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-

( )

5 10-
(2007-2008 )

. , 2008

2007-2008 . . 5, 10 . .

: .. , .

: 5 10- (2007-2008
). - .: , 2008, 26.

:

. . 040060 21.08.96. 09.01.08
6090 1/16. . . . . .1,62
.-. . 1,44. 1700. 10-.

-
-
( )
-
141700, . ., . , ., 9
, / (495) 408-5145
./ (495) 409-9351 -
.409-9583

E.mail: zftsh@pop3.mipt.ru
: www.school.mipt.ru

, 2008

2008, . .

2007-2008 . . 5, 10 . .

1.
, ,
. , .
1 ( ). , , , .

b a ,
a (.1). a b
,

,
a , , a || b .
2. ,
.
a b , a , b ,

= c (. 2). , c a c b .
, b a b ,
a
. c a .
, c b .

. 1

. 2

3.
, .

. 3
a , b
. a M

bM

a1 , a 2 . a1 b a 2 b .

(. 3).

2008, . .

2007-2008 . . 5, 10 . .

a1 a 2 M , ,
a ( a1 , a 2 ). , a b .

1. , , .
a b . a A
, b ( ,
A b ). a . (. 4).
.

. 4
, .
D
2. A, B, C D . , AB, BC, CD DA
L
(K
1 ).
, K AD, L
C
DC, M AB N BC .
KL A
ADC KL|| AC.
N
MN||AC. KL||MN. M
K, L, M N ,
B
KL MN. , ,
KM|| BD|| LN. , KLMN . .
2.
,
( ).
1

(Varingnon Pierre) , 1654 1722,


, , 1704 College de France.
. . .

2008, . .

2007-2008 . . 5, 10 . .

: .
,
, . , , .
. -, ,
, , , ..
, , , , . ,
( ,
), , , .
.

)
)
. 5
3. SABC , K , L, M
(.5 a ); K ( ABC ),
L ( ABC ),

M ( ASC ).

. , KLM (
) . ABC -

K , , K ,
L , KL
ABC . : KL AB BC E F (. 5). AC X .
: X M ,

2008, . .

2007-2008 . . 5, 10 . .

( ASC ) , ,

XM ,
XM SA SC
H G (. 5 ). ,
, ( ASB) EH ,
(BSC ) FG.
E H F G (. 5).

,
KL AC ?
. KL AC , ASC ,

KL ASC . -

KL,
( ),
ASC . 6
KL. M ,
KL, SA SC H

G.

H E , G F , (. 6).
,

. , , .
6.
C1
D1
ABCDA1 B1C1 D1 ,
P
Q
A1
M N AB AA1 B1
F BCB1C1.
F
N
BC .
D
C
.
A
R

(B
M

) . M , N , S
MN T
. ABA1B1 (. . 7). . 7

2008, . .

2007-2008 . . 5, 10 . .

MN BB1 T , , T (MN ) ,
(MN ) , T . T BB1 , BCC1 B1 . F ,

T F , (TF )
TF BCC1 B1 .
(TF ) I (BC ) = R , (TF ) I (B1C1 ) = Q . (TF ) , R
Q . M R ,
ABCD , MR .
(MR) I ( AD) = S , S S ADD1 A1 .
N , .
(SN ) SN
ADD1 A1 . (SN ) I ( A1D1 ) = P . (SN ) , P .
P ( A1 B1C1 D1 ) , Q , PQ A1 B1C1 D1 .
, MNPQR

TF .

.
,

BC .
AM = BM AMN = BMT ( - Q
F
), AMN
R
BMT . ,
BT = AN . a ,
T
BT = AN = a 2 . , FE BB1 , B
B
E
FE a 2 . FET

RBT , BR : EF = BT : ET = a2 : a = 12 .
, BR = 12 EF =

1 a
2 2

a
4

, BR : BC =

a
4

: a = 14 .


.
,
.
, , : , ,
. .

2008, . .

2007-2008 . . 5, 10 . .

ABCDEA1 B1C1 D1 E1 , K , L, M (.8 a ), K , L ( ABC ) ,


M ( A1 B1C1 ) .
7.

KL

KLM ABC.

AB CD P1

. 8

P2 . ,
A1 B1C1 , , -

ABC A1 B1C1 ( ), A1 B1C1 KL (, , M ). ,


M KL A1 E1 E1 D1 P5 P4 .
6. . 8 .

,
, .
:
, ,
,
.
8. AD M ,
DM : AD = , 0 < < 1 (. . 9). ABCD
, M AD D
AB CD , AB : CD = m .
M
.
N
(. . 9).
AB ,
C
A
Q
MN
P
ABD AB ( N BD ).
B
CD ,
. 9
ACD BCD

2008, . .

