa vU; fl)kar ^^;K** ls lacaf/kr gSA vusd
euhf"k;ksa us fo'o ds inkFkZ ?kVdksa ds :i esa fofHkUu rRoksa
¼Hkwrksa½ dh ladYiuk,a izLrqr dh Fkha ftuds vk/kkj ij ykSfdd
fodkl ds :i esa oSfnd n'kZu ds lka[;&ra= dk izknqHkkZo gqvk
Fkk ftlesa lkarR;d (Continuum) ,oa ifjfer (Quantum) nksuksa fl)karks
dk lekos'k gSA
¼2.1½ lka[; n'kZu ¼egf"kZ dfiy dk l`f"V jpuk foKku½ Hkkjr ds
vR;ar izkphu ,oa egRoiw.kZ lka[; n'kZu ds izorZd egf"kZ dfiy
FksA mifu"kn dkyhu lka[; osnkar ds lkFk fefJr n'kZu dks i`Fkd dj
Lora= n'kZu esa izfrf"Br djus dk Js; egf"kZ dfiy dks gSA lka[; dk

izHkko izkphu fopkj/kkjk ij cgqr vf/kd iM+k Fkk ftlds dkj.k blds
izorZd egf"kZ dfiy dks izFke nk'kZfud ekuk tkrk gSA ;g
oLrqr% }Sroknh n'kZu gS D;ksafd ;s fo'o l`tu esa nks gh ekSfyd
rRoksa ¼izd`fr rFkk iq#"k½ ds vfLrRo dks Lohdkj djrk gSA lka[;
inkFkZ dh Lora= lRrk lc izdkj ls Lohdkjrk gS rFkk blus rRo
ehekal dks ml LFkku rd igqap fn;k Fkk tgka ls osnkUr us bls
xzg.k fd;k ,oa loZrksHkkos.k iw.kZ dj fy;kA bl n'kZu esa dkj.k
rFkk izHkko ls lacaf/kr vk/kqfud dkj.krk fl)kar (Theory of cousality)
iw.kZr% fufgr gSA bl n'kZu ds vuqlkj l`f"V izkjaHk ls iwoZ
vfoHksfnr vuar lkarR;d izd`fr loZ= O;kIr Fkh] ftlesa l`f"V l`tu ds
le; izR;{k foHksfnr inkFkZ izdV gqvkA izd`fr dks fujkdkj]
vfoHksfnr] vlhe] vfouk'kh ,oa vfu;af=r ekuk x;k gS ftlesa larqyu
dh voLFkk esa rhu vfr lw{e xq.kksa lRo] jt ,oa re dk lkeatL; jgrk
gSA ;s izd`fr ds Lo;a ds xq.k ugha gS oju~ l`f"V ds la?kVd fl)kar
gSaA iq#"k dh n`f"V ls izd`fr vlarqfyr gks tkrh gS rFkk bu
xq.kksa esa lkeatL; ugha jgrk ,oa fdlh xq.k ds vU; xq.kksa dh
vis{kk vf/kd gksus ij izd`fr esa vkfoHkkZo izkjaHk gks tkrk gSA
rRi'pkr~ bu xq.kksa esa la;ksx fQj fo;ksx ,oa iqu%la;ksx gksus
ls lrksxq.k vkf/kD; ds dkj.k egr dk izknqHkkZo gksrk gS]
jtksxq.k ds vkf/kD; gksus ij vgadkj dk izknqHkkZo gksrk gS] ,oa
reksxq.k ds vkf/kD; gksus ls vagdkj dh ikap rUe=kvksa ¼'kCn]
Li'kZ] :i] ,l] ,oa xa/k½ dks mRiUu djrk gSA ftuds la;ksx ls fo'o
l`f"V ds la?kVd vfLrRo esa vkrs gSaA lka[; esa fnd~ ,oa dky esa
fdlh izdkj dk varj ugha fd;k x;kgS rFkk izdk'k dks d.kkas ds :i
esa Lohdkj fd;k x;k gSA ftuesa osx ,oa ÅtkZ gksrh gSA lka[; esa
izHkko dk izknqHkkZo gksrk gSA ftlds QyLo:i ÅtkZ laj{k.k tSls
fu;eksa ds varxZr l`tu vkjaHk gskrk gSA l`tu es lr] jt ,oa re
xq.kksa dk ;ksx fLFkr jgrk gSA fouk'k izØe esa l`tu ds foijhr fØ;k
gksrh gS ,oa vrar% lc dqN ewy izd`fr esa yhu gksdj larqyu
mRiUu gks tkrk gSA ,oa iqu% iq#"k dh vfoth; n`f"V izHkko ls
u;k l`f"V pØ izkajHk gks tkrk gS rFkk bl izdkj l`tu ,oa fouk'k ,d
Øfed y; ds lkFk gksus yxrs gSa ftlls xfreku fo'o dk ogh Lo:i
iznf'kZr gksrk gS tSlk ekSfyd d.kksa dh fofHkUu vU;ksU;
fØ;kvksa ds vk/kkj ij vk/kqfud izknqHkkZo fl)karksa ls izdV
gksrk gSA

