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( )
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5 10-
(2003-2004 )

. , 2004

2003, . .

2003-2004 . . 5 10 . . .

: .. ,
.
: 5 10- (2003-2004 ).
- .: , 2004, 32.

:

.. 040060 21.08.96. 12.01.04
6090 1/16. . .
... 2,0
.-.. 1,77. 2400 . 10-.

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( )
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141700, . .,., .,9
, / (095) 408-5145
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E.mail:zftsh@pop3.mipt.ru
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-
( ), 2004
- , 2004
.,2004

2003, . .

2003-2004 . . 5 10 . . .

1.
, ,
.
,
.
1. ( ).
,
,
,
.

b
a , a (.1). a b
,
,
a , , a b .
. 1

2.

,
.
a b , a , b ,

= c (. 2). , c a c b.
. 2

, b a b, a

.
c a . , c b .
3.
, .
a , b
. a M
b M (. 3).
a1 , a 2 .
a1 b a 2 b . a1 a 2
M , ,
a ( a1 , a 2 ).

. 3

. 4

, a b .
1. ,

,
.
a b .
a A
, b (
, A b ). a
.
(. 4).
.


, -

2003, . .

2003-2004 . . 5 10 . . .

.
2.
,
,
( ).
, , ..
,

.

.
)
:
.

: A1 , A2 , A3 . A1 A2 A3
.

.
2. ABCD .

ABC
A1 B1C1 .


,
D1 D
a b ,

. 5
A1 C1 B1C1 A1 B1
(.5). D1 .
)
( ):

(
).
: A1 , A2 , A3 , A4 . A1 A2 A3 A4
.

.
3. .
,
, .
A1 A2 A3 A4
( .6 ). 2,

,
,
A1 A3 B2 A4 A2 B4 B1 B3

.
4.
.
SABCDEF ,

. 6
SD
2003, . .

2003-2004 . . 5 10 . . .

. S1 A1 E1C1
SAEC (.7).

ABCDEF O
ACE (.8). ,
, M , AC ,
M 1 A1C1 ,
O, EM 2:1, E ,
O1 , E1 M 1 .
, O1 A1C1 E1 ,
. ,

. 7

. 8

D, F B A, C E O ,
D1 , F1 , B1 A1 , C1 , E1

O1 .
3.

,
( ).
:
.
,
, . ,
,
.
. , , , ,
,
..
,
,
, , .
, (
, ),
, ,
. .
5. SABC ,
K , L, M (.9 a ); K ( ABC ), L ( ABC ),

M ( ASC ).

. ,

2003, . .

2003-2004 . . 5 10 . . .

. 9

KLM ( ) .
( ABC ) K , ,
K ,
L , KL
ABC . :
KL AB BC E F (. 9).
AC X .
: X M ,
( ASC ) , , XM ,
XM SA SC H
G (. 9). ,
, ( ASB ) EH ,
(BSC ) FG.
E H F
G (. 9).
, KL
AC ?
. KL
AC , ( ASC ),
KL
( ASC ). KL,
( ), ASC
KL. M
, KL, SA SC
H G. H E , G F ,
(. 10).
,



.
,
,
.


. 10

. ,
,
: , , . .

2003, . .

2003-2004 . . 5 10 . . .

6.
ABCDEA1 B1C1 D1 E1
, K , L, M
(.11 a ),

K , L ( ABC ), M ( A1 B1C1 ).
KL
KLM ABC. AB CD
P1 P2 . ,
A1 B1C1 , ,
ABC
A1 B1C1 (

),


A1 B1C1
)
)
KL
. 11
(, ,
M ). , M
KL A1 E1 E1 D1
P5 P4 .
5. . 11.
,


,
. .
7. ABCA1 B1C1 ,
O

AC1 CA1

= ( AB1C ).
.
|| ,
. , AA1C1C
KL, K L CC1 AA1
(. 12), KL || AC KL
AA1C1C. ,

AA1 B1 B LM , M A1 B1 . ,
B1C1 N . KLMN
( MN || A1C1 || KL ).
, LM || AB1 LK || AC ,
MLO = B1 AC , ,
ML : B1 A = OL : CA = 1 : 2.
,
MLO B1 AC
1
k = . h1 ,
2
. 12
M OL
h, B1 CA. ,
S 1
3
1
= h1 (MN + KL ) : h CA = .
S 2
4
2

2003, . .