2007-2008 . . 5, 10 . .

MQ ( Q AC ) NP ( P BC ), CD . Q
P ( P, Q ( ABC ) ), (PQ ) , PQ
ABC . || AB , PQ || AB (?).
, MNPQ . MN || AB || PQ ,
PN || CD || MQ , . ,
M
AD .
MNPQ
AB CD . ABD MND ,
MN : AB = DM : AB = , , MN = AB . ,
AM = AD DM = (1 )AD .
AMQ
ADC

MQ : CD = AM : AD = 1 , MQ = (1 )CD . MNPQ
, MN = MQ .
AB = (1 )CD ,
CD
1
.
=
AB + CD m + 1
. 1). ,
.
2). AB CD , MN MQ -

. , =

1
m +1

3). ABCD ( , ), m = 1 = 1 2 . , , , .
9. ABCA1 B1C1 ,

O -

AC1 CA1
= ( AB1C ).

|| , .
, AA1C1C
. 10

KL, K L

2008, . .

2007-2008 . . 5, 10 . .

CC1 AA1 (. 10), KL || AC KL


AA1C1C. ,
AA1 B1 B LM , M A1 B1 .
, B1C1 N . KLMN ( MN || A1C1 || KL ).
, LM || AB1 LK || AC , MLO = B1 AC,
, ML : B1 A = OL : CA = 1 : 2. ,
MLO B1 AC k = 12 . h1 , M OL h, B1 CA. ,
S
S

= ( 12 h1 (MN + KL )) : ( 12 h CA) = 34 .

8.

SABCD , C M SD, M DA. ,

, , .

SD SD
ASD ,
ASD , SD
(. 11). ASD
MN , N SA. BSD
PQ , SD, P -

CM BD , CM
BD (BSD ). Q N
. 11
C , MNCQ . , N AS. , ACD P
2
1
( AO = OC DM = MA ), DP = DO = DB. 3
3
BSD BQP , BQ : BS = BP : BD = 2 : 3. , SX : XO , X SO ,
.. X = SO PQ , ,

2008, . .

10

2007-2008 . . 5, 10 . .

( 2 ) BC, CA 1, 1 , 1
; ,
, ,

AB1 CA1 BC1

= 1.
B1C A1 B C1 A

()

.
. 1, 1 1 . (. ). C1BK
C1AB1, BKA1 CB1A1, (?).
C1BK C1AB1:

BC1
BK BC1
.
=
BK = AB1
AB1 C1 A
C1 A
BKA1 CB1A1:

AB
BK A1 B
=
BK = B1C 1 .
B1C CA1
CA1
,

AB1

BC1
AB
AB1 CA1 BC1
= B1C 1

= 1.
C1 A
CA1
B1C A1 B C1 A

. (), , A1, B1
1 . B1A1 AB
C
C2. , A1, B1 2
B1
, :
A1
AB1 CA1 BC 2
K

= 1.
B1C A1 B C 2 A
C
B

B
BC1 BC 2
(),
=
.
C1 A C 2 A
, C1 C2 AB.
C1 C2 . .
, BSO

() (1 . . .) . : 6
3 ( ).
,
.

2008, . .

11

2007-2008 . . 5, 10 . .

SX
SX 1 2
SX OP BQ

= 1, ..
= 1,
= 2.
XO PB QS
XO 4 1
XO
10. AS, SB BC
SABC. , CA.
: = (KLM ). PXQ, :

S 2,
S 2 B 1 C 2 . , A C , AC
.

1 2 . , A 1 ,

: K = AS ,
L = SB ,
M = BC. AS ,
ASC.
AC , SC N . ,
, NK LM
.
3. t
, ,
,
, .
.
11. ABCDA1 B1C1 D1 ,

O P A1 B1C1 D1 CC1 D1 D,
R DA , AR : RD = 4 : 3.
, AB = a.


(. 1). ( R ) ,

ABCD. O1 P1
ABC
O P (. . 13). OO1 || PP1 || AA1 O , O1 , P , P1
. O, P , O1 , P1 ( ABCD ). T = OP O1P1
(ABCD). R ( ABCD ). ,
RT

(ABCD). K

2008, . .

12

2007-2008 . . 5, 10 . .