(2.2) oS'ksf"kd n'kZu ¼egf"kZ d.kkn½

izd`fr ds lHkh ewy xq.k /keksZa dh ekSfyd Lrj ij oS'ksf"kd
n'kZu esa cgqoknh&fu:i.k (Plural representation) ds :i esa O;k[;k dh
xbZ gSA ;g oSfnd n'kZu ds fo[;kr N% n'kZuksa esa ls ,d gSA bl
n'kZu ds HkkSfrd fo'o ds rRo Kku dks izkIr djus esa egRoiw.kZ

;ksxnku fn;k gSA blds izorZd egf"kZ d.kkn us lHkh izsf{kr
oLrqvksa dks ewyr% nks Jsf.k;ksa% vfLrRo ,oa vfLRoghu esa
foHkkftr fd;k Fkk ftuesa izFke ^^vfLrRo** ds xq.kksa dks
oxhZd`r fd;k x;k gS (1. nzO; 2. xq.k 3. deZ 4. lkekU; 5. fo'ks"k 6.
leok; )
buesa ls nzO;] xq.k ,oa deZ dks iqu% Øe'k% ukS] pkSchl
,oa ikap oxksZa esa foHkkftr fd;k x;k gSA oS'ksf"kd ds vuqlkj
nzO; esa deZ ,oa xq.k fufgr gksrs gSa rFkk ;sla;ksxh dkj.k ugha
gksrk gSA
fØ;kxq.kor~ leokfj;dk.kfefr nzO;&y{k.ke~AA 14AA
dkj.kfefr nzO;s dk;Zleok;kr~AA 15AA

nzO; varr% vfoHkkftr ijek.kq dh Hkkafr vukfn gS rFkk

izsf{kr oLrqvksa dh Hkkafr uk'koku Hkh gSA vukfn :i esa
oginkFkZ gS tks ijek.kfd ,oa loZO;kih nks :iksa esa gksrk gSaA
oS'ksf"kd n'kZu esa inkFkZ dks ukS oxksZa esa oxhZd`r fd;k
x;k gSA f{kfr] vi] rst] ok;q] vkdk'k] fnd] dky] ekul] vkReuA
ftuesa ls izFke ikap HkkSfrd rRo gS rFkk vUp pkj vHkkSfrd gSaA
vkdk'k] fnd ,oa dky izFke okLrfodrk,a gSa tks l`tu izfØ;k dh
vukfn lkarR;d i`"BHkwfe fufeZr djrh gSaA ekul ,oa l`ftr inkFkZ
la;qDr :i ls ml ljapuk ds fuekZ.k esa lgk;d gksrs gSaA vkReu ds
la;ksx ls lq[k rFkk nq[k dk vuqHko gksrk gSA bu lHkh rRoksa
esa la[;k] foHkk] Hksn] la;qXeu ,oa fo;kstu lekfgr jgrs gSaA
l=goha 'krkCnh ds e/; rd csdu ,oa MsdkVsZ tSls nk'kZfud dh
ekU;rk ;gh Fkh fd inkFkZ dh jpuk bUgh izFke ikap rRoksa ls
gksrh gSA rRi'pkr~ ikap rRoksa ds bl fl)kar dks udkjk tkus yxk
Fkk rFkk vk/kqfudre ijek.kq (Atom) ds vusd ?kVdksa esa foHkkftr
dj fy;s tkus ij vk/kqfud oSKkfudksa }kjk inkFkZ&la?kVdksa ds :i
esa cM+h la[;k esa jpuk [kaMdksa dh igpku dh xbZ ,oa vusd
ifjdYiuk,a izLrqr dh xbZA vk/kqfudre ,Ve ds ?kVdksa ds :i esa
bysDVªku] izksVªku] U;wVªkWu rFkk felkUl ls izkajHk djds
vk/kqfud HkkSfrd fonksa us vusd foy{k.k d.kksa (Strange Particles)
rFkk vusd vU; jgL;iw.kZ izcy vU;ksU; fØ;k'khy d.kksa dh [kkst
dh gSA cM+h la[;k esa bu dfFkr ewy d.kksa ¼jpuk&[kaMdksa½
dh HkwyHkwyS;k esa Hkzfer ,oa iw.kZr% {kqC/k vk/qkfud mPp
ÅtkZ HkkSfrd fonksa esa bulHkh d.kksa dks laxzfFkr (Composite)
ekurs gq,s mUgsa fuEufyf[kr nks oxksZa esa foHkDr fd;k gS %
1. ySIVkUl % bysDVªkUl] felku] rFkk U;qVfjukst
2. gSMªkUl % izcy vU;ksU; fØ;kdkjh d.k

