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-

( )

.

6 10-
(2006-2007 )

. , 2007

2006-2007 . . 6, 10 . . .

: .. , .

: 6 10- (2006-2007
). - .: , 2007, 20.
7
2007 .

:

. . 040060 21.08.96. 23.03.07
6090 1/16. . . . . . 1,25
.-. . 1,11. 1500. 16-.

-
-
( )
-

141700, . ., . , ., 9
, / (095) 408-5145
./ (095) 409-9351 -
.409-9583

E.mail: zftsh@pop3.mipt.ru
: www.school.mipt.ru

, 2007

2007, . .

2006-2007 . . 6, 10 . . .

( combinare , )
,
: , ,
.
, , ,
: , , .

, .
1.
.
1, . , , (
, ).
, ,
, , , , , , . :
? (
.)

:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
,
..
8 .

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 = 8 !
, n! ( )
1 n : n! = 1 2 ... ( n 1) n.
: n! = 1 2 ... ( n 1) n.
, ,
1,
. , .
A = {a1 ,..., a m } m , B = {b1 ,..., bn } n . ,

2007, . .

2006-2007 . . 6, 10 . . .

( a, b) , a A , b B (
A B
A B ). , ,

a b
A B ,
A B . , A = B = {, ,..., }
, A B , a x
x a - !
: A B mn .
, .. , m n .

, A B C ,
, mnp ( p
C ). , a b c1 , A B , .. mn , a b c 2
.. A B C .
, A1 A2 ... A p n1 n 2 ...n p ,
n1 A1 , n 2 A2 .. p p = 2 p = 3 .

.

2007, . .

2006-2007 . . 6, 10 . . .

1 n1 ,
1 2 n 2 , ..., a1 , a 2 , ..., a p 1
a p n p . , a1 , a 2 , ...,

n1 n 2 ...n p .
, Ak , a k , nk Ak ( k =1,2,..., ),
.
1. a1 ,
8 , .. n1 = 8 ; a 2 7
, .. n2 = 7 .. 8 7 ... 2 1.
. ,
.
Ak ( ) a k ( ),
.. .
.
2.
, , , , , , , ?
a k k - (k =1,2,3,4). n1 = 8 , n2 = 7,

n3 = 6, n4 = 5 :
8 7 6 5 = 1680.
: 1680.
3.
, ?
a1

n1 = 64 .
15 , 64-15 =49 : n2 = 49.

2007, . .

2006-2007 . . 6, 10 . . .

: 64 49 = 3136.
, , . , , ,
.
4.
, ?
( ),
, . ,
.
, . 8 , .
,
7 .. ,
8!
( 3),

64 49 36 25 16 9 4 1 = (8!)

,
8 8 ,
7 7 (
) ..
. 8! ( 1).

, (8!)
8! ,
.
2

(8!)2 / 8!= 8!,

.
, , , , .

2007, . .

2006-2007 . . 6, 10 . . .

5. ,
?
13 . ,
, , 13! . , , , .
1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 . , , 1 2 , 13!
. , 1 2 ,
13!/2!. ,, ..
:

13!
13!
=
.
2!2!2!2! 16

6. ,
? ,
?
, k-
nk = 5 (k =1, 2, 3, 4) , , 5 5 5 5 = 625.
, , ,
, , , ,
. , 9999-999=9000, : , , , . , 9000-625=8375.
: 8375.
,
.
. ( ):
1) ,
, , (..
A B = 0 ), A B , .. , + .

2007, . .

2006-2007 . . 6, 10 . . .

2) , b ,
b , , b + .
.
7. 28
, , ,
?
a1 b1 , a 2 b2 ,
, a b .
, , , . , ..
.
28 , 7
, .. a a , 21
a b , a < b . 6
, 7 6 = 42 .
12 6
a 6 a ,
21 12 = 252.
42 + 252 = 294
.
: 147 .
:

.
,
.
8. ,
.
A = {a1 , a 2 ,..., a n }, X -
0
1
0
...
1
1
1
2
3
1

2007, . .

2006-2007 . . 6, 10 . . .