PQ D1C1 . KO

A1B1C1 , N = KO A1 B1 ,

AA1 B1 . E
, EN
AA1 B1 , , QRMNK

. 13

.
,

S = S QENK S REM .
QENK , . ,

KN = 2 KO = 2 KP = KQ , QENK , S1
S1 = 12 d1d 2 , d1 = NQ, d 2 = KE. , O
P , : A1 N = KC1 = QD,
NA1 DQ ( ,
B1 A1 AA1 D1 , NA1 DQ
), d 1 = NQ = A1 D = a 2 .
d 2 .

1
1

1
k = PP1 : OO1 = 2 , 1 = 12 1 , ..
1 = 11 = a2 . 1Q RDQ (. 13)
6
: P1Q : QD = 1 : RD = a2 : 37a = 7 : 6, .. QD = 13
P1 D = 313a .
EAR
:

QDR
4a
AE : DQ = AR : DR = 4 : 3, AE = 13 . , ,
AM = 4a
7 (, ABC1 ). . 14,
3a
KC1 = DQ =
,
13
EK1 = AE + AB K1 B = 413a + a 313a = 1413a ,
. 14

2008, . .

13

2007-2008 . . 5, 10 . .

KK 1 = AD1 = a 2 ,

KE =

..

196 a 2
169

+ 2a 2 =

534
13

a.

267 2
S1 = 12 d1d 2 = 13
a . S REM = S 2 , REM

QEN
k1 = RE : QE = RA : DA = 4 : 7.

S 2 = ( 74 ) SQEN = ( 74 )
2

1
2

S1 =

8
49

S1.

41 S = 41 267 a .
, S = 49
1
637
( , , ). , ,
,
.

.
. (
) S ( ).
2

M M '
SM , .
. , ,
, .
12.
SABC
KLM
(.
15),

K ( ASB ),

L ( ASC ), M (BSC ).

( S )
)

K , L, M
ABC. K1 , L1 , M 1 (. 15). KM
K1 M 1 ( X ), LM L1 M 1 (Y ). XY
ABC. XY AB Z ( . Z
BA B ). KZ
. 15

2008, . .

14

2007-2008 . . 5, 10 . .

ASB P Q SA SB KZ
. , QL ASC.
PQR .
4. .
,
, . ,
: , , .
.
13. AB CD , AD BC
. ,
AC BD .
D DO ABC (. 16). , CDAB , COAB ,

O ,
CC1 ABC. , O . 16
, AA1 , ,
O ( ) ABC. , BOAC BDAC.
..

14. ,
ABCDA1 B1C1 D1 , B1 D A1 BC1.
ABCDA1 B1C1 D1 (.17),

A1C1 D1 B1 , D1 B1 DB1
A1B1C1 , ,
DB1 A1C1 .
. 17
DB1 A1 BC1 . , DB1 A1 BC1 ,
DB1 A1C1 D1 B1 A1C1. , ,
A1 B1 = B1C1. A1 B1 = BB1 , .. ABCDA1B1C1D1 .

2008, . .

15

2007-2008 . . 5, 10 . .

15. ABCDA1 B1C1 D1 ,


B DB1 , ,
.
, A1 BC1 . DB1 S (. . 18). S
SB1 : DB1 .
a . ,
,
DB1 = a 3 ( ?).

A1 BC1 DB1 , DB1 SA1 , DB1 SC1 ,


DB1 SB . B1SA1 = B1SC1 = B1SB
. 18
, , , S C1 BA1 .
a 2 (?), SC1 =

A1C1
3

=a

2
3

. ,

SB1C1
SB1 = B1C12 SC12 = a 2 23 a 2 =

SB1
DB1

1
3

a
3

= 13 a 3 = 13 DB1 .

. , , A , C
FD
D1 DB1 , , DB
= 13 , F
1

ACD1 DB1 . ,
C1 BA1 ACD1
.
16. SABCD
ABCD AB = a , AD = b, SA , SA = c. : ) A
SCD; ) ,
A SD.
)
, .
, , A SD SCD (. 19). , -

2008, . .

16

2007-2008 . . 5, 10 . .

SA ABC
,
CD SA,
CDDA,

CD SAD CD AE.
AESD , .. AE -

CD SD, , AECSD. AE , SAD :


1
2

SA AD = 12 AE SD AE =

bc
2

b + c2

. 19

AESD CDSAD , CDSD.


, AEFB( EF CD AB ).
, . . EF CD , CDAE , . .
bc
h = AE =
.
2
b + c2
ASE DSA :
) ) ,

SE = AS 2 : SD = c 2 : b 2 + c 2 ,
SEF SDC :
EF = (CD SE ) : SD =

ac 2

.
b2 + c2

,
2

1
abc
c
1.
S = ( EF + AB) AE =
+
2
2

2
2 b2 + c2 b + c

17. ,
,
,
. 20
.
K , L, M , N , P, Q A1 D1 , D1C1, C1C , CB, BA,
AA1 (. 20). , -

B1 A1 K DD1 K (
) , B1 K = DK . O ,
KO B1 KD,
.

