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1 Sarah Chang EDUC/URBS 202-Urban Education Fall 2012-McGinn Final Portfolio

Techniques to Engage Students in the Classroom A) Inquiry Question


For the past semester I have been observing and helping out at Penn Alexander School, one of the top ten public elementary schools in Philadelphia and one that is heavily subsidized by the University of Pennsylvania, every Friday morning in a 6th grade literacy classroom. The teacher, Ms. Smith, is a white woman in her late thirties who graduated from the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education. She has been teaching at Penn Alexander School for eight years. I obtained the placement through my urban education advisor for my Literacy in Elementary Schools education class, which required a classroom placement where I could observe and implement some of the pedagogical strategies learned in class. The readings from both of my education classes made me increasingly curious about how teaching strategies actually play out in the classroom. This led me to the following inquiry question: What techniques does Ms. Smith use to engage students?

B) Autobiographical Introduction
I am taking Literacy in Elementary Schools and Urban Education for my urban education minor. I want to pursue certification in mathematics, so that I can become a middle school math teacher. I have always been interested in what makes an effective teacher since I myself want to one day become a good teacher. I had always wondered, what is the difference between a teacher who is able to genuinely keep his or her students engaged in the subject material and a teacher who is unable to do so? In my educational

2 experiences, I have encountered two equally qualified and experienced math teachers, but one teacher was able to create a real passion for math for his students while the other teacher merely put students to sleep. Where do such discrepancies arise? There have been numerous types of readings assigned from my education classes that deal with effective pedagogy, but there is clear difference between reading about an effective teaching strategy and seeing the strategy unfold in real time. I was extremely excited to be placed in a middle school classroom because it was the first time that I had a chance to observe a middle school teacher. I knew that this would be a very useful opportunity for me. I remember the first time that I walked into Ms. Smiths classroom I was amazed at her command over the classroom. The students almost always were paying attention to everything that she said and did and she had so much energy for the entire lesson. It was as if she was she were performing a show for an audience. I immediately knew that I wanted my inquiry question to be, What techniques does Ms. Smith use to engage students? I had hopes of perhaps one day incorporating some of her effective techniques into my own teaching. I had many opportunities to observe her teaching since she had me stationed in the classroom the majority of the time. I would help Ms. Smith assess if students were on track by having conversations with them in the classroom. After a couple of weeks, Ms. Smith had me meet with some students one on one outside of the classroom for the entire class period. I rushed to change my inquiry question into a two-part question, What techniques does Ms. Smith use to engage students, and how does she make use of additional help to engage students? because I was no longer able to observe Ms. Smith in the classroom setting. However, after careful consideration regarding the purpose of

3 my initial inquiry question, I realized that the first part of my inquiry question already embodied the second part because using additional help can be considered a technique that Ms. Smith uses to engage students on an individualized basis. Thus, I switched my inquiry question back to its original form. The purpose of this inquiry project is to identify the techniques used in Ms. Smiths classroom and then to use a critical eye to evaluate the successes of the techniques used and possible drawbacks for each technique. I also want to explore other techniques not already utilized in Ms. Smiths classroom. I believe that the findings of this inquiry project will not only be significant to me, but also to Ms. Smith, other teachers, and prospective teachers. These findings can further improve Ms. Smiths teaching by providing her with data on which techniques seem to be the most effective with her students and with alternative techniques that she can also incorporate into her classroom. Other teachers and prospective teachers can use these findings to generate ideas to use in their own classrooms.

C) Analytic Essay
After a few months of observation and working with the students I noticed that Ms. Smith uses a wide variety of techniques to engage students: partner work, dramatization, group work, small group meetings with Ms. Smith, asking students to meet one on one with me, asking students to meet in a small group with me, asking students to silently read books chosen by themselves, asking questions, asking students to move around, and guest speakers. For the purposes of this essay, I am going to focus on dramatization, partner work, and silent reading. Dramatization and partner work are the techniques that she uses the most often so I believe that it is important to focus on these