2003-2004 . . 5 10 . . .

8.
SABCD ,
C M SD,
M DA. ,

, ,
.
SD SD
ASD,
. 13
ASD ,
SD (. 13). ASD MN , N
SA. BSD
PQ, SD, P CM BD,
CM BD BSD. Q N C ,
MNCQ.
, N AS . ,
ACD P ( AO = OC

2
1
DO = DB.
3
3
BSD BQP , BQ : BS = BP : BD = 2 : 3. ,
SX : XO, X SO , ..
X = SO PQ, ,
DM = MA ), DP =

.
BC, CA
1, 1, 1 ,
, ; ,
, ,

AC1 BA1 CB1

= 1.
C1 B A1C B1 A
, BSO

PXQ,

SX OP BQ

= 1,
XO PB QS

..

SX 1 2
= 1,
XO 4 1

SX
= 2.
XO

9.

AS , SB BC SABC. ,
CA.
: = ( KLM ).
1 2 .
, A 1 , S 2 ,
S 2 B 1 C 2 . , A C
, AC
. 14
.
K = AS , L = SB, M = BC.

AS , ASC .
AC , SC
N . , , NK LM
.
2003, . .

2003-2004 . . 5 10 . . .

4.
, ,
,
, .
.
10. ABCDA1 B1C1 D1 ,
O P
A1 B1C1 D1 CC1 D1 D, R
DA , AR : RD = 4 : 3.
, AB = a.

(. 15).

( R ) , ABCD.
. 15
O1 P1
ABC O P.
OO1 || PP1 || AA1 O, O1 , P, P1

O, P ,

O1 , P1 ( ABCD ).
T = OP O1 P1 ( ABCD).
R ( ABCD). , RT
( ABCD ) K
PQ D1C1 . KO
A1 B1C1 , N = KO A1 B1 ,
AA1 B1 . E

,
EN AA1 B1 , ,
QRMNK .
. 16

, S = S QENK S REM .
QENK ,
. ,
KN = 2 KO = 2 KP = KQ, QENK ; S1

1
d1 d 2 , d1 = NQ, d 2 = KE. ,
2
O P , : A1 N = KC1 = QD,
NA1 DQ ( , B1 A1 AA1 D1 ,

S1 =

NA1 DQ ), d1 = NQ = A1 D = a 2 .
d 2 .
1
1

1
1
k = PP1 : OO1 =
, 1 = 1 , .. 1 = 11 = .
2
2
2
1Q RDQ (. 16) :

2003, . .

2003-2004 . . 5 10 . . .

P1Q : QD = 1 : RD =

. 17

a 3
: a = 7 : 6,
2 7

6
3a
P1 D = .
13
13
QDR EAR :
4a
AE : DQ = AR : DR = 4 : 3,
.
AE =
13
4a
, , AM =
7
..

QD =

(,


ABC1 ). . 17,

3a
,
13
4a
3a 14a
EK 1 = AE + AB K 1 B =
+a
=
, KK 1 = AD1 = a 2 , ..
13
13 13
1
267 2
196a 2
534
KE =
+ 2a 2 =
a. , S1 = d1 d 2 =
a .
2
13
169
13
S REM = S 2 , REM QEN
k1 = RE : QE = RA : DA = 4 : 7.
KC1 = DQ =

8
41
41 267 2
4
4 1
S 2 = S QEN = S1 =
S1 . , S =
S1 =
a .
49
637
49
7
7 2

( , , ). ,
,
,
.

.
.

(
)

S
(
).