2008, . .

17

2007-2008 . . 5, 10 . .

KOB1 D, .. KO . KLMNPQ .
a , a . , T 2

KA1Q TAQ ,
, .. PTQ -

AD ,

NBP TAP , PT = QT =

a
2

. NPQ = 180 TPQ = 120.


KLMNPQ 120, .. , , .
18. SABCD : ) A SCD ,
AB = a, DS = b; )

SA SCD.
) ,
A SCD ,

SD (. 21). , AB CD
AB SCD , h
AB SCD .
E F AB CD. ,
EE1 SF , EE1 SCD (
SEF , SAC
!).
DC , . 21

SO

. , EF DC , , DC SEF ,

DC EE1 .

EE1 SF , , EE1 SCD. A1 A SCD : AEE1 A1


, E1 A1 = AE = DF , .. A1
SCD .

SEF ,
1
1
SO EF = EE1 SF ,
2
2

2008, . .

18

2007-2008 . . 5, 10 . .

2 a2
a2
2

EE1 = a b
: b
.

2
4

)
.

ASA1 , .. sin =

AA1
AS

EE1
AS

a b 2 a2

b b 2 a4

1 x2

x = ba , sin = x

2
1 x4

. t = x 2 ,

sin -

( sin > 0) f (t ) = sin 2 = 2t 24 tt . :


/

2
2
2t t 2
= 2 ( 2 2t )(4 t ) ( 2t t )(1) = 2 t 8t + 8 =
f ' (t ) = 2
2
4t
(4 t ) 2
(4 t )

(t t1 )(t t 2 )
, t1 = 4 2 2 , t 2 = 4 + 2 2 . (t t1 )(t t 2 )
=2
(4 t ) 2

t1 ,

t1 (0; 2 ),

max f (t ) = f (t1 ) = 2(2 2 ) .

, max sin = 2 (2 2 ) = 2 2 2 max = arcsin(2 2 2).


19. M
D1 D ABCDA1 B1C1 D1 a .


A1C1 CM .

, . N

BB1 (. 22), A1 N CM

= NA1C1

. 22

A1 NC1
A1C1 = a 2 , A1 N = C1 N = a

5
2

2008, . .

19

2007-2008 . . 5, 10 . .

: cos =

(12 A1C1 )/ A1N =

2
,
5

= arccos

2
.
5

l1 l 2 .
1. h l1 l 2 .
2. h , .
, A1C1 AC A1 N CM , , ( A1C1 N ) ( ACM ). ,
A1C1 CM . h
, ,
N ACM . ,

. 23
NN1 ,
N MO , O ABCD. ,
AC D1 D , AC BD . AC BB1 D1 D,
NN1 , , , AC NN1 , .. NN1 AC MO , .. ACM . BB1 D1 D (.23). T MO BB1 . TBO = MDO
a
TB = MD = , NT = a. 2
NTN1 O1 NB1
NN1 : O1 B1 = NT : O1 N ,

O1 N = a

20.

3
3

h = NN1 = a

2
.
3

ABCDA1 B1C1 D1 , AD1


A1 BC1 .
. 24

. , -

2008, . .

20

2007-2008 . . 5, 10 . .

, . (
).
, AD1 -

A1 BC1 (. 24). 14 , DB1 A1 BC1 , l , l DB1 ,


AD1 . , l OP
DA1 B1 (-, OP DB1 , -,
O AD1 ). APD1 .

21.
SABC , M SA
CN . ,
AB = 2 , AM = MS , 4.
S

M
R

S1

A
O

S1

C
T

)
. 25

. CN ,
ABC . , , M ABC . , SO . , MS1 || SO (. 25).
AM = MS , AS1 = S1O . , ABC CN AB . S1 PQ || AB (. . 25). PQ
AB , , ASB AB . MR || AB , MPQR .

2008, . .

21

2007-2008 . . 5, 10 . .

PQ || AB || MN , , SCN , .
. M AS ,
MS1 = 12 SO = 2 MPQR . , MN

ASB MN =

AB = 1 . PQ || AB , PQ ABC PQC :
PQ : AB = CT : CN , T = CN I PQ . ABC : CN =

3
2

AB = 3 , ON = 13 CN =

TO : NT = OS1 : S1 A = 1 : 1 ,
CT = CN NT = 3

1
2 3

1
2

1
3

. AON :

5
2 3

NT = 12 ON =

1
2 3

. , PQ : AB = CT : CN =

,
5
2 3

: 3=

5
6

. -

, PQ = 56 AB = 53 . , , :
S =

1
2

(PQ + MQ ) MS1 = 12 (53 + 1) 2 = 83 .