4 techniques. Silent reading is a technique that I did not even realize was a technique until I interviewed a few students about Ms. Smiths teaching strategies. It is a technique that I am quite curious about, which is why I am going to examine it more in-depth. Ms. Smith often uses humor, facial gestures, acting, sharing of personal stories, a variety of tones to talk, read alouds, and energy to engage her students. I use the broader term dramatization to encompass all of these techniques. The following vignette clearly illustrates her use of dramatization: Ms. Smith picks up a book off her desk and begins to read Peace Begins With You, a picture book, as she stands in the front of the room. Initially, after she finishes reading aloud one page of the book, she turns to the next page without showing the students any of the vivid pictures. She emphasizes certain words when reading. The students all look at her as she reads and eventually Ms. Smith starts showing the students the pictures in the book. Ms. Smith also uses hand motions, pointing, and an up and down movement of her eyebrows as she reads. She then walks from side to side in the front of the room. After a while, she notices that a student sitting towards the front of the room is looking down. She immediately addresses him, Am I boring you? The student shakes his head and looks like he is about to cry. After reading a couple more pages, she spontaneously and unexpectedly shouts, I want it and I want it now! while stomping her foot. She sounds exactly like Veruca from Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Who has seen the movie Charlie and the Chocolate Factory? she then asks. Every student in the class excitedly raises his or her hand. Do you guys remember the scene when Violet shouts I want it and I want it now? Ms.

5 Smith asks while stomping her foot and mimicking Veruca again. Nearly all of the students laugh at her impersonation. (Field notes, October 26, 2012) Ms. Smith uses various techniques to engage her students as she reads aloud Peace Begins With You. These techniques all fall under the broader category of dramatization. She reads with emotion by placing emphasis on certain words, using hand motions that correspond to words in the text, pointing at both pictures in the text as well as the students, moving her eyebrows up and down, and pacing from side to side in the front of the room. These techniques are evident throughout her entire reading of the book and seem to be effective for the most part because the students all look at her as she reads. Ms. Smith increases the intensity of her dramatization by spontaneously mimicking a character from a well-known movie. This appears to be very effective with the students. They all excitedly raise their hands when Ms. Smith asks them if they had seen the movie. Almost all of the students laugh when Ms. Smith repeats her impersonation. From my observation of the situation, it seemed like she had the attention of everyone in the classroom. In an interview with a student, I asked, When do you find class most interesting? and he responded with, When she cracks jokes and when she yells the jokes. It is very interesting when she yells the information (Interview, November 14, 2012). For example, in one instance in class, Ms. Smith spontaneously shouts, I hate Barbara; she screamed really loudly when she was explaining the five ways of indirect characterization (Field notes, October 12, 2012). All of the students in the class laugh at Ms. Smiths outburst. She then proceeds to say, Whats another way that the author

6 gives you clues? Dialogue, (Field notes, October 12, 2012). Similarly, when Ms. Smith was explaining to her students that they had to read the exposition of the text and the middle of the text differently, she pretends to screw something with a hammer and says, Let me get my hammer, something needs to be screwed. She then pretends to use a screwdriver to hammer something while saying, Those tools werent meant for that part of the book, (Field notes, November 9, 2012). Again, all students in the class laugh in response to her dramatization. It is clear that this technique of dramatization is successful at engaging students by making them laugh. Furthermore, Ms. Smiths use of dramatization always serves a larger purpose than just merely engaging students. She uses dramatization to help students understand important concepts. In the above two examples, Ms. Smith uses dramatization to help her students understand that one of the five ways of indirect characterization is the authors use of dialogue and the fact that different parts of a text need to be read in different ways. In this particular vignette she uses dramatization as an opportunity to help her students understand that their behavior from yesterday was wrong. (The students stole lollipops from her yesterday.) It is with this impersonation that Ms. Smith is able to explicitly make the connection between the reading of the book and the events that occurred yesterday. All of the students realize that Veruca is a selfish person and it is clear that they acknowledge the ridiculousness of her selfishness by their laughing at Ms. Smiths second impersonation. Ms. Smith then connects her impersonation to the students themselves in order to help them realize that it was selfish of them to steal lollipops from her. She connects the reading to the situation by telling the students that she wants peace in the classroom and that is only possible if they choose to not act like Veruca. Overall, the benefits of using dramatization include