gSMªkUl ds la?kVdksa ds :i esa ¼iz;ksxkRed dkj.kksa ls
ikap ,oa lefefr gsrq N%½ dh ifjdYiuk izLrqr dhA la?kVdksa dh
la[;k dh n`f"V ls bl ikap dqvkDlZ ekWMy ,oa oS'ksf"kd n'kZu ds
ikap rRo fl)kar esa lkn`'; izrhr gksrk gSA dqvkDlZ dh bl ifjdYiuk
ds vuqlkj gSMªkUl ds la?kVdksa dh la[;k rhl vFkok NRrhl gksuh
pkfg, D;ksafd izR;sd dqvkDlZ rhu xq.kksa ¼dylZ½ esa vius
lkFkh izfr dqvkdZ ds lkFk mifLFkr jguk pkfg,A jpuk [kaMdksa
¼ewy d.kksa½ ds :i esa rhl ¼vFkok NÙkhl½ la?kVdksa dh la[;k
vfo'oluh; :i esa cgqr vf/kd izrhr gskrh gS D;ksafd izd`fr gekjh
dYiuk ls dgha vf/kd lefer ,oa Øec) gS ,oa blus vius vusd jgL;
gekjs vfrlw{e fnd dky ds ekiu esa l{ke vusd lqxzkgh ,oa
laosnu'khy midj.kksa ls Nqik j[ks gSaA vr% LokHkkfod :i ls ;g
vU; uohu vo/kkj.kk cyorh gksrh tk jgh gS fd ;s dqvkDlZ Hkh
laxzfFkr gS ,oa buesa ls izR;sd mu nks la?kVdksa ls ;qDr gS
ftUgsa fnddky eas fuf'pr var% Lokra=~; dksfV;ksa ds izdVhdj.k
ds :i esa fu:fir fd;k tk ldsA ;g vko/kkj.kk lk[a; n'kZu ds }Sroknh
fu:i.k ds gh leku gSA
oS'ksf"kd bl vo/kkj.kk ls Hkh dgha vkxs tkdj mu xq.kksa ij
cy nsrk gS ftudk viuk Loar= vfLrRo u gksrs gq, Hkh ;s inkFkZ
¼vFkok vf/kd O;kid :i esa nzO;½ esa lekfgr jgrs gSaA oS'ksf"kd
ds vuqlkj dksbZ xq.k la;qXeu ,oa fo;kstu dk Lora= dkj.k ugha
gksrk gSA
:i&jl&xa/k Li'kkZ% la[;k% ifj.kkfu
i`FkDRoa la;ksxfoHkkxkS ijRokijRos cq);%
lq[k&nq[ks bPNk}s"kkS iz;Ru'p xq.kk%AA 16AA

bu xq.kksa dh la[;k pkSchl gksrh gS ,oa buds ek/;e ls

fuEufyf[kr ikap rUek=kvksa }kjk lkarR;d esa ls inkFkZ
¼ijek.kq½ dk l`tu fd;k tkrk gSa% daiu ¼Jo.k½] laosx ¼Li'kZ½]
ÅtkZ ¼n`';½] ';ku&vkd"k.kZ ¼Lokn½] laltZd&vkd"k.kZ ¼xa/k½
tks ekuo dh n`f"V lhek esa vn`f"Vxkspj ,oa yqIr jgrs gSaA
nzO; dh nwljh miJs.kh deZ gS ftlesa xq.k fufgr ugha gksrs
gSa rFkk tks la;qXeu ,oa fo;kstu dk ,d Lora= dkj.k gskrk gSA
deZ ds fuEukafdr ikap izdkj gksrs gS mR{ksi.k] vo{ksi.k]
vkdqapu] izlkj.k]xeuA