: S = 83 .
S

A
D

22. ABCD
SABCD ,
. BS
F , BC E ,
BF = 14 BS , BE = 13 BC . AF

Q , OE P ,
PQ ABCD .
E
C
SABCD ,
PQ = 12 .
.
26
P
.
26. F ' F ABCD , O
, SO . AF AF ' , PQ ABCD , AQ AP , F ' . BFF ' BSO ,
FF ': SO = BF : BS = 1 : 4 , AFF ' AQP
B

FF ': PQ = AF ': AP .

SO = 4 FF ' = 4 12

= 48

AF '
AP

SO = 4FF '
AF '
AP

FF ' =

AF '
AP

'
PQ = 12 AF
.
AP

. , -

2008, . .

22

2007-2008 . . 5, 10 . .
AF '
AP

. , -

ABCD .
D

A
Q
3t
O

2a

2a

3t
B

2a

t F
E
N
x
z

P
. 27

AB = CD = 2a

AD = BC = b .
OT || AB . O , OT = a . BT = b 2 ,
BE = b 3 ,
ET = b 2 b 3 = b 6 .
OP L AB . OET LEB BM || AP ,

BL : OT = BE : ET = b3 : b6 = 2 ,

BL = 2a .
AF ': AP : BO AP .
. BM || AP . BL = AB , BM
ALP , LM = LP = z . OET LEB , ( .
. 27)
x
BL 2a
LE x + 2 z
, y = z + .
(*)
=
=2=
=
PT
a
EO
y
2
, BEM ,
= BN
. BM NP , xz = MP
PE
NE

, CBQ ,
AP CQ :
BN BF '
t
t
1
BC b
BN b 7 3
BN 3
=
=
=
= BN =
=
=
=
= .
BC BQ t + 3t + 3t 7t 7
7
7
BE b 3 7
NE 4
,

z
x

BN
NE

3
4

, (*),

y
x

z
x

1
2

3
4

1
2

5
4

. -

, AF ': F ' P ALP BO :

2008, . .

23

2007-2008 . . 5, 10 . .

2a AF '
LB AF ' PO
x+ y
AF ' x + y + 2 z

=1

=1
=
=
2a F ' P x + y + 2 z
BA F ' P OL
F'P
x+ y
=1+

2z
2 34
2z
32
2 5
= 1 + xy = 1 +
= 1+
=1+ = .
1 + 54
94
3 3
x+ y
1+ x

AF '
AP

5
8

, SO = 48

AF '
AP

= 48 85 = 30 .

: SO = 30 .

1(2). A , B , C , D ,
. , , K M
AB CD , ,
L N AD BC . ,
.
2 )(3). ?
)(4). ?
3(3). , , . , , a
b?
4(3). 100
, .
.
5(4). ABCDA1 B1C1 D1 a . , A
D1 BB1 . B1C1 ?

ABCDA1 B1C1 D1 , A DBC1 .


CA1 ?
6(3).

ABCDA1 B1C1 D1 , A
B 1 C 1 D1C1 . , AB = 1 , AA1 = 2 .

7(4).

2008, . .

24

2007-2008 . . 5, 10 . .

ABCDA1B1C1D1 , K AA1 , AK = AA1 ; L CC1 , C1L = 14 CC1 BD .


8(3).
1
4

9(4). SABC , M AS , N BCS P , BH ABC , HP = 2 BP . AB ?

1(4).
a b . c . ,
,
. .
2(3). ,
.
3(5). K L BA1 CB1
ABCDA1B1C1D1 , KL ABCD

. , KL : KB = 5 8 . BK : BA1 CL : CB1 .
4(5). SABCDEF : ) A SEF SA SEF , AB = a , SA = b ; )
SA SEF .
5(6). ABC ABCD
a , b . , AD BC . AD
, ?
6(8). ( 2000) ABCD
ADC = 2 arcsin(1 6 ) , ABC 2. K , M , N

AB , CD , AC . E
KM 3ME = KE . E
KM . .
N .

ABCDA1 B1C1 D1 1. :
) , B1 , -

7(7). ( 2004)

2008, . .

25

2007-2008 . . 5, 10 . .

AD

A1C1 ;

) ,

B1

A1C1 ,

A1C1 A .

ABCA1 B1C1 ,
AB , A1C1 BB1 .
8(7).

, ABC , 4,

42
.
7

2008, . .

26