7 engaging students in the subject material through humor and enabling students to understand important concepts. The technique of dramatization is not without drawbacks. When Michie (2005) observed Toni Billingsley, a teacher who employed dramatization techniques very similar to that of Ms. Smith, he noted, The only thing that amazed me more than her stamina was the realization that, as soon as these kids left, another group would come in, and it would be showtime all over again (p.121). His comment seems to indicate that he is skeptical about whether or not this dramatization technique is sustainable over long periods of time. This makes me also wonder if Ms. Smiths dramatization technique is sustainable. Perhaps overusing this technique may lead to quicker teacher burnout. Furthermore, the fact that this technique often evokes laughter from the students may also be problematic. For more serious topics, dramatization may not be appropriate because there is a chance that students will not take the lesson seriously if they think that Ms. Smith is not taking it seriously. Ms. Smith also uses partner groups to engage students. I have never seen these partner groups change. Each student in the class is either called Partner A or Partner B. Partners discuss their readings with each other, ask each other questions, and work together on certain assignments. The following vignette captures this technique: Open up your reading journal to the place you took notes on the author, Ms. Smith tells the students. All of her students open their notebooks. Ms. Smith asks the students to reread their notes. Jot down any information that you got from Debbie. John raises his hand, but Ms. Smith does not notice. He then asks a student next to him (his partner) and then proceeds to do work. All students are

8 writing in their notebooks. John tries to ask Ms. Smith something, but she just tells him to ask his partner. As you finish, have a dialogue with your partner, Ms. Smith instructs. Talk to your partner and say how I may use Debbies story to understand Lindseys story. All students are then engaged in conversation about the two stories except for one pair of students. Ms. Smith goes to that pair and taps one of the students. They then begin a conversation about the assigned topic. After a few minutes, Ms. Smith announces, So I need you to finish up your thoughts in 321. (Field notes, November 14, 2012) It is important to note that in this example all of the students (including the group that Ms. Smith had to tap to get started) were still having on topic conversations when Ms. Smith asked them to finish up their thoughts. She actually had to pause for several seconds while counting down to one because students were very drawn to their conversations and did not seem to want to stop talking. This partner work was very successful in getting students to think and talk about how they can use one characters story to understand another characters story. It also held students accountable for the writing that they had to do in their notebooks before the partner conversation. Students had to draw on their written assignment of writing down notes on Debbie in order to fully participate in the partner conversation. This technique of using partners is successful in several aspects. Students are actively engaged in on-topic conversation and seem to also enjoy these conversations. I often see students smiling and talking excitedly during partner work. I also believe that partner work can sometimes be more beneficial than group work, which I think is a

9 possible reason for why Ms. Smith uses partner work more than group work. In a partner setting, it is easier for each student to contribute to the conversation. In group settings, it is more likely that some students may dominate the conversation and other students (the students who are more shy) may find it difficult to enter the conversation. In the beginning of the school year, Ms. Smith regulated partner conversations to make sure that no partner would dominate the conversation. She would ask As to share first and then make an announcement to the class that it was time for Bs to share (Field notes, September 28, 2012). Also, it is unlikely for any student to be left behind during partner work because the conversation can only proceed if both partners have an understanding of the material being discussed. In a group, it is easier for one student to be left behind if he or she does not understand the material and is too shy to speak up during the group conversation. The group members would then carry on the conversation without that student whereas in a partner setting, the conversation cannot continue if one person does not understand the material because a conversation by definition requires at least two participants. Partner work can also help students understand class material and work on class material that they would not have been able to work on by themselves. One student told me that he found class most interesting when Ms. Smith asked the class to work in partners or groups because Ms. Smiths work is hard and I think it is better to collaborate on it (Interview, November 14, 2012). His response indicates that he finds class material challenging, but working with others makes the material easier to handle. Partner work also provides valuable experiences and skills that can prepare students for higher academia and the work field (King & Behnke, 2005). Partner work in

10 middle school can prepare these students for partner work in high school, college, and at their future jobs. They would have had experience working in partners and would have developed communication skills, the ability to value other peoples opinions, and the ability to use the viewpoint of others to come to new understandings. Unfortunately, there are some problems that arise from partner work. King and Behnke (2005) remark that it is difficult to assess student performance when they are working in a group setting. When partners work together to produce a final product, how should a teacher assign grades? King and Behnke point out that if a teacher assigns the same grade to both partners, the academically stronger student may be motivated to do most of the work and prevent the other student from contributing. It is also difficult for the teacher to find out if partners contributed equally to the final product and if both partners have a thorough understanding of the subject material. Another problem of partner work is the potential for students to get off-topic. It is impossible for a teacher to listen to all partner conversations at once even if he or she is walking around the classroom. It is quite possible for a partner group to be off-topic without the teacher noticing. The group may be strategic and only talk about the class material when the teacher is within listening distance and then switch to an irrelevant conversation when the teacher cannot hear. Partners may also decide to sit around and not do anything if there is nothing to hold them accountable for the work that they are going to do with their partner. In the vignette described above, two students had this problem. Luckily, Ms. Smith noticed that the two students were not talking and helped them initiate their conversation by tapping one of students. However, what if Ms. Smith had