(2-3) oS'ksf"kd ,oa lka[; esa dkj.krk fl)kar (Principle of


laHkor% ekuo fparu dh lokZf/kd egRoiw.kZ miyfC/k

dkj.k&izHkko laca/k cks/k dh jgh gSaA dkj.kr;k fu;e esa vVwV
fo'okl ds vk/kkj ij gh vk/kqfud foKku dk fodkl gqvk gSA Hkkjrh;

fparu ds bfrgkl esa egf"kZ d.kkn us bl lca/k dks LFkkfir djus esa
izFke iz;kl fd;k FkkA ;g izekf.kr fd;kFkk fd lHkh lkoZHkkSfed
izfdz;kvksa esa dkj.krk fl)kar dk ikyu fd;k tkrk gSA rRi'pkr~ bl
fl)kar dks lk[a; rFkk ckS) fparu ,oa osnkUr esa fodflr fd;k x;kA
oS'ksf"kd ds vusd lw=ksa esa dkj.k dh izd`fr dk mYys[k feyrk
gSA ,d lw= esa foorhZ rhu izdkj ds dkj.kksa dks lanfHkZr djrh

dkj.ka f=fo/ka leokf;dkj.k&leok;Zdkj.kfufeRr

dkj.k&Hksnkr~ AA 17AA

izHkko ds lkFk dkj.k fdl izdkj lacaf/kr gS \ ;g vk/kqfud

foKku ds fy, Hkh ,d tfVy iz'u gSA blds lanHkZ esa d.kkn us
oS'ksf"kd lw=ksa ds :i esa fuEufyf[kr fl)kar izfrikfnr fd;s gSA
u nzO;a dk;;Z~ dkj.kp ck/kfrAA 18AA

vFkkZr inkFkZ u rks Lo;a gh vkSj u gh fdlh fufgr dkj.k }kjk u"V
gks ldrk gSA

fdz; xq.kor~ leokf;dkjf.kfefr nzOy{k.ke~AA 19AA

vFkkZr~ inkFkZ dks fØ;k rFkk xq.k }kjk vfHkykf{kr fd;k tkrk gS
rFkk blesa dkj.k fufgr gksrk gSA
dkj.kkHkkokr~ dk;Z~;kZHkko% AA 20AA

vFkkZr~ izHkko dh vfLrRoghurk dk vFkZ dkj.k dh vfLrRoghurk

ugha gksrkA

dkj.kxq.kiwoZd% dk;~;Zxq.kksn`"V%AA 21AA

vFkkZr~ izHkko ds xq.k dkj.k ds xq.k ls ihNs ugha jgrs gSaA

oS'ksf"kd ds bu fl)akrksa ls fu"d"kZ fudyrk gS fd inkFkZ
esa dkj.krk fufgr gksrh gS ftlds dkj.k inkFkZ&laj{k.k ds fu;e dk
ikyu gksrk gSA
egf"kZ O;kl dk osnkar n'kZu vkjaHkokn dks vLohdkj djrs
gq, dkj.krk&fl)kar ds :i esa foorZokn dk vfLrRo ekurk gSA

One Definition of ancient Hindu Science:


Matter occupies space (Modern Definition)

Matter (दवय): According to Vaisheshika, the following is the definition of Matter:
पिृथवयापसिेजो िायुिाकािं कालोिदगािमा मि इिि दवयािि ।।
It is a remarkable definition. It includes energy, space and time as matter. Science has come to
the conclusion that matter and energy are two forms of the same thing. It has yet to
understand space and time as matter. Space-time continuum is an established concept. Let us
wait to see the future shaped as per the above definition

दवय सदै ि सथायी िहीं है औि उसकी िििभिि अिसथाऐं एिम ् गुि है ।

धमब िििेष पसूिाि दवय गुि कमब........(िै.द. 1.4)
(It means that in special circumstances Dravya, Guna etc. are produced or destroyed)

A Remark on VEDA VIJNANA ( )

