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( )


3 8-
(2005-2006 )

. , 2005

2005, . .

2005-2006 . . 3 8 . . .

: .. ,
.

: 3 8- (2005-2006 ).
- .: , 2005, 20.

:

. . 040060 21.08.96. 15.12.05
6090 1/16. . . . . . 1,25
.-. . 1,11. 2000. 13-.

-
-
( )
-

141700, . ., . , ., 9
, / (095) 408-5145
./ (095) 485-4227 -
.409-9583

E.mail: zftsh@pop3.mipt.ru
: www.school.mipt.ru

, 2005

2005, . .

2005-2006 . . 3 8 . . .

!
.

. .
,
.
1.
.
25. .
x,

x 2 = 25. : 5 5.
25. ,
,
.
a
, a.
: a.

64 = 8; 1,44 = 1,2; 0 = 0.

a = b ,
: 1) b 0 2) b 2 = a.
a < 0 a , . .
.
49 3,5 .
,
,

( a)

=a

a2 = a .

, , ,

a 2 = a . a 0,

a < 0, a > 0

a < 0, . .

a2 = a .

( a )2 = a 2 .

a, a 0 ( a ),

a = a.
2

1. :

2005, . .

2005-2006 . . 3 8 . . .

) 2 12,25 0,1 0,25 ; ) ( 9 ) ; ) 16,2 .


) ,
12,25 = 3,5, . . 3,5 > 0 3,52 = 12,25; 0,25 = 0,5, . . 0,5 > 0
2

0,52 = 0,25. : 2 3,5 0,1 0,5 = 7 0,05 = 6,95.


) ( 9 ) = 9, . . ( 9 ) = 9 = 9.
) , . .
.
2. x :
2

3x
;
x 1

2x + 1
?
x + x+2
x 1 , x 1 0, . . x 1.

x 1 , ,
x > 1.
) x x 0, x + 2
x + 2 0, x 2. , x 0
. x : x 0 x + 2 > 0,
x 0 , ,
x 0 .
3. :
) x + 2 = 0, ) x 3 = 0, ) 5 x + 6 = 6, ) 3 x 7 = 5.

x x 0,
x 0, , x 0 x + 2 2,
)

.
) x = 3, ,

( x ) = x = 9, . . x = 9 .
) , ,
( 5x + 6 ) = 5x + 6 = 6 . , 5x + 6 > 0,
2

. .

5 x + 6 . : 5 x + 6 = 36,
5 x = 30, x = 6.

) , . .
, 5 < 0.

2005, . .

2005-2006 . . 3 8 . . .

2. x 2 = a
a < 0, x 2 = a . a = 0,
x = a.
x 2 = a a > 0.
y
y = x 2
y= x 2
y = a. a = 1, x 2 = 1
: 1 1. a = 4,
4
y= a
a
x 2 = 4 : 2 2.

4, ,
1
x2
x1
.
0
2
x
2 1
1 2
x = 2.
. 1

, ,
. 2 .
1. ,
7
.
, 7 , . .

7=

m
, n , m ,
n

m
.
n
, m .
2
m2
7 = 7 = = 2 , 7n 2 = m 2 .
n
7, m 2
7, . . m 7, m = 7k ,
7n 2 = 49k 2 , n 2 = 7 k 2 . , n 7,
m

,
n
. , 7 .
1 , a > b 0, a > b . ,
, 119 > 80 ; 2,37 > 1,5.

( )

2005, . .

2005-2006 . . 3 8 . . .

2. a = 2 3 b =

a 2 = 4 3 = 12; b 2 =

1
47 .
2

3
3
1
47 = 11 . 12 > 11 , a > b.
4
4
4

3. :

( 3 ) 5( 3 ) + 2 3 3.
( 3 ) = ( 3 ) = 3; 2 3 3 = 2( 3 )
2

= 2 3 = 6.

: 3 5 3 + 6 = 6.
4.

1
209 .
3
2
2
1
2

1
2
a =
209 = 209 = 23 . , 16 < 23 < 25,
9
3
3

3
16 < a < 25 , . . 4 < a < 5.
a =

3.
.
1. a 0 b 0,

ab = a b .