11 not noticed the problem or what if the students still did not participate in the partner conversation even after the teacher intervention? The last technique that I will discuss is Ms. Smiths use of silent reading time. Ms. Smith sometimes gives students twenty to thirty minutes to silently read a book of their own choosing from the classroom library. The following is a vignette that illustrates this technique: Ms. Smith asks the students to silently read for twenty minutes as she walks around the room to look at their homework. She tells them that she will only interrupt a students reading if the homework was not done or was not done correctly. Most students read over their desks. One girl is turned away from her desk and reading the book on her lap with her legs pulled up towards her chest. (Field notes, September 28, 2012) All students are reading during this silent reading time. Some students take notes as they are reading while others just read. Several students do not put down their books immediately after Ms. Smith tells everyone to stop reading, which seems to indicate that they were engaged in what they were reading. In an interview, four girls told me that they enjoyed class the most when Ms. Smith gave them time to read books during class (Interview, November 14, 2012). Ms. Smith has used silent reading time twice during my observations. In both of these instances, Ms. Smith used silent reading time as a technique to engage students in an independent activity related to literacy while she conducted administrative tasks. More observations of Ms. Smiths use of silent reading are needed to determine if this is a pattern or merely a coincidence. In this vignette, Ms. Smith uses silent reading time so

12 that she can check students homework. She whispered to students who did not have their homework or had problems with their homework so that other students would not be able to hear. In the other instance, she used silent reading time so that she could discipline a group of students outside of the classroom (Field notes, November 9, 2012). Half of the students were in the classroom either picking out a book to read or silently reading at their desks. Ms. Smith was yelling at the other half of the students outside of the classroom because they did not bring in a can for Penn Alexanders food drive. The use of silent reading as a technique to keep students silently engaged so that the teacher can handle other tasks seems to work. In both observations, students are all quiet, which allows Ms. Smith to hold conversations with students about their homework or to talk to other students outside of the classroom without worrying that her other students will disturb students in other classrooms. Students also look like they are enjoying reading because some students do not put down their books immediately when silent reading time is over. Silent reading is also not just busy work to occupy the students with. Harvey and Goudvis (2007) frequently stress that having students read more is one method to increase their reading comprehension and their joy for reading. Since students get to choose their own books, silent reading time gives the teacher the opportunity to discover the types of books that his or her students enjoy reading. Noguera (2008) argues that a teacher can only be an effective teacher if he or she knows his or her students well. Learning about students interests is a good step towards getting to know a student. There are some potential problems with silent reading. Some students may be pretending to read and it is difficult for teachers to determine if students are really

13 reading their books or just pretending to read especially if the teacher is not in the classroom to monitor students. Students may become so engaged with the book that they do not pay attention for the rest of class because all they want to do is continue reading the book. One girl in Ms. Smiths class continued to read her silent reading book during another class activity. Ms. Smith had to come talk to her and persuade her to put her book away (Field notes, September 28, 2012). Students may also come across difficulties while reading and feel discouraged from asking the teacher or fellow classmates to clarify this confusion because of the emphasis of silent reading being silent. Of the three techniques examined in-depth in this inquiry project, I would employ both the technique of dramatization and partner work in my own future classroom because I believe that both techniques would engage students in a math classroom. (I would not employ the technique of silent reading in my classroom only because it is not that applicable to a math classroom.) I would not use the technique of dramatization as much as Ms. Smith or Toni Billingsley for fear of being worn out. I think I would use it only a couple of times per class period randomly so that I could engage students while still conserving some of my energy. One of Ms. Smiths students told me that one of the reasons why she likes Ms. Smith is because Ms. Smith is very unexpected (Interview, November 14, 2012). Indeed, Ms. Smith uses her dramatization in a randomized fashion during the class period. I would like to replicate this spontaneity in my own classroom, so that my students are always surprised and entertained by math. I will also ask my students to work in partners frequently for do nows, homework, and in-class example problems. All of these assignments will be either ungraded or graded based on completion; thus, the problem of one partner dominating the