M
M
)
)
SM
. 18
, .
. ,
,
, .
11. SABC KLM
(. 18a ), K ( ASB), L ( ASC ), M ( BSC ).
( S )
K , L, M ABC. K1 , L1 , M 1
(. 18 ) . KM K 1 M 1 ( X ), LM

L1 M 1 (Y ). XY ABC .
XY AB Z ( . Z
BA B ). KZ ASB
2003, . .

10

2003-2004 . . 5 10 . . .

P Q SA SB KZ
. , QL ASC .
PQR .

5. .

,
,
. ,
:
,
,
.
.
12. AB CD, AD BC
. ,
AC BD .
D DO

ABC (. 19).
. 19
, CDAB , COAB, ..
O , CC1 ABC .
, O , AA1 ,
, O ( ) ABC.
, BOAC
BDAC.
13. SABCD
ABCD AB = a, AD = b, SA
, SA = c. : )
A SCD; )
, A

SD.
)
, .
, , A SD
SCD (.20). ,
SAABC CDSA, , CDDA,

CD SAD CD AE.

..

AE
AESD,

CD SD, , AECSD.
AE ,
SAD :

. 20

1
1
bc
.
SA AD = AE SD AE =
2
2
b2 + c2
) . ) , AESD
CDSAD, CDSD.

2003, . .

11

2003-2004 . . 5 10 . . .

AEFB( EF CD AB).
EF CD, CDAE , . .

h = AE =

, . .

bc
b2 + c2

ASE DSA :

SE = AS 2 : SD = c 2 : b 2 + c 2 ,
SEF SDC :
ac 2
EF = (CD SE ) : SD = 2
. ,
b + c2
S =

1
abc
( EF + AB ) AE =
2
2 b2 + c2

14.

c2
2
+ 1.
2

b +c

. 21

ABCDA1 B1C1 D1 ,
B1 DA1 BC1 .
ABCDA1 B1C1 D1 (.21), A1C1 D1 B1 , D1 B1
DB1 A1 B1C1 , ,
DB1 A1C1 . DB1 A1 BC1 .
DB1 A1 BC1 , DB1A1C1
,
DB1A1C1 .

, , A1 B1 = B1C1 .
A1 B1 = BB1 , . . ABCDA1 B1C1 D1 .
15. , ,
,
.
K , L, M , N , P, Q

A1 D1 , D1C1 , C1C , CB, BA, AA1


(.22). ,
.

B1 A1 K DD1 K ( ) ,
B1 K = DK . O
, KO
. 22

B1 KD,

KOB1 D, .. KO .
KLMNPQ .
a
, a . , T

2
AD,
a
KA1Q TAQ , NBP TAP , PT = QT =
, ..
2

PTQ
.

NPQ = 180
TPQ = 120. KLMNPQ
120, . .
, , .
2003, . .

12

2003-2004 . . 5 10 . . .

16. SABCD
:
) A SCD , AB = a,

DS = b;
) SA
SCD.
) 13, , A
SCD , SD (.23). ,

AB CD AB SCD , h
AB SCD .
E F AB CD.
, EE1 SF , EE1 SCD
( SEF , SAC

SO

!).

DC ,

. ,
EF DC ,
, DC SEF , DC EE1 .

. 23

EE1 SF , ,
EE1 SCD. (
A1 A SCD : AEE1 A1
, E1 A1 = AE = DF , .. A1
SCD ). SEF ,

1
1
SO EF = EE1 SF ,
2
2

a 2
a2
EE1 = a b 2
.
: b2

2
4

)
.

a2
AA1 EE1
2 .
=
=
ASA1 , .. sin =
AS
AS
a2
b b2
4
a b2

x2
a
2 .
x = , sin = x
b
x2
1
4
2
t = x , sin (
2t
sin > 0) f (t ) = sin 2 = 2t
. :
4t
1

2t t 2
t 2 8t + 8
(2 2t )(4 t ) (2t t 2 )(1)
= 2
f ' (t ) = 2
=2
=
(4 t ) 2
(4 t ) 2
4t
(t t1 )(t t 2 )
=2
, t1 = 4 2 2 , t 2 = 4 + 2 2 .
(4 t ) 2
2003, . .