- 1, a k X , 0 a k X .
, X ,
: X. , ,
.
2 n , .. ,
.
: 2 n .
,
.
: , .
2.
, , - k ( k n ), , k ( ).
, ,
, .
, 4 2
4, 7
. 5 6, .
. k , ,
k Ank .
Ank : k k.
Arrangement,
, .
. Pn .
Pn Permutation .

2007, . .

2006-2007 . . 6, 10 . . .

1 , P8 = 8!,
4 5.
2 8 4: 84 = 8 7 6 5 .

(1)
nk = n( n 1)...( n k + 1) ,
1 k n .
.
, ( 1) ..
(k 1)- (k 1) =
k +1 ,
...
1
2
k1 k
k- .
Ank = n( n 1)...( n k + 1) .
,
(2)
Pn = Ann = n( n 1)... 2 1 = n!
Ank Pn , , ,
. ,
, ..
, .
, (1) k<
:

Ank =

n(n 1)...(n k + 1) (n k )!
n!
=
.
(n k )!
(n k )!

(3)

k = n, ,
0!=1.
: (1) , ,
(3)? : , .

2007, . .

10

2006-2007 . . 6, 10 . . .

k , ( k) :
...
...

144244
3 144244
3
k

n k

, ( k)!
.
Pn = Ank Pn k ,
(3).
9. , 5,
0, 1, 2, ..., 9 , ?
0 5. {1, 2, ..., 9}
95 =

9!
= 15120 .
4!

5,
1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9 0, ..
.
84 = 1680 . , 8 84 , 5.
, ,
.
95 + 8 84 = 28560 .
: 28560.
10.
, 2 1
?
, :
, 1 2 .
9 ( ) 9! .
: 9!

2007, . .

11

2006-2007 . . 6, 10 . . .

3.
. k , ( k n ),
k C nk .
C nk : k k.
Combinaison .
C nk . , k , k! k,
nk = C nk k! ,

C nk =

n(n 1)...(n k + 1)
n!
=
.
k!
k!(n k )!

(4)

, (4) k = 0, ..
, 0!=1. (4):

0 = 1 ,

1 = ,

2 =

( 1)
.
2

11. 2 , 7
10 .
, ,
?
21 = 2 ,

76
10 9 8
= 21 , 103 =
= 120 2
3 2
. , , 2 21 120 = 5040

72 =

.
: 5040.
12. ,
, .
, .

2007, . .

12

2006-2007 . . 6, 10 . . .

, .. 2 . , , 3 .
: 2 3 .
13.
4 7 .
28 4 ?
7
28
.
7
21 , 21

. 147 , 77 = 1 .
7
7
28
21
147 147 .
, 4!

1 7 7 7 7
28!
.
28 2114 14 =
4!
4!(7!) 4

, 1013 ; ! : , 10! = 3 628 800, 20! = 2


432 902 008 176 640 000.
nk
k , ,
. 0 = 1 ,
; 1 = ..
nk nk :

1. C nk = C nn k , 0 k n;
2. C nk++11 = C nk +1 + C nk , 0 k n + 1;
3. 0 + 1 + 2 + + = 2 .
1 (4):

2007, . .

13

2006-2007 . . 6, 10 . . .

C nn k =

n!
n!
=
= C nk ,
(n k )!(n (n k ))! (n k )!k!

. k , ( - k) .
, k
, ( k) , , .
2 , (4):

n!
n!
+
=
(k + 1)!(n k 1)! k!(n k )!
n!((n k ) + (k + 1))
(n + 1)!
=
=
= C nk++11 .
(k + 1)!(n k )!
(k + 1)!(n k )!
2
C nk +1 + C nk =

. , , k + 1 . : ,
, , .
nk k ,
,
nk +1 . , C nk++11 = C nk + C nk +1 .
2 nk .
,

10 = 11 = 1.
20 = 22 = 1 , 21 = 10 + 11 = 2 ,
30 = 33 = 1 , 31 = 20 + 21 = 3 , 32 = 21 + 22 = 3 ,
40 = 44 = 1 , 41 = 30 + 31 = 4 , 42 = 31 + 32 = 6 , 43 = 32 + 33 = 4
.. , 00 = 1 , nk
, :

2007, . .

14

2006-2007 . . 6, 10 . . .