14 work because of grades will be eliminated. Partners will be required to turn in their work, which will ensure that they do not wander off task. I like the use of the end of class index cards used in Education 202. I would like to use a similar idea in my classroom: I would hand out index cards and ask students to write on one side if they understood todays material and on the other side if they thought that their partner contributed to the classwork. There were also some alternative techniques that I did not see implemented in Ms. Smiths classroom, but that I would like to incorporate into my own classroom. The first technique is the use and teaching of current technology in the classroom. Doering, Beach, and OBrien argue that an English classroom needs to incorporate multimodal, interactive Web 2.0 tools because the way that adolescents are communicating with each other these days has changed to become more Internet based (2007). They explain that knowing how to use visual rhetoric to design multimodal texts is an important skill for adolescents; thus, English teachers should teach their students this vital skill. The teaching of this skill will also engage students because it is so relatable to their daily lives. Similarly, DAmbrosio argues that mathematics education should teach students how to use current technology to solve math problems so that students can become aware of the capabilities and limitations of technological instruments (2001, pg. 309). I would also like to use ethnomathematics in my classroom (DAmbrosio, 2001). I was very surprised that Ms. Smith never incorporated culture into her classroom. In my neighborhood study I discussed that one method to engage students in the classroom is to draw from not only the diverse backgrounds of the students, but also to draw from the diversity of the neighborhood itself. In class, students can share their cultural

15 backgrounds and connect it with what they are learning in class or they can have a Show and Tell session similar to the one that Michie conducted in Holler If You Hear Me (2009). Teachers can also take their students on local field trips to the cultural establishments around the area so that their students can learn more about various cultures. Freire argues that teachers should establish an intimate connection between knowledge considered basic to any school curriculum and knowledge that is the fruit of the lived experience of these students as individuals (1998, pg. 36). Thus, I think it is important for a teacher to draw on the culture of the students and I hope that I can do this successfully in my future math classroom. For my senior year, I am going to be taking Mathematics in the Elementary and Middle Schools (EDUC 531) in the fall semester and Teaching in Middle and Secondary Schools (EDUC 627) in the spring semester; both classes require a math classroom placement. My urban education advisor informed me that I would be able to stay in the same placement for the entire academic year. I would like to use this opportunity to see if a teacher changes strategies or incorporates more strategies to engage students as the school year progresses. Unfortunately, I have only been able to observe Ms. Smiths classroom for one semester. I feel that I would have had an even better understanding of her teaching if I were to observe her for an entire year. I would also like to use my math classroom placement to see if the classroom teacher uses an activity similar to silent reading so that he or she can complete administrative tasks. I was unsure of how to incorporate independent math tasks that would be engaging for the students into the classroom. Furthermore, I hope that I would be able to observe the use of culture at my placement. I was a little bit disappointed that Ms. Smith never incorporated culture into

16 her classroom. I wonder if this is this just characteristic of her classroom or if it is something common in most or all of the classrooms of Penn Alexander School. If I get placed in Penn Alexander School again (which I think there will be a high probability), I can observe if the classroom teacher incorporates culture and if he or she does not, I can interview some of the other teachers and ask them if they incorporate culture in their classrooms and learn why they choose or choose not to incorporate culture.

17 References DAmbrosio, U. (2001). In my opinion: What is ethnomathematics, and how can it help children in schools? Teaching Children Mathematics, 7(6), 308-310. Doering, A., Beach, R., & OBrien, D. (2007). Infusing Multimodal Tools and Digital Literacies into an English Education Program. English Education, 40(1), 41-60. Freire, P. (1998). Pedagogy of freedom: Ethics, democracy, and civic courage (P. Clarke, Trans.). Chapter 2: There is no teaching without learning (pp. 29-48). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Harvey, S. and Goudvis, A. (2007). Strategies that work, 2nd edition. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. King, P., & Behnke, R. (2005). Problems Associated with Evaluating Student Performance in Groups. College Teaching, 53(2), 57-61. Michie, G. (2005). See you when you get there: Teaching for change in urban schools. Chapter 5: Toni Billingsley. New York: Teachers College Press. Michie, G. (2009). Holler if you Hear Me. (2nd ed.). New York: Teachers College Press. Noguera, P. A. (2008). The trouble with Black boys and other reflections on race, equity, and the future of public education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. (Chapters 6 & 7)