13

2003-2004 . . 5 10 . . .

(t t1 )(t t 2 ) + t1 ,

t1 (0; 2 ), max f (t ) = f (t1 ) = 2(2 2 ) 2 .


, max sin =

2 (2 2 ) = 2 2 2 max = arcsin(2 2 2).


17. M D1 D ABCDA1 B1C1 D1
a . A1C1 CM .

, . N
BB1 (. 24), A1 N CM = NA1C1
.

A1 NC1

5
:
2
2
2
, = arccos .
5
5

A1C1 = a 2 , A1 N = C1 N = a

cos = A1C1 / A1 N =
2

h
l1 l 2

.
1. h l1 l 2 .
. 24

2. h ,
.
, A1C1 AC

. 25

A1 N CM , , ( A1C1 N ) ( ACM ).
,
A1C1
CM . h
, ,
N ACM. ,

NN 1 , N

MO, O ABCD. , AC D1 D
, AC BD . AC BB1 D1 D,
NN 1 , , , AC NN 1 , .. NN 1
AC MO, .. ACM .

BB1 D1 D (.25).
T
MO BB1 . TBO = MDO
a
TB = MD = , NT = a. NTN 1
2
O1 NB1

NN 1 : O1 B1 = NT : O1 N ,

O1 N = a

3
2
h = NN 1 = a .
2
3

18. ABCDA1 B1C1 D1 ,


AD1 A1 BC1 .

2003, . .

14

2003-2004 . . 5 10 . . .

. ,
,
.
(

).
,

AD1

A1 BC1
(.26). 14 ,
DB1 A1 BC1 ,
. 26

l , l DB1 ,

AD1 .

l OP DA1 B1 (-

O AD1 ).

, OP DB1 , -,
.

APD1

6.
,

.
-
.
, .

, .

. a b

. x

x = a + b , .

. a b
, ,

x = a + b x a , b .
, ,
.

a b

. x a , b

: x = 1 a + 1 b = 2 a + 2 b ,

1 = 2 , 1 = 2 .

19.

ABC
. 27

E AC , F BC, AE / AC = 1 / 3, BF / FC =
= 2, O = AF BE. AO / OF BO / OE

(.27).
2003, . .

15

2003-2004 . . 5 10 . . .

a = AB b = AC . BF / BC = 2 / 3.

AO = AF , BO = BE. AO :

(1) AO = AF (2) AO = AB + BO .

(1): AO = AB + (2 / 3)BC =

= ( AB + (2 / 3)( AC AB)) = ( / 3) a + (2 / 3) b .

(2): AO = AB + BE = (1 ) AB + AE = (1 ) a + ( / 3) b .

= 1 ,

2
= ,
3
3

3
3
6
= , = . AO / OF = 3 / 4, BO / OE = 6.
7
7
E BC , F CD :
20. ABCD
BE / EC = 1 / 2, CF / FD = 3, O = AE BF . AO / AE
BO / BF (.28).

a = AB

b = AD .

AO = AE , BO = BF .

BO :

(1) BO = BF (2) BO = AO AB .

(1): BO = BF = ( AB + AD + DF ) =

. 28

= ( a + b + (1 / 4) a ) = (3 / 4) a + b .

(2): BO = AO AB = AE AB =

= ( AB + BE ) AB = ( AB + (1 / 3) BC ) AB = ( 1) a + ( / 3) b .
3 / 4 = 1, = / 3,
= 4 / 5, = 4 / 15.
7.
, .,
: 1 . 25, 3 . 31, 32, 33, ,
- 19 . 168, . 180.
,
.
, .
. ,
( , , ),
.
(

) .
. , ,
.
: . n
.
2003, . .

16

2003-2004 . . 5 10 . . .


.
1 . ,
(6 2 ) = 4,

= 4 n.

2 .

3-

6n
= 2n.
.
3
2, 2
2n 2 = 4n.
, 2 < 1 , .
,
5- 6- , 3-
( !)
, ,
k - k = 7, 8, .
, 3 k 5
, : , ,
( ).
1758 . ,
, .
M , B M ,
M , M .