2. a 0 b > 0,

a
a
.
=
b
b

1. ( ):
)

5 35 175 ; )

11
; )
49

75
;
192

149 2 76 2
; ) 163 4 4 .
457 2 384 2
) 5 35 175 = 175 175 = 175.
)

)
)

11
256 16
=
= .
49
49
7
75
75
25 5
=
=
= .
192
64 8
192
5

2005, . .

2005-2006 . . 3 8 . . .

(149 76)(149 + 76) =


(457 384)(457 + 384)

149 2 76 2
=
457 2 384 2

225
225 15
=
= .
841
841 29

( )

) 163 4 4 = 4 2 4 4 = 4 6 4 4 = 410 =
.

73 225
=
73 841

(4 )

5 2

= 45.

( )

163 4 4 = 16 2 16 4 4 = 16 2 16 4 2 = 16 4 4 2 =
= 4 2 4 4 2 = 45.
48. : 48 = 16 3 =
= 16 3 = 4 3.
, 4

.
5 7 , :

5 7 = 25 7 = 25 7 = 175.
, 5 .
2. :
)

(5

13 4 19 ; )

) a 4b11 ;

(5

a 2 = a ,

( 17

11

)(
3

3 5 ;

21(xy ) , xy 0.
2

13 4 19

= 5 13 4 19 .

5 13 4 19 . 5 13 4 19
. :

(4 19 )

(5 13 )

= 16 19 = 304. 304 < 325,

= 25 13 = 325

304 < 325 , . .

5 13 > 4 19 , 5 13 4 19 = 5 13 4 19 .
)

( 7 11) ( 3 5 ) =
( 7 11) ( 7 11)( 3 5 ) ( 3 5 ) =
7 11 ( 3 5 ) ( 7 11 )( 3 5 ).
3

2005, . .

2005-2006 . . 3 8 . . .

7 < 11, . .

( 7)

= 7,

( 11)

7 11 < 0, . .

= 11 7 < 11.

7 11 = 11 7 .

( 11 7 )(

3 5

) (

)(

7 11 3 5 .
) a 0, , b11 0, . .
b11 0, b 0.

:
4

a 4 b5

) ( b) = a ( b )
2

b = a 2b 5 b .

) 21(xy ) = xy 21 = xy 21.
3. :
2

) 5 37

2 + 3; ) (2a 1) 1 2a; ) 3 xy

1
.
(xy )3


) 5 37 < 0, . . 52 = 25,

5 37

2 + 3 = 37 5

( 37 )

2 +3 =

a2 = a .

= 37 25 < 37.

37 5

)(
2

2 +3 .

1
1 2a , 1 2a 0, 2a 1, a .
2
a 2a 1 < 0.
)

(2a 1)

1 2a = (1 2a ) 1 2a = (1 2a ) (1 2a ) = (1 2a ) .
2

1
, xy < 0.
(xy )3

1
1
1
9
2
=
.
= 3( xy )
= 9( xy )
3
3
3
xy
(xy )
(xy )
(xy )
4. a b :
) a = 3 + 11 b = 6 + 8 ;
3xy

) a = 2 3 b = 7 4 3 ;
) a =

2
2
b = 110 .

5+3 3 53 3

2005, . .

2005-2006 . . 3 8 . . .

) a b .
. : a 2 = 3 + 2 3 11 + 11 = 14 + 2 33, b 2 = 6 + 2 6 8 + 8 =
= 14 + 2 48. 48 > 33, 48 > 33 , 2 48 > 2 33 ,
b 2 > a 2 b > a.
) a > 0, . . 2 2 >

( )

( 3)

= 3. 7 4 3 > 0, . .

7 2 > 4 3 = 48. b .
, a b .

.
a2 = 2 3
, a = b.
) a =

2
5+3 3

2
53 3

= 4 4 3 + 3 = 7 4 3,

b 2 = 7 4 3.

, :

10 6 3 10 6 3 12 3
=
= 6 3 = 108.
2
5+3 3 53 3
110 > 108, 110 > 108 , b > a.