C 00 = 1

C10 = 1
C 20 = 1
C 30 = 1

C11 = 1
C 21 = 2

C 31 = 3

C 22 = 1
C 32 = 3

C 33 = 1

( = 1, 2, ...) (
) - 1.
3 ,
.

S n = Cn0 + Cn1 + + Cnn .


, S n +1 = 2 S n . , S n +1 = 2 S n = 2 2 S n 1 = = 2 n +1 S 0 = 2 n +1 , .. S 0 = 1.
3
8. , 2 . ,
, nk , k
, ( )

n0 + C n1 + + C nn .
, 0 + 1 + + = 2 .
4.

(a + b) 2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2
(a + b)3 = a 3 + 3a 2b + 3ab 2 + b3 .

2007, . .

15

2006-2007 . . 6, 10 . . .


(a + b) n ?
,
. a + b ( :
).
:

( a + b) n = C n0 a n + C n1 a n 1b + + C nk a n k b k + + C nn b n .

(5)

. , ,
( a + b) , ,

a n k b k , k = 0, 1, ..., n. k a n k b k

, - k b,
(n k) . ,

a n k b k , (
) k , .. k . .
. k . , (5) .
(5) a = b = 1 , 3 k , a = 1, b = 1,
:

C n0 C n1 + C n2 + + ( 1) n C nn = 0.

.
. . , .
:
, , .

2007, . .

16

2006-2007 . . 6, 10 . . .

, , :

(a1 + a 2 + ... + a s ) n =

n!
a1k1 a 2k2 ...a sk s ,
k1 + k 2 +...+ k s = n k1! k 2 !...k s !

(6)

k1 , k 2 ,..., k s , .

n!
5, , k1!k 2 !...k s !
a1k1 a 2k 2 ...a sk s , , , k1 a1 , k 2 a 2 ..
(6) . ,

(a + b + c) 3 = a 3 + b 3 + c 3 + 3(a 2 b + a 2 c + b 2 a + B 2 c + c 2 a + c 2 b) + 6abc.
, .
14. , , (1 + x) n x 5 x 12 .
-
, ,
. , :

C nk = C nn k ,
: C nk +1 > C nk

k <

n 1
2

C nk +1 < C nk k >

n 1
2

. -

, C n5 C n12 , 12 = n 5 , ..
= 17.
: = 17.

15.

x 19

(1 + x + x ) .
5

9 30

.
1) (6)

2007, . .

17

2006-2007 . . 6, 10 . . .

(1 + x 5 + x 9 ) 30 =

30!
1k1 x 5 k2 x 9 k3 .
k1 + k 2 + k3 =30 k1! k 2 ! k 3 !

5k 2 + 9k 3 = 19 k 2 = 2, k 3 = 1 , x 19

30!
30 29 28
= 12180 .
=
27!2!1!
2
2) y = x 5 (1 + x 4 ).
1
(1 + x 5 + x 9 ) 30 = (1 + y ) 30 = 1 + C 30
y + + C 30k y k + + y 30 .

k- ( 0 k 30 ):

C 30k y k = C 30k x 5 k (1 + x 4 ) k = C 30k x 5 k (1 + C k1 x 4 + + C km x 4 m + x 4 k ) .


x 19 , 5k + 4m = 19 . ,

k = 3 = 1 . ,
303 31 = 12180 .

x 19

1. .., .., .., .., . / . ..


.: , 1988.
2. .. . .: , 1975.
3. .., .., .. . , 1994.

1(2). ?
2(2). 2007-?
3(2).

2007, . .

18

2006-2007 . . 6, 10 . . .

x + y = 2006,

z + w = 2007 ?
4(2). x 5 y 2002
( x y )

2007

5(2). , 10, 2 2 33 55 ?

1(3). ,
?
2(3). , ?
3(3). ,
. .
4(4). , ?
5(4).

1 1
1
2n +1 1
n
+ n + ... +
n =
.
2
n +1
n +1
0
n

6(4). ,
?
7(4). ,
, ?
8(4). n , m
. , ?
9(5). 16
, ?

2007, . .

19

2006-2007 . . 6, 10 . . .

10(5). 16 , ?
: 9 10 !
11(5). ( 3 + x ) .
8

12(6). x 2

x+3 x+6 x .

2007, . .

20