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D) Annotated Bibliography
Doering, A., Beach, R., & OBrien, D. (2007). Infusing Multimodal Tools and Digital Literacies into an English Education Program. English Education, 40(1), 41-60. This article argues that the English curriculum needs to be redefined to include multimodal, interactive Web 2.0 tools. Web 2.0 tools are Internet services such as networking sites and blogs that are currently under development. The authors of this article recognize that the way adolescents are communicating with each other has changed; adolescents use the Internet as a primary tool for interaction. Thus, English teachers need to incorporate Web 2.0 tools into their curriculum so that they can engage students and enable students to understand how to effectively design multimodal texts by using visual rhetoric. Part of my inquiry project explores alternative techniques to engage students, techniques not being currently utilized by Ms. Smith. Incorporating Web 2.0 tools in the classroom is another valid technique to engage students. Dugan, J. (1997). Transactional Literature Discussions: Engaging Students in the Appreciation and Understanding of Literature. The Reading Teacher, 51(2), 8696. Dugan argues that transactional literature discussions is an approach that teachers can use to not only help students appreciate literature, but also help them read and write in meaningful ways. This approach provides students with the opportunity to respond aesthetically to the text that they are currently reading. (In other words, students have the opportunity to respond to the text by using personal experiences, their emotions, and their own thoughts.) It also allows students to work with other students as well as the teacher to write, talk, and read about the books. Students also give written responses to their readings and discussions, which allows them to improve their reading comprehension. Dugan conducted a study on six struggling readers. He used the transactional literature discussion on these six readers and found that this approach helped them become more active readers who actually enjoyed what they read. Various aspects of transactional literature discussions are evident in Ms. Smiths classroom and contribute to the techniques that she uses to engage her students. Harvey, S. and Goudvis, A. (2007). Strategies that work, 2nd edition. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. Harvey and Goudvis elaborate on various thinking strategies that teachers can teach to their students so that their students become independent readers who are engaged in the texts that they read. They also define comprehension and explain how teachers can teach students comprehension in an engaging manner. They elaborate on engaging teaching techniques such as interactive read-alouds, authentic written response, topic investigations and guided discussion. These techniques are illustrated with vignettes that feature student responses to lessons. These student responses serve to demonstrate the effectiveness of these strategies. The teacher at my field placement uses several of the techniques illustrated in this book. For example, she uses the read-alouds and guided discussion.

19 King, P., & Behnke, R. (2005). Problems Associated with Evaluating Student Performance in Groups. College Teaching, 53(2), 57-61. King and Behnke highlight the problems associated with trying to evaluate student performance when students are working in a group setting. King and Behnke first discuss the benefits of using groups. They mention that society values collaborative work and many people will have to work in teams or committees in their future careers, so working in groups provides students with a valuable learning experience. However, many problems arise when trying to give students a grade when they work in a group. For example, if all group members are given the same grade, the group may be motivated to have academically weaker students contribute less to the group. The article concludes with suggestions on how to avoid the problems that are associated with giving grades to students who work in a group. Although this article is targeted at college students, it is still applicable to middle school students and my inquiry project because Ms. Smith often uses partner work and sometimes group work as a technique to engage students. This article presents some of the possible drawbacks of using these techniques. Ray, K. (2004). Why Cauley writes well: A close look at what a difference good teaching can make. Language Arts, 82(2), 100-109. Ray examines the teaching practices of Lisa Cleaveland, the winner of the 2002 NCTE Donald H. Graves Writing Award. She notes that Cleaveland creates a passion for writing for her students by giving them the freedom to choose their writing topics and the opportunity to share their writing with peers who share their passions. This freedom of being able to choose ones own topic enables her students to view writing workshop as a time when they can make something with their writing rather than just a task. Cleaveland is also able to engage students in reading by helping them realize that they can draw on the techniques those other authors use and incorporate those types of techniques in their own writing projects. Rays article is very similar to my inquiry project in that we are both trying to evaluate the effectiveness of the techniques that the teacher uses to engage her students in literacy.

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E) Data
Appendix A: Photographs of Ms. Smiths Classroom