)(

5.
:
)

2
1+ 2
; )
.
3 5 7
3 2 + 5

: ,
.

(a b )(a + b ) = a 2 b 2 .

) 3 5 + 7 ,
:

23 5+ 7
6 5+2 7
=
2
3 5 7 3 5+ 7
3 5 7

)(

6 5+2 7
3 5+7
=
.
45 49
2

) ( ) ( )
)
(3 2 ) 5, : ((3 (1 +2 )+2 )(( 35)(( 3 2 )2 )5 ) 5 ) =
2

2005, . .

2005-2006 . . 3 8 . . .

3 2 5 + 3 2 2 10 1 + 2 2 5 10
=
.
9+ 26 2 5
6 1 2

1 + 2 ,

(1 + 2 )(1 + 2

2 5 10
=
6(1 2)
1 + 2 + 2 2 + 4 5 10 10 20
=
=
6
5 + 3 2 3 5 2 10
=
.
6

4. ,

,
. ,
, , , ,
, -
. .
1. 5 18 + 7 50 30 2 .

, 5 18 = 5 9 2 = 5 9 2 = 15 2
= 7 25 2 = 7 25 2 = 35 2 .
15 2 + 35 2 30 2 = 20 2 .

7 50 =

2. :
)

7 + 4 3 ; )

3 2 2 ; )

( 3 ) ,
3 = (2 + 3 ) .
2

) , 7 = 4 + 3 = 2 2 +

( 3) + 2 2
(2 + 3 ) = 2 +

7 + 4 3 = 22 +
7+4 3 =
)

a +1+ 4 a 3.
2

3 = 2 + 3.

3 2 2 = 1+ 2 2 2 = 1+

( 2) 2
2

2=

(1 2 )

= 1 2 = 2 1.
)

a +1+ 4 a 3 =

(a 3) + 4 + 4

a3 =

2005, . .

10

2005-2006 . . 3 8 . . .

a 3 + 22 + 2 2 a 3 =

a 3 + 2 = a 3 + 2.

3. :

3x + 3 y
a a b b
64a 49b
a b
; )
; )
.
; )
7 a 7b
8 a 7 b
3x + 3 y + 6 xy
a b

) ,

ab=

( a) ( b) ,
2

7 a = 7 a , 7b = 7 b ,

( a) ( b)
2

64a 49b
8 a 7 b
= 8 a + 7 b.

3x + 3 y + 6 xy

3x + 3 y
3x + 3 y

8 a 7 b

3x + 3 y

)(

a b a+ b
a+ b
.
=
7 a b
7

(
(8 a ) (7 b ) = (8
=

7 a 7 b

)(

a 7 b 8 a +7 b
=
8 a 7 b

3x + 3 y

( 3x ) + ( 3 y ) + 2
2

3x 3 y

1
.
3x + 3 y

) :

( a) a ( b) b = ( a) ( b) =
= ( a b ) ( a ) + a b + ( b ) = ( a b )(a + b + ab ).

( a b )(a + b + ab ) = a + b + ab .
:
2

a a b b =

a b

4. :

m
n
mn

n mn + m mn n + m = 1.

, :

m
n
+
=
n mn m mn

( n)
2

m
m n

( m)
2

n
m n

2005, . .

11

2005-2006 . . 3 8 . . .

n
=
m n
n

n m
m

n
=
n m

) (
) (
( m) ( n) =
m m n n
=
=
n m ( n m)
n m ( n m)
( m n )( m + n ) = m + n . .
=
n m ( n m)
nm
n

m
+
n m
m

5. .

4 x 2 + 16 x + 16 x 2 6 x + 9 = 4.
:

) (x 3)

4 x 2 + 16 x + 16 x 2 6 x + 9 = 4 x 2 + 4 x + 4

= 4

(x + 2)2 (x 3)2

= 2 x + 2 x 3.