Vedas occupy supreme position of respect in Hindu Society. They provide instructions and
directions for a happy and prosperous life. This ancient Hindu Encyclopedia contains a very
high level of philosophical & spiritual knowledge and important vidyas (sciences), viz.
Ayurveda (आयुिद े ) (the science of life); Sthapatyaveda (सथापिय िेद) ( the science of
architecture); Gandharvaveda (गिधिब िेद) ( the science of music, dance, drama); Dhanurveda
(धिुिदे ) ( the science of warfare); Shulba-sutras(िुलब सूि)(science of geometry), etc.. These
Vedas are rightly termed as the storehouse of knowledge for the entire humanity. This
knowledge is devoid of any dogma. This is not a belief but is fully corroborated by facts.. It is
a great misfortune that some of the western scholars treated Vedas as merely religious or
cultural books. To term Vedas so is to limit their importance. During the recent past, there has
been a sea change in the concept about Vedas. More and more scholars are trying to
understand their real purport. Studies of these Vedas are being carried out throughout the
world to understand their meanings related to modern sciences, technology, music,
philosophy, philology, etc. Some of the studies relate to most modern principles of
environmental conservation. Several Suktas of Rigveda (e.g. Purusha Sukta(पुरष सूक),
Nasdiya Sukta (िासदीय सूक), Hirandyagarbha Sukta(िहिणयगभ ब सूक), etc. ) have acquired
importance because of their contents. We quote an example from Nasadiya Sukta. This Sukta
discusses one of the theories of creation. This Sukta has used Salilam (सिललम ्), Apah(आपः),
ambh(अमभः) words . All these words have an apparent meaning of water (जल). A careful
analysis of contents would reveal that this is not so. Instead they refer to three different kinds
of fluids (!). Once this argument augers well with the translators, the Sukta starts unfolding its
richness of contents. It tells that these fluids which were in extreme heated states (Tapasa
(िपसा (!))) originated from Maya (माया) (!!). These fluids are plasmas. An extraordinary
explosion took place which led to the creation of our cosmos (Brahmand (बहाणड)) and
further expansion took place like that of atmospheric electricity or sun rays.

Vedas provide many clues to the ancient sciences which were in use in India but are not
available to the present science. One such example is the attraction of negative particles
(ऋिािु) of the sun. It is an example of an ancient Hindu science which must be investigated,
ब य ििदा) of the Vedas. We quote two shlokas from
probably using the Parjanya Vidya (पजि

the famous Hindu sacred book (Gita) which mentions about this vidya (vide Gita chapter III,
shloka 14-15):

अििादिििि भूिािि पजि

ब यादििसमभिः ।
य़जादििि पजि
ब यो यजः कमस
ब मुदिः ।।
कमब बहोदिं िििद बहाकिसमुदिम ् ।
ब िं बह ििियं यजे पिििििम ् ।।

These shlokas say that all Bhutas (भूि ) are created out of Anna (अिि ) and the Anna is
created out of Parjanya (पजि ब य ). If the conventional meaning is adopted then we do not go
beyond the words. These words as technical and codified and we must decode them. Once we
are able to do that, this vidya will start unfolding itself. This is a very potent example to prove
or disprove the assertions of Vedas. One very famous saint of Varanasi (Swami
Vishuddhananda Ji) used to invoke this science of attracting sun’s energy for materializing
physical objects.

Vedas have been studied and used in India for religious, philosophical, cultural and scientific
enquiry. Bhartiya rishis and munis provided the sight (Drishti (दिि)) to understand this
literature. They did intense sadhana to acquire competence in this direction.. Interpretation of
Vedic hymns is an extraordinarily difficult task. Any effort to understand Veda-Vijnana will
be unsuccessful if the study is not coupled with that of the Samhita (संिहिा),
Aryanaks(आिणयक), Brahmins(बाहि) and Upnishads(उपििषद) besides the use of Nirukta(िि
रक) and other instruments. Different Vedas are required to be studied with the help of
different instruments. It has to be noted very carefully: “िेद भाषा बहुमुखी है .” कृ षि यजुिद

orders for its understanding simultaneous use of अिधभूि, अिधदै ि, आधयिम, अिधलोक,
अिधजयोििष िथा अिधयज. Use of grammar alone for the interpretation of Vedas will result
in unintelligible outcomes. It is evidenced by such interpretations produced by some of the
learned scholars.