+ = 2.
, .
29.
i
M i , Bi
M , i
M .
i = ,
i =
(1)

(
i , , i 3 ).
,
i i = 2 P,
ii = 2 P
(2)
. 29

(2):
, AB ( . 30) :
S1
S 2 . AB ,
, A B.
M .
.
. . 31. S
,

S . O
S ,

. 30
O
M
2003, . .

17

2003-2004 . . 5 10 . . .

M
(
M , O ).
,
k , , O
S, , k
S . , k S
O .

. 31

B B1 ( . 32),
A1C1 ,

A1 A , C1
C.
B
M,
B = B

.
P
. 32
M , P = P . .
M
. 32.
,
M , = 1 ( k
).

M ( k ).
k , . .
1 .
1

(k 2) ,

(B k ) 2 , . .
M k 2
(. . 31), B k .
, 1 = (k 2 ) + B ' k 2 = 2B ' k 2.
2 .

= (i 2) i, i

i ,
i. (2)

i i = 2 P k .

( , k

i i , ,

(2), k 1 ).
,

2003, . .

18

2003-2004 . . 5 10 . . .

= i 2 = (2 P k ) 2 = 2P k 2
= ,
i

2B k 2 = 2P k 2 B + = 1 + = 2.
(2)
/
, , .

(, , ),
, .
( ) ,

( ) .
21. , 8
.

. 33

. 34

. . 33. 8
: ABC , ABE , BCF , ACD, AED, BEF , CFD, EFD.
. 33 ,
(. 34).
22. , 6 12
.
. , (
).

= 2 + = 8 = 3 + 4 + 5 ,
3 3 , 4 4 ,
5 .
, i = 0 i 6, . . 6 .
(1) (2) :

3 3 + 4 4 + 5 5 = 24 = 2 ,

3 + 4 + 5 = 8.

3 = 8 4 5 ; 24 3 4 3 5 + 4 4 + 5 5 = 24 4 + 2 5 = 0, .
. (. . 4 5 0) 4 = 5 = 0 = 3 = 8.
, = 8 , = 6, = 12.
: ,
. , , 21
.

1(2). l1 l 2 .
, l1 , l 2 .
2(2).

2003, . .

19

2003-2004 . . 5 10 . . .

AB BC ABCD .
.
3(2). SABCD S SA, BC
AD K, N M (

). , (KMN )
SB.
4(2).
. ,
?
5(3). , , ,

90 . ,
cos = cos cos .
6(1). ,
, .
7(3). B . ,
2 (B 2).
8(3). , B 4, 4 P 4
, B + P = 2,
B, P (
).
o

1(2). A . H
A .
A ,
H / 4 .
2(2). M , N M
, M
. , M N :

S N = S M cos .
3(5). ,
?
ABCD 1,
4(4).
K

AB, E CD : EC / ED = 2. ,
K , E BC ,
(BC ) (KE ).

5(5). ABCDA1B1C1D1 AA1, DD1 AD


,
,

K,M , N

D1M / MD = AK / KA1 = AN / ND = 1 / 2.

ABCDA1B1C1D1 , K , N , ( AMC1 )

( AMC1 ).

6(5). ABCDA1B1C1D1 1. M A1B1.


,

A1C1 MD; MD
A1C1.
7(4). SABCD M
AD , F SC : SF / FC = 1 / 3.
2003, . .

20

2003-2004 . . 5 10 . . .

, F , D , SM .
?
8(4). ABCDA1B1C1D1

, A1B1C1D1 ,
AB F DD1 : D1F = 2FD.
C1D1 ?
9(4).
?
( )?
10(3). , 1
,

1 / 2.
11(5). SABC
)
AB = a, SA = b, M AC . :

M (SBC ); )

(SM ) (SBC ).
12(5). SABC 1. M

AC
SA, N AC : AN =
. ,
4
M (BN ).
.
13(6). ) , 12 30-
?
) , 12 30-
?

2003, . .

21