2 x + 2 x 3 = 4.
1) x 3, x 3 = x 3, x + 2 = x + 2,

2( x + 2 ) ( x 3) = 4; 2 x + 4 x + 3 = 4; x + 3 = 0; x = 3,
3.
2) 2 < x < 3, x 3 = 3 x, x + 2 = x + 2,
:
2 x + 4 + x 3 = 4, 3x = 3, x = 1. 1
2 < 1 < 3.
3) x 2, x 3 = 3 x, x + 2 = x 2,
: 2 x 4 3 + x = 4, x = 11, x = 11. 11 < 2.
: 1; 11.
6. :

3 x + 3 2 y 2 = 3,

2 x + 3 + y 2 = 9.

x + 3 x 3,

y 2

y 2.
2
, : 7 x + 3 = 21, x + 3 = 3, x + 3 = 9, x = 6.
x , :

2005, . .

12

2005-2006 . . 3 8 . . .

3 3 2 y 2 = 3; 6 = 2 y 2 ; y 2 = 3; y 2 = 9; y = 11.
: (6;11).
5.
a + b c
. ,
.
1.

23 + 4 15 .

, 23 + 4 15 = 20 + 3 + 2 2 5 3 =

= 2 5 + 3 ,

23 + 4 15 =

(2

5 + 3 = 2 5 + 3 = 2 5 + 3.

2.

124 70 3 .
,
. a b ,

124 70 3 =

= a b 3. ,
:

a b 3 2 = 124 70 3 ,

a b 3 0.

a 2 2ab 3 + 3b 2 = 124 70 3 ,
a 2 + 3b 2 124 = 2ab 3 70 3.
a 2 + 3b 2 124 , . . a b
, , . . a 2 + 3b 2 124
(2ab 70) 3

, 2ab 70 = 0, . . ab = 35.
ab = 35 :
a = 1, b = 35; a = 5, b = 7; a = 7, b = 5; a = 35, b = 1; a = 1, b = 35;
a = 5, b = 7; a = 7, b = 5; a = 35, b = 1.
a 2 + 3b 2 124 = 0 :
a = 7, b = 5 a = 7, b = 5. 7 5 3

2005, . .

13

2005-2006 . . 3 8 . . .

a b 3 0,

7+5 3

. , 124 70 3 = 7 + 5 3.
,

a b =

a + a2 b
a a2 b
.

2
2

.
, a > 0, b > 0 a 2 b > 0.

a + a2 b
a a2 b
,
>
2
2

. ,
:

a b =

a + a2 b a a2 b
a2 a2 + b
,
+
2
2
2
4
a b = a b.

2.

56 2880 ,
.

56 + 3136 2880
56 3136 2880

=
2
2
56 + 16
56 16
=

= 6 20 = 6 2 5.
2
2

56 2880 =

6.
7-
y = kx + b, y = x 2 y = x 3 .
, ,
y = x .
, ,
x 0.

x
y

0
0

1 / 16
1/ 4

1/ 9
1/ 3

1/ 4
1/ 2

1
1

4
2

2005, . .

9
3

14

2005-2006 . . 3 8 . . .

y
3
2
1
2
1
4

1. :
) y =

x 2 ; ) y = x ;

) y =

x + 1;

) y =

x +1;

) y = x 2 4 x + 4 x 2 + 2 x + 1; ) y = x .
) ,

x, x 0,
x2 = x =
x, x < 0.

. 2.
) , x 0, . . x 0.
.

x
y

1 / 16
1/ 4

0
0

1
1

1/ 4
1/ 2

. 3.

4
2

9
3

1
0

. 2

1
2
3

x
. 3

) x + 1 0, x 1. x = 1,
y = 0, x = 3, y = 2, x = 8, y = 3.
y = x
Ox .
. 4.

2005, . .

15

2005-2006 . . 3 8 . . .

y
2

2
1

1 0

. 4

1 0

. 5

) x. x 1
x + 1 = x + 1 ,
y =

x + 1, . 4. x 1
, y = x 1. ,
, ( 1),
. , x = 0 x = 2
1. 3 ( 5)
2. :
x = 1.
. 5.
) , .

y = ( x 2) (x + 1) = x 2 x + 1.
x 2 y = x 2 x 1 = 3.
1 < x < 2 y = x + 2 x 1 = 2 x + 1.
x 1 y = x + 2 + x + 1 = 3.
2

. 6.
)

y= x

x 0.