One of the fall outs of the Vedic studies undertaken in the past, with the extensive use of
Upanishads, is the emergence of YOGA VIDYA. This has been thoroughly tested throughout
the world. Yoga is now a universally sought-out medium. It is an interesting fact to consider
that spirituality as a subject has become part of the curriculum of leading Business Schools in
U.S.A. One of the reasons of this adoption is that yoga explains the process of connection of
mind to body which helps tackle to-day’s serious problems of stress at the school, home and
the workplace. Vedas provide a comprehensive explanation of consciousness. Modern
conceptions about mind and consciousness do not go beyond the ability to perceive through
the senses as the result of bio-chemical processes of the brain. But Vedic literature uncovers
the super-intelligent energy behind the unconsciousness. The key to achieving higher levels
of awareness lies in tapping this latent energy in an individual.

Vedic sciences lay emphasis on the holistic view of life whereas the modern concept of life
of the man is that of a materialist. This has led to the emergence of the present era in which
we find extreme kind of material prosperity but near total chaos. Degradation of the
environment, it appears, is beyond repair. It is time to create a new world science in which

man is not a humanoid but is a real human who is in complete command of his environment
and artifacts rather than their slave. This is possible through the studies of Vedic literature and
their implementation. It is worthwhile to quote the following Mantra from Ishavasyopanishad
(ईिािासयोपििषद) :
अिधं िमः पिििििि येS ििदामुपासिे ।
ििो भूय इि िे िमो य उ ििदायाँििाः ।।9।।
ििदां चाििदां च यसिदे दोभयँसह ।
अििदया मिृयुं िीििाब ििदयाS मि ृ मशुिे ।।11।।
Above mentioned Mantras of the famous upnishad provide us an exceedingly important
message. According to mantra(9) one who devotes only to physical sciences falls into
blinding darkness; but into greater darkness than that enter they who are engaged only in
meditation (adhyatma). AND according to mantra (11): Overcome the causes of death
through the physical sciences and attain higher consciousness (immortality) through spiritual
sciences. These two mantras together give us a glimpse of the basic philosophy life of Vedic
seers. Either material or Spiritual practices adopted all alone will be harmful but the two
practiced together will lead to extreme kind of happiness, the goal of every human being. In a
nutshell this tells us to adopt a holistic view of life for alleviating pain and achieving

Vijnana Bharati aims to provide a holistic science through the application of the contents
from ancient shastras (िास). This science will provide a methodology for coordinating the
two extreme views of life. This will ultimately alleviate suffering, a goal to be achieved by
the humanity.

foKku Hkkjrh izkphu Hkkjrh; lkfgR; esa fufgr oSKkfud rF;ksa

dks fpfUgr djus] mudk mi;ksx jk"Vª dh mUufr ds fy, djus vkSj
jk"Vª dh [kksbZ vfLerk dks tkxzr djus dh fn'kk esa mBk;k x;k ,d
ix gSA
lq/kh tu Hkkjrh; _f"k;ksa }kjk iz.khr foKku dh egÙkk dk
voyksdu fuEufyf[kr lw= esa fufgr Hkkoksa ls dj izkphu Hkkjrh;
foKku&;k=k esa izo`Ùk gksaxs] ,slh izHkq ls izkFkZuk gS %&

foKku ukoa ifjx`á df'pÙkjs|nKkue;a HkokfC/ke~A

Kkukfluk ;ks fg fofPN| r`".kka fo".kks% ina ;kfr l ,o

¼tks foKku&uko dk ifjxzg.k dj vKku :ih HkokfC/k dks rj tkrk gS

vkSj Kku&ryokj ls r`".kk dks dkV dj fo".kq ds in dks izkIr djrk
gS] og /kU; gSA½

India in 2020 and beyond and its future science:

We must have a vision for our development. We must not be followers. We must be world
leaders. For this to achieve, we shall have to have our own self introspection, carve out our

future vision, then implementation plan and finally to detail out our methodology for
fulfilling objectives set out in our vision.

1- D.M. Bose, S.N. Sinha & B.V. Subbarayappa: A concise history of science in india. Indian
National Academy, N. Delhi, 1971.
2. A. Rehman : Science and technology in Indian culture. Natl. Institute of Science Tech. & Dev.
Studies, N. Delhi, 1984
3. S. Sharma : Vigyan Bharti Pradeepika. vol2, No.2, Jabalpur, 1996
4- fc'ku fd'kksj% Hkkjrh; foKku oSHko] foKku Hkkjrh dsUnz]
dk'kh] 2003
5- lqjs'k lksuh% Hkkjr esa foKku dh mTtor ijEijk] vpZuk
izdk'ku] Hkksiky] 2003
6- vP;qrkuUn ljLorh%prqosZn 'krde~] vk;Z izdk'ku] ubZ
fnYyh] 1996