) = x. . 7.
2

y
3
1

1 0

1
0

. 6

. 7

2005, . .

16

2005-2006 . . 3 8 . . .

2.

3 x , x 0;

5
y = 3 x, 0 < x < 2;
2
x 2 2, x 2.

. 3
y = x . x 0
y = x 3, . .
y = 3 x y = x
Oy 3 .

5
x. ,
2
(0;3) (2;2 ).
5
0 < x < 2 y = 3 x. x 2
2
y = x 2 , 2
Oy.
y = 3

x
y

1
1

9
0

2
2

0
3

. 8.

6
0

y
3
9

10
2

. 8


1(2). , 11 .

2005, . .

17

2005-2006 . . 3 8 . . .

2(1). ,
,

2
21
3; ; 0,3(51); 79 ; 2,2753; .
9
76
3(2). x :
1
3x + 1
x2
)
; )
; )
;
x 2x 5
x+3
2x 7 1
5x 9
2x + 3
; ) 2
?
)
x + 1 1 3x
(x 1) x 2 9

4(2). :
) 2 x 3 = 0; ) 5 x 1 + 7 = 0;

3x 5 = 1; )

4 x 3 = 24 5 x .

5(1). a =

1
293
235 b =
.
2
5

6(1).

1
5372 ?
12
2
7(1). , 2 3 3 11 = 111 12 33. ,

111 12 33 = 2 3 3 11 ?
8(4). :
) 5a + 2 15ab + 6b 5a 2 15ab + 6b ;

)(

3
3 +1 1

3
3 +1 +1

7 7 +5 5
35 ;
7+ 5
5
8

16
)

3+6 .
3+2
5 3
5 1
)

9(3). :
)

x + 169
46 x x 46
x x 27
; )
; )
.
x + 13
x 46
x 3

2005, . .

18

2005-2006 . . 3 8 . . .

1
,
a2

10(1). , a 2 +
a = 7 6 .
11(1).

2 3

x 4 3x 3 11x + 3 = 0 ?

12(2). :
) y = 3

(x 2)

(x 3)2

; ) y =

x3

1(2). :
) 2 3;
) 6 2 ;

73 1
;
45,4 .
7 2
70 4 5 ; 78 ;

10 + 29 .
5 + 2 3

2(2). ,
.
3(2). ) ,
.
) ,
.
4(3). :
) 19 + 15 13 + 21;

5680 2 5642 2 5642 2 5604 2 ;


) 0,815 0,015 0,005 0,0815 0,0015 0,5.
)

5(1). x

x+5 +

6(2). - :
)

48a 3b14 , b 0;

a 7 b11 , a > 0, b < 0;

)
)

) (
3

2x 3
?
(2 x + 1) 7 x

21 3 5 2 19 ;

1
.
(b a )5

2005, . .

19

2005-2006 . . 3 8 . . .

7(2). :
) (2 x )

1
; ) (3 + x ) (3 + x );
x2
a a > 5; ) xy xy .

) (5 a )
8(2).
)

2
; )
3 7 2

9(3). :

5 x 1 = 3; )

1+ 3
.
3 + 2 1
7 x + 3 = 5; )

3 x+34 5
= .
3+ x +3 6

4x2 9
= 5;
3 2x
9 x 2 30 x + 25 = 25 x 2 80 x + 81.
5 x + 1 1 = 3; )

)
10(3). :

x
y 3 ; )
xy

x + 2 2 x + 1 x + 1, x 0;

2+ a
a 2 a a + a a 1

a + 2 a +1 a 1
a

11(2). , :
) 18 128 ; ) 8 + 60 .
12(6). :
) y =

x ; ) y = x 2 + 1; ) y = 1 x 1;

) y =

(x 3)2 (x + 1)2 ; )

y=

(x 2)2
;
(x 2)x

1 x 1, x 1;

) y = x 2 , x ( 1;2 );
8
, x > 2.
x

2005, . .

20